Science.gov

Sample records for proposed prometheus space

  1. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  2. Future Mission Proposal Opportunities: Discovery, New Frontiers, and Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, S. M.; Morgan, T. H.; Niebur, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science is expanding opportunities to propose missions to comets, asteroids, and other solar system targets. The Discovery Program continues to be popular, with two sample return missions, Stardust and Genesis, currently in operation. The New Frontiers Program, a new proposal opportunity modeled on the successful Discovery Program, begins this year with the release of its first Announcement of Opportunity. Project Prometheus, a program to develop nuclear electric power and propulsion technology intended to enable a new class of high-power, high-capability investigations, is a third opportunity to propose solar system exploration. All three classes of mission include a commitment to provide data to the Planetary Data System, any samples to the NASA Curatorial Facility at Johnson Space Center, and programs for education and public outreach.

  3. Future Mission Proposal Opportunities: Discovery, New Frontiers, and Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, S. M.; Morgan, T. H.; Niebur, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science is expanding opportunities to propose missions to comets, asteroids, and other solar system targets. The Discovery Program continues to be popular, with two sample return missions, Stardust and Genesis, currently in operation. The New Frontiers Program, a new proposal opportunity modeled on the successful Discovery Program, begins this year with the release of its first Announcement of Opportunity. Project Prometheus, a program to develop nuclear electric power and propulsion technology intended to enable a new class of high-power, high-capability investigations, is a third opportunity to propose solar system exploration. All three classes of mission include a commitment to provide data to the Planetary Data System, any samples to the NASA Curatorial Facility at Johnson Space Center, and programs for education and public outreach.

  4. Electric Propulsion System Modeling for the Proposed Prometheus 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Dougherty, Ryan; Manzella, David

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 spacecraft would utilize nuclear electric propulsion to propel the spacecraft to its ultimate destination where it would perform its primary mission. As part of the Prometheus 1 Phase A studies, system models were developed for each of the spacecraft subsystems that were integrated into one overarching system model. The Electric Propulsion System (EPS) model was developed using data from the Prometheus 1 electric propulsion technology development efforts. This EPS model was then used to provide both performance and mass information to the Prometheus 1 system model for total system trades. Development of the EPS model is described, detailing both the performance calculations as well as its evolution over the course of Phase A through three technical baselines. Model outputs are also presented, detailing the performance of the model and its direct relationship to the Prometheus 1 technology development efforts. These EP system model outputs are also analyzed chronologically showing the response of the model development to the four technical baselines during Prometheus 1 Phase A.

  5. Space Shielding Materials for Prometheus Application

    SciTech Connect

    R. Lewis

    2006-01-20

    At the time of Prometheus program restructuring, shield material and design screening efforts had progressed to the point where a down-selection from approximately eighty-eight materials to a set of five ''primary'' materials was in process. The primary materials were beryllium (Be), boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), tungsten (W), lithium hydride (LiH), and water (H{sub 2}O). The primary materials were judged to be sufficient to design a Prometheus shield--excluding structural and insulating materials, that had not been studied in detail. The foremost preconceptual shield concepts included: (1) a Be/B{sub 4}C/W/LiH shield; (2) a Be/B{sub 4}C/W shield; (3) and a Be/B{sub 4}C/H{sub 2}O shield. Since the shield design and materials studies were still preliminary, alternative materials (e.g., {sup nal}B or {sup 10}B metal) were still being screened, but at a low level of effort. Two competing low mass neutron shielding materials are included in the primary materials due to significant materials uncertainties in both. For LiH, irradiation-induced swelling was the key issue, whereas for H{sub 2}O, containment corrosion without active chemistry control was key, Although detailed design studies are required to accurately estimate the mass of shields based on either hydrogenous material, both are expected to be similar in mass, and lower mass than virtually any alternative. Unlike Be, W, and B{sub 4}C, which are not expected to have restrictive temperature limits, shield temperature limits and design accommodations are likely to be needed for either LiH or H{sub 2}O. The NRPCT focused efforts on understanding swelting of LiH, and observed, from approximately fifty prior irradiation tests, that either casting ar thorough out-gassing should reduce swelling. A potential contributor to LiH swelling appears to be LiOH contamination due to exposure to humid air, that can be eliminated by careful processing. To better understand LiH irradiation performance and mitigate the risks in Li

  6. Space Reflector Materials for Prometheus Application

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash; V. Munne; LL Stimely

    2006-01-31

    The two materials studied in depth which appear to have the most promise in a Prometheus reflector application are beryllium (Be) and beryllium oxide (BeO). Three additional materials, magnesium oxide (MgO), alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were also recently identified to be of potential interest, and may have promise in a Prometheus application as well, but are expected to be somewhat higher mass than either a Be or BeO based reflector. Literature review and analysis indicates that material properties for Be are largely known, but there are gaps in the properties of Be0 relative to the operating conditions for a Prometheus application. A detailed preconceptual design information document was issued providing material properties for both materials (Reference (a)). Beryllium oxide specimens were planned to be irradiated in the JOY0 Japanese test reactor to partially fill the material property gaps, but more testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) test reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was expected to be needed. A key issue identified for BeO was obtaining material for irradiation testing with an average grain size of {approx}5 micrometers, reminiscent of material for which prior irradiation test results were promising. Current commercially available material has an average grain size of {approx}10 micrometers. The literature indicated that improved irradiation performance could be expected (e.g., reduced irradiation-induced swelling) with the finer grain size material. Confirmation of these results would allow the use of historic irradiated materials test results from the literature, reducing the extent of required testing and therefore the cost of using this material. Environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with manufacturing are significant but manageable for Be and BeO. Although particulate-generating operations (e.g., machining, grinding, etc.) involving Be

  7. Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  8. Key Factors Influencing the Decision on the Number of Brayton Units for the Prometheus Space Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, John; Belanger, Sean; Burdge, Wayne; Clementoni, Eric; Jensen, Krista; Proctor, N. Beth; Zemo-Fulkerson, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors (NR) Program and its DOE Laboratories, KAPL and Bettis, were assigned responsibility to develop space reactor systems for the Prometheus Program. After investigating all of the potential reactor and energy conversion options, KAPL and Bettis selected a direct gas Brayton system as the reference approach for the nuclear electric propulsion missions, including the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). In order to determine the optimal plant architecture for the direct gas system, KAPL and Bettis investigated systems with one or two active Brayton units and up to two spare units. No final decision was made on the optimal system configuration for the NEP gas-Brayton system prior to closeout of the project. The two most promising options appear to be a single system without spares and a three Brayton system with two operating units, each producing half of the required load, with a single spare unit. The studies show that a single Brayton system, without spares, offers the lowest mass system, with potential for lower operating temperature, and a minimum of system and operational complexity. The lower required mass and increased system efficiency inherent in the single Brayton system may be exploited to satisfy other design objectives such as reduced reactor and radiator operating temperatures. While Brayton system lifetimes applicable to a JIMO or other nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission have not been demonstrated, there is no fundamental limit on the lifetime of the Brayton hardware. Use of additional Brayton units with installed spares will allow for continued operation in the event of a failure of an individual Brayton unit. However, preliminary system reliability evaluations do not point to any substantial reliability benefit provided by carrying spare Brayton units. If a spare unit is used, operating two of the units at full power with an unpowered spare proved more efficient than operating all three units at a reduced power and temperature

  9. Prometheus update

    SciTech Connect

    Haymes, R.C.; Moss, M.J.; Walker, P.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Prometheus I is a very low background 0.03 - 6.5 MeV gamma-ray balloon-borne imager. It eliminates the activation component of instrumental background through use of a gamma ray detector that is segmented in two dimensions, an active collimator fabricated from low-Z matter, an active collimator that vetoes prompt events due to fast neutrons, and a radiationless absorber of slow neutrons. The segmented detector rejects beta rays emitted by internal Nal activated nuclei because a beta causes only one segment to pulse, but a gamma ray interacting through Compton scattering causes several segments to simultaneously pulse. It serves as a position sensitive gamma-ray detector for the coded mask that fills the collimator's aperture. Because of its low background, the 3 [sigma] spectral-line sensitivity at 1 MeV of Prometheus II is expected to be 5 [times] 10[sup -5] photons cm[sup -2] sec[sup -1], given six hours observing time at midlatitude balloon altitudes. Prometheus will be used to produce a 0.5 - degree map of the entire sky in an energy band above that of the hard X-ray band, but below that of the COMPTEL:sky map. The map will be the principal objective of two Long Duration Balloon flights that are planned for 1994 and 1995. Prometheus has an in-flight selectable field of view (FOV) that ranges from 4 deg [times] 4 deg to 38 deg [times] 38 deg, and 30 arc-minute angular resolution. The localizability of bright sources is about 3 arc minutes. Since there is no unvetoed activation gamma radiation from the collimator, the energy spectrum of the aperture radiation may be unambiguously determined by measuring the dependence of counting rate upon size of the FOV. This has implications for an independent means of measuring the MeV bump' in the spectrum of the diffuse extragalactic background.

  10. Prometheus Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-08

    NASA Cassini spacecraft spied details on the pockmarked surface of Saturn moon Prometheus 86 kilometers, or 53 miles across during a moderately close flyby on Dec. 6, 2015. This is one of Cassini highest resolution views of Prometheus.

  11. Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    T Angeliu; J Ward; J Witter

    2006-04-04

    Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the BeO control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

  12. Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    T. Angeliu

    2006-01-19

    Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron ,exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the Be0 control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

  13. Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Cassini has sighted Prometheus and Pandora, the two F-ring-shepherding moons whose unpredictable orbits both fascinate scientists and wreak havoc on the F ring. Prometheus (102 kilometers, or 63 miles across) is visible left of center in the image, inside the F ring. Pandora (84 kilometers, or 52 miles across) appears above center, outside the ring. The dark shadow cast by the planet stretches more than halfway across the A ring, the outermost main ring. The mottled pattern appearing in the dark regions of the image is 'noise' in the signal recorded by the camera system, which has subsequently been magnified by the image processing. The F ring is a narrow, ribbon-like structure, with a width seen in this geometry equivalent to a few kilometers. The two small, irregularly shaped moons exert a gravitational influence on particles that make up the F ring, confining it and possibly leading to the formation of clumps, strands and other structures observed there. Pandora prevents the F ring from spreading outward and Prometheus prevents it from spreading inward. However, their interaction with the ring is complex and not fully understood. The shepherds are also known to be responsible for many of the observed structures in Saturn's A ring. The moons, which were discovered in images returned by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1980, are in chaotic orbits--their orbits can change unpredictably when the moons get very close to each other. This strange behavior was first noticed in ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope observations in 1995, when the rings were seen nearly edge-on from Earth and the usual glare of the rings was reduced, making the satellites more readily visible than usual. The positions of both satellites at that time were different than expected based on Voyager data. One of the goals for the Cassini-Huygens mission is to derive more precise orbits for Prometheus and Pandora. Seeing how their orbits change over the duration of the mission will help to

  14. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  15. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  16. Disturbances by Prometheus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-05

    The clumpy disturbed appearance of the brilliant F ring constantly changes. The irregular structure of the ring is due, in large part, to the gravitational perturbations on the ring material by one of Saturn moons, Prometheus

  17. The Prometheus 1 spacecraft preliminary electric propulsion system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Ryan C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Dipprey, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 mission is an ambitious plan to orbit and explore the Jovian moons of Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. Such an ambitious mission is enabled by the first interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (EP) system.

  18. The Prometheus 1 spacecraft preliminary electric propulsion system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Ryan C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Dipprey, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 mission is an ambitious plan to orbit and explore the Jovian moons of Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. Such an ambitious mission is enabled by the first interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (EP) system.

  19. Experiences in managing the Prometheus Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Clark, Karla B.; Cook, Beverly A.; Gavit, Sarah A.; Kayali, Sammy A.; McKinney, John C.; Milkovich, David C.; Reh, Kim R.; Taylor, Randall L.; Casani, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA?s Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. The Project had two major objectives: (1) to develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration, deep-space exploration and (2) to explore the three icy moons of Jupiter - Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa - and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences. Early in Project planning, it was determined that the development of the Prometheus nuclear powered Spaceship would be complex and require the intellectual knowledge residing at numerous organizations across the country. In addition, because of the complex nature of the Project and the multiple partners, approaches beyond those successfully used to manage a typical JPL project would be needed. This paper1 will describe the key experiences in managing Prometheus that should prove useful for future projects of similar scope and magnitude

  20. Experiences in managing the Prometheus Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Clark, Karla B.; Cook, Beverly A.; Gavit, Sarah A.; Kayali, Sammy A.; McKinney, John C.; Milkovich, David C.; Reh, Kim R.; Taylor, Randall L.; Casani, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA?s Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. The Project had two major objectives: (1) to develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration, deep-space exploration and (2) to explore the three icy moons of Jupiter - Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa - and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences. Early in Project planning, it was determined that the development of the Prometheus nuclear powered Spaceship would be complex and require the intellectual knowledge residing at numerous organizations across the country. In addition, because of the complex nature of the Project and the multiple partners, approaches beyond those successfully used to manage a typical JPL project would be needed. This paper1 will describe the key experiences in managing Prometheus that should prove useful for future projects of similar scope and magnitude

  1. Lags of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Thamiris; Winter, O.; Mourão, D. D.; Cruz, C. C.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Observational data obtained during Saturn's ring plane crossing of 1995 indicated angular lags for the predicted positions of Prometheus and Pandora. Using additional observational data the lags were confirmed, with Prometheus about 19 degrees ahead and Pandora about 25 degrees behind their predicted longitudes. Chaotic motion associated to a 121:118 mean motion resonance between the two satellites is the theory currently accepted to explain these lags. In the present work we return to this problem proposing that an analysis of the temporal evolution of the semi-major axis of the satellites in order to explain the lags. Due to the secular interaction between the satellites their apsidal lines are periodically anti-aligned every 6.2 years, producing close encounters between the two bodies. During these moments there is a stronger interaction that produces variations in their semi-major axis. The main point is that the data used to propagate the orbits of the satellites was obtained near to the moment of one of these close approaches.

  2. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  3. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  4. Prometheus Project final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Randall

    2005-01-01

    This Final Report serves as an executive summary of the Prometheus Project's activities and deliverables from November 2002 through September 2005. It focuses on the challenges from a technical and management perspective, what was different and innovative about this project, and identifies the major options, decisions, and accomplishments of the Project team as a whole. However, the details of the activities performed by DOE NR and its contractors will be documented separately in accordance with closeout requirements of the DOE NR and consistent with agreements between NASA and NR.

  5. Prometheus Project final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Randall

    2005-01-01

    This Final Report serves as an executive summary of the Prometheus Project's activities and deliverables from November 2002 through September 2005. It focuses on the challenges from a technical and management perspective, what was different and innovative about this project, and identifies the major options, decisions, and accomplishments of the Project team as a whole. However, the details of the activities performed by DOE NR and its contractors will be documented separately in accordance with closeout requirements of the DOE NR and consistent with agreements between NASA and NR.

  6. Origin of Prometheus Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Longaretti, P.

    2006-12-01

    A number of Saturn's small satellites, from Atlas to the coorbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus, move on orbits just outside the main rings of the planet. These satellites undergo extremely rapid resonant interaction with the rings and outward motion, strongly suggesting that they originated in Saturn's A ring. However, their eccentricities, of the order of 1/1000 are several orders of magnitude larger than what could be expected if the small satellites formed in the ring. This paper represents a first step to providing an explanation for this phenomenon, by focusing on the dynamical processes that have affected the eccentricity of Prometheus. The explanation invokes past resonances with the coorbital satellites combined with chaos due to overlapping of these resonances.

  7. Electric Propulsion Technologies for Project Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, S.

    2004-11-01

    Last year NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, began efforts to develop technologies for nuclear systems for space use. Key to these developments are electric propulsion technologies that have been shown to enable new nuclear powered missions. A discussion of these mission applications and their projected requirements are discussed. This mission set is focused on a 100 kWe nuclear electric powered flagship science mission.. The corresponding electric propulsion technologies of interest and under development are discussed. These technologies include high power / high Isp gridded ion and Hall thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic, and other new concepts. Finally, base technology developments, such as long life components, electrodeless concepts, and alternate propellants are reviewed.

  8. Proposed Space Flight Experiment Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The primary thrust for this plan is to develop design tools and fundamental understanding that are timely and consistent with the goal of the various exploration initiatives. The plan will utilize ISS facilities, such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). A preliminary flow schematic of Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(phi)FFy) which would utilize FIR is shown in Figure 3. MSG can be utilized to use the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and Contact Line Dynamics Experiment (CLiDE) Facility. The T(phi)FFy system would have multiple test sections whereby different configurations of heat exchangers could be used to study boiling and condensation phenomena. The test sections would be instrumented for pressure drop, void fraction, heat fluxes, temperatures, high-speed imaging and other diagnostics. Besides a high-speed data acquisition system with a large data storage capability, telemetry could be used to update control and test parameters and download limited amounts of data. In addition, there would be multiple accumulators that could be used to investigate system stability and fluid management issues. The system could accommodate adiabatic tests through either the space station nitrogen supply or have an experiment-specific compressor to pressurize a sufficient amount of air or other non-condensable gas for reuse as the supply bottle is depleted.

  9. Faint F Ring and Prometheus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-21

    Surface features are visible on Saturn's moon Prometheus in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Most of Cassini's images of Prometheus are too distant to resolve individual craters, making views like this a rare treat. Saturn's narrow F ring, which makes a diagonal line beginning at top center, appears bright and bold in some Cassini views, but not here. Since the sun is nearly behind Cassini in this image, most of the light hitting the F ring is being scattered away from the camera, making it appear dim. Light-scattering behavior like this is typical of rings comprised of small particles, such as the F ring. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 14 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Sept. 24, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 226,000 miles (364,000 kilometers) from Prometheus and at a sun-Prometheus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 51 degrees. Image scale is 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20508

  10. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  11. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  12. Proposal for a remotely manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minsky, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    The United States is in trouble in space. The costs of the proposed Space Station Freedom have grown beyond reach, and the present design is obsolete. The trouble has come from imagining that there are only two alternatives: manned vs. unmanned. Both choices have led us into designs that do not appear to be practical. On one side, the United States simply does not possess the robotic technology needed to operate or assemble a sophisticated unmanned space station. On the other side, the manned designs that are now under way seem far too costly and dangerous, with all of its thousands of extravehicular activity (EVA) hours. More would be accomplished at far less cost by proceeding in a different way. The design of a space station made of modular, Erector Set-like parts is proposed which is to be assembled using earth-based remotely-controlled binary-tree telerobots. Earth-based workers could be trained to build the station in space using simulators. A small preassembled spacecraft would be launched with a few telerobots, and then, telerobots could be ferried into orbit along with stocks of additional parts. Trained terrestrial workers would remotely assemble a larger station, and materials for additional power and life support systems could be launched. Finally, human scientists and explorers could be sent to the space station. Other aspects of such a space station program are discussed.

  13. Prometheus and the Keeler gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; French, Richard G.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2014-11-01

    Linblad resonances with Saturn’s satellites are located at many radii in the rings. While some cause density or bending waves, others hold gap edges from spreading, like the 2:1 resonance with Mimas located at the B-ring edge, the 7:6 resonance with Janus at the A-ring edge, and the 32:31 resonance with Prometheus at the inner edge of the Keeler gap. The latter is the case of study here.Theoretically, the inner edge of the Keeler gap should have 32 regular sinusoidal lobes, where either the maximum or the minimum radius is expected to be aligned with Prometheus and rotating with its mean motion. We show that such is not the case. Fit of occultation data shows the presence of the 32:31 resonance, however, the fit residuals is as high as the amplitude of the resonance amplitude (about 2 km). Analysis of the ISS data, shows irregularities overlapping the lobes (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), that follow Keplerian motion. These irregularities may be due to clumps of particles with different eccentricities than the rest of the edge particles. This phenomenon may be caused by the resonance, as it has not been observed at other circular edges were no resonance is present at their location. The ISS data also shows that the lobe’s minimum/maximum is not perfectly aligned with the longitude of Prometheus, which may be due to libration about the centre of the resonance.

  14. Initial Assessment of Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Prometheus Project

    SciTech Connect

    M. Frederick

    2005-12-15

    Depending upon final design and materials selections, a variety of engineering solutions may need to be considered to avoid chemical degradation of components in a notional space nuclear power plant (SNPP). Coatings are one engineered approach that was considered. A comprehensive review of protective coating technology for various space-reactor structural materials is presented, including refractory metal alloys [molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and niobium (Nb)], nickel (Ni)-base superalloys, and silicon carbide (Sic). A summary description of some common deposition techniques is included. A literature survey identified coatings based on silicides or iridium/rhenium as the primary methods for environmental protection of refractory metal alloys. Modified aluminide coatings have been identified for superalloys and multilayer ceramic coatings for protection of Sic. All reviewed research focused on protecting structural materials from extreme temperatures in highly oxidizing conditions. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that some of these coatings may not be protective in the high-temperature, impure-He environment expected in a Prometheus reactor system. Further research is proposed to determine extensibility of these coating materials to less-oxidizing or neutral environments.

  15. Review article: clinical experience with Prometheus.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Kinan; Manns, Michael P

    2006-04-01

    Prometheus is a new extracorporeal liver support device which facilitates the combined removal of both albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins based upon the method of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA). The pilot trial included 11 patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure and concomitant renal failure. Prometheus therapy was found to be safe except for a reversible decrease of blood pressure. In three patients, clotting of the secondary system occurred. Prometheus treatment significantly improved blood levels of protein-bound (conjugated bilirubin, bile acids, ammonia) and water-soluble (creatinine, urea) substances. Thus, Prometheus might be a new therapeutic option in patients with severe hepatorenal syndrome. Furthermore, there is some preliminary experience with Prometheus in the treatment of refractory cholestatic pruritus and in successful bridging to liver transplantation. In order to compare extraction capacities of Prometheus and the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS), five patients were crossover-treated with both systems. Prometheus resulted in significantly higher reduction ratios of bilirubin, ammonia and urea. Another study closely monitored whether the device causes an unselective removal. Neither important cytokines nor coagulation factors were found to be removed. In conclusion, Prometheus seems to be a new therapeutic option in artificial liver support. A significant improvement of the biochemical milieu was already observed after two treatments. The potential to remove protein-bound and water-soluble substances has been shown without signs of a significant unselective removal.

  16. On the rotational dynamics of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Shevchenko, I. I.

    2008-05-01

    Possible rotation states of two satellites of Saturn, Prometheus (S16) and Pandora (S17), are studied by means of numerical experiments. The attitude stability of all possible modes of synchronous rotation and the motion close to these modes is analyzed by means of computation of the Lyapunov spectra of the motion. The stability analysis confirms that the rotation of Prometheus and Pandora might be chaotic, though the possibility of regular behaviour is not excluded. For the both satellites, the attitude instability zones form series of concentric belts enclosing the main synchronous resonance center in the phase space sections. A hypothesis is put forward that these belts might form “barriers” for capturing the satellites in synchronous rotation. The satellites in chaotic rotation can mimic ordinary regular synchronous behaviour: they preserve preferred orientation for long periods of time, the largest axis of satellite’s figure being directed approximately towards Saturn.

  17. Status of a Power Processor for the Prometheus-1 Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Hill, Gerald M.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott; Griebeler, Elmer; Hewitt, Frank; Scina, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies for nuclear electric propulsion for proposed deep space missions in support of the Exploration initiative under Project Prometheus. Electrical power produced by the combination of a fission-based power source and a Brayton power conversion and distribution system is used by a high specific impulse ion propulsion system to propel the spaceship. The ion propulsion system include the thruster, power processor and propellant feed system. A power processor technology development effort was initiated under Project Prometheus to develop high performance and lightweight power-processing technologies suitable for the application. This effort faces multiple challenges including developing radiation hardened power modules and converters with very high power capability and efficiency to minimize the impact on the power conversion and distribution system as well as the heat rejection system. This paper documents the design and test results of the first version of the beam supply, the design of a second version of the beam supply and the design and test results of the ancillary supplies.

  18. In Brief: Proposed European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    New candidates for possible future scientific missions were selected by the European Space Agency's Space Science Advisory Committee at its 17-18 October meeting. Among the eight candidates are four solar system missions. The Laplace mission would perform coordinated observations of Europa, the Jovian satellites, Jupiter's magnetosphere, and its atmosphere and interior. Tandem is a mission that would explore two Saturn satellites-Titan and Enceladus-in situ and from orbit to investigate their origins, interiors, and evolution as well as their astrobiological potential. Cross-Scale, with 12 spacecraft, would make simultaneous measurements of plasma on different scales at shocks, reconnection sites, and turbulent regions in near-Earth space. Marco Polo would characterize a near-Earth object at multiple scales and return with a sample. Among other missions, Plato, a photometry mission, would detect and characterize transiting exoplanets, while Spica, a next-generation infrared observatory, would address planetary formation questions. Ultimately, two missions will be proposed for implementation, with launches planned for 2017 and 2018.

  19. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  20. Overview of the Project Prometheus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, G. M.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the Project Prometheus Program (PPP, formerly the Nuclear Systems Initiative, NSI) and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project (a component of PPP), a mission to the three icy Galilean moons of Jupiter.

  1. Prometheus as Total Theatre: Production Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Erik

    1970-01-01

    Explains the interpretation and techniques the author used in directing "Prometheus Bound," emphasizing the use of the chorus to express emotion and tensions rather than to react to them; illustrated. (SW)

  2. Overview of the Project Prometheus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, G. M.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the Project Prometheus Program (PPP, formerly the Nuclear Systems Initiative, NSI) and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project (a component of PPP), a mission to the three icy Galilean moons of Jupiter.

  3. Prometheus as Total Theatre: Production Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Erik

    1970-01-01

    Explains the interpretation and techniques the author used in directing "Prometheus Bound," emphasizing the use of the chorus to express emotion and tensions rather than to react to them; illustrated. (SW)

  4. Prometheus Silicates/Sulfur dioxide/NIMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The Prometheus region of Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft in 1999. The maps made from spectrometer data show the interplay between hot silicates on the surface and sulfur dioxide frost.

  5. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R&D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions.

  6. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  7. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  8. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

    2006-02-08

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  9. Strategic management of technostress. The chaining of Prometheus.

    PubMed

    Caro, D H; Sethi, A S

    1985-12-01

    The article proposes the concept of technostress and makes a strong recommendation for conducting research based on key researchable hypotheses. A conceptual framework of technostress is suggested to provide some focus to future research. A number of technostress management strategies are put forward, including strategic technological planning, organization culture development, technostress monitoring systems, and technouser self-development programs. The management of technostress is compared to the chaining of Prometheus, which, left uncontrolled, can create havoc in an organization. The authors believe that organizations have a responsibility to introduce, diffuse, and manage computer technology in such a way that it is congruent with the principles of sound, supportive, and humanistic management.

  10. US Space VLBI Proposed Outreach Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The study of how VLBI might be pursued in space began in the late 1970's, when it was realized that the size of the earth was a serious limitation to the study of compact radio sources. By going to space, achieving angular resolution at radio wavelengths that could not be obtained with VLBI systems that were limited by the size of the earth, important tests could not be made of quasar models. The technology appeared to be within reach, and an early space VLBI concept, QUASAT, emerged as a joint project, involving both US and European scientists. In 1984, a workshop was held in Gross Enzerdorf, Austria, under joint sponsorship of NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The principal conclusion of the workshop was that a VLBI station in space, telemetering its data to ground data stations, working in connection with ground-based radio telescopes, would give the opportunity to achieve angular resolution of a few tens of micro-arc-seconds, and could develop high-quality radio maps of many classes of radio sources. The ground telemetry stations would also function as the source of a stable local oscillator for the spacecraft, which needs a highly stable frequency reference. The Deep Space Network of NASA could play a vital role in both the frequency-locking system and data acquisition. One outcome of the Gross Enzerdorf workshop was the convening, by COSPAR, of an ad hoc Committee on Space VLBI, to review and recommend procedures by which international collaboration on VLBI in space might be coordinated and promoted. In October 1985, the committee met in Budapest and recommended that the Inter-Agency Consultative Group (IACG) would be an appropriate body to coordinate VLBI activities in space. At the same time ESA convened a committee to explore the technical aspects of coordinating ground and space VLBI activities. At this stage both NASA and ESA were supporting preliminary studies of the QUASAT mission, with effective coordination between the two groups. The Soviet

  11. Ion Engine Plume Interaction Calculations for Prototypical Prometheus 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Myron J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Katz, Ira; Randolph, Tom; Dougherty, Ryan; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2005-01-01

    Prometheus 1 is a conceptual mission to demonstrate the use of atomic energy for distant space missions. The hypothetical spacecraft design considered in this paper calls for multiple ion thrusters, each with considerably higher beam energy and beam current than have previously flown in space. The engineering challenges posed by such powerful thrusters relate not only to the thrusters themselves, but also to designing the spacecraft to avoid potentially deleterious effects of the thruster plumes. Accommodation of these thrusters requires good prediction of the highest angle portions of the main beam, as well as knowledge of clastically scattered and charge exchange ions, predictions for grid erosion and contamination of surfaces by eroded grid material, and effects of the plasma plume on radio transmissions. Nonlinear interactions of multiple thrusters are also of concern. In this paper we describe two- and three-dimensional calculations for plume structure and effects of conceptual Prometheus 1 ion engines. Many of the techniques used have been validated by application to ground test data for the NSTAR and NEXT ion engines. Predictions for plume structure and possible sputtering and contamination effects will be presented.

  12. NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  13. The heartbeat of the volcano: The discovery of episodic activity at Prometheus on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, A.G.; Wilson, L.; Matson, D.; Leone, G.; Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.

    2006-01-01

    The temporal signature of thermal emission from a volcano is a valuable clue to the processes taking place both at and beneath the surface. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observed the volcano Prometheus, on the jovian moon Io, on multiple occasions between 1996 and 2002. The 5 micron (??m) brightness of this volcano shows considerable variation from orbit to orbit. Prometheus exhibits increases in thermal emission that indicate episodic (though non-periodic) effusive activity in a manner akin to the current Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha (afterwards referred to as the Pu'u 'O'o) eruption of Kilauea, Hawai'i. The volume of material erupted during one Prometheus eruption episode (defined as the interval from minimum thermal emission to peak and back to minimum) from 6 November 1996 to 7 May 1997 is estimated to be ???0.8 km3, with a peak instantaneous volumetric flux (effusion rate) of ???140 m3 s-1, and an averaged volumetric flux (eruption rate) of ???49 m3 s-1. These quantities are used to model subsurface structure, magma storage and magma supply mechanisms, and likely magma chamber depth. Prometheus appears to be supplied by magma from a relatively shallow magma chamber, with a roof at a minimum depth of ???2-3 km and a maximum depth of ???14 km. This is a much shallower depth range than sources of supply proposed for explosive, possibly ultramafic, eruptions at Pillan and Tvashtar. As Prometheus-type effusive activity is widespread on Io, shallow magma chambers containing magma of basaltic or near-basaltic composition and density may be common. This analysis strengthens the analogy between Prometheus and Pu'u 'O'o, at least in terms of eruption style. Even though the style of eruption appears to be similar (effusive emplacement of thin, insulated, compound pahoehoe flows) the scale of activity at Prometheus greatly exceeds current activity at Pu'u 'O'o in terms of volume erupted, area covered, and magma flux. Whereas the estimated magma chamber at

  14. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1992-10-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  15. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  16. Mayo v. Prometheus: A Year Later.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Brian R

    2013-07-11

    Last year's U.S. Supreme Court decision in Mayo v. Prometheus regarding the patent eligibility of diagnostic method claims will probably have the most profound lasting effect of any recent court decision on the biopharmaceutical industry. The Mayo decision changed the evaluation of patent eligibility of a method claim under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The new evaluation is a more difficult standard to clear and needs to be considered prior to filing a patent application.

  17. Mayo v. Prometheus: A Year Later

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Last year’s U.S. Supreme Court decision in Mayo v. Prometheus regarding the patent eligibility of diagnostic method claims will probably have the most profound lasting effect of any recent court decision on the biopharmaceutical industry. The Mayo decision changed the evaluation of patent eligibility of a method claim under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The new evaluation is a more difficult standard to clear and needs to be considered prior to filing a patent application. PMID:24900711

  18. Prometheus and the Ghostly F Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-07

    The thin sliver of Saturn's moon Prometheus lurks near ghostly structures in Saturn's narrow F ring in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Many of the narrow ring's faint and wispy features result from its gravitational interactions with Prometheus (86 kilometers, or 53 miles across). Most of the small moon's surface is in darkness due to the viewing geometry here. Cassini was positioned behind Saturn and Prometheus with respect to the sun, looking toward the moon's dark side and just a bit of the moon's sunlit northern hemisphere. Also visible here is a distinct difference in brightness between the outermost section of Saturn's A ring (left of center) and rest of the ring, interior to the Keeler Gap (lower left). This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 13 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 13, 2017. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 680,000 miles (1.1 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21340

  19. Evaluation criteria for commercially oriented materials processing in space proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. F.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    An approach and criteria for evaluating NASA funded experiments and demonstrations which have commercial potential were developed. Methods for insuring quick initial screening of commercial proposals are presented. Recommendations are given for modifying the current evaluation approach. New criteria for evaluating commercially orientated materials processing in space (MPS) proposals are introduced. The process for selection of qualified individuals to evaluate the phases of this approach and criteria is considered and guidelines are set for its implementation.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5 call for proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document invites and supports participation by the international astronomical community in the HST General Observer and Archival Research programs. These documents contain the basic procedural and technical information required for HST proposal preparation and submission, including applicable deadlines. The telescope and its instruments were built under the auspices of the NASA and the European Space Agency.

  1. Removal selectivity of Prometheus: a new extracorporeal liver support device.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Kinan; Ernst, Thomas; Kretschmer, Ulrich; Haller, Hermann; Manns, Michael Peter; Fliser, Danilo

    2006-02-14

    To evaluate whether treatment with the Prometheus reg system significantly affects cytokines, coagulation factors and other plasma proteins. We studied nine patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure and accompanying renal failure. Prometheus reg therapy was performed on 2 consecutive days for up to 6 h in all patients. Several biochemical parameters and blood counts were assessed at regular time points during Prometheus reg treatment. We observed a significant decrease of both protein-bound (e.g. bile acids) and water-soluble (e.g. ammonia) substances after Prometheus reg therapy. Even though leukocytes increased during treatment (P<0.01), we found no significant changes of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma levels (all P>0.5). Further, antithrombin 3, factor II and factor V plasma levels did not decrease during Prometheus reg therapy (all P>0.5), and the INR remained unchanged (P=0.4). Plasma levels of total protein, albumin, and fibrinogen were also not altered during Prometheus reg treatment (all P>0.5). Finally, platelet count did not change significantly during therapy (P=0.6). Despite significant removal of protein-bound and water-soluble substances, Prometheus reg therapy did not affect the level of cytokines, coagulation factors or other plasma proteins. Thus, the filters and adsorbers used in the system are highly effective and specific for water-soluble substances and toxins bound to the albumin fraction.

  2. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO): An Element of the Prometheus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    The Prometheus Program s Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project is developing a revolutionary nuclear electric propulsion space system that would return scientific data from the icy Galilean satellites, Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. This space system could also be used for future solar system exploration missions. Several major achievements occurred during Fiscal Year 2004 (FY 04). These include the addition of Department of Energy Naval Reactors (DOENR) and Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) to the JIMO team, completion of the Science Definition Team s final report, generation of the Government and industry team trade studies and conceptual designs, and numerous technology demonstrations. The sections that follow detail these accomplishments.

  3. Proprietary Manned Space Flight Proposals, 1973 to 2013, plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Philip

    2016-03-01

    In 1973 a concept for a manned space flight experiment was submitted to NASA as an unsolicited proprietary proposal,*. In 1998*, 2004*, and 2013* proposals successively more details were provided. An abbreviation of the 1998 proposal was published. By 2013 the five technical variables of 1998 had increased to over ten. Some technical and management details of the proposals will be presented and updated. The first flight of two could use some hardware now being developed. The experiment seems superior to any mission publicly advocated by NASA, so this talk's purpose is to encourage NASA to delay landing humans on Mars until the first spacecraft can be developed and activated. *Complete proposals are in the Philip C. Fisher papers, Niels Bohr Library and Archives, American Institute of Physics (available one year after author's death). Work after 1982 supported by successive forms of Ruffner Associates.

  4. Proposal to Accomplish Phase B Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, Lawrence M.; Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    This proposal has been prepared in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Request for Proposal No. 10-8423, dated February 20, 1970, and Amendments No.1, 2, 3, & 4 thereto. It is firm for a period of not less than one hundred twenty (120) days from March 30, 1970. The executed certifications requested in Enclosures 5 and 6 of the Request for Proposal are appended at the end of this proposal. Grumman Aerospace Corporation, along with its associates -- the General Electric Company, Eastern Airlines, the Northrop Corporation, and the Aerojet-General Corporation -- are pleased to submit this proposal. This study must prove that technical challenges can be met at a cost commensurate with realistic national funding levels at an early date, (perferably prior to the late 1977 initial operating capability (IOC) indicated in the Statement of Work). We have assembled a team of extremely competent associates. Together, we are fully qualified to study all facets of the proposed Phase B study, and to develop and build the product. We believe we have already made a promising start toward defining the concept of the space shuttle system.

  5. Proposed CMG momentum management scheme for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, L. R.; Bishop, R. H.; Lindsay, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    A discrete control moment gyro (CMG) momentum management scheme (MMS) applicable to spacecraft with principal axes misalignments, such as the proposed NASA dual keel space station, is presented in this paper. The objective of the MMS is to minmize CMG angular momentum storage requirements for maintaining the space station near local vertical in the presence of environmental disturbances. It utilizes available environmental disturbances, namely gravity gradient torques, to minimize CMG momentum storage. The MMS is executed once per orbit and generates a commanded torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) time history which consists of a yaw, pitch and roll angle command profile. Although the algorithm is called only once per orbit to compute the TEA profile, the space station will maneuver several discrete times each orbit.

  6. The Effect of Prometheus on the F Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This movie features a simulation showing the changes to a portion of Saturn's F ring as the shepherding moon Prometheus swings by it. The animation uses data obtained by the imaging cameras aboard ...

  7. Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Stephens

    2006-01-13

    This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

  8. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    SciTech Connect

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  9. Relative efficacy of the proposed Space Shuttle antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordinsky, J. R.; Schwartz, E.; Beier, J.; Martin, J.; Aust, G.

    1982-07-01

    Space motion sickness has been estimated as affecting between 1/3 and 1/2 of all space flight participants. NASA has at the moment proposed a combination of promethazine and ephedrine ( P/E) and one of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine ( S/D), both given orally, as well as a transdermally applied scopolamine (TAS), as preventive and ameliorative measures. The reported double-blind study tests the early phase actions and efficacy of the transdermal scopolamine (Transderm ™-V of ALZA Corporation) and compares these in detail to the oral medications. Motion sickness resistance was tested by standardized head movements while accelerating at 0.2°/sec 2 to a maximum rotation of 240°/sec, with an intermediate plateau of 10 min at 180°/sec. To permit weighting motion sickness protection against other system influences, cardiovascular, psychological (subjective and objective), and visual parameter changes were documented for the three therapeutic modes. The relative impact of the various modalities on operational and experimental components of space missions is discussed. A comparison to intramuscularly administered promethazine (a backup therapeutic mode suggested for Space Shuttle use) is also included.

  10. Removal selectivity of Prometheus: A new extracorporeal liver support device

    PubMed Central

    Rifai, Kinan; Ernst, Thomas; Kretschmer, Ulrich; Haller, Hermann; Manns, Michael Peter; Fliser, Danilo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether treatment with the Prometheus® system significantly affects cytokines, coagulation factors and other plasma proteins. METHODS: We studied nine patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure and accompanying renal failure. Prometheus® therapy was performed on 2 consecutive days for up to 6 h in all patients. Several biochemical parameters and blood counts were assessed at regular time points during Prometheus® treatment. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease of both protein-bound (e.g. bile acids) and water-soluble (e.g. ammonia) substances after Prometheus® therapy. Even though leukocytes increased during treatment (P < 0.01), we found no significant changes of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α plasma levels (all P  > 0.5). Further, antithrombin 3, factor II and factor V plasma levels did not decrease during Prometheus® therapy (all P  > 0.5), and the INR remained unchanged (P  = 0.4). Plasma levels of total protein, albumin, and fibrinogen were also not altered during Prometheus® treatment (all P  > 0.5). Finally, platelet count did not change significantly during therapy (P = 0.6). CONCLUSION: Despite significant removal of protein-bound and water-soluble substances, Prometheus® therapy did not affect the level of cytokines, coagulation factors or other plasma proteins. Thus, the filters and adsorbers used in the system are highly effective and specific for water-soluble substances and toxins bound to the albumin fraction. PMID:16521224

  11. Evaluation of materials proposed for use in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The primary irritancy and allergenicity of flame resistant treated cotton knit shirts proposed for use in space flight were evaluated. The knitted shirts were supplied by NASA as follows: knitted shirts with collars were made of two-ply mercerized single-knit cotton jersey. The fabric was treated with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium hydroxide and subsequently cured with gaseous ammonia (THPOH/NH3). The final treatment comprised adding on diammonium phosphate (DAP)/urea. The treated fabric was process scoured to remove extraneous materials, top softened and mechanically or chemically finished as required for specific needs. Diammonium phosphate is a more efficient flame inhabitant than the phosphonium; thus, the combination treatment served to impart higher resistance to ignition and sustained combustion as required by NASA test standard.

  12. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  13. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  14. The proposal for new space-based gravitational experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Zharov, Vladimir

    The development of space technologies opens new perspectives in solving the fundamental problems of gravity. We propose the experimental investigation of General Relativity (GR) in space experiments in following: a) measurement of post-Newtonian parameters (PPN), b) gravity wave detection in the low frequency band. The accuracy, with which GR is currently confirmed, is fractions of percent: 2.3× 10(-5) . However, in spite of the remarkable success of GR in the weak-field approximation, there are many reasons to consider alternative relativistic theories of gravity that predict the existence of effects other than GR, thus motivating new fundamental gravitational experiments. In this connection, the experimental measurements of PPN of parameters play a special role. To improve the accuracy of measurement of geodetic effects in the gravitational field of the Earth the clusters of spacecrafts, connected by microwave radio links and optical links, are widely used. Such a scheme allows to suppress effectively a coherent noise acting on the spacecraft, and to measure the distance between the satellites within a fraction of a millimeter. This technology was already tested for GRACE and GRAIL NASA missions. Furthermore, there are technologies allowing to effectively compensate non-gravitational noise to the level of 10(-10) - 10(-12) \\ m/s(2/sqrt{Hz}) . The project, which assume the lunch of cluster of the spacecrafts intended to study fundamental processes in the Universe, including the measurement of the PPN parameters and low frequency gravitational waves, is proposed in this report. We study the space-based systems in a configuration of few spacecrafts on different orbits in the gravitational field of the Earth for measuring these effects. Measurements of distances between spacecrafts are performed using microwave radio links, laser interferometry and ultra stable frequency standards. Developed modern technologies for distant measurements allow to reach the accuracy

  15. Proposed School of Earth And Space Sciences, Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2004-05-01

    The hallmarks of the proposed school in the University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad,India, would be synergy, inclusivity and globalism. The School will use the synergy between the earth (including oceanic and atmospheric realms), space and information sciences to bridge the digital divide, and promote knowledge-driven and job-led economic development of the country. It will endeavour to (i) provide the basic science underpinnings for Space and Information Technologies, (ii) develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources (water, soils, sediments, minerals, biota, etc.)in ecologically-sustainable, employment-generating and economically-viable ways, (iii) mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards through preparedness systems,etc. The School will undertake research in the inter-disciplinary areas of earth and space sciences (e.g. climate predictability, satellite remote sensing of soil moisture) and linking integrative science with the needs of the decision makers. It will offer a two-year M.Tech. (four semesters, devoted to Theory, Tools, Applications and Dissertation, respectively ) course in Earth and Space Sciences. The Applications will initially cover eight course clusters devoted to Water Resources Management, Agriculture, Ocean studies, Energy Resources, Urban studies, Environment, Natural Hazards and Mineral Resources Management. The School will also offer a number of highly focused short-term refresher courses / supplementary courses to enable cadres to update their knowledge and skills. The graduates of the School would be able to find employment in macro-projects, such as inter-basin water transfers, and Operational crop condition assessment over large areas, etc. as well as in micro-projects, such as rainwater harvesting, and marketing of remote sensing products to stake-holders (e.g. precision agricultural advice to the farmers, using the large bandwidth of thousands of kilometres of unlit optical fibres). As the School is highly

  16. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.

  17. Construction in space: A proposed experiment in support of the space solar power concept and other large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual equipment and techniques for fabricating and assembling a ladder-like structure of triangular cross section trusses suitable for mounting solar cell arrays are described. The detail information is presented in the context of a proposed experiment to be conducted from the shuttle in the 1980-84 time period as an early experiment in the development of techniques for the construction of large space structures that would be required for space solar power stations and other large systems.

  18. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  19. [The clinical experience with MARS and Prometheus procedures].

    PubMed

    Hydzik, Piotr; Gawlikowski, Tomasz; Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sułlek, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis, that extracorporeal removal of endo- and egzogenic substances should be beneficial to the clinical course of the patient in liver failure or poisoned, treatment systems were evaluatedbased on the two concepts: (1) blood dialysis against albumin dialysate--Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), Continuous Veno-Venous Haemodiafiltration (CWHDF); (2) selective albumin filtration and adsorption combined with haemodialysis--Fractioned Plasma Separation and Adsorption-Prometheus. We present our own experiences with MARS and Prometheus procedures between 2003-2006 years.

  20. A proposed method for wind velocity measurement from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Censor, D.; Levine, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was made of the feasibility of making wind velocity measurements from space by monitoring the apparent change in the refractive index of the atmosphere induced by motion of the air. The physical principle is the same as that resulting in the phase changes measured in the Fizeau experiment. It is proposed that this phase change could be measured using a three cornered arrangement of satellite borne source and reflectors, around which two laser beams propagate in opposite directions. It is shown that even though the velocity of the satellites is much larger than the wind velocity, factors such as change in satellite position and Doppler shifts can be taken into account in a reasonable manner and the Fizeau phase measured. This phase measurement yields an average wind velocity along the ray path through the atmosphere. The method requires neither high accuracy for satellite position or velocity, nor precise knowledge of the refractive index or its gradient in the atmosphere. However, the method intrinsically yields wind velocity integrated along the ray path; hence to obtain higher spatial resolution, inversion techniques are required.

  1. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order 20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  2. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Werner

    Putting space technology and its applications to work for sustainable economic and social development is the primary objective of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, launched in 1971. A specific goal for achieving this objective is to establish a sustainable national space capacity. The traditional line of thinking has supported a logical progression from building capacity in basic space science, to using space applications and finally - possibly - to establishing indigenous space technology capabilities. The experience in some countries suggests that such a strict line of progression does not necessarily hold true and that priority given to the establishment of early indigenous space technology capabilities may contribute to promoting the operational use of space applications in support of sustainable economic and social development. Based on these findings and on the experiences with the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) as well as on a series of United Nations/International Academy of Astronautics Workshops on Small Satellites in the Service of Developing Countries, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is considering the launch of a dedicated United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative (UNBSTI). The initiative would aim to contribute to capacity building in basic space technology and could include, among other relevant fields, activities related to the space and ground segments of small satellites and their applications. It would also provide an international framework for enhancing cooperation between all interested actors, facilitate the exchange of information on best practices, and contribute to standardization efforts. It is expected that these activities would advance the operational use of space technology and its applications in an increasing number of space-using countries and emerging space nations. The paper reports on these initial considerations and on the potential value-adding role

  3. How Prometheus creates structure in Saturn's F ring.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carl D; Chavez, Carlos; Beurle, Kevin; Cooper, Nick; Evans, Michael W; Burns, Joseph A; Porco, Carolyn C

    2005-10-27

    Images of Saturn's narrow and contorted F ring returned by the Cassini spacecraft have revealed phenomena not previously detected in any planetary ring system. The perturbing effect of the inner shepherding satellite, Prometheus, seems to introduce channels through the F ring and a 'streamer'--a line of particles that link the ring to the satellite. The detailed mechanism for the formation of these features has been lacking an explanation. Here we show that these phenomena can be understood in terms of a simple gravitational interaction as Prometheus approaches and recedes from the F ring every 14.7 hours. Our numerical models show that as Prometheus recedes from its closest approach to the F ring, it draws out ring material; one orbital period later, this affected region has undergone keplerian shear and is visible as a channel, in excellent agreement with structures seen in the Cassini images. Prometheus' periodic disruption of the F ring will become more pronounced as the two orbits approach their minimum separation in 2009. The model predicts that the appearance of streamers and the associated channels will vary in a regular fashion on a timescale of one orbital period.

  4. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  5. A Proposed Architecture for Theater Coordination of Global Space Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    capabilities, theater space coordination 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...during combat operations, when the price of learning new lessons is often the lives of Americans. 28 THIS PAGE...81 Larry Price , Maj, USAF, “Space Operations in the Joint Warfighting Arena: The Viability of a Joint Force Space Component Commander,” (master’s

  6. Feasibility of performing space surveillance tasks with a proposed space-based optical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner; Schildknecht, Thomas

    Under ESA contract an industrial consortium including Aboa Space Research Oy (ASRO), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB), and the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), proposed the observation concept, developed a suitable sensor architecture, and assessed the performance of a space-based optical (SBO) telescope in 2005. The goal of the SBO instrumentation was to analyse how the existing knowledge gap in the space debris population in the millimetre and centimetre regime may be closed by means of a passive op-tical instrument. SBO was requested to provide statistical information on the space debris population, in terms of number of objects and size distribution. The SBO was considered to be a cost-efficient instrumentation of 20 cm aperture and 6 deg field-of-view with flexible integration requirements. It should be possible to integrate the SBO easily as a secondary payload on satellites launched into low-Earth orbits (LEO), or into geostationary orbit (GEO). Thus the selected mission concept only allowed for fix-mounted telescopes, and the pointing direction could be requested freely. It was shown in the performance analysis that the statistical information on small-sized space debris can only be collected if the observation ranges are comparatively small. Two of the most promising concepts were to observe objects in LEO from a sensor placed into a sun-synchronous LEO, while objects in GEO should be observed from a GEO satellite. Since 2007 ESA focuses space surveillance and tracking activities in the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) preparatory program. Ground-based radars and optical telescopes are stud-ied for the build-up and to maintenance of a catalogue of objects. In this paper we analyse how the SBO architecture could contribute to the space surveillance tasks survey and tracking. We assume that the SBO instrumentation is placed into a circular sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km altitude. We discuss the observation conditions of

  7. Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase

  8. Feasibility of performing space surveillance tasks with a proposed space-based optical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.; Schildknecht, T.

    2011-03-01

    Under ESA contract an industrial consortium including Aboa Space Research Oy (ASRO), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB), and the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), proposed the observation concept, developed a suitable sensor architecture, and assessed the performance of a space-based optical (SBO) telescope in 2005. The goal of the SBO study was to analyse how the existing knowledge gap in the space debris population in the millimetre and centimetre regime may be closed by means of a passive optical instrument. The SBO instrument was requested to provide statistical information on the space debris population in terms of number of objects and size distribution. The SBO instrument was considered to be a cost-efficient with 20 cm aperture and 6° field-of-view and having flexible integration requirements. It should be possible to integrate the SBO instrument easily as a secondary payload on satellites launched into low-Earth orbits (LEO), or into geostationary orbit (GEO). Thus the selected mission concept only allowed for fix-mounted telescopes, and the pointing direction could be requested freely. Since 2007 ESA focuses space surveillance and tracking activities in the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) preparatory program. Ground-based radars and optical telescopes are studied for the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of objects. In this paper we analyse how the proposed SBO architecture could contribute to the space surveillance tasks survey and tracking. We assume that the SBO instrumentation is placed into a circular sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km altitude. We discuss the observation conditions of objects at higher altitude, and select an orbit close to the terminator plane. A pointing of the sensor orthogonal to the orbital plane with optimal elevation slightly in positive direction (0° and +5°) is found optimal for accessing the entire GEO regime within one day, implying a very good coverage of controlled objects in

  9. A Proposal for the Common Safety Approach of Space Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    For all applications, business and systems related to Space programs, Quality is mandatory and is a key factor for the technical as well as the economical performances. Up to now the differences of applications (launchers, manned space-flight, sciences, telecommunications, Earth observation, planetary exploration, etc.) and the difference of technical culture and background of the leading countries (USA, Russia, Europe) have generally led to different approaches in terms of standards and processes for Quality. At a time where international cooperation is quite usual for the institutional programs and globalization is the key word for the commercial business, it is considered of prime importance to aim at common standards and approaches for Quality in Space Programs. For that reason, the International Academy of Astronautics has set up a Study Group which mandate is to "Make recommendations to improve the Quality, Reliability, Efficiency, and Safety of space programmes, taking into account the overall environment in which they operate : economical constraints, harsh environments, space weather, long life, no maintenance, autonomy, international co-operation, norms and standards, certification." The paper will introduce the activities of this Study Group, describing a first list of topics which should be addressed : Through this paper it is expected to open the discussion to update/enlarge this list of topics and to call for contributors to this Study Group.

  10. Proposal for a Cooperative Space Strategy with China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    129 See statement by Jeff Kueter of the George C. Marshall Institute. Jeff Kueter, “Crossing the Rubicon in...pdfserve.informaworld.com /914200__790435634.pdf (accessed 2 Jan 09). Kueter, Jeff. “Crossing the Rubicon in Space Again: Iacta Alea Est.” George C. Marshall Institute

  11. Prometheus: the Supreme Court redefines the patentability of diagnostic inventions.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Andrew; Schmid, Cora L

    2012-12-01

    The United States Supreme Court recently issued an opinion regarding the patentability of claims directed to diagnostic methods in Mayo Collab. Service v. Prometheus Lab., Inc. In this opinion, the Supreme Court held that correlations between metabolite levels in the human body and either therapeutic efficacy or adverse effects are unpatentable laws of nature. It further found that a patent claim to a method including such a correlation is unpatentable if the remainder of the claim contains only conventional and well-known steps. The Prometheus decision creates uncertainty regarding the scope of patentable subject matter, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and personalized medicine, that will remain until future cases apply this new doctrine.

  12. Prometheus payment model: application to hip and knee replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Amita; Mohr, Beth A; Williams, Jeffery O; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; de Brantes, Francois

    2009-10-01

    The Prometheus Payment Model offers a potential solution to the failings of the current fee-for-service system and various forms of capitation. At the core of the Prometheus model are evidence-informed case rates (ECRs), which include a bundle of typical services that are informed by evidence and/or expert opinion as well as empirical data analysis, payment based on the severity of patients, and allowances for potentially avoidable complications (PACs) and other provider-specific variations in payer costs. We outline the methods and findings of the hip and knee arthroplasty ECRs with an emphasis on PACs. Of the 2076 commercially insured patients undergoing hip arthroplasty in our study, PAC costs totaled $7.8 million (14% of total costs; n = 699 index PAC stays). Similarly, PAC costs were $12.7 million (14% of total costs; n = 897 index PAC stays) for 3403 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. By holding the providers clinically and financially responsible for PACs, and by segmenting and quantifying the type of PACs generated during and after the procedure, the Prometheus model creates an opportunity for providers to focus on the reduction of PACs, including readmissions, making the data actionable and turn the waste related to PAC costs into potential savings.

  13. Consequences of the Chaotic Motions of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.

    2003-05-01

    Recent HST images of Prometheus and Pandora show that their longitudes differ by about 20 degrees from the predictions based on Voyager images. Moreover abrupt changes in mean motion occurred around the end of 2000 (French, R.G. et al., Icarus, 162, 143-170, 2003). These discrepancies are anticorrelated and arise from chaotic interactions between the two moons, the strongest jumps of orbital elements happening at interval of 6.2 years when their apses are anti-aligned (Goldreich, P. and Rappaport, N., Icarus, 162, 391-399, 2003). We study the system Prometheus-Pandora using a radau-type integrator taking into account Saturn's oblateness and the perturbations by the major saturnian satellites. We first confirm the chaotic behaviour of the system due to the overlap of four 121:118 apse-type mean motion resonances. Then we show how the available observations suggest values as low as 0.5 g.cm-3 for Prometheus and Pandora. These values compare well the densities derived from the density waves excited in Saturn's rings by the two satellites. Finally we discuss the long-term evolution of the system : using a wide range of initial conditions compatible with observations, we do not detect in general any systematic transfer of angular momentum from Pandora to Mimas via the nearby 3:2 resonances.

  14. Consequences of the Chaotic Motions of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.

    2003-08-01

    Recent HST images of Prometheus and Pandora show that their longitudes differ by about 20 degrees from the predictions based on Voyager images. Moreover abrupt changes in mean motion occurred around the end of 2000 (French, R.G. et al., Icarus, in press). These discrepancies are anticorrelated and arise from chaotic interactions between the two moons, the strongest jumps of orbital elements happening at interval of 6.2 years when their apses are anti-aligned (Goldreich, P. and Rappaport, N., Icarus, submitted). We study the system Prometheus-Pandora using a radau-type integrator taking into account Saturn's oblateness and the perturbations by the major saturnian satellites. We first confirm the chaotic behaviour of the system due to the overlap of four 121:118 apse-type mean motion resonances. Then we show how the available observations suggest values as low as 0.5 g.cm-3 for Prometheus and Pandora. These values compare well the densities derived from the density waves excited in Saturn's rings by the two satellites. Finally we discuss the long-term evolution of the system : using a wide range of initial conditions compatible with observations, we do not detect in general any systematic transfer of angular momentum from Pandora to Mimas via the nearby 3:2 resonances.

  15. Technology insight: artificial extracorporeal liver support--how does Prometheus compare with MARS?

    PubMed

    Krisper, Peter; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2007-05-01

    Artificial extracorporeal liver support or 'liver dialysis' has been used in patients with severe liver failure with increasing frequency since the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS), a variant of albumin dialysis, was introduced in 1999. Nevertheless, liver dialysis must still be thought of as experimental because its contribution to improved patient survival has not been proven in large randomized trials. Prometheus is a novel device for fractionated plasma separation via an albumin-permeable filter that was developed to improve removal of albumin-bound toxins. Initial studies have proven clinical use of Prometheus to be feasible and safe. Head-to-head comparisons of Prometheus and MARS have shown treatment with the former to be more efficient with respect to removal of most albumin-bound and water-solved markers. As controlled studies with clinical end points are lacking, it is not known whether the observed greater detoxification capacity of Prometheus will translate into clinical benefit; two small studies indicate that there might be a beneficial effect in hepatic encephalopathy and pruritus. In a recent randomized comparison of MARS and Prometheus, however, hemodynamic improvement was observed in response to MARS, but not Prometheus, treatment. A large randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Prometheus on survival--the HELIOS study--has been initiated. First results are expected in 2008 and will be crucial to establishing a role for Prometheus in the field of extracorporeal liver support.

  16. Effusion Rate Variability at Zamama, Culann, Tupan Patera and Prometheus on Io during the Galileo Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Ennis, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Zamama, Culann, and Tupan Patera are three large, persistent volcanic centers on the jovian moon Io. As part of an ongoing project to quantify contributions from individual volcanic centers to Io's thermal budget, we have quantified the radiant flux and effusion rates from all suitable observations made by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) of these volcanoes [1], in some cases filling omissions in previous analyses. Eruption rates at these three volcanoes are on the order of 30 m3 s-1, consistent with a previous analysis of NIMS observations of Prometheus [2], and nearly an order of magnitude greater than Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i, Earth's most active volcano. We propose that future missions to the jovian system could better constrain activity at these volcanoes and others where similar styles of activity are taking place by obtaining data on a time scale of, ideally, at least one observation per day.

  17. Remote ergonomic research in space: spacelab findings and a proposal.

    PubMed

    Wichman, H A; Donaldson, S I

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ergonomics research using remotely situated video cameras in spacecraft. Two prototype studies of crewmembers working in the micro-G environments aboard the first two flights of Spacelab are described. Various aspects of crew restraint, stabilization, manipulation of controls, and mobilization were observed, operationally defined, and quantified by observing videotaped scenes of Spacelab crewmembers. In the first study, four performance behaviors were quantified to provide estimates of their frequency of occurrence and variation over the course of each of the flights. The behaviors and their mean percent of observed times were: Hand-Hold 32.2%, Foot Restraint 35.3%, Translation 9.4%, and Struggle 3.7%. Because we observed that nearly a third of a crewmember's time was spent inefficiently holding on with one hand while trying to work with the other, a second study was conducted exploring the use of foot restraints and hand stabilization. During 18 episodes of single-foot restraint, for example, there were 52 instances of hand stabilization and 135 instances of stabilization attempts with the other foot. The paper concludes with some defining characteristics of adequate foot restraints, and a proposal for extending this research model to future spacecraft studies.

  18. The Prometheus device for extracorporeal support of combined liver and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Kinan; Ernst, Thomas; Kretschmer, Ulrich; Hafer, Carsten; Haller, Hermann; Manns, Michael Peter; Fliser, Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Prometheus is a newly developed extracorporeal liver support system that combines removal of albumin-bound substances (adsorption on resin adsorbers) and water-soluble substances (diffusion during high-flux hemodialysis). Therefore, it is a promising treatment option for patients with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). We studied 10 patients with HRS in a prospective clinical study. All patients underwent 2 consecutive Prometheus treatments. A variety of clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. Prometheus treatment was uncomplicated and safe. A statistically significant improvement of serum creatinine and urea concentrations as well as blood pH was observed after Prometheus treatment. Furthermore, liver detoxification was supported by a significant decrease of serum levels of conjugated bilirubin, bile acids and ammonia. Prometheus is a safe treatment for patients with HRS. Both, albumin-bound and water-soluble substances were effectively removed. Controlled studies will evaluate the effect of this new treatment option on survival in patients with HRS. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  20. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  1. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  2. Prometheus system: a technological support in liver failure.

    PubMed

    Santoro, A; Faenza, S; Mancini, E; Ferramosca, E; Grammatico, F; Zucchelli, A; Facchini, M G; Pinna, A D

    2006-05-01

    The Prometheus system is a plasma filtration treatment coupling adsorption and hemodialysis (FPSA) aimed to blood purification in liver failure. After separation through an albumin-permeable membrane, plasma enters a secondary circuit where protein-bound toxic substances are removed by two adsorbers; p01, a neutral resin, and p02, an anion exchanger. Plasma is then returned to the venous line, where a high-flux hemodialyzer removes water-soluble substances. We used the Prometheus system in 12 patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver insufficiency: eight cirrhosis, one posttransplant dysfunction, and three secondary liver insult (two cardiogenic shock and one rhabdomyolysis). All patients were severely hyperbilirubinemic, hypercholemic, and hyperammonemic. Twenty-eight sessions each lasting 340 +/- 40 minutes were performed (2.5/patient). The mean total bilirubin decreased from 33.6 +/- 20 to 22.2 +/- 13.6 mg/dL (P < .001); the reduction ratios for cholic acid and ammonia were 48.6% and 51.6%, respectively. The pre- to postsession urea reduction was 57.6% +/- 9.5% and creatinine 42.7% +/- 10%. A significant reduction was observed in the circulating levels of soluble interleukin (IL) 2 receptor (pre: 2687.2 +/- 1434.7; post: 1977.1 +/- 602 Ul/ml; P < .001) and in IL 6 (pre: 56.1 +/- 11.1; post: 35.9 +/- 10.3 pg/mL, P = .05). During treatments the hemodynamics were stable. Two patients received liver transplantations. The secondary liver insult was completely overcome in all three patients. The overall survival at 30 days was 41.6% (5/12 patients). Prometheus, based on FPSA, produced high clearance for protein-bound and water soluble markers, which resulted in high treatment efficacy.

  3. PROMETHEUS payment: better for patients, better for physicians.

    PubMed

    Gosfield, Alice G

    2006-01-01

    Although pay for performance is a positive development in the history of quality improvement in this country, it is generally accepted that most pay-for-performance programs do not offer a sustainable business model. PROMETHEUS Payment is a new approach to provider payment that is predicated on paying for the resources to be brought to bear to treat a patient for a condition in accordance with good clinical practice guidelines. It is explicitly designed to reduce the administrative burden on physicians in favor of improved care coordination and collaboration among providers without requiring them to financially integrate or take insurance risk.

  4. Prometheus--a new extracorporeal system for the treatment of liver failure.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Kinan; Ernst, Thomas; Kretschmer, Ulrich; Bahr, Matthias J; Schneider, Andrea; Hafer, Carsten; Haller, Hermann; Manns, Michael P; Fliser, Danilo

    2003-12-01

    Extracorporeal detoxification systems for supportive therapy of liver failure have recently gained much interest. We herein report results from the first clinical application of Prometheus, a new liver support system in which albumin-bound substances are directly removed from blood by special adsorber. In a simultaneous step, high-flux hemodialysis is performed. We assessed safety, adsorber efficiency and clinical efficacy of the Prometheus system. Eleven patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure and accompanying renal failure were treated with Prometheus on 2 consecutive days for >4 h. Prometheus treatment significantly improved serum levels of conjugated bilirubin, bile acids, ammonia, cholinesterase, creatinine, urea and blood pH. There were no significant changes in hemoglobin and platelet levels, whereas leucocytes increased without signs of systemic infection. No treatment-related complications except a blood pressure drop in two patients with systemic infection were noted. In one patient (Child-Pugh score: 15) Prometheus treatment could not be completed due to onset of uncontrolled bleeding 16 h after dialysis. Prometheus is a safe supportive therapy for patients with liver failure. A significant improvement of the biochemical milieu was observed already after two treatments. Prospective controlled studies with the Prometheus system are necessary to evaluate hard clinical end-points.

  5. Proposal Drafted for Allocating Space-to-Space Frequencies in the GPS Spectrum Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Rodney L.

    2000-01-01

    Radionavigation Satellite Service (RNSS) systems such as the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) are primarily being used today in the space-to-Earth direction (i.e., from GPS satellite to Earth user) for a broad range of applications such as geological surveying; aircraft, automobile, and maritime navigation; hiking and mountain climbing; and precision farming and mining. However, these navigation systems are being used increasingly in space. Beginning with the launch of the TOPEX/Poseidon remote-sensing mission in 1992, over 90 GPS receivers have flown onboard spacecraft for such applications as real-time spacecraft navigation, three-axis attitude control, precise time synchronization, precision orbit determination, and atmospheric profiling. In addition to use onboard many science spacecraft, GPS has been used or is planned to be used onboard the shuttles, the International Space Station, the International Space Station Emergency Crew Return Vehicle, and many commercial satellite systems such as Orbcomm, Globalstar, and Teledesic. From a frequency spectrum standpoint, however, one important difference between the space and terrestrial uses of GPS is that it is being used in space with no interference protection. This is because there is no frequency allocation for the space-to-space use of GPS (i.e., from GPS satellite to user spacecraft) in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) regulatory table of frequency allocations. If another space-based or groundbased radio system interferes with a spaceborne GPS user, the spaceborne user presently has no recourse other than to accept the interference. Consequently, for the past year and a half, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and other Government agencies have been working within ITU toward obtaining a GPS space-to-space allocation at the next World Radio Conference in the year 2000 (WRC 2000). Numerous interference studies have been

  6. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5. Phase 1: Proposal instructions, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document has the following purposes: it describes the information that must be submitted to the Space Telescope Science Institute by Phase 1 proposers, both electronically and on paper, and describes how to submit it; it describes how to fill out the proposal LATEX templates; it describes how to estimate the number of spacecraft orbits that the proposed observations will require; it provides detailed information about the parameters that are used in the forms to describe the requested observations; and it provides information about the preparation and electronic submission of proposal files. Examples of completed proposal forms are included.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5. Phase 1: Proposal instructions, version 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madau, Piero

    1994-06-01

    This document has the following purposes: it describes the information that must be submitted to the Space Telescope Science Institute by Phase 1 proposers, both electronically and on paper, and describes how to submit it; it describes how to fill out the proposal LATEX templates; it describes how to estimate the number of spacecraft orbits that the proposed observations will require; it provides detailed information about the parameters that are used in the forms to describe the requested observations; and it provides information about the preparation and electronic submission of proposal files. Examples of completed proposal forms are included.

  8. Discovery of episodic volcanism at Prometheus on Io: implications for magma supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data show the ionian volcanoes Prometheus and Amirani have significant thermal emission in excess of non-volcanic background emission in every geometrically appropriate NIMS observation.

  9. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Giovanni; Davies, Ashley G.; Wilson, Lionel; Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle.

  10. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, G.; Gerard, Davies A.; Wilson, L.; Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. A dusty ringlet with connections to both Prometheus and the F ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Matthew M.; Carter, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Prometheus is a small satellite of Saturn that orbits between the planet's main rings and the narrow and dusty F ring. Prometheus' complex interactions with the F-ring material have been investigated in some detail using data from the Cassini and Voyager spacecraft, but the moon's influences on other nearby dusty rings are still largely unexplored. Here we examine a very faint ringlet that can be seen in high-phase images of the region around Prometheus' orbit taken by the Cassini spacecraft. These data reveal that the mean radius of this ringlet is close to Prometheus' semi-major axis, suggesting that it consists of material co-orbiting with that moon. However, images taken at different times and longitudes also reveal that the ringlet is eccentric, and its apsidal precession rate is not that expected for material close to Prometheus' orbit (semi-major axis of 139,380 km). Instead, the ringlet appears to be precessing at the same rate as the F-ring (mean radius around 140,200 km). The structure and dynamics of this ringlet therefore probably involve interactions with both Prometheus and the F ring.

  12. The origin of chaos in the dynamics of the Prometheus-Pandora System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Goldreich, P.

    2003-05-01

    In 2002, Rappaport and Goldreich demonstrated that the motions of Prometheus and Pandora are chaotic. The chaos arises from the gravitational interactions between the satellites. Sudden changes in mean motions occur every 6.2 years when the periapsis of Pandora's orbit is aligned and on the same side of Saturn with the apoapsis of Prometheus' orbit, and the gravitational interactions between the two bodies are greatly enhanced. We followed up this work by a search for the origin of the chaos. We found that the chaos is due to overlapping of the four resonances associated with the same 121:118 ratio of mean motions and the four possible combinations of periapsis longitudes of Prometheus and Pandora. Mean motion of Prometheus and Pandora wander chaotically in zones of width 1.8 and 3.1 degrees per year, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the whole system can be represented by a single degree of freedom model that captures the full chaotic dynamics. References: (1) Rappaport, N.J., and P. Goldreich 2002: The Chaotic Dynamics of Prometheus and Pandora, BAAS 34, 883. (2) Goldreich, P., and N. Rappaport 2003: Chaotic motions of Prometheus and Pandora, Icarus 162, 391-399. This research was supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics grant 344-30-53-02 and by NSF grant AST-0098301.

  13. NASA's Proposed Budget Sees Small Dip, Emphasizes Innovation and Autonomy in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2014-03-01

    NASA's proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2015, released on 4 March, includes new plans to send a probe to Jupiter's icy moon Europa, a ramp up in funding for a mission to redirect an asteroid into near-Earth orbit, funds to extend the life of the International Space Station (ISS) by at least a decade, and plans to return to the United States the capability to launch astronauts into space, among other highlights.

  14. The proposal entry processor: Telescience applications for Hubble Space Telescope science operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Robert; Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Lindenmayer, Kelly; Monger, Patricia; Vick, Shon; Lerner, Robin; Richon, Joel

    1988-01-01

    The Proposal Entry Processor (PEP) System supports the submission, entry, technical evaluation review, selection and implementation of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing proposals. The PEP system is described concentrating on features which illustrate principles of telescience as applied to the HST. These principles are applicable to other observatories, both space and ground based. The PEP proposal forms allow a scientist to specify scientific objectives without becoming needlessly involved in implementation details. The Remote Proposal Submission System (RPSS) allows proposers to submit proposals electronically via Telenet, SPAN, and other networks. The RPSS performs syntax and sematic checks on proposals. The PEP uses a fourth generation database system to store proposal information and to allow general queries and reports. The Transformation subsystem uses an expert system written in OPS5 to cast a scientific description of an observing program into parameters used by the planning and scheduling system. The TACOS system is a natural language database which supports the proposal selection process. Technical evaluations for resource usage and duplicate science are performed using rulebased systems.

  15. Space Station Freedom power - A reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, S. R.; Twombly, M.; Hoffman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) was performed using the unit reliability, availability, and maintainability (UNIRAM) analysis methodology. Orbital replacement units (ORUs) having the most significant impact on EPS availability measures were identified. Also, the sensitivity of the EPS to variations in ORU RAM data was evaluated for each ORU. Estimates were made of average EPS power output levels and availability of power to the core area of the space station. The results of assessments of the availability of EPS power and power to load distribution points in the space stations are given. Some highlights of continuing studies being performed to understand EPS availability considerations are presented.

  16. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  17. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an objective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  18. Proposal for a new radiation dose control system for future manned space flights.

    PubMed

    Semkova, J V; Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Koleva, R T; Baynov, P T; Tomov, B T; Botolier-Depois, J F; Nguen, V D; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Siegrist, M; Duvivier, E; Almarcha, B; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Makhmutov, V S

    1995-01-01

    Radiation risk on a future long-duration manned space mission appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. Since 1988 different active dosimetric investigations has been performed on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer LIULIN and French tissue-equivalent proportional counters CIRCE and NAUSICAA. A joint French-Bulgarian-Russian dosimetry experiment and the dosimetry-radiometry system RADIUS-MD have been developed for the future MARS-96 mission. On the base of the results and experience of these investigations a conception for a new radiation dose control system for the future orbital stations, lunar bases and interplanetary space ships is proposed. The proposed system which consists of different instruments will allow personal radiation control for crew members, radiation monitoring inside and outside each habitat, analysis and forecasting of the situation and will suggest procedures to minimize the radiation risk.

  19. Proposal Auto-Categorizer and Manager for Time Allocation Review at Space Telescope Science Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Sophia; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Lagerstrom, Jill; Weissman, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute annually receives more than one thousand formal proposals for Hubble Space Telescope time, exceeding the available time with the observatory by a factor of over four. With JWST, the proposal pressure will only increase, straining our ability to provide rigorous peer review of each proposal's scientific merit. Significant hurdles in this process include the proper categorization of proposals, to ensure Time Allocation Committees (TACs) have the required and desired expertise to fairly and appropriately judge each proposal, and the selection of reviewers themselves, to establish diverse and well-qualified TACs. The Panel Auto-Categorizer and Manager (PACMan; a naive Bayesian classifier) was developed to automatically sort new proposals into their appropriate science categories and, similarly, to appoint panel reviewers with the best qualifications to serve on the corresponding TACs. We will provide an overview of PACMan and present the results of its testing on five previous cycles of proposals. PACMan will be implemented in upcoming cycles to support and eventually replace the process for constructing the time allocation reviews.

  20. Extracorporeal liver support therapy with Prometheus in patients with liver failure in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Michael; Rademacher, Sibylle; Petrasch, Kathrin; Jörres, Achim

    2009-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF) are associated with a high mortality. In these patients an accumulation of both water-soluble and water-insoluble, protein-bound, metabolic waste products occurs. Conventional extracorporeal blood purification techniques based on diffusion and/or convection such as hemodialysis or hemofiltration may only eliminate small molecular weight, water-soluble compounds. In recent years, fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) with the Prometheus system has been introduced for extracorporeal liver support therapy. To date, however, only limited data is available regarding the effect of this treatment on mortality and outcome of patients with advanced liver disease. Here we report on our experience with 23 patients with severe liver failure who were treated with Prometheus in our medical intensive care unit. Fourteen patients had AoCLF, and nine patients experienced ALF. The median bilirubin level at the start of Prometheus therapy was 30.5 mg/dL and the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 26. During 40 individual treatment sessions lasting 5-6 h, Prometheus therapy reduced serum bilirubin levels from 23.7 mg/dL to 15.0 mg/dL (median values) (P < 0.001), and the overall survival was 26%. ALF patients had a better survival compared to AoCLF patients (44% vs. 22%; P = 0.022). Apart from one patient who developed hemodynamic instability during a treatment session, Prometheus therapy was well tolerated without relevant side-effects. In conclusion, extracorporeal liver support therapy with Prometheus is a novel and safe treatment option in patients with severe liver failure. In this series, patients with ALF showed a significantly better outcome with Prometheus therapy compared to AoCLF patients.

  1. Treatment of severe refractory pruritus with fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus).

    PubMed

    Rifai, Kinan; Hafer, Carsten; Rosenau, Jens; Athmann, Christoph; Haller, Hermann; Peter Manns, Michael; Fliser, Danilo

    2006-10-01

    Severe pruritus is a serious complication of cholestatic liver disease. Prometheus is a recently introduced extracorporeal liver support system with direct toxin adsorption of the patient's albumin fraction (FPSA; fractionated plasma separation and adsorption). Here we report on the effect of Prometheus therapy in patients with intractable cholestatic pruritus. Seven patients with different liver diseases and severe pruritus refractory to all medical treatment efforts for more than 4 weeks were treated with Prometheus (3-5 times, 18+/-3 h total). Pruritus intensity was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS; from 0 = no pruritus to 10 = unbearable pruritus), and VAS, serum bile acids and total bilirubin were evaluated directly before and after Prometheus treatment, as well as 4 weeks later. After Prometheus therapy, VAS values had dropped significantly from 9+/-1 to 3+/-3 (p<0.001). Likewise, serum bile acids decreased (from 248+/-192 to 101+/-85 micromol/l; p<0.03). All patients, with the exception of one with no initial bile acid elevation, reported a pronounced improvement in pruritus with Prometheus therapy, although in two anicteric patients the amelioration lasted only a few days. In the other four patients a distinct benefit was still observed 4 weeks after the treatment. Prometheus therapy significantly improved refractory pruritus in all patients with elevated bile acid levels, but in some patients the clinical benefit was of short duration. The clinical findings suggest that we have to better characterize those patients who might derive a long-lasting benefit from this invasive and expensive treatment.

  2. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  3. The Fresnel Diffractive Imager for UV astrophysics : proposed test mission in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, Laurent

    We propose to test in space a lightweight achromatic telescope based on diffraction: the Fresnel imager. Its main aperture is a Fresnel diffractive array : an opaque foil with specially shaped subapertures. This test is proposed at small scale : a 15 cm aperture prototype. Once validated, it should be expandable to large dimensions (6 to 15 m diameters) at comparatively low cost and yield very high quality images in UV. This optical concept works from mid-IR down to 100 nm in UV, and its performance are most competitive in UV. It has already been validated with a ground based prototype: in the visible on the sky, and in the UV on artificial targets. To further increase the TRL we propose this mission: a small prototype placed on the International Space Station for accessing UV sky sources and assessing its imaging performances. Passing this test would improve the chances of success for a proposal featuring a large Fresnel imager reaching high angular resolutions images (e.g. 5 milliseconds of arc at Lyman alpha), associated with very high contrast capabilities. A UV Fresnel imager in space would come after WSO-UV, and allow deeper studies on the astrophysical objects found interesting. This new class of optics would also open the way to many new science cases.

  4. The PROMETHEUS bundled payment experiment: slow start shows problems in implementing new payment models.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Peter S; Ridgely, M Susan; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2011-11-01

    Fee-for-service payment is blamed for many of the problems observed in the US health care system. One of the leading alternative payment models proposed in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 is bundled payment, which provides payment for all of the care a patient needs over the course of a defined clinical episode, instead of paying for each discrete service. We evaluated the initial "road test" of PROMETHEUS Payment, one of several bundled payment pilot projects. The project has faced substantial implementation challenges, and none of the three pilot sites had executed contracts or made bundled payments as of May 2011. The pilots have taken longer to set up than expected, primarily because of the complexity of the payment model and the fact that it builds on the existing fee-for-service payment system and other complexities of health care. Participants continue to see promise and value in the bundled payment model, but the pilot results suggest that the desired benefits of this and other payment reforms may take time and considerable effort to materialize.

  5. Generation of modules for control communication circuits: A design study used in the framework of the safe vehicle PROMETHEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouni, Imad

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of communication protocols on silicon integrated circuits for access control is considered. The field of application is the European PROMETHEUS (Program for European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety) project. The design of communication circuits for network access control is discussed. The control type local network and the related protocols are analyzed. Market available communication controllers are presented. The functions and the architecture of network control systems are described and the interfaces with the host system are considered. A method based on the generation of modules for communication circuit's design is proposed. Examples of circuits generated for vehicle application networks are given. The feasibility of obstacle detection distributed system is investigated.

  6. EXPOSE, an astrobiological exposure facility on the international space station - from proposal to flight.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Schott, Jobst-Ulrich; Panitz, Corinna; L'Afflitto, Andrea; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Willnecker, Reiner; Baglioni, Pietro; Hatton, Jason; Dettmann, Jan; Demets, René; Reitz, Günther

    2009-12-01

    Following an European Space Agency announcement of opportunity in 1996 for "Externally mounted payloads for 1st utilization phase" on the International Space Station (ISS), scientists working in the fields of astrobiology proposed experiments aiming at longterm exposure of a variety of chemical compounds and extremely resistant microorganisms to the hostile space environment. The ESA exposure facility EXPOSE was built and an operations' concept was prepared. The EXPOSE experiments were developed through an intensive pre-flight experiment verification test program. 12 years later, two sets of astrobiological experiments in two EXPOSE facilities have been successfully launched to the ISS for external exposure for up to 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E, now installed at the balcony of the European Columbus module, was launched in February 2008, while EXPOSE-R took off to the ISS in November 2008 and was installed on the external URM-D platform of the Russian Zvezda module in March 2009.

  7. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  8. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  9. Initial description of primate-specific cystine-knot Prometheus genes and differential gene expansions of D-dopachrome tautomerase genes

    PubMed Central

    Premzl, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and public genomic sequence data sets, the present work attempted to update and revise two gene data sets. The most comprehensive third party annotation gene data sets of eutherian adenohypophysis cystine-knot genes (128 complete coding sequences), and d-dopachrome tautomerases and macrophage migration inhibitory factor genes (30 complete coding sequences) were annotated. For example, the present study first described primate-specific cystine-knot Prometheus genes, as well as differential gene expansions of D-dopachrome tautomerase genes. Furthermore, new frameworks of future experiments of two eutherian gene data sets were proposed. PMID:25941635

  10. Initial description of primate-specific cystine-knot Prometheus genes and differential gene expansions of D-dopachrome tautomerase genes.

    PubMed

    Premzl, Marko

    2015-06-01

    Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and public genomic sequence data sets, the present work attempted to update and revise two gene data sets. The most comprehensive third party annotation gene data sets of eutherian adenohypophysis cystine-knot genes (128 complete coding sequences), and d-dopachrome tautomerases and macrophage migration inhibitory factor genes (30 complete coding sequences) were annotated. For example, the present study first described primate-specific cystine-knot Prometheus genes, as well as differential gene expansions of D-dopachrome tautomerase genes. Furthermore, new frameworks of future experiments of two eutherian gene data sets were proposed.

  11. Prometheus: from legend to the real liver support therapy.

    PubMed

    Rifai, K; Tetta, C; Ronco, C

    2007-10-01

    A large number of patients develop liver disease that may evolve into progressive chronic failure. Artificial liver support systems (e.g., MARS and Prometheus) are considered in the framework of the steady increase in the number of patients who could possibly benefit from these blood purification devices. Albumin dialysis and adsorption are now two integrated concepts. The present know-how enabling us to appropriately modify several intrinsic characteristics of the adsorbents--e.g., their chemical nature, the particle and pore size distribution, as well as a larger surface offered to adsorption--has helped in better fine-tuning liver support systems to improve adsorption kinetics and flow characteristics specifically for the intended clinical application. These properties together with an improved biocompatibility have made possible the development of adsorptive techniques for which clearances and total removal rates of target compound would be unthinkable with conventional hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Several adsorptive techniques are already available commercially for the treatment of sepsis and septic shock and of acute liver failure, but controlled studies with clinical end points are still lacking.

  12. "Active" and "Passive" Lava Resurfacing Processes on Io: A Comparative Study of Loki Patera and Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Matson, D. L.; Leone, G.; Wilson, L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data and ground based data of volcanism at Prometheus and Loki Patera on Io reveal very different mechanisms of lava emplacement at these two volcanoes. Data analyses show that the periodic nature of Loki Patera s volcanism from 1990 to 2001 is strong evidence that Loki s resurfacing over this period resulted from the foundering of a crust on a lava lake. This process is designated passive , as there is no reliance on sub-surface processes: the foundering of the crust is inevitable. Prometheus, on the other hand, displays an episodicity in its activity which we designate active . Like Kilauea, a close analog, Prometheus s effusive volcanism is dominated by pulses of magma through the nearsurface plumbing system. Each system affords views of lava resurfacing processes through modelling.

  13. Proposed U.S. Space Weather Budget for Fiscal Year 2011 Would Fund Key Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    The proposed U.S. federal budget for space weather research for fiscal year (FY) 2011 would provide funding for key space weather programs within several U.S. agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Air Force. Funding for the programs comes ahead of the upcoming solar maximum, a period of the solar cycle with heightened solar activity, projected for 2013. Several officials indicated that while funding is not tied to a particular solar maximum or minimum, available assets could help with studying and preparing for the solar maximum. The proposed FY 2011 budget for the Heliophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate is $641.9 million, compared with the FY 2010 enacted budget of $627.4 million. Within the proposed budget is $166.9 million for heliophysics research, down slightly from $173 million for FY 2010. The proposed budget would include $31.7 million for heliophysics research and analysis (compared with $31 million for FY 2010); $66.7 million for “other missions and data analysis,” including Cluster II, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission; and $48.9 million for sounding rockets.

  14. UVIS ring occultations show F ring feature location and optical depth correlated with Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Esposito, L. W.; Albers, N.

    2010-05-01

    We find 24 statistically significant features in the F ring occultations using the High Speed Photometer (HSP) channel of the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). These features are likely transient clumps of material embedded in the ring, each of which attenuates stellar signal during an occultation because the ring material is more densely packed at that location. In fact, two of these features are opaque, indicating they may be solid moonlets. Two trends are evident in the azimuthal location of these 24 F ring features with respect to that of Prometheus. First, the orbital locations of these features are mostly opposite Prometheus, as 11 of the 24 occupy the orbital region separated from Prometheus by 180° ± 20°. Second, average feature optical depth is maximum near the antipode of Prometheus in orbit. Our hypothesis is that these results show aggregation and disaggregation of clumps after Prometheus passes by. As Prometheus passes interior to the F ring, it encounters material once every synodic period, 68 days. Optical depth indicates density of ring material along the line of sight, so as material clumps together, we expect to see higher optical depths. Thus we infer that the encounter stimulates clumping of material that reaches a maximum 180° downstream. This may reinforce similar evidence that Ring-Moon interaction stimulates clumping in the F ring region from Cassini imaging (Beurle, et al., 2010) and at the B ring edge (Esposito, et al., 2010). Esposito, et al. (2010) suggest that the combined mass and velocity evolution of the ring system resembles a predator/prey model. This research was supported by the Cassini Project.

  15. The Pulse of the Volcano: Discovery of Episodic Activity at Prometheus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of thermal output from a volcano yields valuable clues to the processes taking place at and beneath the surface. Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data show that the ionian volcanoes Prometheus and Amirani have significant thermal emission in excess of nonvolcanic background emission in every geometrically appropriate NIMS observation. The 5 micron brightness of these volcanoes shows considerable variation from orbit to orbit. Prometheus in particular exhibits an episodicity that yields valuable constraints to the mechanisms of magma supply and eruption. This work is part of an on-going study to chart and quantify the thermal emission of Io's volcanoes, determine mass eruption rates, and note eruption style.

  16. The Pulse of the Volcano: Discovery of Episodic Activity at Prometheus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of thermal output from a volcano yields valuable clues to the processes taking place at and beneath the surface. Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data show that the ionian volcanoes Prometheus and Amirani have significant thermal emission in excess of nonvolcanic background emission in every geometrically appropriate NIMS observation. The 5 micron brightness of these volcanoes shows considerable variation from orbit to orbit. Prometheus in particular exhibits an episodicity that yields valuable constraints to the mechanisms of magma supply and eruption. This work is part of an on-going study to chart and quantify the thermal emission of Io's volcanoes, determine mass eruption rates, and note eruption style.

  17. Space Weathering: A Proposed Laboratory Approach to Explaining the Sulfur Depletion on Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, M. A.; Kracher, A.; Sears, D. W. G.; Cassidy, W.; Hapke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Space weathering is the cumulative effect of physical and chemical changes that occur to substances exposed on the exterior of body void of an atmosphere [1], in this case the regolith on asteroid Eros. It is only recently that the scientific community has accepted the theory first developed in the mid- 1970s by Hapke and his colleagues of how space weathering occurs. The theory [1] asserts that optical and magnetic effects, first studied on moon rocks and lunar regolith, are caused by submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe), smaller than the wavelength of light in vapor deposit coatings, on regolith grains, and in agglutinates. This vapor is generated by solar wind and micrometeorite impacts and does not require additional heating, melting, or a reducing environment to produce space weathering. One of the major finds of the first detailed reconnaissance of an asteroid by the NEAR Shoemaker mission was that the surface of Eros was essentially chondritic yet showed major depletions in sulfur [2, 3]. Here we propose space weathering sputtering experiments that may contribute to the explanation of sulfur depletion on asteroid Eros.

  18. Research in human performance related to space: A compilation of three projects/proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasson, Scott M.

    1989-01-01

    Scientific projects were developed in order to maximize performance in space and assure physiological homeostatis upon return. Three projects that are related to this common goal were either initiated or formulated during the Faculty Fellowship Summer Program. The projects were entitled: (1) Effect of simulated weightlessness (bed rest) on muscle performance and morphology; (2) Effect of submaximal eccentric muscle contractions on muscle injury, soreness and performance: A grant proposal; and (3) Correlation between isolated joint dynamic muscle strength to end-effector strength of the push and pull extravehicular activity (EVA) ratchet maneuver. The purpose is to describe each of these studies in greater detail.

  19. Proposed parameters of specific rain attenuation prediction for Free Space Optics link operating in tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriza, A. Z.; Md Rafiqul, Islam; Wajdi, A. K.; Naji, A. W.

    2013-03-01

    As the demand for higher and unlimited bandwidth for communication channel is increased, Free Space Optics (FSO) is a good alternative solution. As it is protocol transparent, easy to install, cost effective and have capabilities like fiber optics, its demand rises very fast. Weather condition, however is the limiting factor for FSO link. In the temperate region the major blockage for FSO link feasibility is fog. In the tropical region high rainfall rate is expected to be the major drawback of FSO link availability. Rain attenuation is the most significant to influence FSO link availability in tropical region. As for now the available k and α values are developed using data from temperate regions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose new parameters for specific rain attenuation prediction model that represents tropical weather condition. The proposed values are derived from data measured in Malaysia and using methods recommended by ITU-R.

  20. Power Processing for a Conceptual Project Prometheus Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scina, Joseph E., Jr.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott S.; Hewitt, Frank; Miller, Leonard; Elbuluk, Malik; Pinero, Luis R. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA has proposed a bold mission to orbit and explore the moons of Jupiter. This mission, known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would significantly increase NASA s capability to explore deep space by making use of high power electric propulsion. One electric propulsion option under study for JIMO is an ion propulsion system. An early version of an ion propulsion system was successfully used on NASA's Deep Space 1 mission. One concept for an ion thruster system capable of meeting the current JIMO mission requirement would have individual thrusters that are 16 to 25 kW each and require voltages as high as 8.0 kV. The purpose of this work is to develop power processing schemes for delivering the high voltage power to the spacecraft ion thrusters based upon a three-phase AC distribution system. In addition, a proposed DC-DC converter topology is presented for an ion thruster ancillary supply based upon a DC distribution system. All specifications discussed in this paper are for design convenience and are speculative in nature.

  1. The Arts of the Practical: Variations on a Theme of Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garver, Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Presents teaching writing as one way of teaching the arts of the practical and discusses the relationship between practical and scientific reasoning. Joseph Schwab's career is read as a series of explorations into the consequences of the Prometheus myth for effective action today. (MJL)

  2. Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer Detects Active Lava Flows at Prometheus Volcano, Io

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-04

    The active volcano Prometheus on Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft during the close flyby of Io on Oct.10, 1999. The spectrometer can detect active volcanoes on Io by measuring their heat in the near-infrared wavelengths.

  3. A curious ringlet that shares Prometheus' orbit but precesses like the F ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, M. M.; Carter, B. J.

    2017-01-01

    Images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft of the region just beyond Saturn's main rings reveal a previously unreported narrow and dusty ringlet that has dynamical connections with both Saturn's small satellite Prometheus and the F ring. The radial position of this ringlet is observed to vary with time and longitude, indicating that it is eccentric with an eccentricity of 0.0012 and that its mean orbital radius varies between 139,300 km and 139,400 km. These mean radii are consistent with material trapped in a co-orbital 1:1 resonance with Prometheus. However, the apsidal precession rate of this ringlet is not that expected for material close to Prometheus' orbit (2.76°/day). Instead, the ringlet appears to be precessing at the same rate as the F ring (2.70°/day). This ringlet therefore appears to consist of material co-rotating with Prometheus whose apsidal precession rates have been modified by interactions with F-ring material. This ringlet may therefore provide new insights into how rings can maintain organized eccentric structures over a range of semi-major axes.

  4. Prometheus: Enhancing the Quality of Service of the Joint Battlespace Infosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Prometheus project that focused on (1) assessing the challenges of applying existing SOA methods , platforms, and tools to develop SoS architectures for...48 Figure 29: Design and Quality Assurance Tools ...........................................................................49...Require Innovations in Both Platforms and Tools ................59 iv Executive Summary This final report provides technical details concerning the

  5. The Arts of the Practical: Variations on a Theme of Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garver, Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Presents teaching writing as one way of teaching the arts of the practical and discusses the relationship between practical and scientific reasoning. Joseph Schwab's career is read as a series of explorations into the consequences of the Prometheus myth for effective action today. (MJL)

  6. Mars and Prometheus: our clinical experience in acute chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Faenza, S; Baraldi, O; Bernardi, M; Bolondi, L; Coli, L; Cucchetti, A; Donati, G; Gozzetti, F; Lauro, A; Mancini, E; Pinna, A D; Piscaglia, F; Rasciti, L; Ravaioli, M; Ruggeri, G; Santoro, A; Stefoni, S

    2008-05-01

    In our clinical context, there are two groups that practice blood purification treatments on acute or chronic liver failure (AoCLF) patients: one group used MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system) and the other Prometheus. The MARS group used the lack of response to standard medical treatment after 72 hours of observation as the access criterion. The Prometheus group used the access criteria of the multicenter Helios protocol for patients in AoCLF, as well as those with primary nonfunction (PNF) and secondary liver insufficiency. Both groups performed treatment sessions of at least 6 hours, which were repeated at least every 24 to 36 hours. The 56 treated AoCLF patients underwent 278 treatment sessions; 41 out of 191 procedures with MARS and 16 out of 87 procedures with prometheus, which was also applied in two cases in PNF and four in secondary liver insufficiency. The results showed that both systems accomplished a good purification efficiency and that application to patients enabled reinstatement on the transplant list and grafts in 70% of the cases with either method. Treatment led to recovery in dysfunction among patients not destined for transplantation, achieved with a 48.5% 3-month survival in the MARS group and 33.5% in the Prometheus groups. The treatment results were inversely proportional to the MELD at the time of entry; The treatment appeared to be pointless. Among PNF and secondary liver insufficiency cases.

  7. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  8. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-Space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50kWe to one half of the ion thrusters and science modules but is capable of supplying the total power re3quirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  9. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-02-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft, which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz) and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels, and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50 kWe to one-half of the ion thrusters and science modules, but is capable of supplying the total power requirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  10. Review of Helium and Xenon Pure Component and Mixture Transport Properties and Recommendation of Estimating Approach for Project Prometheus (Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, Melissa A.; Vargo, David D.

    2007-01-30

    The selected configuration for the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant was a direct coupling of Brayton energy conversion loop(s) to a single reactor heat source through the gas coolant/working fluid. A mixture of helium (He) and xenon (Xe) gas was assumed as the coolant/working fluid. Helium has superior thermal conductivity while xenon is added to increase the gas atomic weight to benefit turbomachinery design. Both elements have the advantage of being non-reactive. HeXe transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity) were needed to calculate pressure drops and heat transfer rates. HeXe mixture data are limited, necessitating the use of semi-empirical correlations to calculate mixture properties. Several approaches are available. Pure component properties are generally required in the mixture calculations. While analytical methods are available to estimate pure component properties, adequate helium and xenon pure component data are available. This paper compares the sources of pure component data and the approaches to calculate mixture properties. Calculated mixture properties are compared to the limited mixture data and approaches are recommended to calculate both pure component and mixture properties. Given the limited quantity of HeXe mixture data (all at one atmosphere), additional testing may have been required for Project Prometheus to augment the existing data and confirm the selection of mixture property calculation methods.

  11. Review of Helium and Xenon Pure Component and Mixture Transport Properties and Recommendation of Estimating Approach for Project Prometheus (Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haire, Melissa A.; Vargo, David D.

    2007-01-01

    The selected configuration for the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant was a direct coupling of Brayton energy conversion loop(s) to a single reactor heat source through the gas coolant/working fluid. A mixture of helium (He) and xenon (Xe) gas was assumed as the coolant/working fluid. Helium has superior thermal conductivity while xenon is added to increase the gas atomic weight to benefit turbomachinery design. Both elements have the advantage of being non-reactive. HeXe transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity) were needed to calculate pressure drops and heat transfer rates. HeXe mixture data are limited, necessitating the use of semi-empirical correlations to calculate mixture properties. Several approaches are available. Pure component properties are generally required in the mixture calculations. While analytical methods are available to estimate pure component properties, adequate helium and xenon pure component data are available. This paper compares the sources of pure component data and the approaches to calculate mixture properties. Calculated mixture properties are compared to the limited mixture data and approaches are recommended to calculate both pure component and mixture properties. Given the limited quantity of HeXe mixture data (all at one atmosphere), additional testing may have been required for Project Prometheus to augment the existing data and confirm the selection of mixture property calculation methods.

  12. A proposal for the integration of behavioural research into International Space Station operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, David M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes specific approaches for the conduct of psychological research on the International Space Station (ISS), and in the training programs supporting ISS. Justification for such research is presented, including improved safety and efficiency, the furthering of scientific knowledge, and the establishment of firm recommendations for the selection, training and support of future long duration crews on a mission to Mars. Data collection techniques and research methodologies are reviewed, including behavioural observations, surveys and interviews, and incident reporting systems. The specific uses of these data are discussed, including training refinement, validation of crew selection criteria, and design of future missions. The essential requirement that astronauts be partners in such research is also discussed, along with an exploration of the need for absolute confidentiality of psychological data and the requirement that information collected must not be used to impair astronaut careers or flight assignments. .

  13. On-orbit free molecular flow aerodynamic characteristics of a proposal space operations center configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, P. O.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed configuration for a Space Operations Center is presented in its eight stages of buildup. The on orbit aerodynamic force and moment characteristics were calculated for each stage based upon free molecular flow theory. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics was accomplished through the use of an orbital aerodynamic computer program, and the computation method is described with respect to the free molecular theory used. The aerodynamic characteristics are presented in tabulated form for each buildup stage at angles of attack from 0 to 360 degrees and roll angles from -60 to +60 degrees. The reference altitude is 490 kilometers, however, the data should be applicable for altitudes below 490 kilometers down to approximately 185 kilometers.

  14. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  15. Enhanced methods for determining operational capabilities and support costs of proposed space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the work accomplished during the first two years of research to provide support to NASA in predicting operational and support parameters and costs of proposed space systems. The first year's research developed a methodology for deriving reliability and maintainability (R & M) parameters based upon the use of regression analysis to establish empirical relationships between performance and design specifications and corresponding mean times of failure and repair. The second year focused on enhancements to the methodology, increased scope of the model, and software improvements. This follow-on effort expands the prediction of R & M parameters and their effect on the operations and support of space transportation vehicles to include other system components such as booster rockets and external fuel tanks. It also increases the scope of the methodology and the capabilities of the model as implemented by the software. The focus is on the failure and repair of major subsystems and their impact on vehicle reliability, turn times, maintenance manpower, and repairable spares requirements. The report documents the data utilized in this study, outlines the general methodology for estimating and relating R&M parameters, presents the analyses and results of application to the initial data base, and describes the implementation of the methodology through the use of a computer model. The report concludes with a discussion on validation and a summary of the research findings and results.

  16. A proposed change to the NASA strategy for servicing space assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George C.

    1989-01-01

    Given the limitations of the present Shuttle manifest, it is necessary for NASA to consider revision of its previous strategy for servicing satellites. This is particularly important in a period of tight budgets, when space assets will be difficult to replace. Therefore on-orbit assets take on additional value and keeping these assets operational will take on added importance. The key to maintaining these assets will be the long term strategy of developing a remote servicing capability which is space based and has a minimum reliance on the Shuttle. Such a strategy will require that the users of this servicing system design serviceable spacecraft at a high level and that these assets be located in or be capable of reaching orbits that are accessible to or compatible with the proposed servicing infrastructure. The infrastructure required to support this type of remote servicing architecture and the development of the necessary systems, tools, and procedures required to support a remote servicing architecture of this type are addressed.

  17. Proposed upgrade of the Deep Space Network research and development station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joel G.

    1987-01-01

    Continued exploration of the solar system will require continued evolution of capabilities to support deep space communication and navigation. That evolution will rely, as it has in the past, on the development, demonstration, and field testing of communication and navigation technologies. The existing Deep Space Network (DSN) research and development station, DSS 13, at the Venus site, Goldstone, California was instrumental in those prior developments. However, the present antenna is no longer able to provide the necessary support for technology. The 26 meter antenna has good performance at S-band, fair performance at X-band, but is unusable at the anticipated Ka-band. It is not suitable for conversion to beam waveguides, and is not usable as a test bed for demonstrating high efficiency because of structural pliancy. Additionally, its size and age are increasingly a liability in demonstrations. A 34 meter beam waveguide version of the existing DSN high efficiency (HEF) antennas was proposed for FY-88 Construction of Facilities budget. The antenna is to be built at the Venus site, adjacent to the old antenna, and serve as the DSN research and development antenna through the end of the century.

  18. The proposed EROSpace institute, a national center operated by space grant universities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Paul L.; Swiden, LaDell R.; Waltz, Frederick A.

    1993-01-01

    The "EROSpace Institute" is a proposed visiting scientist program in associated with the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC). The Institute would be operated by a consortium of universities, possible drawn from NASA's Space Grant College and Fellowship Program consortia and the group of 17 capability-enhancement consortia, or perhaps from consortia though out the nation with a topical interest in remote sensing. The National Center for Atmospheric Research or the Goddard Institute for Space Studies provide models for the structure of such an institute. The objectives of the Institute are to provide ready access to the body of data housed at the EDC and to increase the cadre of knowledgeable and trained scientists able to deal with the increasing volume of remote sensing data to become available from the Earth Observing System. The Institute would have a staff of about 100 scientists at any one time, about half permanent staff, and half visiting scientists. The latter would include graduate and undergraduate students, as well as faculty on temporary visits, summer fellowships, or sabbatical leaves. The Institute would provide office and computing facilities, as well as Internet linkages to the home institutions so that scientists could continue to participate in the program from their home base.

  19. A proposed change to the NASA strategy for servicing space assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George C.

    1989-01-01

    Given the limitations of the present Shuttle manifest, it is necessary for NASA to consider revision of its previous strategy for servicing satellites. This is particularly important in a period of tight budgets, when space assets will be difficult to replace. Therefore on-orbit assets take on additional value and keeping these assets operational will take on added importance. The key to maintaining these assets will be the long term strategy of developing a remote servicing capability which is space based and has a minimum reliance on the Shuttle. Such a strategy will require that the users of this servicing system design serviceable spacecraft at a high level and that these assets be located in or be capable of reaching orbits that are accessible to or compatible with the proposed servicing infrastructure. The infrastructure required to support this type of remote servicing architecture and the development of the necessary systems, tools, and procedures required to support a remote servicing architecture of this type are addressed.

  20. Proposal of a Simple Plant Growth System under Microgravity Conditions in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou

    2012-07-01

    Plant culture in space has multiple functions for human life support such as providing food and purifying air and water. It is also suggested that crew can relieve their stress by watching growing plants and by enjoying fresh vegetable food during staying for several months in the International Space Station. Under such circumstances, it is an utmost importance to develop plant culture equipment that can be handled more easily by crew. This study aims to develop an easy-to-use plant growth system with modification of commercial household plant culture equipment. The item is equipped with a peltier device for cooling air and collecting water vapor in the growth room. The study was conducted to examine the performance of the equipment under microgravity conditions that were created by the parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the temperature of the peltier device was affected under the microgravity conditions due to the absence of heat convection. When an air flow was made with an air circulation fan, the temperature of the peltier device was stable to gravity changes. The water recycling method for an automatic nutrient solution supply system in the closed plant culture equipment under microgravity is proposed. In addition, a high output white LEDs showing a good performance for growing leafy vegetables will be introduced.

  1. How number-space relationships are assessed before formal schooling: A taxonomy proposal

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Katarzyna; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Cress, Ulrike; Haman, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The last years of research on numerical development have provided evidence that spatial-numerical associations (SNA) can be formed independent of formal school training. However, most of these studies used various experimental paradigms that referred to slightly different aspects of number and space processing. This poses a question of whether all SNAs described in the developmental literature can be interpreted as a unitary construct, or whether they are rather examples of different, but related phenomena. Our review aims to provide a starting point for a systematic classification of SNA measures used from infancy to late preschool years, and their underlying representations. We propose to distinguish among four basic SNA categories: (i) cross-dimensional magnitude processing, (ii) associations between spatial and numerical intervals, (iii) associations between cardinalities and spatial directions, (iv) associations between ordinalities and spatial directions. Such systematization allows for identifying similarities and differences between processes and representations that underlie the described measures, and also for assessing the adequacy of using different SNA tasks at different developmental stages. PMID:24860532

  2. How number-space relationships are assessed before formal schooling: A taxonomy proposal.

    PubMed

    Patro, Katarzyna; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Cress, Ulrike; Haman, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The last years of research on numerical development have provided evidence that spatial-numerical associations (SNA) can be formed independent of formal school training. However, most of these studies used various experimental paradigms that referred to slightly different aspects of number and space processing. This poses a question of whether all SNAs described in the developmental literature can be interpreted as a unitary construct, or whether they are rather examples of different, but related phenomena. Our review aims to provide a starting point for a systematic classification of SNA measures used from infancy to late preschool years, and their underlying representations. We propose to distinguish among four basic SNA categories: (i) cross-dimensional magnitude processing, (ii) associations between spatial and numerical intervals, (iii) associations between cardinalities and spatial directions, (iv) associations between ordinalities and spatial directions. Such systematization allows for identifying similarities and differences between processes and representations that underlie the described measures, and also for assessing the adequacy of using different SNA tasks at different developmental stages.

  3. Gravitational Vortices And Clump Formation In Saturn's F ring During An Encounter With Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.

    2013-02-01

    Saturn rings are most beautiful and dynamic places in the solar system, consisting of ice particles in a constant battle between the gravitational forces of Saturn and its many moons. Fan, spiral, propellers, moonlets and streamer-channels observed by CASSINI in the F-ring have been attributed to encounters by Prometheus on the F ring, with investigations of optical thickness revealing large populations of transient moonlets. Taking into account gravitational interaction between particles and a multi-stranded F-ring structure we show that Prometheus' encounters create rotational flows, like atmospheric vortices and the self-gravity enhances the accelerated growth and size of moonlets. Vortex patches form caustics, which is a primary cause of the transient particle density clumps of 20 km width and 100 km length, and they are elongated to cover an area of 1600 km by 150 km, which may eventually combine into a vortex sheet.

  4. Description of the Prometheus Program Alternator/Thruster Integration Laboratory (ATIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Birchenough, Arthur G.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.

    2005-01-01

    The Project Prometheus Alternator Electric Thruster Integration Laboratory's (ATIL) primary two objectives are to obtain test data to influence the power conversion and electric propulsion systems design, and to assist in developing the primary power quality specifications prior to system Preliminary Design Review (PDR). ATIL is being developed in stages or configurations of increasing fidelity and complexity in order to support the various phases of the Prometheus program. ATIL provides a timely insight of the electrical interactions between a representative Permanent Magnet Generator, its associated control schemes, realistic electric system loads, and an operating electric propulsion thruster. The ATIL main elements are an electrically driven 100 kWe Alternator Test Unit (ATU), an alternator controller using parasitic loads, and a thruster Power Processing Unit (PPU) breadboard. This paper describes the ATIL components, its development approach, preliminary integration test results, and current status.

  5. Gravitational Vortices And Clump Formation In Saturn's F ring During An Encounter With Prometheus

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.

    2013-01-01

    Saturn rings are most beautiful and dynamic places in the solar system, consisting of ice particles in a constant battle between the gravitational forces of Saturn and its many moons. Fan, spiral, propellers, moonlets and streamer-channels observed by CASSINI in the F-ring have been attributed to encounters by Prometheus on the F ring, with investigations of optical thickness revealing large populations of transient moonlets. Taking into account gravitational interaction between particles and a multi-stranded F-ring structure we show that Prometheus' encounters create rotational flows, like atmospheric vortices and the self-gravity enhances the accelerated growth and size of moonlets. Vortex patches form caustics, which is a primary cause of the transient particle density clumps of 20 km width and 100 km length, and they are elongated to cover an area of 1600 km by 150 km, which may eventually combine into a vortex sheet. PMID:23429480

  6. Gravitational vortices and clump formation in Saturn's F ring during an encounter with Prometheus.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Phil J; Kusmartsev, Feodor V

    2013-01-01

    Saturn rings are most beautiful and dynamic places in the solar system, consisting of ice particles in a constant battle between the gravitational forces of Saturn and its many moons. Fan, spiral, propellers, moonlets and streamer-channels observed by CASSINI in the F-ring have been attributed to encounters by Prometheus on the F ring, with investigations of optical thickness revealing large populations of transient moonlets. Taking into account gravitational interaction between particles and a multi-stranded F-ring structure we show that Prometheus' encounters create rotational flows, like atmospheric vortices and the self-gravity enhances the accelerated growth and size of moonlets. Vortex patches form caustics, which is a primary cause of the transient particle density clumps of 20 km width and 100 km length, and they are elongated to cover an area of 1600 km by 150 km, which may eventually combine into a vortex sheet.

  7. Perturbations to Saturn's F-ring strands at their closest approach to Prometheus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giuliatti, Winter S.M.; Murray, C.D.; Gordon, M.

    2000-01-01

    The strange morphology of the F ring of Saturn is thought to be caused by the perturbing effects of two close satellites, Prometheus and Pandora. The F ring and the satellites also experience periodic close encounters as a result of differential precession arising from Saturn's oblateness. Using the orbits of the F-ring strands derived by Murray et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 304-316) the behaviour of the ring particles at their closest approach to Prometheus is analysed using numerical simulations. The results show that a gap and a wave are formed in the ring at each encounter with the satellite. However, the gap is expected to have a short lifetime due to keplerian shear. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Orbits of Prometheus, Pandora and Atlas in 1980 and 1981.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C. D.; Evans, M. W.; Porco, C. C.; Showalter, M. R.

    2000-10-01

    HST and ground-based observations of the F ring region of Saturn have shown that the satellite Prometheus lags ~19o behind its predicted longitude based on the published orbit derived from Voyager images by Synnott et al. ([1983] Icarus 53, 156--158). Observations of Pandora appeared to show it at its predicted location; there have been no confirmed detections of Atlas since 1981. The anomalous position of Prometheus and the suggestion that its orbit can change have led us to carry out a re-examination of the original Voyager data for all three satellites. We have identified 57 Voyager 1 and 66 Voyager 2 images of Prometheus suitable for orbit determination and calculated the orbital elements. We obtain mean motions of 587.3010 +/- 0.0028od-1 and 587.2927 +/- 0.0011od-1 at the Voyager 1 and 2 epochs respectively. This strongly suggests that Prometheus' orbit changed in the nine months between the two encounters. Combining the data we obtain a mean motion of 587.28933 +/- 0.00008od-1. This compares favourably with the value of 587.2890+/-0.0005od-1 quoted by Synnott et al. (1983) but differs significantly from the HST value of 587.287751+/-0.000045od-1 obtained by French et al. ([1998] B.A.A.S. 30, 1141). We also find evidence for (i) an eccentricity lower than the published value of 0.0024 and (ii) an inclination of 0.027+/-0.006o. Using 87 images of Pandora and 23 images of Atlas our preliminary results are consistent with previously published orbits provided the effect of the 3:2 near-resonance between Pandora and Mimas (Dones et al. [1999] B.A.A.S. 31, 1228) is not included. In neither case did we find a significant difference in the orbits between the Voyager encounters.

  9. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein, or the modern Prometheus: a psychological study of unrepaired shame.

    PubMed

    Severino, Sally K; Morrison, Nancy K

    2013-01-01

    Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's modern Prometheus shows us the eternal punishment of unrepaired shame--eternal entrapment within the shame triangle of victim, perpetrator and rescuer. This paper describes how Shelley's insight--that lack of love creates a monster living in shame--is being confirmed by neuroscience and how this is exemplified in two characters--the creature and Victor Frankenstein. Additionally, it delineates how pastoral counselors can help those suffering from unrepaired shame

  10. [Use of fractional plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus technology) in the treatment of acute liver failure].

    PubMed

    Denisova, E N; Sharipova, V R; Purlo, N V; Sukhanova, G A; Biriukova, L S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of treating 8 patients with acute liver failure, by using the separation and adsorption of fractional plasma (Prometheus technology). Twenty-five procedures lasting 5-6 hours were performed. Anticoagulation with heparin was made under guidance of coagulogram parameters. The results of testing blood parameters before and after a procedure and hemodynamic parameters are given. The investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness and safety of the procedure.

  11. Reducing Potentially Avoidable Complications in Patients with Chronic Diseases: The Prometheus Payment Approach

    PubMed Central

    de Brantes, Francois; Rastogi, Amita; Painter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective (or Study Question) To determine whether a new payment model can reduce current incidence of potentially avoidable complications (PACs) in patients with a chronic illness. Data Sources/Study Setting A claims database of 3.5 million commercially insured members under age 65. Study Design We analyzed the database using the Prometheus Payment model's analytical software for six chronic conditions to quantify total costs, proportion spent on PACs, and their variability across the United States. We conducted a literature review to determine the feasibility of reducing PACs. We estimated the financial impact on a prototypical practice if that practice received payments based on the Prometheus Payment model. Principal Findings We find that (1) PACs consume an average of 28.6 percent of costs for the six chronic conditions studied and vary significantly; (2) reducing PACs to the second decile level would save U.S.$116.7 million in this population; (3) current literature suggests that practices in certain settings could decrease PACs; and (4) using the Prometheus model could create a large potential incentive for a prototypical practice to reduce PACs. Conclusions By extrapolating these findings we conclude that costs might be reduced through payment reform efforts. A full extrapolation of these results, while speculative, suggests that total costs associated to the six chronic conditions studied could decrease by 3.8 percent. PMID:20662949

  12. Color Photometry of the Small Saturnian Satellites: Global and Regional Variations on Prometheus and Calypso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sarah J.; Helfenstein, P.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate color variations of Prometheus and Calypso using recent high resolution calibrated Cassini Imaging Subsystem (ISS) images with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) broadband filters UV3 (338 nm) , GRN (568 nm), and IR3 (930 nm) in comparison to those of Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, and Telesto examined previously (Morrison et al., 2009, DPS 45.04). The average UV3/IR3 ratio values are as follows: Prometheus- 0.47, Pandora- 0.53, Janus- 0.57, Epimetheus- 0.58, Telesto- 0.95, and Calypso- 0.77 with formal uncertainties < 0.01 due to noise. While both Prometheus and Calypso continue the trend of increasing blueness toward the E-ring, Calypso differs in color from Telesto with a lower UV3/IR3 ratio and a mean UV3/GRN ratio value of 0.7 compared to Telesto's mean UV3/GRN value of 0.9 despite both being Trojans of Tethys. Calypso's surface also exhibits wider color and albedo variations than on Telesto and distinct UV3-bright units undergoing downslope transport with UV3/IR3 ratio values of 0.05 greater than the mean. Calypso's mean global CLR (611 nm) albedo at normal incidence and 35° phase is 13% higher than Telesto's, but its albedo range is broader and overlaps Telesto's. The color differences between these two moons may reflect varying degrees of surface burial and contamination from ring particles.

  13. Planetary Science Enabled by High Power Ion Propulsion Systems from NASA's Prometheus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Prometheus program seeks to develop new generations of spacecraft nuclear-power and ion propulsion systems for applications to future planetary missions. The Science Definition Team for the first mission in the Prometheus series, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), has defined science objectives for in-situ orbital exploration of the icy Galilean moons (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto) and the Jovian magnetosphere along with remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and aurorae, the volcanic moon Io, and other elements of the Jovian system. Important to this forum is that JIMO power and propulsion systems will need to be designed to minimize magnetic, radio, neutral gas, and plasma backgrounds that might otherwise interfere with achievement of mission science objectives. Another potential Prometheus mission of high science interest would be an extended tour of primitive bodies in the solar system, including asteroids, Jupiter family comets, Centaurs, and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO). The final landed phase of this mission might include an active keplerian experiment for detectable (via downlink radio doppler shift) acceleration of a small kilometer-size Centaur or KBO object, likely the satellite of a larger object observable from Earth. This would have obvious application to testing of mitigation techniques for Earth impact hazards.

  14. Prometheus: Scalable and Accurate Emulation of Task-Based Applications on Many-Core Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Kestor, Gokcen; Gioiosa, Roberto; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Modeling the performance of non-deterministic parallel applications on future many-core systems requires the development of novel simulation and emulation techniques and tools. We present “Prometheus”, a fast, accurate and modular emulation framework for task-based applications. By raising the level of abstraction and focusing on runtime synchronization, Prometheus can accurately predict applications’ performance on very large many-core systems. We validate our emulation framework against two real platforms (AMD Interlagos and Intel MIC) and report error rates generally below 4%. We, then, evaluate Prometheus’ performance and scalability: our results show that Prometheus can emulate a task-based application on a system with 512K cores in 11.5 hours. We present two test cases that show how Prometheus can be used to study the performance and behavior of systems that present some of the characteristics expected from exascale supercomputer nodes, such as active power management and processors with a high number of cores but reduced cache per core.

  15. VUV emission spectroscopy combined with H- density measurements in the ion source Prometheus I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, S.; Laulainen, J.; Svarnas, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Bacal, M.; Béchu, S.

    2017-08-01

    "Prometheus I" is a volume H- negative ion source, driven by a network of dipolar electron cyclotron resonance (ECR; 2.45 GHz) modules. The vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectrum of low-temperature hydrogen plasmas may be related to molecular and atomic processes involved directly or indirectly in the production of negative ions. In this work, VUV spectroscopy has been performed in the above source, Prometheus I, both in the ECR zones and the bulk (far from ECR zones and surfaces) plasma. The acquired VUV spectra are correlated with the negative ion densities, as measured by means of laser photodetachment, and the possible mechanisms of negative ion production are considered. The well-established H- formation process of dissociative attachment to vibrationally excited molecules is evaluated, while an additional production path (i.e. neutral resonant ionization) is tested due to the recently attracted interest. The obtained results indicate that for the source Prometheus I, the dominant formation process is dissociative attachment.

  16. Reducing potentially avoidable complications in patients with chronic diseases: the Prometheus Payment approach.

    PubMed

    De Brantes, Francois; Rastogi, Amita; Painter, Michael

    2010-12-01

    OBJECTIVE (OR STUDY QUESTION): To determine whether a new payment model can reduce current incidence of potentially avoidable complications (PACs) in patients with a chronic illness. A claims database of 3.5 million commercially insured members under age 65. We analyzed the database using the Prometheus Payment model's analytical software for six chronic conditions to quantify total costs, proportion spent on PACs, and their variability across the United States. We conducted a literature review to determine the feasibility of reducing PACs. We estimated the financial impact on a prototypical practice if that practice received payments based on the Prometheus Payment model. We find that (1) PACs consume an average of 28.6 percent of costs for the six chronic conditions studied and vary significantly; (2) reducing PACs to the second decile level would save U.S.$116.7 million in this population; (3) current literature suggests that practices in certain settings could decrease PACs; and (4) using the Prometheus model could create a large potential incentive for a prototypical practice to reduce PACs. By extrapolating these findings we conclude that costs might be reduced through payment reform efforts. A full extrapolation of these results, while speculative, suggests that total costs associated to the six chronic conditions studied could decrease by 3.8 percent. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. The use Prometheus FPSA system in the treatment of acute liver failure: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Skwarek, A; Grodzicki, M; Nyckowski, P; Kotulski, M; Zieniewicz, K; Michalowicz, B; Patkowski, W; Grzelak, I; Paczkowska, A; Giercuszkiewicz, D; Sańko-Resmer, J; Paczek, L; Krawczyk, M

    2006-01-01

    The preliminary outcomes of patients with acute liver failure treated with the Prometheus Fractionated Plasma Separation and Absorption (FPSA) system are presented herein. The procedures were performed in 13 patients (4, intoxication by Amanita phalloides; 4, unknown reason; 3, acetaminophen intoxication; 1, Wilson disease, and 1, liver insufficiency after hemihepatectomy owing to metastases of colon adenocarcinoma). The patients were qualified for the procedure according to the King's College Hospital criteria. The patients' general status was assessed on basic of GCS, UNOS, and the 4-grade encephalopathy classifications. The procedures were performed with the Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care unit. The 29 procedures were of mean duration 6.5 hours. There were statistically significant reductions in total bilirubin, ammonia, and aminotransferase levels. In addition, the procedures corrected water, mineral, and carbohydrate disorders. One patient did not require liver transplantation. Seven patients received liver transplants: three patients with positive outcomes; two died due to septicemia within 30 days perioperatively, one died at 6 months after OLT owing to respiratory failure; and one, owing to hemorrhagic diathesis. Four patients did not receive a liver transplant because of lack of a organ, no consent for the surgery, or neoplastic disease with metastases. The Prometheus FPSA-System was an effective detoxication method for patients with acute liver failure. The system was useful as a symptomatic treatment before liver transplantation allowing a longer wait for a graft.

  18. FIREBall-2: Trailblazing observations of the space UV circumgalactic medium (Columbia University, Co-I Proposal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiminovich, David

    Columbia University is a Co-I institution in a collaborative research program with Caltech, the Lead Institution (PI: Christopher Martin). The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the circumgalactic medium of low redshift galaxies (0.3propose three additional years of funding to support the FIREBall-2 team in one additional flight in 2018 to fully utilize the upgraded spectrograph. This second flight, along with the funded 2016 flight, will conduct an initial blind CGM survey of dense fields at z 0.7, conduct a targeted search of circumquasar (CQM) media for selected targets, and conduct follow up on likely tar-gets selected via GALEX and a pilot survey conducted by our group. We will also conduct a statistical search for the faint IGM via statistical stacking of our data. The FIREBall-2 team includes two female graduate students in key roles (both of whom are finishing their PhDs in 2016) and is overseen by a female Postdoctoral scholar (supported by NSF AAPF

  19. Effect of extracorporeal liver support by MARS and Prometheus on serum cytokines in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Krisper, Peter; Aigner, Reingard; Haditsch, Bernd; Jung, Aleksandra; Lackner, Carolin; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines are believed to play an important role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Extracorporeal liver support systems may exert beneficial effects in ACLF via removal of cytokines. At present, two systems are commercially available, the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) and Fractionated Plasma Separation, Adsorption and Dialysis (Prometheus). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MARS and Prometheus treatments on serum cytokine levels and their clearances. Eight patients with ACLF underwent alternating treatments with either MARS or Prometheus in a randomized cross-over design. Thirty-four treatments (17 MARS, 17 Prometheus) were available for analysis. Serum cytokines were measured before and after each treatment, and cytokine clearance was calculated from paired arterial and venous samples and effective plasma flow one hour after the start of treatment. Baseline serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 were significantly elevated in patients with ACLF. Measurable plasma clearances were detected for all cytokines tested, but no significant changes in serum levels of any cytokine were found after treatments with MARS or Prometheus. In MARS treatments, IL-10 was cleared from plasma more efficiently than IL-6. Clearance of IL-10 was higher in Prometheus than in MARS treatments. Cytokines are cleared from plasma by both MARS and Prometheus, but neither system is able to change serum cytokine levels. This discrepancy is probably due to a high rate of cytokine production in patients with ACLF.

  20. Proposed noncryogenic, nondrag-free test of the equivalence principle in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Catastini, G.; Polacco, E.; Genta, G.; Brusa, E.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.; Cook, A. J.; Hough, J.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Polnarev, A.; Flury, W.; Barlier, F.; Marchal, C.

    1998-04-01

    Ever since Galileo scientists have known that all bodies fall with the same acceleration regardless of their mass and composition. Known as the Universality of Free Fall, this is the most direct experimental evidence of the Weak Equivalence Principle, a founding pillar of General Relativity according to which the gravitational (passive) mass mg and the inertial mass mi are always in the same positive ratio in all test bodies. A space experiment offers two main advantages: a signal about a factor of a thousand bigger than on Earth and the absence of weight. A new space mission named GALILEO GALILEI (GG) has been proposed (Nobili et al., 1995 [J. Astronautical Sciences, 43, 219]; GALILEO GALILEI (GG), PRE PHASE A REPORT, ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), September 1996) aimed at testing the weak Equivalence Principle (EP) to 1 part in 10 17 in a rapidly spinning (5 Hz) drag-free spacecraft at room temperature, the most recent ground experiments having reached the level of 10 -12 (Adelberger et al., 1990 [PhRvD, 42, 3267]; Su et al., 1994 [PhRvD, 50, 3614]). Here we present a nondrag-free version of GG which could reach a sensitivity of 1 part in 10 16. The main feature of GG is that, similarly to the most recent ground experiments, the expected (low frequency) signal is modulated at higher frequency by spinning the system, in this case by rotating the test bodies (in the shape of hollow cylinders) around their symmetry axes, the signal being in the perpendicular plane. They are mechanically suspended inside the spacecraft and have very low frequencies of natural oscillation (due to the weakness of the springs that can be used because of weightlessness) so as to allow self-centering of the axes; vibrational noise around the spin/signal frequency is attenuated by means of mechanical suspensions. The signal of an EP violation would appear at the spin frequency as a relative ( differential) displacement of the test masses perpendicularly to the spin axis, and be detected

  1. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; Mcdougal, Owen M.

    2017-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results. PMID:26537635

  2. Computational exploration of a protein receptor binding space with student proposed peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results.

  3. Buoyancy-Driven Fluid Flow Generated by Bacterial Metabolism and its Proposed Relationship to Increased Bacterial Growth in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Buoyancy-driven fluid flow generated by bacterial metabolism and its proposed relationship to increased bacterial growth in space Robert B. Brown1...47124, USA Abstract Previous investigations have reported that bacterial growth increases in space flight; however, the underlying physical...affects the lag phase duration and final cell concentration of suspended bacterial cultures in a predictable, non-linear manner, due to the resultant

  4. The Proposal Auto-Categorizer and Manager for Time Allocation Review at the Space Telescope Science Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Porter, Sophia; Lagerstrom, Jill; Weissman, Sarah; Reid, I. Neill; Garcia, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Proposal Auto-Categorizer and Manager (PACMan) tool was written to respond to concerns about subjective flaws and potential biases in some aspects of the proposal review process for time allocation for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to partially alleviate some of the anticipated additional workload from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) proposal review. PACMan is essentially a mixed-method Naive Bayesian spam filtering routine, with multiple pools representing scientific categories, that utilizes the Robinson method for combining token (or word) probabilities. PACMan was trained to make similar programmatic decisions in science category sorting, panelist selection, and proposal-to-panelists assignments to those made by individuals and committees in the Science Policies Group (SPG) at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Based on training from the previous cycle’s proposals, at an average of 87%, PACMan made the same science category assignments for proposals in Cycle 24 as the SPG. Tests for similar science categorizations, based on training using proposals from additional cycles, show that this accuracy can be further improved, to the > 95 % level. This tool will be used to augment or replace key functions in the Time Allocation Committee review processes in future HST and JWST cycles.

  5. New space research frequency band proposals in the 20- to 40.5-GHz range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Future space research communications systems may require spectra above 20 GHz. Frequency bands above 20 GHz are identified that are suitable for space research. The selection of the proper bands depends on consideration of interference with other radio services, adequate bandwidths, link performance, and technical requirements for practical implementation.

  6. A Proposal to Study the Scientific Uses of Solar Electric Propulsion for Space Physics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, William S.

    1999-01-01

    This effort was for the participation of Dr. William S. Kurth in the study of the application of spacecraft using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for a range of space physics missions. This effort included the participation of Dr. Kurth in the Tropix Science Definition Team but also included the generalization to various space physics and planetary missions, including specific Explorer mission studies.

  7. DART: Delta Advanced Reusable Transport. An alternate manned space system proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART) craft is being developed to add, multiple, rapid, and cost effective space access to the U.S. capability and to further the efforts towards a permanent space presence. The DART craft provides an augmentative and an alternative system to the Shuttle. As a supplement launch vehicle, the DART adds low cost and easily accessible transport of crew and cargo to specific space destinations to the U.S. program. This adds significant opportunities for manned rated missions that do not require Shuttle capabilities. In its alternative role, the DART can provide emergency space access and satellite repair, the continuation of scientific research, and the furthering of U.S. manned efforts in the event of Shuttle incapabilities. In addition, the DART is being designed for Space Station Freedom compatibility, including its use as a 'lifeboat' emergency reentry craft for Freedom astronauts, as well as the transport of crew and cargo for station resupply.

  8. A detailed numerical analysis of asymmetrical density distribution in Saturn's F ring during an encounter with Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's rings, reminiscent of an early Solar system present a unique opportunity to investigate experimentally some mechanisms thought to be responsible for planet and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary discs. Here, we extended the comparison of our numerical models of Prometheus encountering the F ring employing non-interacting and interacting particles. Higher resolution analysis revealed that the density increases known to exist at channel edges is more complex and localized than previously thought. Asymmetry between density increases on channel edges revealed that the channel edge facing way from Prometheus to be the most stable but with lowest maximum increases. However, on the channel edge facing Prometheus the interacting model showed large chaotic fluctuations in the maximum density of some clumps, much larger than those of the other channel. The likely cause of this asymmetry is a variance in localized turbulence introduced into the F ring by Prometheus. High-resolution velocity dispersion maps showed that there was a spatial link between the highest densities and the highest velocity dispersions in the interacting model. Thus, suggesting that the high velocity dispersion we see is the reason for the observed inhomogeneous distribution of fans (evidence of embedded moonlets) on some of the channel edges facing Prometheus.

  9. Concepts for connectivity and interoperability of world space data networks: INPE proposal to CCSDS/Panel 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamini, E. W.

    1983-05-01

    Concepts are presented for an architectural end-to-end reference model based on the identification of classes of applications and products to be offered by services required to exchange data in operational support of space data systems. An Internetwork Transfer Frame (ITF) structure and basic concepts of a protocol are proposed for operational interconnection of data networks. The upward compatibility of these concepts with the higher layers of a standard data interchange structure (SDIS) model is also considered, based on INPE proposal to CCSDS/PANEL 2. Implementation aspects of the proposed model are also presented with respect to INPE's network.

  10. Effect of extracorporeal liver support by MARS and Prometheus on serum cytokines in acute-on-chronic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Krisper, Peter; Aigner, Reingard; Haditsch, Bernd; Jung, Aleksandra; Lackner, Carolin; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Cytokines are believed to play an important role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Extracorporeal liver support systems may exert beneficial effects in ACLF via removal of cytokines. At present, two systems are commercially available, the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS™) and Fractionated Plasma Separation, Adsorption and Dialysis (Prometheus™). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MARS and Prometheus treatments on serum cytokine levels and their clearances. Methods Eight patients with ACLF underwent alternating treatments with either MARS or Prometheus in a randomized cross-over design. Thirty-four treatments (17 MARS, 17 Prometheus) were available for analysis. Serum cytokines were measured before and after each treatment, and cytokine clearance was calculated from paired arterial and venous samples and effective plasma flow one hour after the start of treatment. Results Baseline serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and soluble TNF-α receptor 1 were significantly elevated in patients with ACLF. Measurable plasma clearances were detected for all cytokines tested, but no significant changes in serum levels of any cytokine were found after treatments with MARS or Prometheus. In MARS treatments, IL-10 was cleared from plasma more efficiently than IL-6. Clearance of IL-10 was higher in Prometheus than in MARS treatments. Conclusion Cytokines are cleared from plasma by both MARS and Prometheus, but neither system is able to change serum cytokine levels. This discrepancy is probably due to a high rate of cytokine production in patients with ACLF. PMID:17156425

  11. Studies of Space Charge Effects in the Proposed CERN PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert; De Maria, Riccardo; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wienands, Ulrich; /SLAC

    2012-06-22

    A new proton synchrotron, the PS2, is under design study to replace the current proton synchrotron at CERN for the LHC upgrade. Nonlinear space charge effects could cause significant beam emittance growth and particle losses and limit the performance of the PS2. In this paper, we report on studies of the potential space-charge effects at the PS2 using three-dimensional self-consistent macroparticle tracking codes, IMPACT, MaryLie/IMPACT, and Synergia. We will present initial benchmark results among these codes. Effects of space-charge on the emittance growth, especially due to synchrotron coupling, aperture sizes, initial painted distribution, and RF ramping scheme will also be discussed.

  12. Shuttle flight experiment preliminary proposal: Demonstration of welding applications in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, William V.

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991 work was initiated at MSFC on an end-effector for 'Robotic Assembly of Welded Truss Structures in Space'. The case for welded joint assembly on orbit was discussed in the 1991 SFFP Final Report 'D'. Data drawn from Aerobrake studies (supported by the ISAAC program) allowed the more detailed investigations that accompany a design with relatively concrete goals. This principle guides current efforts to develop scenarios that further demonstrate the utility of welding for space construction and/or repair.

  13. TRICCS: A proposed teleoperator/robot integrated command and control system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Robotic systems will play an increasingly important role in space operations. An integrated command and control system based on the requirements of space-related applications and incorporating features necessary for the evolution of advanced goal-directed robotic systems is described. These features include: interaction with a world model or domain knowledge base, sensor feedback, multiple-arm capability and concurrent operations. The system makes maximum use of manual interaction at all levels for debug, monitoring, and operational reliability. It is shown that the robotic command and control system may most advantageously be implemented as packages and tasks in Ada.

  14. How can liver toxins be removed? Filtration and adsorption with the Prometheus system.

    PubMed

    Vienken, Joerg; Christmann, Horst

    2006-04-01

    The application of extracorporeal blood circuits in liver failure therapy has its roots in the two functions of the liver, first as a detoxifying and second as a synthetizing organ. In contrast to hydrophilic uremic toxins, most liver toxins are hydrophobic and bind preferentially to blood proteins. Consequently, the majority of these compounds cannot be removed by hemodialysis or similar dialytic procedures. Current systems use albumin as a transport vehicle for hydrophobic compounds across high flux membranes (e.g. albumin-dialysis, molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS)). In contrast to these devices, the Prometheus system (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) applies filtration across highly permeable membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of >300.000. These membranes facilitate a direct filtration of most of the toxin-bearing proteins. In a secondary circuit these toxins are then removed by adsorber beads assembled in specially designed cartridges. The protein-containing toxin-free solution returns to the primary circuit. Clinical testing of the Prometheus system's safety and efficacy parameters showed that cell counts and coagulation factors were not significantly affected. Total bilirubin-, bile acid- and plasma ammonia-levels were reduced in vivo by -21%, -43% and -40%, respectively. First successful therapeutic results have been obtained for patients treated for drug abuse and for patients waiting for transplantation. Thus, a combination of plasma fractionation with highly permeable membranes followed by a secondary circuit with adsorber cartridges proves to be the most effective method of removing toxic waste in liver failure. Further investigations will follow in order to extend the application of the Prometheus system to larger cohorts of patients.

  15. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective "in silico" method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The…

  16. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective "in silico" method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The…

  17. Study of hydrogen isotopes super permeation through vanadium membrane on 'Prometheus' setup

    SciTech Connect

    Musyaev, R. K.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Lebedev, B. S.; Busnyuk, A. O.; Notkin, M. E.; Samartsev, A. A.; Livshits, A. I.

    2008-07-15

    To develop the membrane pumping technology by means of superpermeable membranes at RFNC-VNIIEF in the 'Prometheus' setup, the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membranes were carried out. The experimental results on superpermeation of thermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes including tritium through a cylindrical vanadium membrane are presented. The possibility of effective pumping, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. The evaluation of membrane pumping rates and asymmetry degree of pure vanadium membrane was given. The work was performed under the ISTC-2854 project. (authors)

  18. Prometheus-Prochip: status of sensor technology applied to automotive collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteve, Daniel; Rolland, Paul-Alain; Simonne, Jean-Jacques; Vialaret, G.

    1995-05-01

    The implementation of an anticollision system on a car is presented. The vehicle is provided with two LIDAR systems integrated near the headlights, and a RADAR included in the calender, both used for active detection. Twelve infrared beacons have also been set up on the front part for telecommunication exchanges with surrounding vehicles or with infrastructure. An uncooled copolymer 32 X 32 FPA for passive detection has in addition been investigated for a further integration and is presented in this paper. This project is a part of the European PROMETHEUS-PROCHIP program which intends to make safer road traffic.

  19. Results of treatment of acute liver failure patients with use of the prometheus FPSA system.

    PubMed

    Grodzicki, M; Kotulski, M; Leonowicz, D; Zieniewicz, K; Krawczyk, M

    2009-10-01

    Herein we have presented the results of treatment of acute liver failure (ALF) patients with the use of the Prometheus FPSA dialysis system. To January 2009, we performed 278 FPSA procedures in 114 patients, including 52 experience and ALF. The patients who underwent the FPSA procedure consisted of 32 women and 20 men of overall mean age of 33 +/- 12 years. The causes of ALF were: Wilson's disease (n = 15), unknown origin ALF (n = 11), amanita phalloides intoxication (n = 7), paracetamol intoxication (n = 8), acute hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n = 7), liver insufficiency after parenchymal resection (n = 2) drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome (n = 1), rabdomyolysis (n = 1), or primary nonfunction (PNF) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) (n = 1). All procedures were performed using the Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care liver support system. The average number of treatments per patient was 2.41 and the average time for each FPSA treatment was 6.3 hours. The average heparin dose used during the procedure was 750 IU/h. After the whole treatment regimen, we observed significant improvements in the biochemical results. The average concentrations improved: serum ammonia (before 249.2 mug/dL versus after 109.7 mug/dL); serum bilirubin (before 21.53 mg/dL versus after 8.81 mg/dL), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST; before 2456.4 U/L versus after 1068.8 U/L); serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT; before 2958.2 U/L versus after 1595.8 U/L); serum urea (before 58.5 mg/dL versus after 21.1 mg/dL); serum creatinine (before 2.9 mg/dL versus after 1.7 mg/dL); and pH value (before 7.11 versus after 7.32). After Prometheus treatment OLT was performed in 33 patients. Among the 28 who survived (53.8%), 22 underwent OLT and 6 did not have OLT. Among the 24 patients who died (46.2%), 13 were before OLT and 11 after OLT. The Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care Liver support system was useful method of

  20. Evaluating the Science Performance of Proposed Space-based Gravitational-wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Ryan N.; Cornish, N. J.; Berti, E.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) was planned to inaugurate the field of space-based gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. Detailed assessment led to robust predictions of LISA's ability to measure the parameters of GW sources like massive black hole binaries (MBHBs). However, in 2011, budget realities ended the NASA-ESA partnership, effectively killing the original concept. In its place, a host of new concepts have been developed to try and replicate LISA's science at a lower cost. We show how well these concepts can measure parameters of MBHBs, including masses, spins, sky location, and luminosity distance. In order to obtain the most accurate results, we combine two different models of the waveform: (1) a precessing post-Newtonian inspiral with higher harmonics and (2) a phenomenological model of the merger-ringdown, calibrated to numerical relativity results.

  1. Sensitivity of a proposed space-based Cherenkov astrophysical-neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neronov, Andrii; Semikoz, Dmitri V.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Adams, James H.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies in the PeV to EeV range produce upgoing extensive air showers when they interact underground close enough to the surface of the Earth. We study the possibility for detection of such showers with a system of very wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, named CHANT (Cherenkov from astrophysical neutrinos telescope), pointing down to a strip below the Earth's horizon from space. We find that CHANT provides sufficient sensitivity for the study of the astrophysical neutrino flux in a wide energy range, from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. A space-based CHANT system can discover and study in detail the cosmogenic neutrino flux originating from interactions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium.

  2. Future Integrated Architecture (FIA): A Proposed Space Internetworking Architecture for Future Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    to share the information they need, when they need it, in a form they can understand and act on with confidence [JCS, 2005].” A specific definition of...architecture and primary node for all DSN networks. The Moon and Mars will act as critical nodes and will support Local Area Networks (LAN) with cross-links...communications satellite acting as a point of presence in space. In this example, the IEEE 802.16 standard dynamically connects the sister satellite

  3. Dynamics and Evolution of SO 2 Gas Condensation around Prometheus-like Volcanic Plumes on Io as Seen by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douté, Sylvain; Lopes, Rosaly; Kamp, Lucas W.; Carlson, Robert; Schmitt, Bernard; Galileo NIMS Team

    2002-08-01

    We analyze a series of spectral image cubes acquired by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) over the Prometheus region of Io. We use SO 2 frost, a volatile compound ubiquitous on the surface, as a tracer to understand various thermodynamic and volcanic processes acting in this equatorial region. Here we develop a new method to derive, from the 12-wavelength NIMS products, the distribution and physical properties of solid SO 2. This method is based on the inversion of a bidirectional reflectance model on two observed spectral ratios sensitive to (1) the areal abundance of SO 2 and (2) its mean grain size. As a result, reliable and consistent maps of SO 2 abundance and granularity are obtained which can be correlated to distinguish four different physical units. The distribution of these SO 2 units indicates zones of condensation, metamorphism, and sublimation linked with the thermodynamic and volcanic processes of interest. Our maps depict equatorial plains undisturbed by any kind of vigorous volcanic activity over 35-40% of their surface. Elsewhere, 10-20% of the equatorial plains display abnormally low frost coverage which may imply the recent presence of positive thermal anomalies with temperatures in the range 110-200 K. Hot-spots such as Prometheus, Culann, Surya, and Tupan (to mention the most persistent) emit a great variety of gases, some of which will condense at Io's surface near their source regions. Associated fields of freshly condensed SO 2 are easily observed, and deposits of more refractory compounds with higher (e.g., S 8) or lower (e.g., NaCl) molecular weight must also be present (although their exact nature is unknown). Three different mechanisms of emission are proposed for the volatile compounds and supported by the distribution maps. These are (a) the interaction between flowing lava and preexisting volatile deposits on the surface, (b) direct degassing from the lava, an d (c) the eruption of a liquid aquifer from underground

  4. Mapping a Space for a Rhetorical-Cultural Analysis: A Case of a Scientific Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorpenyo, Isidore Kafui

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes a proposal submitted to a funding unit in Michigan Technological University by a PhD Forestry student. A rhetorical-cultural approach of the text provides evidence to argue that scientific writing is rooted in a cultural practice that valorizes certain kinds of thought, practices, rituals, and symbols; that a scientist's work…

  5. Stereosat: A proposed private sector/government joint venture in remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.

  6. Mapping a Space for a Rhetorical-Cultural Analysis: A Case of a Scientific Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorpenyo, Isidore Kafui

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes a proposal submitted to a funding unit in Michigan Technological University by a PhD Forestry student. A rhetorical-cultural approach of the text provides evidence to argue that scientific writing is rooted in a cultural practice that valorizes certain kinds of thought, practices, rituals, and symbols; that a scientist's work…

  7. Very-wide-field camera. Proposal of Space Astronomy Laboratory for second Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtes, G. (Principal Investigator); Viton, M.; Sivan, J. P.; Atkins, H.

    1976-01-01

    A proposal is made for inclusion of a very wide field camera onboard Spacelab. Its scientific program is outlined: detection and photometry, spectrography, and star and starlike object photography. The optics, receptor, and mechanical structure are described. Scientific and technical constraints are discussed, and a development plan is detailed. The dust contamination of Spacelab using the camera was also studied.

  8. 75 FR 59686 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA... Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to...-4558 or kay.metcalf@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This notice is for renewal of...

  9. 78 FR 68816 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA... Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to..., 301-817-4543 or Scott.Rogerson@noaa.gov ; or Kay Metcalf, 301-817-4558 or...

  10. Unusual visual stimulation in dynamic balance conditions: proposal for a space motion sickness test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séverac, Alexandra; Bessou, Paul; Pagès, Bernard

    1994-08-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficiency of normal vision/unusual vestibular cues conflict to induce motion sickness. In the present study, we investigate whether, inversely, unusual visual information/normal vestibular function conflict also elicited motion sickness. The experiments were again carried out in dynamic balance conditions to increase proprioceptive input. Circular translation of the visual field with diplopia were produced by rotating Fresnel prismatic glasses. The stimulation triggered SMS-like symptoms and dynamic balance disturbance. A positive relationship was found between discomfort and balance disturbance. Unusual visual information should therefore be included in Space Motion Sickness susceptibility testing.

  11. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  12. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  13. Global atmospheric response to emissions from a proposed reusable space launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Erik J. L.; Portmann, Robert W.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Ross, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    Modern reusable launch vehicle technology may allow high flight rate space transportation at low cost. Emissions associated with a hydrogen fueled reusable rocket system are modeled based on the launch requirements of developing a space-based solar power system that generates present-day global electric energy demand. Flight rates from 104 to 106 per year are simulated and sustained to a quasisteady state. For the assumed rocket engine, H2O and NOX are the primary emission products; this also includes NOX produced during reentry heating. For a base case of 105 flights per year, global stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor increase by approximately 10 and 100%, respectively. As a result, high-latitude cloudiness increases in the lower stratosphere and near the mesopause by as much as 20%. Increased water vapor also results in global effective radiative forcing of about 0.03 W/m2. NOX produced during reentry exceeds meteoritic production by more than an order of magnitude, and along with in situ stratospheric emissions, results in a 0.5% loss of the globally averaged ozone column, with column losses in the polar regions exceeding 2%.

  14. Design of a device to remove lunar dust from space suits for the proposed lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, David; Havens, Jack; Hester, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans to begin construction of a lunar base soon after the turn of the century. During the Apollo missions, lunar dust proved to be a problem because the dust adhered to all exposed material surfaces. Since lunar dust will be a problem during the establishment and operation of this base, the need exists for a device to remove the dust from space suits before the astronauts enter clean environments. The physical properties of lunar dust were characterized and energy methods for removing the dust were identified. Eight alternate designs were developed to remove the dust. The final design uses a brush and gas jet to remove the dust. The brush bristles are made from Kevlar fibers and the gas jet uses pressurized carbon dioxide from a portable tank. A throttling valve allows variable gas flow. Also, the tank is insulated with Kapton and electrically heated to prevent condensation of the carbon dioxide when the tank is exposed to the cold (- 240 F) lunar night.

  15. Fomblin Z25: A New Method for its Degradation Assessment & Proposal for Safe Operation in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, M.; Gaillard, L.; Rajala, S.; Roberts, E.; Rohr, T.; Merstallinger, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present an overview of the studies of the past two years performed by the Mechanisms Section of the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA-ESTEC), the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL) and Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH (AAC) on the tribological and chemical degradation mechanisms of PFPE oil Fomblin Z25.Tests have been performed using a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT), demonstrating the susceptibility of the lifetime of this lubricant to a range of variables (including load and temperature). A residual gas analyser was implemented, demonstrating a technique for detecting the failure of a PFPE lubricant independent of the friction coefficient through in-situ monitoring of selected volatile gases throughout the tests. To the authors knowledge this work is the first demonstration of the failure of Fomblin Z25 oil independent from friction, torque, or motor current increase.In addition, SOT and pin-on-disc (POD) research efforts have been aimed at identifying the so called auto- catalytic effect during lubricant degradation.

  16. The effect of Prometheus device on laboratory markers of inflammation and tissue regeneration in acute liver failure management.

    PubMed

    Rocen, M; Kieslichova, E; Merta, D; Uchytilova, E; Pavlova, Y; Cap, J; Trunecka, P

    2010-11-01

    Prometheus, based on modified fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) method, is used in the therapy of acute liver failure as a bridge to liver transplantation. As the therapeutic effect of Prometheus is caused not only by the elimination of terminal metabolites, the aim of the study was to identify the effect of FPSA on the levels of cytokines and markers of inflammation and liver regeneration. Previous studies assessing cytokine levels involved mostly acute-on-chronic liver failure patients. Data concerning markers of inflammation and liver regeneration are not published yet. Eleven patients (three males, eight females) with acute liver failure were investigated. These patients underwent 37 therapeutic sessions on Prometheus device. Before and after each treatment, the plasma levels of selected cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and α(1) fetoprotein, were measured, and the kinetics of their plasma concentrations was evaluated. Before the therapy, elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, CRP, and PCT were detected. The level of TNFα, CRP, PCT, and α(1) fetoprotein decreased significantly during the therapy. In contrast, an increase of HGF was detected. The decline of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations was not significant. Our results show that Prometheus is highly effective in clearing inflammatory mediators responsible for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and affects the serum levels of inflammatory and regeneration markers important for management of acute liver failure.

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Learning with Information Technology in Mathematics and Science Education: A Report on Project Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Project Prometheus involves IBM Canada, college faculty, and classroom teachers in Manitoba who cooperate to discover the most effective ways to use information technology to promote mathematics and science literacy. The article analyzes teachers' very positive perceptions of how technology affected their classroom teaching styles and learning…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Learning with Information Technology in Mathematics and Science Education: A Report on Project Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Project Prometheus involves IBM Canada, college faculty, and classroom teachers in Manitoba who cooperate to discover the most effective ways to use information technology to promote mathematics and science literacy. The article analyzes teachers' very positive perceptions of how technology affected their classroom teaching styles and learning…

  19. Effect of Prometheus liver assist system on systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Thomas; Tofteng, Flemming; Frederiksen, Hans-Jorgen; Hojskov, Michael; Hansen, Bent-Adel; Larsen, Fin-Stolze

    2008-04-07

    To evaluate treatment safety and hemodynamic changes during a single 6-h treatment with the Prometheus liver assist system in a randomized, controlled study. Twenty-four patients were randomized to either the study group or to one of two control groups: Fractionated Plasma Separation Adsorption and Dialysis, Prometheus system (Study group; n = 8); Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) (Control group 1, n = 8); or hemodialysis (Control group 2; n = 8). All patients included in the study had decompensated cirrhosis at the time of the inclusion into the study. Circulatory changes were monitored with a Swan-Ganz catheter and bilirubin and creatinine were monitored as measures of protein-bound and water-soluble toxins. Systemic hemodynamics did not differ between treatment and control groups apart from an increase in arterial pressure in the MARS group (P = 0.008). No adverse effects were observed in any of the groups. Creatinine levels significantly decreased in the MARS group (P = 0.03) and hemodialysis group (P = 0.04). Platelet count deceased in the Prometheus group (P = 0.04). Extra-corporal liver support with Prometheus is proven to be safe in patients with endstage liver disease but does not exert the beneficial effects on arterial pressure as seen in the MARS group.

  20. Proposal for an astronaut mass measurement device for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Neil; Lomme, Jon; Mccollough, Holly; Price, Bradford; Weber, Heidi

    1994-01-01

    For medical reasons, astronauts in space need to have their mass measured. Currently, this measurement is performed using a mass-spring system. The current system is large, inaccurate, and uncomfortable for the astronauts. NASA is looking for new, different, and preferably better ways to perform this measurement process. After careful analysis our design team decided on a linear acceleration process. Within the process, four possible concept variants are put forth. Among these four variants, one is suggested over the others. The variant suggested is that of a motor-winch system to linearly accelerate the astronaut. From acceleration and force measurements of the process combined Newton's second law, the mass of an astronaut can be calculated.

  1. Graphic representation of configuration in two-dimensional space. Current conventions, clarifications, and proposed extensions.

    PubMed

    Maehr, Hubert

    2002-01-01

    The chemical vocabulary can describe, in a single term, a racemate or a specific enantiomer or a compound that is enantiopure, but whose absolute configuration is unknown. Regardless of these differentiations, the corresponding conventional graphic representations display but one specific enantiomer. Because of this inflexibility, verbal annotations to stereostructures in chemical publications and databases are unavoidable. In the expanding era of chirotechnology, the limited descriptive power of stereostructures in two-dimensional space is of serious concern. To provide a solution to this problem, targeted redeployment of established stereobonds serve as stereodescriptors that differentiate between enantiopure and racemic compounds and those that are enantiopure but whose chirality sense is unknown. Graphic displays then share the explicitness and accuracy of the chemical vocabulary. Fischer projections, recently expanded to accommodate alkenes and axially stereogenic compounds, can display favorably comparative configurational aspects of molecules with a multiplicity of stereogenic units.

  2. Parapharyngeal space lesions syncope-syndrome. A newly proposed reflexogenic cardiovascular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, R; Bonomi, F G; Curnis, A; Mascioli, G; Bollati, A; Visioli, O; Rossi, L

    1993-11-01

    An intense vaso-vagal reaction characterizes those reflex cardiovascular syncopes in which the glossopharyngeal nerve constitutes the main afferent nerve pathway. In these syndromes, afferent fibres of the glossopharyngeal nerve project from the baroreceptorial area to the medullary cardiac and vasomotor centres, from which efferent fibres descend into the vagus. The most common reflex cardiovascular syndromes linked to the IX nerve are carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia-asystole syndrome (GNS). Eleven male patients (mean age 65.4 years) with recurrent and severe vaso-vagal attacks are described. The episodes were characterized by asthenia and general malaise, pallor, sudation, unrecordable or very low (40-60 mmHg) arterial blood pressure, mental disorientation and/or syncope. The admission diagnosis in these patients was CSS, but the clinical picture was quite different from classic CSS: triggering factors were not present, vasovagal episodes were longer, syncopes were more frequent and severe and VVI pacing was ineffective. Further investigation, including computerized tomography, showed in all patients a malignant or benign pathological growth occupying and compressing the parapharyngeal space. The authors think that the symptoms exhibited by their patients may be attributed to parapharyngeal space involvement. The pathogenetic mechanism of syncope in these cases could be similar to that occurring in GNS except for the absence of neuralgia itself. Surgical carotid sinus denervation or A-V sequential DDD pacing were ineffective in completely controlling symptoms. Intracranial section of the IX nerve appears to be the most effective mechanism for controlling the syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Surface Catalysis and Characterization of Proposed Candidate TPS for Access-to-Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface properties have been obtained on several classes of thermal protection systems (TPS) using data from both side-arm-reactor and arc-jet facilities. Thermochemical stability, optical properties, and coefficients for atom recombination were determined for candidate TPS proposed for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. The systems included rigid fibrous insulations, blankets, reinforced carbon carbon, and metals. Test techniques, theories used to define arc-jet and side-arm-reactor flow, and material surface properties are described. Total hemispherical emittance and atom recombination coefficients for each candidate TPS are summarized in the form of polynomial and Arrhenius expressions.

  4. Space Radiation Effects and Reliability Consideration for the Proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.

  5. Space Radiation Effects and Reliability Consideration for the Proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.

  6. Efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with heparin versus heparin plus epoprostenol in patients undergoing extracorporeal liver support with Prometheus.

    PubMed

    Krisper, Peter; Tiran, Beate; Fliser, Danilo; Haditsch, Bernd; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Otto, Ronald; Ernst, Thomas; Kretschmer, Ulrich; Stauber, Rudolf E; Haller, Hermann; Holzer, Herwig; Manns, Michael P; Rifai, Kinan

    2010-01-01

    Anticoagulation for extracorporeal liver support is delicate due to underlying coagulation disorders in patients with liver failure and to the associated elevated bleeding risk. To date, there has been no detailed report on anticoagulation issues in patients treated with Prometheus, a device based on the principle of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption. We studied 17 patients from two centers treated with Prometheus, comparing standard anticoagulation with heparin (15 treatments) and a combination of heparin and the synthetic prostacyclin epoprostenol (22 treatments). Standard coagulation tests, proteins C and S, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex were determined, and adverse events were recorded. All but two treatments could be completed as scheduled, although filter exchange due to filter clotting was required in 24% of the treatments. Three out of 17 patients developed severe bleeding complications within 24 h of treatment. There were no overt thrombotic events. Addition of epoprostenol neither reduced coagulation-related adverse events nor improved standard coagulation parameters. Protein C, but not protein S, showed a significant reduction (23 +/- 18%) after Prometheus treatments, but levels rebounded to baseline within 18 h. TAT levels--a measure for activation of coagulation--were only altered by Prometheus in patients where TAT was already elevated before treatment. In conclusion, anticoagulation of Prometheus with heparin is feasible but still associated with a relatively high frequency of filter clotting and a considerable risk of severe bleeding in this high-risk patient population. As addition of epoprostenol did not prove beneficial, other strategies, such as regional anticoagulation with citrate, should be further evaluated.

  7. A comparison of limb plethysmograph systems proposed for use on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, B. M.; Montgomery, L. D.; Bhagat, P. K.; Zieglschmid, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons of a Whitney mercury-filled double-stranded strain gauge with two plethysmographs proposed for Shuttle use - an ultrasound and an impedance plethysmograph - were performed on 20 subjects. An occlusive thigh pressure cuff, inflated to 50 mm Hg, caused partial venous occlusion and subsequent blood pooling distal to the cuff. The average maximum volume changes observed in the Whitney/ultrasound test were 2.07% and 3.35%, respectively, and 2.12% and 2.53% for the Whitney/Impedance comparison. Applying the ratio of the maximum volume changes to the gain of each test system caused the impedance and ultrasound volume change determinations to be essentially identical to the Whitney gauge. The three different limb parameters measured result in significant magnitude differences but the three systems track their respective changes identically.

  8. Proposal for a zero-gravity toilet facility for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleri, Edgar L., Jr.; Galliano, Paul A.; Harrison, Mark E.; Johnson, William B.; Meyer, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    This proposed toilet facility has a straightforward design. It has few moving parts and is easily maintained. Air and water flow provide sanitary movement of the waste. The toilet's chambers are coated with Teflon which, along with the water flow, makes it self-cleaning. An added disinfectant called Betadiene kills any bacteria that may form on the chamber walls. The chair is contoured to take into account the neutral body position and the necessary strain position for defecation. Restraints at the ankles, knees, and midsection hold the body in the chair. The waste is stored in discs of Gortex material which are inside a replaceable storage chamber. This chamber can be removed, capped and stored until eventual return to earth.

  9. A proposed concept for the extraction of energy stored in magnetic or electric fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papailiou, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that enormous energy resources associated with electric, magnetic, gravitational, and other fields exist in space. It is also known that the major difficulty in 'tapping' this energy arises from the extremely low density level at which this energy exists. An analytical study has been made of a particular scheme that appears promising for an efficient utilization of some of these energy resources in propulsion. The principle involves the exchange of energy between a fluctuating magnetic field and a velocity field of electrically conducting fluid in turbulent motion located onboard a spacecraft. Under certain conditions the total energy of the turbulent flow field onboard the spacecraft can be increased and this increase appears in the form of Joulean heat. The utilization of the fluctuating part of the magnetic field, in the form of Joulean dissipation (because of its random character) does not introduce any drag on the spacecraft. The application appears promising for flights in the vicinity of Jupiter and other planets. The rate at which energy is gained by the conducting fluid is of the order of 100 watts when the rms value of the fluctuating magnetic field strength is about 1 gauss.

  10. A proposed concept for the extraction of energy stored in magnetic or electric fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papailiou, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that enormous energy resources associated with electric, magnetic, gravitational, and other fields exist in space. It is also known that the major difficulty in 'tapping' this energy arises from the extremely low density level at which this energy exists. An analytical study has been made of a particular scheme that appears promising for an efficient utilization of some of these energy resources in propulsion. The principle involves the exchange of energy between a fluctuating magnetic field and a velocity field of electrically conducting fluid in turbulent motion located onboard a spacecraft. Under certain conditions the total energy of the turbulent flow field onboard the spacecraft can be increased and this increase appears in the form of Joulean heat. The utilization of the fluctuating part of the magnetic field, in the form of Joulean dissipation (because of its random character) does not introduce any drag on the spacecraft. The application appears promising for flights in the vicinity of Jupiter and other planets. The rate at which energy is gained by the conducting fluid is of the order of 100 watts when the rms value of the fluctuating magnetic field strength is about 1 gauss.

  11. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  12. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  13. Proposed international policy and guidelines for the care and use of animals in space-borne research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabekis, P.; Dunlap, A.; Liskowski, D.

    At the 36 th COSPAR Scientific Assembly in Paris France a resolution was presented to and adopted by Commission F recommending the formation of an international working group to develop a draft policy and guidelines for the care and use of animals in space-borne research The policy and guidelines would then be presented and discussed at a special session during the 37 th COSPAR Scientific Assembly in Beijing China for the purpose of considering a resolution to propose them for adoption by COSPAR This paper will introduce the draft international policy and guidelines and detail the process of its development

  14. A Proposal for an Experiment in Space: Laser Welding of Ceramics in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favuzza, M.; Camiolo, F.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramics are brittle because of their strong covalent or ionic bonds. Brittleness is not the only limitation of ceramics, also the presence of generally up to 20% porosity and the presence of microcracks (c.a. 25%) make ceramics rarely used for advanced applications. Often metals and composites are preferred for certain applications because of its higher fracture toughness. Nevertheless, there are also many advantages in using ceramics if compared to metals and composites such as high hardness, strength retention over a broad temperature range, wear and acid resistance, thermal shock resistance, possibility to be ground with a very smooth surface to high tolerances and low cost. Hence, during the last years, the ceramics market for engineering applications is to be considered in expansion. By keeping into consideration that today a values of KIC25 MPa m1/2 can be attained for some types of ceramics, one of the main factors that influences the utilisation of ceramics for engineering structures is the strong difficulty in joining its together. Most of the modern "Advanced Ceramics" are, in fact, highly-reactive so that its manufacturing and sintering procedures must be carried out only under controlled atmosphere. All that make the possibility to join advanced ceramics by any heat treatment basically impossible under normal conditions. Today, uses of that kind of ceramics are generally restricted to advanced small structural shapes. Starting from the consideration that a future possibility to join ceramics with a safe joint would be really important for structural applications especially where high wear and acid resistance is necessary, the aim of this paper is to show as, according to our theory, a first step of laser welding of reactive ceramics is possible under microgravity and oxigen deficiency conditions. It is enough to think about a satellite or a part of the ISS made from absolutely fire, chemical and wear proof ceramic parts assembled directly on space by

  15. Prometheus and Pandora : masses and orbital positions during the Cassini tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.

    2004-05-01

    HST images of Prometheus and Pandora show longitude differences of about 20 degrees from the Voyager ephemeris, with an abrupt change in mean motion at the end of 2000 (French, R.G. et al., Icarus, 162, 143-170, 2003; French, R.G., and McGhee, C.A., BAAS, 34, No. 06.07, 2003). These discrepancies arise from chaotic interactions between the two moons, occuring at interval of 6.2 years when their apses are anti-aligned (Goldreich, P. and Rappaport, N., Icarus, 162, 391-399, 2003), a behavior attributed to the overlap of four 121:118 apse-type mean motion resonances (Goldreich, P. and Rappaport, N., Icarus, 166, 320-327, 2003). This is confirmed by numerical integrations that include the perturbations of the major satellites of Saturn (Renner, S. and Sicardy, B., BAAS, 35, No. 04.06, 2003; Cooper, N.J. and Murray, C.D., AJ, 127, 1204-1217, 2004). We study the Prometheus-Pandora system using a radau-type integrator taking into account Saturn's oblateness up to terms in J6 and the effects of the major satellites. By fitting the numerical integrations to the HST data (French et al., 2003), we derive the satellite masses. Using the nominal shape of the two moons (Thomas, P.C., Icarus, 77, 248-274, 1989), Prometheus and Pandora densities are 0.40 ± 0.040.07 and 0.49 ± 0.060.09 g.cm-3, respectively, with a 99,99 % confidence level. Our numerical fits also allow us to constrain better the time of the latest apse anti-alignment in 2000. Finally, using our fit, we predict the orbital positions of the two satellites during the Cassini tour. We provide a lower limit of the uncertainties due to chaos, amounting to about 0.2 degrees in mean longitude at the arrival of Cassini in July 2004, and about 3 degrees in 2008.

  16. Effect of extracorporeal liver support by molecular adsorbents recirculating system and Prometheus on redox state of albumin in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Oettl, Karl; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Krisper, Peter; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to play an important role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF). Albumin, an important transport vehicle, was found to be severely oxidized in AoCLF patients. Extracorporeal liver support systems may exert beneficial effects in AoCLF via removal of albumin-bound toxins. At present, two systems are commercially available, the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS) and fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and dialysis (FPAD, also known as Prometheus). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of MARS and Prometheus treatments on the redox state of human serum albumin. Eight patients with AoCLF underwent alternating treatments with either MARS or Prometheus in a randomized cross-over design. Sixteen treatments (eight MARS and eight Prometheus) were available for analysis. The fraction of human mercaptalbumin (HMA), human nonmercaptalbumin-1 (HNA1), and human nonmercaptalbumin-2 (HNA2) were measured before and after single MARS and Prometheus treatments and during follow-up. In AoCLF patients the oxidized fractions of albumin, HNA1, and HNA2 were markedly increased. Both MARS and Prometheus treatments resulted in a shift of HNA1 to HMA, while HNA2 was not significantly affected. This shift in albumin fractions was transient and disappeared within 24 h after treatment. There were no significant differences between MARS and Prometheus treatments with respect to the redox state of albumin. Both MARS and Prometheus treatments lead to transient improvements of the redox state of albumin, which could be beneficial in the treatment of AoCLF.

  17. Treatment of Amanita phalloides intoxication by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®).

    PubMed

    Bergis, Dominik; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Zeuzem, Stefan; Betz, Cristoph; Sarrazin, Christoph; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal detoxification using the fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus® 4008H, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) in patients suffering from acute liver failure due to intoxication with Amanita phalloides (AP) toxin. The study population consisted of 20 patients with proven AP intoxication (FPSA treatment group n=9, control group n=11). Urinary amanitin toxin concentration was measured by the Amanitin ELISA Kit (Bühlmann Laboratories, Germany, cut off level 1.5 ng/ml). All patients received standard medical treatment with activated charcoal, i.v. crystalloid fluids, silibinine and N-acetylcysteine. Additionally 9 patients underwent treatment with FPSA until undetectable amanitin levels. Mean urinary amanitin levels were significantly reduced by FPSA with 42.5 +/- 21.9 ng/ml before and 1.2 +/- 0.31 ng/ml after treatment (p=0.04). No hemodynamic, respiratory or hematological complications were observed. None of the patients had to undergo liver transplantation. All patients in the treatment group survived and were discharged fully recovered. One patient in the control group died due to shock and lactic acidosis; one patient remained dialysis dependent. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.1 days in the treatment group and 11.7 days in the control group (p=0.30). Use of liver support therapy by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®) offers a safe way for elimination of Amanita toxin with the potential to avoid the need for liver transplantation.

  18. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, C. M.; Bishop, S. C.; Marion, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob–Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed ‘model-based proposal’ (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2–8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. PMID:25994297

  19. Prometheus Cleft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    This poetic-prose piece is my personal ethnic educational history. It challenges the misconception that Cuban students (so-called voluntary minorities) are not oppressed, especially not by their Cuban teachers, and that they thus achieve more academic success than other Latinos. Some may be hiding. Perhaps this work will help to find them.

  20. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  1. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  2. Prometheus Cleft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    This poetic-prose piece is my personal ethnic educational history. It challenges the misconception that Cuban students (so-called voluntary minorities) are not oppressed, especially not by their Cuban teachers, and that they thus achieve more academic success than other Latinos. Some may be hiding. Perhaps this work will help to find them.

  3. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C M; Bishop, S C; Marion, G

    2015-06-06

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob-Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed 'model-based proposal' (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2-8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of detection conditions of captured microbes in space with PCR Microbes capture experiment on ISS proposed in "Tanpopo" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Yang, Yinjie; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Tabata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Mita, Hajime; Imai, Eiichi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Okudaira, Kyoko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamashita, Masamichi; Yano, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Terrestrial life may fly off into outer space by volcanic eruption meteorological impacts, and so on. Microbes have been collected from high altitude up to 70 km since 1936 [1]. We also isolated microbes at high altitude up to 35 km using an airplane and balloons [2, 3]. The two isolates of these microbes are new species, one of which shows higher UV ray tolerance than Deinococcus radiodurans [2, 3]. On the other hand, there is a hypothesis on the origin of terrestrial life called panspermia [4, 5], in which terrestrial life is thought to have come from space (or astronomical bodies other than Earth). This hypothesis suggests that life may migrate between Earth and other planets. If microbes were to exist at the high altitude of low earth orbit (400 km), it would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of terrestrial lifeWe proposed, the Tanpopo mission to examine interplanetary migration of microbes and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). We will capture micro-particles including microbes and micro-meteoroids at the altitude of ISS orbit (400 km) with ultra low-density aerogel exposed to space for a given period of time. After retreaving the aerogel, we will investigate captured micro particles and tracks followed by microbiological, organic chemical and mineralogical analyses.Captured particles will be analyzed after the initial curation of the aerogel and tracks. Particles potentially containing microbes will be used for PCR amplification of small subunit (ss) rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing. Comparision between the determined sequences and known ss rRNA gene sequences of terrestrial organisms will suggest the origin and properties of the organism.The density of microbes at the ISS altitude might be quite low, and microbe cell number on each captured particle may be quite limited. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the effective PCR procedure for quite small amount of DNA template

  5. [Therapeutic effect of the latest extracorporal elimination procedure (Prometheus treatment) in acute liver failure caused by intoxication].

    PubMed

    Bakos, Agnes; Rikker, Csaba; Tóvárosi, Szilveszter; Kárteszi, Mihály

    2007-10-21

    Despite intensive therapy the mortality of acute liver failure without organ transplantation is 60-90%. Because of organ shortage in liver transplantation, a significant number of patients dies while being on the waiting list. In order to diminish the mortality, various trials were introduced to remove the albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins in liver failure with the aim to support the spontaneous regeneration of the liver and maintaining the patients alive until liver transplantation. Prometheus treatment is a relatively new technique combining Fractionated Plasma Separation and Adsorption (FPSA) with a high-flux dialysis. During the procedure the patient's own separated albumin-rich plasma passes through special adsorbents making possible the elimination of albumin-bound toxins, while hemodialysis gets rid of water-soluble toxins. The authors' intention was to demonstrate the efficiency of Prometheus treatment in acute liver failure caused by intoxication. Prometheus treatment was indicated in three patients who suffered from severe intoxication with paracetamol, potassium permanganate and Amanita phalloides, which resulted in a hepatic failure incurable with conservative therapy. Ten treatments were performed in the three female patients. No serious complication was observed. Due to the treatment the albumin-bound (indirect bilirubin p = 0.048; bile acid p = 0.001) and water-soluble (direct bilirubin p = 0.002; creatinine p = 0.007) toxins were significantly decreased. The level of ammonia, urea nitrogen, fibrinogen and antithrombin III did not change significantly. All the three patients were cured without liver transplantation. Prometheus treatment removes efficiently the accumulating toxins in acute liver failure. It is a safe elimination technique. In cases untreatable with conservative therapy it makes possible maintaining the patients alive until the liver regenerates spontaneously, or liver transplantation is feasible.

  6. Assisted-living spaces for end-users with complex needs: a proposed implementation and delivery model.

    PubMed

    Linskell, Jeremy; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley

    2012-09-01

    An assisted living space (ALS) is a technology-enabled environment designed to allow people with complex health or social care needs to remain, and live independently, in their own home for longer. However, many challenges remain in order to deliver usable systems acceptable to a diverse range of stakeholders, including end-users, and their families and carers, as well as health and social care services. ALSs need to support activities of daily-living while allowing end-users to maintain important social connections. They must be dynamic, flexible and adaptable living environments. In this article, we provide an overview of the technological landscape of assisted-living technology (ALT) and recent policies to promote an increased adoption of ALT in Scotland. We discuss our experiences in implementing technology-supported ALSs and emphasise key lessons. Finally, we propose an iterative and pragmatic user-centred implementation model for delivering ALSs in complex-needs scenarios. This empirical model is derived from our past ALS implementations. The proposed model allows project stakeholders to identify requirements, allocate tasks and responsibilities, and identify appropriate technological solutions for the delivery of functional ALS systems. The model is generic and makes no assumptions on needs or technology solutions, nor on the technical knowledge, skills and experience of the stakeholders involved in the ALS design process.

  7. Analysis of Proposed 2007-2008 Revisions to the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for United States Space Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, J. E.; Krider, E. P.; Merceret, F. J.; Willett, J. C.; Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; Rust, W. D.; Walterscheid, R.; O'Brien, T. P.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Ascending space vehicles are vulnerable to both natural and triggered lightning. Launches under the jurisdiction of the United States are generally subject to a set of rules called the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC). The LLCC protect both the vehicle and the public by assuring that the launch does not take place in conditions posing a significant risk of a lightning strike to the ascending vehicle. Such a strike could destroy the vehicle and its payload, thus causing failure of the mission while releasing both toxic materials and debris. To assure safety, the LLCC are conservative and sometimes they may seriously limit the ability of the launch operator to fly as scheduled even when conditions are benign. In order to safely reduce the number of launch scrubs and delays attributable to the LLCC, the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) program was undertaken in 2000 - 2001. The effort was directed to collecting detailed high-quality data on the electrical, microphysical, radar and meteorological properties of thunderstorm-associated clouds. The expectation was that this additional knowledge would provide a better physical basis for the LLCC and allow them to be revised to be both safer and less restrictive. That expectation was fulfilled, leading to significant revisions to the LLCC in 2003 and 2005. The 2005 revisions included the application of a new radar-derived quantity called the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) in the rules governing flight through anvil clouds. Analysis of the ABFM data has continued, and two additional revisions to the LLCC were proposed in late 2006 for adoption in 2007 or 2008. One proposal was to apply the VAHIRR concept to debris clouds, and the other was to reduce the "stand-off distances" in the rules for anvil and/or debris clouds. The stand-off distance is the clearance (out side of the cloud) required between the flight path of the vehicle and the edge of a cloud that it is not permissible to fly through

  8. Tritium Superpermeability: Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Tritium Recirculation in 'Prometheus' Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Musyaev, R.K.; Lebedev, B.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Busnyuk, A.A; Notkin, M.E.; Samartsev, A.A.; Livshits, A.I.

    2005-07-15

    The superpermeability phenomenon was suggested to use in fusion machines to separate the fuel mixture from helium ashes, to arrange in-vessel fuel recirculation contours and effective evacuation of fuel mixture out of machine exhaust. To develop this technology and to simulate tritium recirculation in RFNC-VNIIEF at the 'Prometheus' setup the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membrane were realized.The results of experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through cylindrical niobium membrane are presented. As the experiment has shown, membrane pumping rate is inversely proportional to square root of isotope mass and amount to 2.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for protium, 1.8 l/cm{sup 2}s for deuterium and 1.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for tritium. The possibility of effective pumping, separation of hydrogen isotopes from helium and residual gas, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. It follows from results that the separation of D/T from He with employment of the techniques of superpermeable membranes might reduce the total amount of tritium in fuel cycle and substantially enhance the resource of cryogenic pumps evacuating helium.

  9. Mechanical response and fatigue analysis of the first wall of the prometheus IFE reactor

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1994-12-31

    Following the micro explosions in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor, the first wall structures are subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loads, which result in stresses and displacements that vary with time. In the Prometheus IFE reactor the first wall is protected by a flowing thin film of liquid lead. The mechanical loading on the first wall includes two different mechanisms: (1) surface ablation momentum due to the early deposition of x-rays and the instantaneous evaporation of the protecting film, at the instant of the micro explosion, and (2) time dependent pressure due to propagating pressure waves that travel between the first wall and the center of the reactor chamber. Careful determination of the resulting stresses in the first wall structures helps choose and design these structures for maximum fatigue life time. In the present work, a solution of the equation of motion of the first wall structural elements and the associated stresses and displacements is presented. It is found that segmentation of the first wall into smaller plates minimizes the resulting stresses and, in turn, prolongs the fatigue life time of the first wall.

  10. Shadowed reality or the 'Prometheus-complex': analytical psychotherapy after political imprisonment and persecution.

    PubMed

    Hölter, Reinhild

    2005-09-01

    Traumatic experiences of violence like those that were brought about by the communist regime of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) are still present as if they happened yesterday, causing severe disadvantages in everyday life even after all those years. Consequently, in cases of extreme traumatization induced by political imprisonment, persecution and applied psychological methods of disintegration, regressive processes take place which corrode the ego. The breakdown of cathexis, i.e., the failure of empathic connection at the time of the trauma, is the strongest characteristic of severe traumatization. As a result of this destruction for the traumatized there is an inability to keep upright an inner empathic, emotional connection. As we try to grasp, from a Jungian point of view, the psychodynamics of severe traumatization, we can speak of a powerful pathogenous complex, which I call the 'Prometheus-complex'. Gustav Bovensiepen speaks of this complex as a sub-network, a limited fragment of the matrix of all internalized experiences, consisting of internal working models, feelings and patterns of anticipation which interact mutually. The human being, captured in such isolation and paralysis of the mind, can find himself 'in the therapist' on a mental level.

  11. A Modest Proposal: For Preventing Space Operations from Being a Burden to the Navy, and for Making the Space Cadre Beneficial to the Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    ripen the fruits of formal education. Further, the space systems that the Navy depends upon for communication, navigation, surveillance, and...career paths.131 This effort has evidently borne fruit , as the promotion rates for O-5 and O-6 Space Cadre members has been generally slightly higher

  12. Appearance of Saturn’s F ring azimuthal channels for the anti-alignment configuration between the ring and Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos E.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we explore the aspect of the F ring with respect to the anti-alignment configuration between the ring and Prometheus. We focus our attention on the shape of the F ring's azimuthal channels which were first reported by Porco et al. (Porco, C.C., Baker, E., Barbara, J., Beurle, K., Brahic, A., Burns, J.A., Charnoz, S., Cooper, N., Dawson, D.D., Del Genio, A.D., Denk, T., Dones, L., Dyudina, U., Evans, M.W., Giese, B., Grazier, K., Helfenstein, P., Ingersoll, A.P., Jacobson, R.A., Johnson, T.V., McEwen, A., Murray, C.D., Neukum, G., Owen, W.M., Perry, J., Roatsch, T., Spitale, J., Squyres, S., Thomas, P., Tiscareno, M., Turtle, E., Vasavada, A.R., Veverka, J., Wagner, R., West, R. [2005] Science, 307, 1226-1236) and numerically explored by Murray et al. (Murray, C.D., Chavez, C., Beurle, K., Cooper, N., Evans, M.W., Burns, J.A., Porco, C.C. [2005] Nature 437, 1326-1329) who found excellent agreement between Cassini's ISS reprojected images and their numerical model via a direct comparison. We find that for anti-alignment the channels are wider and go deeper inside the ring material. From our numerical model we find a new feature, an island in the middle of the channel. This island is made up of the particles that have been perturbed the most by Prometheus and only appears when this satellite is close to apoapsis. In addition, plots of the anti-alignment configuration for different orbital stages of Prometheus are obtained and discussed here.

  13. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the Space Station Mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    This research has continued along two lines, one at Marshall Space Flight Center with Salad Machine Rack development and the design and construction of a mockup for placement in the Huntsville Space Station Freedom mockup. The second avenue of research has addressed issues of relevance to the operation of the Salad Machine and Bioregenerative systems. These issues include plant species compatibility when grown on shared hydroponic systems and microbial populations of mixed species hydroponic systems. Significant progress is reported.

  14. Prometheus versus molecular adsorbents recirculating system: comparison of efficiency in two different liver detoxification devices.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, Pieter; Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Bammens, Bert; Nevens, Frederik; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2006-04-01

    Albumin dialysis by the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS) and by fractionated plasma separation, adsorption, and dialysis (Prometheus[PROM]) represent novel nonbiological liver support systems specifically designed to remove albumin-bound substances. Preliminary evidence suggests a favorable impact of MARS on the course and outcome of liver failure. This study aimed at comparing the detoxification capacity of both devices. For this purpose, we performed a retrospective analysis on data prospectively collected in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure treated with either the MARS (n = 9) or the PROM (n = 9) device on 2-5 consecutive days. Each treatment was performed for at least 5 h at identical blood and dialysate flows. Blood clearances were calculated during the first treatment session for urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, and bile acids from paired arterial and venous line samples after 1, 4, and 6 h of treatment. Reduction ratios for all single-treatment sessions, and the overall treatment phase, were calculated from pretreatment and post-treatment values. For all markers but bile acids, the single-treatment as well as the overall treatment phase reduction ratios obtained with PROM were significantly higher compared with those obtained with MARS. PROM led at all time points to higher clearances for all evaluated solutes. Blood clearances of protein-bound substances declined over time with MARS, but not with PROM. In conclusion, a significant decline in the serum level of water-soluble and protein-bound toxins was achieved with both devices. PROM produces higher blood clearances for most toxins, which results in higher delivered treatment doses compared with a matching treatment with MARS.

  15. A proposed medium-term strategy for optical interferometry in space. Report to the ESA astronomy working group by the ESA Space Interferometry Study Team (SIST).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordam, J. E.; Bely, P. Y.; Faucherre, M.; Greenaway, A. H.; Merkle, F.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Roussel, P. H.; Vakili, F.; Volonté, S.; Weigelt, G. P.

    1990-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the scientific arguments leading to the requirements for space interferometry, both in terms of its astronomical objectives, and in view of the possibilities attainable from the ground. It is shown that, at optical wavelengths, space missions will be driven by the requirement to achieve diffraction limited images beyond the magnitude limits achievable from the ground. At ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, similar considerations naturally apply but, in addition, other fundamental physical atmospheric properties enhance further the justification to go to space. It is shown that several issues, albeit important to the efficiency and applicability of both ground and space-based interferometry, are not critical to the scientific case and technological issues facing space interferometry. Amongst these topics are discussions of image reconstruction techniques (speckle, phase closure, etc.), and aperture distribution (redundant, non-redundant). Image restoration techniques and other technical issues have made rapid advances in the context of radio aperture synthesis and VLBI techniques, and, in this field, optical interferometry will be well placed to exploit these advances. There has also been considerable progress in methods, theory and results of speckle imaging from the ground.

  16. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  17. Vibration isolation technology - An executive summary of systems development and demonstration. [for proposed microgravity experiments aboard STS and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, C. M.; Logsdon, K. A.; Lubomski, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    A program was organized to develop the enabling technologies needed for the use of Space Station Freedom as a viable microgravity experimental platform. One of these development programs was the Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT). This technology development program grew because of increased awareness that the acceleration disturbances present on the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter can and are detrimental to many microgravity experiments proposed for STS, and in the future, Space Station Freedom (SSF). Overall technological organization are covered of the VIT program. Emphasis is given to the results from development and demonstration of enabling technologies to achieve the acceleration requirements perceived as those most likely needed for a variety of microgravity science experiments. In so doing, a brief summary of general theoretical approaches to controlling the acceleration environment of an isolated space based payload and the design and/or performance of two prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation systems is presented.

  18. Effect of Prometheus liver assist system on systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Dethloff, Thomas; Tofteng, Flemming; Frederiksen, Hans-Jorgen; Hojskov, Michael; Hansen, Bent Adel; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate treatment safety and hemodynamic changes during a single 6-h treatment with the Prometheus™ liver assist system in a randomized, controlled study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were randomized to either the study group or to one of two control groups: Fractionated Plasma Separation Adsorption and Dialysis, Prometheus™ system (Study group; n = 8); Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS)™ (Control group 1, n = 8); or hemodialysis (Control group 2; n = 8). All patients included in the study had decompensated cirrhosis at the time of the inclusion into the study. Circulatory changes were monitored with a Swan-Ganz catheter and bilirubin and creatinine were monitored as measures of protein-bound and water-soluble toxins. RESULTS: Systemic hemodynamics did not differ between treatment and control groups apart from an increase in arterial pressure in the MARS group (P = 0.008). No adverse effects were observed in any of the groups. Creatinine levels significantly decreased in the MARS group (P = 0.03) and hemodialysis group (P = 0.04). Platelet count deceased in the Prometheus group (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Extra-corporal liver support with Prometheus is proven to be safe in patients with end-stage liver disease but does not exert the beneficial effects on arterial pressure as seen in the MARS group. PMID:18395908

  19. Efficacy of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (Prometheus) for treatment of liver failure due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Rukiye; Gunsar, Fulya; Ersoz, Galip; Akarca, Ulus Salih; Karasu, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Consuming wild mushrooms is an ordinary habit in late summer and autumn in our region. Every year, several cases of hepatic toxicity secondary to mushroom poisoning are observed because of poor identification of the mushrooms. Unfortunately some of them are fatal. Prometheus system is a newly developed extracorporeal liver support device for fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) that enables removal of albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins. Therefore, it may be a promising treatment option for patients with liver failure due to mushroom poisoning. We studied 8 patients with mushroom poisoning. All patients underwent 1 to 4 consecutive FPSA (Prometheus)-system in addition to medical and supportive treatment such as fluid replacement, Penicillin G, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and silymarin. A variety of clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. We had improvement of the biochemical parameters after first treatment with FPSA-system. Seven of 8 patients survived and were discharged to resume an independent life. One patient who had grade III encephalopathy when admitted to hospital died. No major adverse events were observed during the application of this therapy modality. FPSA-system may be a safe and effective treatment option for patient with mushroom poisoning. Early hospitalization is essential in order to be successful. Controlled studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this new treatment choice on survival of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) due to mushroom poisoning.

  20. Space system developments at Stanford University: from launch experience of microsatellites to the proposed future use of picosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiggs, Robert J.

    2000-11-01

    The Space Systems Development Laboratory was established in 1994 at Stanford University to give graduate and undergraduate students project based learning experience in microsatellite design, fabrication, test, launch integration and space operations. These students have completed two satellites - one called OPAL was launched on January 26, 2000, and the second called SAPPHIRE is tentatively scheduled for launch in late 2002. There are three additional satellites now in developments. OPAL had a unique primary objective payload. This was to launch six small Klondike ice cream bar size picosatellites. It completed this mission to gain a record of orbiting the world's smallest functional satellites. The next generation in picosats under developement that have a tentative late 2002 launch are called CubeSats. Launchers are under development to release multiple 4-inch cube CubeSats that can be used by amateur radio enthusiast, universities and government laboratories for inexpensive space testing.

  1. Effect of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and Prometheus devices on systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive agents in patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Evenepoel, Pieter; Elst, Ingrid Vander; Zeegers, Marcel; Zaman, Zahur; Verslype, Chris; Fevery, Johan; Nevens, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure show an aggravated hyperdynamic circulation. We evaluated, in a controlled manner, potential changes in systemic haemodynamics induced by the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and the Prometheus system liver detoxification devices in a group of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Methods Eighteen patients (51.2 ± 2.3 years old; Child–Pugh score, 12.5 ± 0.2; Maddrey score, 63.1 ± 5.0; hepatic venous pressure gradient, 17.6 ± 0.9 mmHg) with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis were either treated with standard medical therapy (SMT) combined with MARS (n = 6) or Prometheus (n = 6) or were treated with SMT alone (n = 6) on three consecutive days (6 hours/session). Liver tests, systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive substances were determined before and after each session. Results Groups were comparable for baseline haemodynamics and levels of vasoactive substances. Both MARS and Prometheus decreased serum bilirubin levels (P < 0.005 versus SMT), the Prometheus device being more effective than MARS (P = 0.002). Only MARS showed significant improvement in the mean arterial pressure (Δchange, +9 ± 2.4 mmHg versus -0.3 ± 2.4 mmHg with Prometheus and -5.2 ± 2.1 mmHg with SMT, P < 0.05) and in the systemic vascular resistance index (Δchange, +131.5 ± 46.2 dyne.s/cm5/m2 versus -92.8 ± 85.2 dyne.s/cm5/m2with Prometheus and -30.7 ± 32.5 dyne.s/cm5/m2 with SMT; P < 0.05), while the cardiac index and central filling remained constant. This circulatory improvement in the MARS group was paralleled by a decrease in plasma renin activity (P < 0.05), aldosterone (P < 0.03), norepinephrine (P < 0.05), vasopressin (P = 0.005) and nitrate/nitrite levels (P < 0.02). Conclusion The MARS device, and not the Prometheus device, significantly attenuates the hyperdynamic circulation in acute-on-chronic liver failure, presumably by a difference in removal rate of

  2. Effect of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and Prometheus devices on systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive agents in patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Evenepoel, Pieter; Elst, Ingrid Vander; Zeegers, Marcel; Zaman, Zahur; Verslype, Chris; Fevery, Johan; Nevens, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure show an aggravated hyperdynamic circulation. We evaluated, in a controlled manner, potential changes in systemic haemodynamics induced by the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and the Prometheus system liver detoxification devices in a group of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Eighteen patients (51.2 +/- 2.3 years old; Child-Pugh score, 12.5 +/- 0.2; Maddrey score, 63.1 +/- 5.0; hepatic venous pressure gradient, 17.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg) with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis were either treated with standard medical therapy (SMT) combined with MARS (n = 6) or Prometheus (n = 6) or were treated with SMT alone (n = 6) on three consecutive days (6 hours/session). Liver tests, systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive substances were determined before and after each session. Groups were comparable for baseline haemodynamics and levels of vasoactive substances. Both MARS and Prometheus decreased serum bilirubin levels (P < 0.005 versus SMT), the Prometheus device being more effective than MARS (P = 0.002). Only MARS showed significant improvement in the mean arterial pressure (Deltachange, +9 +/- 2.4 mmHg versus -0.3 +/- 2.4 mmHg with Prometheus and -5.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg with SMT, P < 0.05) and in the systemic vascular resistance index (Deltachange, +131.5 +/- 46.2 dyne x s/cm5/m2 versus -92.8 +/- 85.2 dyne x s/cm5/m2 with Prometheus and -30.7 +/- 32.5 dyne x s/cm5/m2 with SMT; P < 0.05), while the cardiac index and central filling remained constant. This circulatory improvement in the MARS group was paralleled by a decrease in plasma renin activity (P < 0.05), aldosterone (P < 0.03), norepinephrine (P < 0.05), vasopressin (P = 0.005) and nitrate/nitrite levels (P < 0.02). The MARS device, and not the Prometheus device, significantly attenuates the hyperdynamic circulation in acute-on-chronic liver failure, presumably by a difference in removal rate of certain vasoactive

  3. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the space station mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.; Sharma, Govind C.; Beyl, Caula A.

    1990-01-01

    A desire for fresh vegetables for consumption during long term space missions has been foreseen. To meet this need in a microgravity environment within the limited space and energy available on Space Station requires highly productive vegetable cultivars of short stature to optimize vegetable production per volume available. Special water and nutrient delivery systems must also be utilized. As a first step towards fresh vegetable production in the microgravity of Space Station, several soil-less capillary action media were evaluated for the ability to support growth of two root crops (radish and carrot) which are under consideration for inclusion in a semi-automated system for production of salad vegetables in a microgravity environment (Salad Machine). In addition, productivity of different cultivars of radish was evaluated as well as the effect of planting density and cultivar on carrot production and size. Red Prince radish was more productive than Cherry Belle and grew best on Jiffy Mix Plus. During greenhouse studies, vermiculite and rock wool supported radish growth to a lesser degree than Jiffy Mix Plus but more than Cellular Rooting Sponge. Comparison of three carrot cultivars (Planet, Short n Sweet, and Goldinhart) and three planting densities revealed that Short n Sweet planted at 25.6 sq cm/plant had the greatest root fresh weight per pot, the shortest mean top length, and intermediate values of root length and top fresh weight per pot. Red Prince radish and Short n Sweet carrot showed potential as productive cultivars for use in a Salad Machine. Results of experiments with solid capillary action media were disappointing. Further research must be done to identify a solid style capillary action media which can productively support growth of root crops such as carrot and radish.

  4. PROMETHEUS: an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study of hypertriglyceridemia in Russia.

    PubMed

    Karpov, Yuri; Khomitskaya, Yunona

    2015-08-25

    Data regarding the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population are lacking, despite triglyceride (TG)-mediated pathways being causal in cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of mixed dyslipidemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population (PROMETHEUS) was undertaken to address this gap. This was an observational, cross-sectional retrospective study. Data from adults with a full/partial lipoprotein record who had blood analyses done at an INVITRO laboratory in Russia between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L); secondary endpoints included prevalence of borderline high, high, and very high TG and severe hypertriglyceridemia, defined as a TG level of 1.7 to <2.3, 2.3 to <5.6, ≥5.6, and ≥10.0 mmol/L, respectively. Statistical analyses involved the Wilcoxon and the Chi square tests. Correlations between log-transformed TG and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were assessed. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and TG levels in a nested sample of subjects with HbA1c and TG data was also assessed using a log-linear model. The full dataset and nested sample comprised 357,072 and 54,602 individuals, respectively. Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, borderline high TG, high TG, very high TG, and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the full dataset was 29.2, 16.2, 12.9, 0.11, and 0.011%, respectively; corresponding rates in the nested sample were 19.0, 17.2, 0.25, and 0.016%, respectively. TG levels were 16.4% higher in males versus females; males had a greater risk of hypertriglyceridemia (risk ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.24, 1.26; P < 0.0001). Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia increased with age, peaking at 40-49 years in males (42.8%) and 60-69 years in females (34.4%); a 0.61% increase in TG levels for each year of life was predicted. Hypertriglyceridemia prevalence increased

  5. A proposal to conduct a Caribbean plate project involving the application of space technology to the study of Caribbean geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The Caribbean plate project is designed to improve current understanding of geological resources and geological hazards within the Caribbean region. Models of mineral occurrence and genesis (including energy resources) on a regional scale, which contribute to nonrenewable resource investigations. Models of lithospheric stress and strain on a regional scale, which contribute to forecasting geological hazards such as earthquakes and major volcanic eruptions are developed. Geological information is synthesize, and research tools provided by space technology the study of the Earth's crust are used. The project was organized in a thematic fashion, to focus on specific geological aspects of the Caribbean plate which are considered to be key factors in developing the types of models described. The project adopts a synoptic perspective in seeking to characterize the three dimensional structure, composition, state of stress, and evolution of the entire Caribbean plate. Geological information derived from analysis of space acquired data is combined with information provided by conventional methods to obtain insight into the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust. In addition, very long baseline interferometry and laser ranging techniques, which are also based upon the use of space technology, obtain information concerning crustal motion that, in turn, provides insight into the distribution and localization of crustal stress.

  6. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the Space Station Mockup Facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.

    1992-01-01

    The Salad Machine Research has continued to be a two path effort with the research at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focusing on the design, construction, and operation of a semiautomated system (Salad Machine) for the production of salad vegetables within a standard rack. Boeing Corporation in cooperation with NASA MSFC constructed a four drawer Salad Machine which was occasionally placed within the Space Station Freedom Mockup facility for view by selected visitors. Final outfitting of the Salad Machine is awaiting the arrival of parts for the nutrient delivery system. Research at the Alabama A&M facilities focused on compatibility of radish and lettuce plants when grown on the same nutrient solution. Lettuce fresh weight shoot yield was significantly enhanced when lettuce plants were grown on nutrient solution which was shared with radish. Radish tuber production was not significantly affected although there was a trend for radish from shared solutions to be heavier than those grown on separate nutrient solutions. The effect of sharing nutrient solutions on carbohydrate partitioning reflected the effect of sharing solution on fresh weight yield. Lettuce shoot dry weight was significantly greater for plants from shared solutions than from separate. There was no significant effect on sharing nutrient solution on radish tuber dry weight. Partitioning of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and potassium was not affected by sharing, there was, however, a disproportionate amount of potassium in the tissues, suggesting luxury consumption of potassium in all plants and tissues. It is concluded that lettuce plants benefit from sharing nutrient solution with radish and that radish is not harmed.

  7. Putting ROSE to Work: A Proposed Application of a Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine for Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Muery, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Scheduling engines are found at the core of software systems that plan and schedule activities and resources. A Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) is one that processes a single request (adding a task to a timeline) and then waits for another request. For the International Space Station, a robust ROSE-based system would support multiple, simultaneous users, each formulating requests (defining scheduling requirements), submitting these requests via the internet to a single scheduling engine operating on a single timeline, and immediately viewing the resulting timeline. ROSE is significantly different from the engine currently used to schedule Space Station operations. The current engine supports essentially one person at a time, with a pre-defined set of requirements from many payloads, working in either a "batch" scheduling mode or an interactive/manual scheduling mode. A planning and scheduling process that takes advantage of the features of ROSE could produce greater customer satisfaction at reduced cost and reduced flow time. This paper describes a possible ROSE-based scheduling process and identifies the additional software component required to support it. Resulting changes to the management and control of the process are also discussed.

  8. Proposal of a Viable Commercial Space Infrastructure Scenario Introducing Robotic Vehicles in an Earth Orbit Environment and its Interfaces to the SPS-Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, R.; Sommer, B.

    2004-12-01

    The German Space Programme with respect to automation and robotics (A&R) is focussing on the development of on-orbit-servicing (OOS) technologies and the demonstration of their capabilities. The utilization of OOS-technologies could gradually lead to a complete restructuring of the way how we usually do space today. The proposed future infrastructure scenario VERSICA (VERsatile Space Infrastructure Concept for Applications in space) encloses many elements which are inevitable if it comes to the mounting and the operation of huge solar power plants in space. As a consequence the realization of the vision will come along with the qualification and verification of key technologies needed for any SPS infrastructure concept. Vice versa a profound SPS scenario will be a major driver for the requirements which future OOS elements will have to meet. On that score it is recommended to start a dialog between the supporters of SPS and OOS technologies. Thus the inherent synergies can be utilized to better meet the respective objectives.

  9. Treatment of pruritus with Prometheus dialysis and absorption system in a patient with benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Urszula; Jankowska, Irena; Hartleb, Marek; Jirsa, Milan; Pawłowska, Joanna; Czubkowski, Piotr; Krawczyk, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is an autosomal recessive liver disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of jaundice and itching. Episodes of cholestasis last variously from 1 week to several months, may start at any age and usually resolve spontaneously. No effective treatment has been found as yet. We report a case of genetically proven BRIC in a male patient who developed three episodes of pruritus and jaundice at the age of 14, 16 and 19 years. During the third episode, he did not respond to pharmacological medical therapy, and fractionated plasma separation and absorption (FPSA, Prometheus) was performed to manage intractable pruritus. The treatment immediately alleviated pruritus, lowered serum bilirubin concentration and induced sustained remission in the 5-year follow up. FPSA seems to be a safe and effective way of treatment for BRIC in patients with severe pruritus and prolonged jaundice.

  10. Common benefit from a perspective of "Non-traditional Partners": A proposed agenda to address the status quo in Global Space Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganaba-Jeanty, Timiebi

    2015-12-01

    It is presupposed that there is a dominant position in interpreting the freedom of Outer Space which has not given much real significance to the idea of common benefit. The reason that this causes difficulty is that there is an ambiguity to common benefit. This dominant position however sees the issue of benefit sharing in the context of the perceived tension between established space faring nations and emerging and aspirant States and the idea that freedom could take on a different meaning depending on where one is on the scale of development. It fails to recognize that solutions to contemporary and historical governance challenges have been much less oriented towards the interests of less developed States or new entrants, making the accrual and sharing of benefits dependent on the free will of those States able to carry out a variety of space activities independently. As a result of this, the debate around common benefit is exploited to seek individual benefit derived for a State as opposed to what our effort to use space collectively can generate. In recent times, the issue has not received much attention. This is because it is believed to be partly resolved through normative frameworks such as Article 1 of the Outer Space Treaty and the Space Benefits Declaration. While an attempt to re-address historical contentious issues, asserted to be resolved, may appear illusory or futile; such analysis can be useful depending on the account that the reader believes should be given to the normative character of human nature. To this end, the writings of legal, political and social theorists and methodologies from Critical Legal Schools may prove insightful for a deeper contextualization of the historical debate, the current understanding of the freedoms of Outer Space as well as unearth future perspectives to aid in addressing the current pressing space related issue of our time: Sustainability of Space Activities. This article proposes three main issue areas to

  11. Phase i study evaluating the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with carbon ion radiotherapy: the PROMETHEUS-01 trial.

    PubMed

    Combs, Stephanie E; Habermehl, Daniel; Ganten, Tom; Schmidt, Jan; Edler, Lutz; Burkholder, Iris; Jäkel, Oliver; Haberer, Thomas; Debus, Jürgen

    2011-02-12

    Treatment options for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are often limited. In most cases, they are not amenable to local therapies including surgery or radiofrequency ablation. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown to increase overall survival in this patient group for about 3 months.Radiation therapy is a treatment alternative, however, high local doses are required for long-term local control. However, due to the relatively low radiation tolerance of liver normal tissue, even using stereotactic techniques, delivery of sufficient doses for successful local tumor control has not be achieved to date.Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 2 and 3 depending on the HCC cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed.Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with HCC. In the current Phase I-PROMETHEUS-01-Study, carbon ion radiotherapy will be evaluated for patients with advanced HCC. The study will be performed as a dose-escalation study evaluating the optimal carbon ion dose with respect to toxicity and tumor control.Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoint is progression-free survival and response. The Prometheus-01 trial ist the first trial evaluating carbon ion radiotherapy delivered by intensity-modulated rasterscanning for the treatment of HCC. Within this Phase I dose escalation study, the optimal dose of carbon ion radiotherapy will be determined. NCT 01167374.

  12. Phase i study evaluating the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with carbon ion radiotherapy: The PROMETHEUS-01 trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment options for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are often limited. In most cases, they are not amenable to local therapies including surgery or radiofrequency ablation. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown to increase overall survival in this patient group for about 3 months. Radiation therapy is a treatment alternative, however, high local doses are required for long-term local control. However, due to the relatively low radiation tolerance of liver normal tissue, even using stereotactic techniques, delivery of sufficient doses for successful local tumor control has not be achieved to date. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 2 and 3 depending on the HCC cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with HCC. Methods/Design In the current Phase I-PROMETHEUS-01-Study, carbon ion radiotherapy will be evaluated for patients with advanced HCC. The study will be performed as a dose-escalation study evaluating the optimal carbon ion dose with respect to toxicity and tumor control. Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoint is progression-free survival and response. Discussion The Prometheus-01 trial ist the first trial evaluating carbon ion radiotherapy delivered by intensity-modulated rasterscanning for the treatment of HCC. Within this Phase I dose escalation study, the optimal dose of carbon ion radiotherapy will be determined. Trial registration NCT 01167374 PMID:21314962

  13. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the

  14. Market Driven Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2004-02-01

    Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA's recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance Jupiter type missions, but it also important for providing greater access to planets and bodies nearer to the Earth. NASA has been working with industrial partners since 1987 through its Research Partnerships Centers (RPCs) to utilize the attributes of space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Plans are now being made to utilize the RPCs and industrial partners in extending the duration and boundaries of human space flight to create new opportunities for exploration and discovery. Private investors are considering setting up shops in LEO for commercial purposes. The trend is for more industrial involvement in space. Nuclear power and propulsion will hasten the progress. The objective of this paper is to show the progression of space market driven research and its potential for supporting space exploration given nuclear power and propulsion capabilities.

  15. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  16. Analysis of Proposed 2007-2008 Revisions to the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for United States Space Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Krider, E. Phillip; Merceret, Francis J.; Willett, John C.; Bateman, Monte G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Walterscheid, Richard; O'Brien, T. Paul; Christian, Hugh J.

    2008-01-01

    Ascending space vehicles are vulnerable to both natural and triggered lightning. Launches under the jurisdiction of the United States are generally subject to a set of rules called the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider etal., 1999; Krider etal., 2006). The LLCC protect both the vehicle and the public by assuring that the launch does not take place in conditions posing a significant risk of a lightning strike to the ascending vehicle. Such a strike could destroy the vehicle and its payload, thus causing failure of the mission while releasing both toxic materials and debris. To assure safety, the LLCC are conservative and sometimes they may seriously limit the ability of the launch operator to fly as scheduled even when conditions are benign. In order to safely reduce the number of launch scrubs and delays attributable to the LLCC, the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM II) program was undertaken in 2000 - 2001. The effort was directed to collecting detailed high-quality data on the electrical, microphysical, radar and meteorological properties of thunderstorm-associated clouds. Details may be found in Dye et al., 2007. The expectation was that this additional knowledge would provide a better physical basis for the LLCC and allow them to be revised to be less restrictive while remaining at least as safe. That expectation was fulfilled, leading to significant revisions to the LLCC in 2003 and 2005. The 2005 revisions included the application of a new radar-derived quantity called the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) in the rules governing flight through anvil clouds. VAHIRR is the product of the volume averaged radar reflectivity times the radardetermined cloud thickness. The reflectivity average extends horizontally 5 km west, east, south and north of a point along the flight track and vertically from the 0 C isotherm to the top of the radar cloud. This region is defined as the "Specified Volume". See Dye et al., 2006 and Merceret et

  17. A PROPOSAL TO MEASURE THE CROSS SECTION OF THE SPACE STAR IN NEUTRON-DEUTERON BREAKUP IN A RECOIL GEOMETRY SETUP

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin J. Crowe III

    2009-09-30

    Nucleon-deuteron (Nd) breakup is an important tool for obtaining a better understanding of three-nucleon (3N) dynamics and for developing meson exchange descriptions of nuclear systems. The kinematics of the nd breakup reaction enable observables to be studied in a variety of exit-channel configurations that show sensitivity to realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential models and three-nucleon force (3NF) models. Rigorous 3N calculations give very good descriptions of most 3N reaction data. However, there are still some serious discrepancies between data and theory. The largest discrepancy observed between theory and data for nd breakup is for the cross section for the space-star configuration. This discrepancy is known as the “Space star Anomaly”. Several experimental groups have obtained results consistent with the “Space Star Anomaly”, but it is important to note that they all used essentially the same experimental setup and so their experimental results are subject to the same systematic errors. We propose to measure the space-star cross-section at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using an experimental technique that is significantly different from the one used in previous breakup experiments. This technique has been used by a research group from the University of Bonn to measure the neutron-neutron scattering length. There are three possible scenarios for the outcome of this work: 1) the new data are consistent with previous measurements; 2) the new data are not in agreement with previous measurements, but are in agreement with theory; and 3) the new data are not in agreement with either theory or previous measurements. Any one of the three scenarios will provide valuable insight on the Space Star Anomaly.

  18. Long-term therapy of a patient with summerskill-walshe-tygstrup syndrome by applying prometheus® liver dialysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Walensi, Mikolaj; Canbay, Ali; Witzke, Oliver; Gerken, Guido; Kahraman, Alisan

    2012-05-01

    Summerskill-Walshe-Tygstrup syndrome is a rare benign chronic liver disease characterized by recurring cholestasis with jaundice and severe pruritus. Due to insufficient conservative treatment, liver dialysis by Prometheus(®) was applied to a 45-year-old female patient with resistant pruritus. Initially, other possible liver diseases were excluded and the patient was treated symptomatically since the diagnosis of Summerskill-Walshe-Tygstrup was stated in 1998. As conservative and endoscopic methods progressively failed to relieve the patient's suffering, Prometheus(®) liver dialysis was performed regularly since 2006 at 3-month intervals and successfully led to a decrease in the patient's symptoms. Cholestatic liver enzymes and also serum bile acids could be lowered significantly from an average of 22.5 ± 2.7 to 7.3 ± 1.7 µmol/l. Consequently, Prometheus(®) liver dialysis may be a beneficial option for patients with benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis suffering from therapy-resistant symptoms and may be used as well as other extracorporeal liver support devices which have already been reported to improve cholestatic pruritus.

  19. Long-Term Therapy of a Patient with Summerskill-Walshe-Tygstrup Syndrome by Applying Prometheus® Liver Dialysis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Walensi, Mikolaj; Canbay, Ali; Witzke, Oliver; Gerken, Guido; Kahraman, Alisan

    2012-01-01

    Summerskill-Walshe-Tygstrup syndrome is a rare benign chronic liver disease characterized by recurring cholestasis with jaundice and severe pruritus. Due to insufficient conservative treatment, liver dialysis by Prometheus® was applied to a 45-year-old female patient with resistant pruritus. Initially, other possible liver diseases were excluded and the patient was treated symptomatically since the diagnosis of Summerskill-Walshe-Tygstrup was stated in 1998. As conservative and endoscopic methods progressively failed to relieve the patient's suffering, Prometheus® liver dialysis was performed regularly since 2006 at 3-month intervals and successfully led to a decrease in the patient's symptoms. Cholestatic liver enzymes and also serum bile acids could be lowered significantly from an average of 22.5 ± 2.7 to 7.3 ± 1.7 µmol/l. Consequently, Prometheus® liver dialysis may be a beneficial option for patients with benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis suffering from therapy-resistant symptoms and may be used as well as other extracorporeal liver support devices which have already been reported to improve cholestatic pruritus. PMID:22949896

  20. Detoxifying capacity and kinetics of prometheus--a new extracorporeal system for the treatment of liver failure.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, Pieter; Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Claes, Kathleen; Maes, Bart; Kuypers, Dirk; Bammens, Bert; Nevens, Frederik; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Extracorporeal liver support therapies have been used for several decades as a bridging therapy prior to liver transplantation or as an addendum to standard medical therapy. The Prometheus system represents a cell-free, extracorporeal, liver assist method for the removal of both albumin-bound and water-soluble endogenous toxins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the removal capacity and selectivity of the different inbuilt dialyzers and adsorption columns during a single 6-hour treatment. Nine patients with acute on chronic liver failure were included (6 females, age 49+/- 4 years). Levels of endogenous toxins (urea nitrogen [UN, mg/dl], creatinine [Cr, mg/dl], total bilirubin [tB, mg/dl], and bile acids [BA, mumol/l]) and albumin [Alb, g/l] were monitored in blood sampled at different sites (arterial line, venous line and between the absorbers and the high-flux dialyzer) and at various time points (time 0, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min). A significant decrease of the serum level of all toxins was observed (UN 108.7+/- 23.2 vs. 38.1+/- 14.9, Cr 2.4+/- 0.7 vs. 1.2+/- 0.3, tB 31.1+/- 4.1 vs. 17.0+/- 1.6, BA 155.7+/- 32.5 vs. 66.0+/- 15.4; mean+/- SEM, time 0 vs. time 360, signed rank rest, all p< 0.005). The reduction rate of UN, Cr, tB and BA amounted to 68.1+/- 5.1, 45.9+/- 6.2, 41.2+/- 5.1, and 58.2+/- 5.0%, respectively. Blood clearances [Cl, ml/min] of all, but especially of the protein-bound toxins declined over time (Cl UN 171.5+/- 4.3 vs. 142.9+/- 16.8; Cl Cr 135.7+/- 10.0 vs. 111.8+/- 9.1; Cl tB 29.3+/- 5.1 vs. 13.7+/- 3.7; Cl BA 84.9+/- 4.8 vs. 45.1+/- 13.3; time 30 vs. time 360; linear mixed models, all p< 0.005). Serum albumin levels decreased by 2.9+/- 0.9 g/l (signed rank test, p=0.055). Not unexpectedly, tB was almost uniquely cleared by the adsorbers (UN 0.2+/-1.1, Cr 6.9+/- 5.7, tB 92.3+/- 4.2, BA 62.9+/- 3.9% of total Cl). Both albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins are adequately removed by the Prometheus system. Our data suggest that

  1. Future developments in planetary Fourier transform spectroscopy at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasunas, John C.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) has a long history at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Rudy Hanel developed a series of such instruments for Earth, Mars and the two Voyager spacecraft. More recently as part of the Cassini mission, the CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) FTS was launched in 1997 for the 2000-2001 Jupiter flyby and the 2004-2008+ Saturn tour. At about 40 kg, CIRS is both too heavy and too light for future planetary missions. It is too heavy for future Discovery and New Frontier missions, where the emphasis is on low-mass, low-power instrumentation. On the other hand, CIRS could be heavier to take full advantage of future Prometheus missions such as JIMO. Here we discuss future development of CIRS-like FTS"s for both Discovery/New Frontier and for Prometheus flight opportunities. We also briefly discuss possible applications in the Moon/Mars exploration initiative.

  2. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-04

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  3. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  4. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  5. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  7. MicroRNAs and genomic variations: from Proteus tricks to Prometheus gift.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Muller; Valeri, Nicola; Calin, George A

    2009-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with regulatory functions. MiRNAs are aberrantly expressed in almost all human cancers, leading to abnormal levels of target genes. Recently, an increasing number of studies have addressed whether genomic variations including germ line or somatic mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms can count for miRNA abnormal expression by altering their biogenesis and/or affect the ability of miRNAs to bind to target messenger RNAs. Here, we provide an extensive review of the studies that have investigated variations occurring both in miRNA genes and in target genes and we discuss the possible clinical implications of these findings. Furthermore, we propose that sequence variations in miRNAs or interactor sites located in mRNAs can be involved in cancer predisposition.

  8. An Analysis of the California Community Colleges Library Space Standards with Proposed Revisions to the California Code of Regulations, Title 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmer, Linda

    This document serves as a "talking paper" for the Consultation Task Force for Library Space Standards. The current required formulae for planning library and learning resource facilities for community colleges in California are found in the California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 5, Section 57030, "Library Space." This…

  9. Opioid overuse pain syndrome (OOPS): the story of opioids, prometheus unbound.

    PubMed

    Mehendale, Anand W; Goldman, Mark P; Mehendale, Rachel P

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, opioids have effectively alleviated pain but not without the risk of addiction and death. Seductive and dangerous, full of promise and destruction, opioids are both revered and feared by Western culture. Their exponential use in "developed countries" is now an enormous public health problem and requires us to harness their properties with scientific rigor and adequate safeguards. The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic nonterminal pain (CNTP) has been a relatively new phenomenon which has coincided with the proclamation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization in 2000 that pain assessment be the "fifth vital sign," notwithstanding the fact that pain is a symptom and not a sign.(1) Nonetheless, this resulted in a culture of a marked increase in use of opioids for acute and chronic pain management. Consequently, there are many unintended outcomes which include opioid-induced hyperalgesia increased diversion, addiction, and death. Understandably, this has resulted in many regulatory responses from such agencies such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and state medical boards. This article proposes a clinically relevant paradigm of opioid overuse pain syndrome. The goal of this article is to inform the clinicians of the complicated neurobiology of opioids. It is our hope that scientists rather than government regulators dictate the appropriate response to the epidemic of over prescription of opioids. A similar designation of "medication overuse headache" has resulted in near extinction of excessive use of opioids in the field of headache medicine.

  10. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  11. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ``Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  12. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  13. Successful treatment of refractory cerebral oedema in ecstasy/cocaine-induced fulminant hepatic failure using a new high-efficacy liver detoxification device (FPSA-Prometheus).

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ludwig; Bauer, Edith; Schenk, Peter; Steininger, Rudolf; Vigl, Marion; Mallek, Reinhold

    2003-09-15

    Ecstasy-induced fulminant hepatic failure is associated with high mortality. If complicated by cerebral oedema, orthotopic liver transplantation is the only established treatment. We report a case of combined ecstasy/cocaine-induced fulminant hepatic failure presenting with severe rhabdomyolysis, myocardial infarction and multiorgan failure. Transplantation was declined by the transplant surgeons because of a history of intravenous drug abuse. As excessive hyperammonaemia (318 mumol/l) and refractory transtentorial herniation developed, treatment with a new liver detoxification device combining high-flux haemodialysis and adsorption (FPSA-Prometheus) was initiated. Within a few hours of treatment, ammonia levels normalised. Cerebral oedema was greatly reduced by day 4 and hepatic function gradually recovered. Following neurologic rehabilitation for ischaemic sequelae of herniation, the patient was discharged from hospital with only minimal deficits. In conclusion, efficient extracorporeal detoxification may be an option for reversal of hyperammonaemia and refractory cerebral oedema in ecstasy/cocaine-induced acute liver failure.

  14. A 15-year-old girl with severe hemolytic Wilson's crisis recovered without transplantation after extracorporeal circulation with the Prometheus system.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Thomsen, Karen Louise; Holland-Fischer, Peter; Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Ott, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) can present in a fulminant form with hepatocellular dysfunction, hemolysis and multiorgan failure (Wilson's crisis). We present a previously healthy young woman with severe WD whose WD severity score was 13. A score >11 indicates a poor chance of survival and liver transplantation will usually be recommended. Penicillamine and acetylcysteine were initially administered, but the patient deteriorated further, and extracorporeal liver support with the Prometheus FPSA (fractionated plasma separation and adsorption) system was initiated. The patient was treated 6 h daily during 3 consecutive days. Severe hemolysis was reduced to low-grade hemolysis, with no further need for transfusions. The mental state improved and after 4 months practically all biochemical markers were normalized. This is the first report of FPSA albumin dialysis of a patient with Wilson's crisis and the first report in which a patient with a WD score >11 survived without transplantation.

  15. The science of Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauskopf, Seymour

    2012-10-01

    For roughly the last half century, chemistry has perhaps been the most disparaged of the sciences. Among members of the public, the very word "chemical" has come to have opprobrious connotations, and some physicists (and even chemists) have argued that chemistry is reducible to physics, and thus not truly an independent science.

  16. Prometheus College Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austell, David B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on interviews conducted to assess the status of humanities instruction in North Carolina's community colleges. Includes Dallas Herring's reflections on the establishment and growth of the state's community college system. Summarizes interviews with central office representatives and two-year college managers concerning the mission and…

  17. Television: Education's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)

  18. Prometheus College Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austell, David B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on interviews conducted to assess the status of humanities instruction in North Carolina's community colleges. Includes Dallas Herring's reflections on the establishment and growth of the state's community college system. Summarizes interviews with central office representatives and two-year college managers concerning the mission and…

  19. Television: Education's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)

  20. Prometheus the impostor.

    PubMed Central

    Laor, N

    1985-01-01

    The problem of scientific fraud has been used to indict the whole system of science. The response of the scientific community has been understandably heated but insufficient. The discussion seems to have reached an impasse as both parties in the dispute share mistaken views. A switch is needed to a framework in which the democratic foundation of the scientific society and the free spirit of scientific inquiry can be preserved. PMID:3918715

  1. Proposal Improvements That Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, F.

    1998-01-01

    Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, an operating location of Boeing in Canoga Park, California is under contract with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama for design, development, production, and mission support of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). The contract was restructured in 1996 to emphasize a mission contracting environment under which Rocketdyne supports the Space Transportation System launch manifest of seven flights a year without the need for a detailed list of contract deliverables such as nozzles, turbopumps, and combustion devices. This contract structure is in line with the overall Space Shuttle program goals established by the NASA to fly safely, meet the flight manifest, and reduce cost. Rocketdyne's Contracts, Pricing, and Estimating team has worked for the past several years with representatives from MSFC, the local Defense Contract Management Command, and the DCAA to improve the quality of cost proposals to MSFC for contract changes on the SSME. The contract changes on the program result primarily from engineering change proposals for product enhancements to improve safety, maintainability, or operability in the space environment. This continuous improvement team effort has been successful in improving proposal quality, reducing cycle time, and reducing cost. Some of the principal lessons learned are highlighted here to show how proposal improvements can be implemented to enhance customer satisfaction and ensure cost proposals can be evaluated easily by external customers.

  2. Proposed dynamic phase difference method for the detection of tile debonding from the space shuttle orbiter. [recertification techniques for the orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noncontracting, semi-global, dynamic technique was developed for detecting loose tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. In laboratory tests on a single tile, the substrate was excited into lateral motion at a constant frequency and amplitude of 2g. The phase relationship between the motions of tile and substrate was examined by noncontacting probes in order to relate the dynamic properties of the tile SIP system to its fatigue history; by a visual technique using a stroboscope and split screen video monitor for practical application in the field. When the substrate is excited at an appropriate frequency (between 30 and 60 Hz), a good tile moves in phase and a loose tile out of phase with the substrate. The out of phase motion is readily observable in the form of a "beat" between the tile and a reference marker on the substrate.

  3. Proposal to National Aeronautics and Space Administration for continuation of a grazing incidence imaging telescope for X-ray astronomy using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of a high resolution imaging telescope experiment payload suitable for launch on an Astrobee F sounding rocket was proposed. Also integration, launch, and subsequent data analysis effort were included. The payload utilizes major component subassemblies from the HEAO-B satellite program which were nonflight development units for that program. These were the X ray mirror and high resolution imager brassboard detector. The properties of the mirror and detector were discussed. The availability of these items for a sounding rocket experiment were explored with the HEAO-B project office.

  4. Proposed Facility Modifications to Support Propulsion Systems Testing Under Simulated Space Conditions at Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Preparing NASA's Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) to support NASA's new generation of launch vehicles has raised many challenges for B-2 s support staff. The facility provides a unique capability to test chemical propulsion systems/vehicles while simulating space thermal and vacuum environments. Designed and constructed 4 decades ago to support upper stage cryogenic engine/vehicle system development, the Plum Brook Station B-2 facility will require modifications to support the larger, more powerful, and more advanced engine systems for the next generation of vehicles leaving earth's orbit. Engine design improvements over the years have included large area expansion ratio nozzles, greater combustion chamber pressures, and advanced materials. Consequently, it has become necessary to determine what facility changes are required and how the facility can be adapted to support varying customers and their specific test needs. Instrumental in this task is understanding the present facility capabilities and identifying what reasonable changes can be implemented. A variety of approaches and analytical tools are being employed to gain this understanding. This paper discusses some of the challenges in applying these tools to this project and expected facility configuration to support the varying customer needs.

  5. Proposed Facility Modifications to Support Propulsion Systems Testing Under Simulated Space Conditions at Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Preparing NASA's Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) to support NASA's new generation of launch vehicles has raised many challenges for B-2's support staff. The facility provides a unique capability to test chemical propulsion systems/vehicles while simulating space thermal and vacuum environments. Designed and constructed in the early 1960s to support upper stage cryogenic engine/vehicle system development, the Plum Brook Station B-2 facility will require modifications to support the larger, more powerful, and more advanced engine systems for the next generation of vehicles leaving earth's orbit. Engine design improvements over the years have included large area expansion ratio nozzles, greater combustion chamber pressures, and advanced materials. Consequently, it has become necessary to determine what facility changes are required and how the facility can be adapted to support varying customers and their specific test needs. Exhaust system performance, including understanding the present facility capabilities, is the primary focus of this work. A variety of approaches and analytical tools are being employed to gain this understanding. This presentation discusses some of the challenges in applying these tools to this project and expected facility configuration to support the varying customer needs.

  6. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  7. A Proposal for a Space Flight Demonstration of a Dynamically Reconfigurable Programmable Module Which Uses Firmware to Realise an Astrium Patented Cosmic Random Number Generator for Generating Secure Cryptographic Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Adam; Bennie, Peter; Guyon, Fredric; Cameron, Iain; Glanfield, James; Emam, Omar

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a space flight demonstration of a low power, compact Dynamically Reconfigurable Programmable Board (DRPB) based upon a minor evolution of the Astrium Janus payload for UKube 1. The Janus payload is one of a number of the payloads selected to be part of the first national UK-Cube satellite (UKube) [1] to be sponsored by the UK Space Agency. In the UKube configuration the demonstrator performs two experiments the first uses firmware to realise an Astrium patented cosmic random number generator for generating secure cryptographic keys while the second monitors the large high performance SRAM based FPGA for SEU and SEFI events allowing correlation with predicted upset rates. This experiment is called the Janus experiment after the two-faced roman god of beginnings and transitions, transitioning from clear text to encrypted and marking the beginning of flying advanced FPGA's on suitable missions.

  8. Space America's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space America prepared a private sector land observing space system which includes a sensor system with eight spectral channels configured for stereoscopic data acquisition of four stereo pairs, a spacecraft bus with active three-axis stabilization, a ground station for data acquisition, preprocessing and retransmission. The land observing system is a component of Space America's end-to-end system for Earth resources management, monitoring and exploration. In the context of the Federal Government's program of commercialization of the US land remote sensing program, Space America's space system is characteristic of US industry's use of advanced technology and of commercial, entrepreneurial management. Well before the issuance of the Request for Proposals for Transfer of the United States Land Remote Sensing Program to the Private Sector by the US Department of Commerce, Space Services, Inc., the managing venturer of Space America, used private funds to develop and manage its sub-orbital launch of its Conestoga launch vehicle.

  9. A Study to Compare the Failure Rates of Current Space Shuttle Ground Support Equipment with the New Pathfinder Equipment and Investigate the Effect that the Proposed GSE Infrastructure Upgrade Might Have to Reduce GSE Infrastructure Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to compare the current Space Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) infrastructure with the proposed GSE infrastructure upgrade modification. The methodology will include analyzing the first prototype installation equipment at Launch PAD B called the "Pathfinder". This study will begin by comparing the failure rate of the current components associated with the "Hardware interface module (HIM)" at the Kennedy Space Center to the failure rate of the neW Pathfinder components. Quantitative data will be gathered specifically on HIM components and the PAD B Hypergolic Fuel facility and Hypergolic Oxidizer facility areas which has the upgraded pathfinder equipment installed. The proposed upgrades include utilizing industrial controlled modules, software, and a fiber optic network. The results of this study provide evidence that there is a significant difference in the failure rates of the two studied infrastructure equipment components. There is also evidence that the support staff for each infrastructure system is not equal. A recommendation to continue with future upgrades is based on a significant reduction of failures in the new' installed ground system components.

  10. Program Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  11. Use of prasugrel vs clopidogrel and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in contemporary clinical practice: Results from the PROMETHEUS study.

    PubMed

    Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna; Kapadia, Samir; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Muhlestein, J Brent; Toma, Catalin; Rao, Sunil V; DeFranco, Anthony; Poddar, Kanhaiya L; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Weintraub, William; Henry, Timothy D; Bansilal, Sameer; Baker, Brian A; Marrett, Elizabeth; Keller, Stuart; Effron, Mark; Pocock, Stuart; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the frequency of use and association between prasugrel and outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. PROMETHEUS was a multicenter observational registry of acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing PCI from 8 centers in the United States that maintained a prospective PCI registry for patient outcomes. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular events at 90days, a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or unplanned revascularization. Major bleeding was defined as any bleeding requiring hospitalization or blood transfusion. Hazard ratios (HRs) were generated using multivariable Cox regression and stratified by the propensity to treat with prasugrel. Of 19,914 patients (mean age 64.4years, 32% female), 4,058 received prasugrel (20%) and 15,856 received clopidogrel (80%). Prasugrel-treated patients were younger with fewer comorbid risk factors compared with their counterparts receiving clopidogrel. At 90days, there was a significant association between prasugrel use and lower major adverse cardiovascular event (5.7% vs 9.6%, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.67, P<.0001) and bleeding (1.9% vs 2.9%, HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.83, P<.001). After propensity stratification, associations were attenuated and no longer significant for either outcome. Results remained consistent using different approaches to adjusting for potential confounders. In contemporary clinical practice, patients receiving prasugrel tend to have a lower-risk profile compared with those receiving clopidogrel. The lower ischemic and bleeding events associated with prasugrel use were no longer evident after accounting for these baseline differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  13. TCLS ARM for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupat, Jean-Luc; Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic "COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL".This paper presents the status on this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  14. Space Station - Implications for space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingey, D. L.; Willenberg, H. J.; Atkins, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Space-based materials processing R&D is examined. It is proposed that the Space Station's Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility will be utilized by academic, government, and commercial customers. Users requirements for materials processing in space are discussed. Consideration is given to the time allocation of the facility, charges to users, and the property rights of the users.

  15. NESTEC - New Space Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, F.

    2009-04-01

    The EU / NESTEC proposal is a dedicated project to study a new spacecraft concept for space weather purposes. This includes a new satellite bus technology, a new space weather storm particle detection technology and a new EUV solar telescope.

  16. Sex-related differences in outcomes among men and women under 55 years of age with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the PROMETHEUS study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Faggioni, Michela; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna; Weintraub, William; Rao, Sunil; Kapadia, Samir; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Toma, Catalin; Muhlestein, Brent; DeFranco, Anthony; Effron, Mark; Keller, Stuart; Baker, Brian; Pocock, Stuart; Henry, Timothy; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-03-01

    Young women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) experience greater adverse events than men, potentially due to under-treatment. We sought to compare the 1-year outcomes by sex in patients ≤55 years of age from a contemporary PCI cohort. PROMETHEUS was a retrospective multicenter observational US study comparing outcomes in clopidogrel and prasugrel treated patients following ACS PCI. MACE was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke or unplanned revascularization. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Hazard ratios were generated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. The study cohort included 4,851 patients of which 1,162 (24.0%) were women and 3,689 (76.0%) were men. In this cohort, the prevalence of diabetes (41.0 vs. 27.9%) and chronic kidney disease (12.7 vs. 7.2%) was higher among women compared with men. Irrespective of sex, prasugrel was used in less than one-third of patients (31.8% in men vs. 28.1% in women, P = 0.01). Unadjusted, 1-year MACE (21.1% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.001) and bleeding (3.6% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.01) was significantly higher in women compared with men, but these results were no longer significant after adjustment for risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36 for MACE and HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.85-2.04 for bleeding). Women ≤ 55 years of age undergoing ACS PCI have significantly greater comorbidities than young men. Despite a higher risk clinical phenotype in women, prasugrel use was significantly lower in women than men. Female sex was associated with a significantly higher risk of 1-year MACE and bleeding than male sex, findings that are attributable to baseline differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  18. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  19. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I)—a class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for cosmic vision 2015-2025: 2010 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braxmaier, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg; Foulon, Bernard; Göklü, Ertan; Grimani, Catia; Guo, Jian; Herrmann, Sven; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ni, Wei-Tou; Peters, Achim; Rievers, Benny; Samain, Étienne; Selig, Hanns; Shaul, Diana; Svehla, Drazen; Touboul, Pierre; Wang, Gang; Wu, An-Ming; Zakharov, Alexander F.

    2012-10-01

    ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test General Relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over 3 orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system; and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, thereby probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTROD I goals.For this mission, accurate pulse timing with an ultra-stable clock, and a drag-free spacecraft with reliable inertial sensor are required. T2L2 has demonstrated the required accurate pulse timing; rubidium clock on board Galileo has mostly demonstrated the required clock stability; the accelerometer on board GOCE has paved the way for achieving the reliable inertial sensor; the demonstration of LISA Pathfinder will provide an excellent platform for the implementation of the ASTROD I drag-free spacecraft. These European activities comprise the pillars for building up the mission and make the technologies needed ready. A second mission, ASTROD or ASTROD-GW (depending on the results of ASTROD I), is envisaged as a three-spacecraft mission which, in the case of ASTROD, would test General Relativity to one part per billion, enable detection of solar g-modes, measure the solar Lense-Thirring effect to 10 parts per million, and probe gravitational waves at frequencies below the LISA bandwidth, or in the case of ASTROD-GW, would be

  20. PROspective MEmory Training to improve HEart failUre Self-care (PROMETHEUS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jan; Rendell, Peter G; Ski, Chantal F; Kure, Christina E; McLennan, Skye N; Rose, Nathan S; Prior, David L; Thompson, David R

    2015-04-29

    Cognitive impairment is seen in up to three quarters of heart failure (HF) patients and has a significant negative impact on patients' health outcomes. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, is important for functional independence in older adults and involves application of multiple cognitive processes that are often impaired in HF patients. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of prospective memory training on patients' engagement in HF self-care and health outcomes, carer strain and quality of life. The proposed study is a randomised, controlled trial in which 200 patients diagnosed with HF, and their carers will be recruited from 3 major hospitals across Melbourne. Eligible patients with HF will be randomised to receive either: 1) The Virtual Week Training Program - a computerised prospective memory (PM) training program (intervention) or 2) non-adaptive computer-based word puzzles (active control). HF patients' baseline cognitive function will be compared to a healthy control group (n = 60) living independently in the community. Patients will undergo a comprehensive assessment of PM, neuropsychological functioning, self-care, physical, and emotional functioning. Assessments will take place at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 months following intervention. Carers will complete measures assessing quality of life, strain, perceived control in the management of the patients' HF symptoms, and ratings of the patients' level of engagement in HF self-care behaviours. If the Virtual Week Training Program is effective in improving: 1) prospective memory; 2) self-care behaviours, and 3) wellbeing in HF patients, this study will enhance our understanding of impaired cognitive processes in HF and potentially is a mechanism to reduce healthcare costs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #366376; 27 May 2014. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366376&isClinicalTrial=False .

  1. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    D. Poeth

    2005-12-09

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that {sup 10}B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights.

  2. Making Space for Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Introduces some ideas for using space in classrooms. Provides a rationale for using space as part of the curriculum and focuses on the concept of a space mission as a vehicle for learning. Includes a list of some space-related web sites. (DDR)

  3. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  4. Astronomer's Proposal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) is a computer program that assists astronomers in preparing their Phase 1 and Phase 2 Hubble Space Telescope science programs. APT is a successor to the Remote Proposal Submission System 2 (RPS2) program, which has been rendered obsolete by more recent advances in computer software and hardware. APT exploits advances associated with widespread use of the Internet, multiplatform visual development software tools, and overall increases in the power of desktop computer hardware, all in such a way as to make the preparation and submission of proposals more intuitive and make observatory operations less cumbersome. APT provides documentation and help that are friendly, up to date, and easily accessible to users of varying levels of expertise, while defining an extensible framework that is responsive to changes in both technology and observatory operations. APT consists of two major components: (1) a set of software tools that are intuitive, visual, and responsive and (2) an integrated software environment that unifies all the tools and makes them interoperable. The APT tools include the Visual Target Tuner, Proposal Editor, Exposure Planner, Bright Object Checker, and Visit Planner.

  5. Prometheus's heart: what lies beneath.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    A heart attack kills off many cells in the heart. Parts of the heart become thin and fail to contract properly following the replacement of lost cells by scar tissue. However, the notion that the same adult cardiomyocytes beat throughout the lifespan of the organ and organism, without the need for a minimum turnover, gives way to a fascinating investigations. Since the late 1800s, scientists and cardiologists wanted to demonstrate that the cardiomyocytes cannot be generated after the perinatal period in human beings. This curiosity has been passed down in subsequent years and has motivated more and more accurate studies in an attempt to exclude the presence of renewed cardiomyocytes in the tissue bordering the ischaemic area, and then to confirm the dogma of the heart as terminally differentiated organ. Conversely, peri-lesional mitosis of cardiomyocytes were discovered initially by light microscopy and subsequently confirmed by more sophisticated technologies. Controversial evidence of mechanisms underlying myocardial regeneration has shown that adult cardiomyocytes are renewed through a slow turnover, even in the absence of damage. This turnover is ensured by the activation of rare clusters of progenitor cells interspersed among the cardiac cells functionally mature. Cardiac progenitor cells continuously interact with each other, with the cells circulating in the vessels of the coronary microcirculation and myocardial cells in auto-/paracrine manner. Much remains to be understood; however, the limited functional recovery in human beings after myocardial injury clearly demonstrates weak regenerative potential of cardiomyocytes and encourages the development of new approaches to stimulate this process.

  6. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging opportunities must be found in the reports of its Office of Exploration, which was established in 1987. That office's report, released in November 1989, of a 90-day study of possible plans for human exploration of the Moon and Mars is NASA's response to the new initiative proposed by President Bush on July 20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon: "First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s, Space Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon, back to the future, and this time, back to stay. And then a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars." This report, Space Resources, offers substantiation for NASA's bid to carry out that new initiative.

  7. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging opportunities must be found in the reports of its Office of Exploration, which was established in 1987. That office's report, released in November 1989, of a 90-day study of possible plans for human exploration of the Moon and Mars is NASA's response to the new initiative proposed by President Bush on July 20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon: "First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s, Space Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon, back to the future, and this time, back to stay. And then a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars." This report, Space Resources, offers substantiation for NASA's bid to carry out that new initiative.

  8. Army Space and Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    space mission area that stretches back to the 1940s. The Army established doctrine for conducting space operations in support of the Objective Force. This thesis explains why the Army is involved in space from historical, doctrinal and policy perspectives. The Army created force structure for Space Support Elements (SSE) at the tactical level and organic to Division headquarters, and has planned and proposed additional space elements at the Brigade, Corps and Army organizational levels. The FA40, (Space Operations), Career Field is a relatively new personnel category that

  9. Target spacespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, Nick

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space-larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain why-even so-space is observed to have a determinate, large radius. The conclusion is that observed, 'phenomenal' space is not target space, since a space cannot have both a determinate and indeterminate radius: instead phenomenal space must be a higher-level phenomenon, not fundamental.

  10. Deep Space (Space Technology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2002-04-01

    Series of NASA technology demonstration missions under NASA's New Millennium programme. DEEP SPACE 1 (launched October 1998) carries 12 advanced technologies, including autonomous navigation and ion propulsion. It may be directed to encounter near-Earth asteroid 1992 KD and two comets. Deep Space 2 (launched January 1999) comprises two small surface penetrators, part of the failed Mars Polar Land...

  11. 78 FR 64442 - NASA FAR Supplement: Proposal Adequacy Checklist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 1815 and 1852 RIN 2700-AE13 NASA FAR Supplement: Proposal Adequacy Checklist AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NASA is proposing to amend the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to incorporate a proposal adequacy checklist for...

  12. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  13. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  14. Space technologies for health.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Fiona

    2015-08-01

    Space science and satellite technologies hold untapped potential for public health, according to a new expert group that will deliver its proposals to the United Nations General Assembly in New York next month. Pascal Michel talks to Fiona Fleck.

  15. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  16. Committee proposals and restrictive rules

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    I analyze a game-theoretic model of committee–legislature interaction in which a majority decision to adopt either an open or closed amendment rule occurs following the committee’s proposal of a bill. I find that, in equilibrium, the closed rule is almost always chosen when the dimension of the policy space is >1. Furthermore, the difference between the equilibrium outcome and that which would have occurred under the open rule can be arbitrarily small. PMID:10393988

  17. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Future Mars exploration missions and operations are discussed using computer animation along with proposed vehicles and equipment, for example, a Mars surface land rover. There is a Presidential Address by President George Bush where he discusses future goals for space exploration. This video also outlines the Outreach Program, which offers the public the chance to suggest new ideas for space research and exploration.

  18. Pseudo-local Theories: A Functional Class Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taronna, Massimo

    In this article, using the language of jet space, we propose a functional class space for pseudo-local functionals. We test this functional class proposal in a number of examples ranging from string-field-theory to AdS/CFT dualities. Implications of the locality proposal at the quartic order are also discussed.

  19. 14 CFR 151.117 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; application. 151.117 Section 151.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.117 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; application. (a) Each eligible...

  20. 75 FR 60434 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Staff for Air and Space Operations, announces the proposed extension of a public information collection... Department of the Air Force Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... to the HQ USAF/XOO-CA, 1480 Air Force Pentagon, Washington, DC 20330-1480, or call (703) 697-...

  1. 77 FR 8840 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Staff for Air and Space Operations, announces the a proposed public information collection and seeks... Department of the Air Force Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD..., please write to the HQ USAF/XOO-CA, 1480 Air Force Pentagon, Washington, DC 20330-1480, or call (703)...

  2. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  3. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearien, J. A.; Whitbeck, J. F.

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space.

  4. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  5. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... donated labor, materials, or equipment....

  6. Space Supplement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    Clearing the space shuttle for launch (S. Young). Europe's four-man space capsule (T. Furniss). Uncertain return to a red planet (N. Booth). America's unlikely partners in space (D. Whitehouse). View from the Moon (B. Rose).

  7. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  8. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  9. Space Station-based deep-space optical communication experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of three experiments proposed for advanced optical deep-space communications is described. These proposed experiments would be carried out aboard the Space Station to test and evaluate the capability of optical instruments to conduct data communication and spacecraft navigation for deep-space missions. Techniques for effective data communication, precision spacecraft ranging, and accurate angular measurements will be developed and evaluated in a spaceborne environment.

  10. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  11. Space industrialization. Volume 4: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Program development and analysis and recommendations for NASA activities are discussed. The impact of international space law on future use of outer space is examined in the light of applicable international agreements. Recommendations for actions designed to facilitate space industralization are also proposed.

  12. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  13. Space shuttle performance capabilities, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle performance capabilities and proposed space shuttle missions are discussed. The performance requirements of the space shuttle are described in terms of three reference missions. Mission requirements are defined by spacecraft or net payload weight and by orbital specifications or space destination. The predicted performance of various space shuttle configurations are analyzed.

  14. HVAC BESTEST: A Procedure for Testing the Ability of Whole-Building Energy Simulation Programs to Model Space Conditioning Equipment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J,; Judkoff, R.; Knabe, G.; Le, H.-T.; Durig, M.; Glass, A.; Zweifel, G.

    2001-07-03

    Validation of Building Energy Simulation Programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques (Judkoff 1988). An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. Field trials of the method were conducted by researchers from nations participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme Task 22, using a number of detailed hourly simulation programs from Europe and the United States, including: CA-SIS, CLIM2000, PROMETHEUS, TRNSYS-TUD, and two versions of DOE-2.1E. Analytical solutions were also developed for the test cases.

  15. Merger of Science Agencies Proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    A bill proposing the establishment of a cabinet-level Department of Science, Space, Energy and Technology was introduced in the House of Representatives on July 1 by Robert Walker (R-Pa.), George Brown (D-Calif.), Ron Packard (R-Calif.), and Joe Kolter (D-Pa.). The department would be a conglomerate of existing civilian science and technology agencies, including NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, the National Technical Information Service, and research functions at the Department of Energy.

  16. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  17. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  18. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-01-01

    McDornel Douglas performed an Evolutionary Space Platform Concept Study for the Marshall Space Flight Center in the early 1980's. The 10-month study was designed to define, evaluate, and compare approaches and concepts for evolving unmanned and manned capability platforms beyond the then current space platform concepts to an evolutionary goal of establishing a permanent-manned presence in space.

  19. Space Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Herman J.; And Others

    This booklet, intended for children in grades K-3 as "vocational guidance in a space age," should be read to the child in early school years at an appropriate time. The booklet is divided into five chapters and a summary. Topics discussed concern space workers, space travelers, jobs in space, spaceships, and preparing for a career in space…

  20. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  1. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  2. 48 CFR 1815.207 - Handling proposals and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information. 1815.207 Section 1815.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 1815.207 Handling proposals and information....

  3. Capacity building in space law and space policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2009-11-01

    A high level of expertise in space policy and law is required to initiate and keep pace with the expansion of space activities, including those undertaken by the private space industry. Space activities generally refer to those undertakings that are carried out with the use of several technologies for the exploration and utilization of outer space often for scientific, military, economic and social proposes within international and national policy and regulatory frameworks. Space policies and legal regimes determine the scope, nature, pace, possibility and development of space undertakings. Therefore, appropriate space policies and regulatory regimes, both at the international and national levels, are indispensable for the initiation, operation and enhancement of space activities. There are various regulatory models and approaches for regulating space activities, and for building capacity in space law and space policy. It is imperative to have the appropriate human resources and capabilities in the development and implementation of space policies and space legal regimes. This crucial requirement has been well recognized in the more advanced space-faring nations, but not to the same level in other space-faring or space-aspiring nations.

  4. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  5. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  6. New Active Remote-sensing Capabilities: Laser Ablation Spectrometer and Lidar Atmospheric Species Profile Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, R. J.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: With the anticipated development of high-capacity fission power and electric propulsion for deep-space missions, it will become possible to propose experiments that demand higher power than current technologies (e.g. radioisotope power sources) provide. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), the first mission in the Project Prometheus program, will explore the icy moons of Jupiter with a suite of high-capability experiments that take advantage of the high power levels (and indirectly, the high data rates) that fission power affords. This abstract describes two high-capability active-remote-sensing experiments that will be logical candidates for subsequent Prometheus-class missions.

  7. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  8. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  9. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    , Interpersonal Skills, Telecommunications, Earth Observation and Navigation. A group CCP, a major asset of this unique program, is a focused project, aimed at the formation of a credible virtual commercial space-related business. Participants exercise space systems engineering fundamentals as well as marketing and business engineering tools, with the goal of creating a financially viable business opportunity. They then present the result, in the form of an unsolicited proposal to potential investors, as well as a varied group of engineers, managers and executives from the space community. During the CCP, participants learn the ties between mission and system design and the potential return to investors. They develop an instinct for the technical concepts and which of the parameters to adjust to make their newly conceived business more effective and profitable.

  10. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Ethics for Proposal Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparke, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    When you ask for telescope time or research funding, you expect your proposal to be assessed fairly by impartial and knowledgeable reviewers. Ethical practices for peer review are aimed at making sure this happens. I will discuss confidentiality to protect both proposers and reviewers; conflicts of interest that might prevent a reviewer from being impartial; and how to give each proposal fair consideration. And for good peer review, we must all take our turns as a reviewer!

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - - U.S. Representative Ric Keller (left) listens intently to a presentation proposing the use of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASA’s new Shared Services Center. NASA and Florida officials toured the research park as well. Central Florida leaders are proposing the research park as the site for the center, which would centralize NASA’s payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration by NASA.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - - U.S. Representative Ric Keller (left) listens intently to a presentation proposing the use of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASA’s new Shared Services Center. NASA and Florida officials toured the research park as well. Central Florida leaders are proposing the research park as the site for the center, which would centralize NASA’s payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration by NASA.

  13. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Ramona Travis, NASA Stennis Space Center Chief Technologist, speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Wednesday, July 14, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-03-07

    This early chart conceptualizes the use of two parallel Solid Rocket Motor Boosters in conjunction with three main engines to launch the proposed Space Shuttle to orbit. At approximately twenty-five miles altitude, the boosters would detach from the Orbiter and parachute back to Earth where they would be recovered and refurbished for future use. The Shuttle was designed as NASA's first reusable space vehicle, launching vertically like a spacecraft and landing on runways like conventional aircraft. Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility for the Shuttle's propulsion elements, including the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  15. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  16. To Preserve the Sense of Earth from Space. A Report of the Panel on the Information Policy Implications of Archiving Satellite Data, regarding the Archiving Requirements of the Proposed Transfer to the Private Section of the U. S. Civil Space Remote-Sensing Satellite Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the results of a 3-month effort to assess the archiving requirements that should be imposed in the event of a transfer of the United States land remote-sensing satellite systems to the private sector. The emphasis is not on judging the desirability of the proposed transfer, but on recommending the requirements that should be…

  17. To Preserve the Sense of Earth from Space. A Report of the Panel on the Information Policy Implications of Archiving Satellite Data, regarding the Archiving Requirements of the Proposed Transfer to the Private Section of the U. S. Civil Space Remote-Sensing Satellite Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the results of a 3-month effort to assess the archiving requirements that should be imposed in the event of a transfer of the United States land remote-sensing satellite systems to the private sector. The emphasis is not on judging the desirability of the proposed transfer, but on recommending the requirements that should be…

  18. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  19. The Proposal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The proposal project stretches over a significant portion of the semester-long sophomore course Professional Communication (ENG 250) at Monroe Community College. While developing their proposal project, students need to use time management skills to successfully complete a quality project on time. In addition, excellent oral and written…

  20. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  1. Music Ensemble: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Brian

    A proposal is presented for a Music Ensemble course to be offered at the Community College of Philadelphia for music students who have had previous vocal or instrumental training. A standardized course proposal cover form is followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major course goals, a course outline, and a bibliography. Next,…

  2. Music Ensemble: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Brian

    A proposal is presented for a Music Ensemble course to be offered at the Community College of Philadelphia for music students who have had previous vocal or instrumental training. A standardized course proposal cover form is followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major course goals, a course outline, and a bibliography. Next,…

  3. Space Basics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  4. Constructing a competitive proposal.

    PubMed

    Catlett, C

    1989-02-01

    Although the proposal abstract is not technically considered in the review process, the importance of this single page cannot be overemphasized. It is often the first thing read by the reviewers, and may be the only part of the proposal that some reviewers read thoroughly. The abstract should provide an effective and informative summary of the project, and should address specifically any impact indices (e.g., the number of individuals to be served, the number and type of products to be developed). It should touch briefly on project need, procedures, and outcomes. Grant consultant Liane Reif-Lehrer gave the following advice at a seminar on proposal writing: "Don't write the abstract until the proposal is done, so it reflects the contents of the application. Present the information in the abstract in the same order that it appears in the full proposal for quick reference".

  5. Quake research proposals solicited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfluke, J. H.

    1984-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey invites proposals for research contracts and grants under the continuing Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. The proposed research must be directed toward the goal of identifying, evaluating, and characterizing the immediate and long-term seismic hazard. Program objectives and tasks required to achieve those objectives are described in Proposal Information Package RFP-1586Written inquiries concerning this program and requests for Proposal Information Package RFP-1586 should be addressed to Contracting Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 285, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025. Proposals will be due in early February 1985. It is anticipated that funding of selected programs will start on or after October 1, 1985.

  6. Space Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    of any nation are national property and have the right of passage through and operation in space without interference. Interference with space sytems w... of passage through space without interference, the inherent right of self-defense, and 31 the rejection of any nation’s right to claim sovereignty...34 theme and acknowledge the contributions that the civil and coimercial sectors make toward the US space program. The priniciples also restate the right

  7. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The medical aspects of space flight are briefly discussed. The problems of space adaptation syndrome, commonly known as space sickness, are described, and its cause is shown. The adaptation of the cardiovascular system to weightlessness, the problems of radiation in space, atrophy of bones and muscles, and loss of blood volume are addressed. The difficulties associated with the reexperience of gravity on return to earth are briefly considered.

  8. Historical space steps of Turkey: It is high time to establish the Turkish space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Cihan; Kale, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of space in today's space driven world, the current space activities of Turkey, its space organizations with legislation background information and calls for the necessity for the establishment of the Turkish Space Agency (TSA). Firstly, the importance of space is given which is followed by a brief background and current space activities in Turkey. Then, the answers to why Turkey needs a National Space Agency are outlined by stating its expected role and duties. Additionally, the framework for space policy for Turkey is proposed and the findings are compared with other developing regional space actors. Lastly, it is proposed and demonstrated that Turkey is on the right track with its space policy and it is suggested that the establishment of the TSA is critical both for a coherent space policy and progress as well as the successful development of its national space industry, security and international space relations.

  9. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  10. Multipurpose Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized…

  11. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  12. Constructing Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Austin

    This chapter chronicles the growth of the author's understanding of Media Space through his 20-year experience with coupling spaces, using video. It is a “technology-first” understanding of the construction of space. Key ideas from research studies and practice are presented, and contrasts with other genres of communication are made. The implications for distributed collaboration are explored.

  13. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  14. Information encryption in phase space.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Wu, Quanying; Sheridan, John T; Situ, Guohai

    2015-03-15

    In this Letter, we propose an information encryption technique based on the theory of phase-space optics. We show that encoding the plaintext in phase space provides a higher level of security: first, the key-space is significantly enlarged. Second, it is immune to various known-plaintext (cyphertext) attacks to which the double-random phase encryption (DRPE) is vulnerable. Third, the bilinearity of phase-space distributions offers additional security. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation results show that the proposed technique has significantly different responses to errors added to the cypheretext and the two phase keys in comparison to the classical DRPE.

  15. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station featured a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  16. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth; illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station features a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  17. Horton Research Grant proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geophysical Union is requesting proposals for the award of the Horton Research Grant. The proposal deadline is March 15, 1984. The grant will be in support of research projects in hydrology and water resources by Ph.D. candidates of American institutions of higher education and is awarded annually to a single proponent. Its objective is to foster graduate student research leading to the completion of doctoral dissertations. Proposals may be in hydrology (including its physical, chemical, or biological aspects) or in the water resource policy sciences (including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law).

  18. Science in space with the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of the Space Station as a versatile scientific laboratory is discussed, reviewing plans under consideration by the NASA Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. The special advantages offered by the Station for expanding the scope of 'space science' beyond astrophysics, geophysics, and terrestrial remote sensing are stressed. Topics examined include the advantages of a manned presence, the scientific value and cost effectiveness of smaller, more quickly performable experiments, improved communications for ground control of Station experiments, the international nature of the Station, the need for more scientist astronauts for the Station crew, Station on-orbit maintenance and repair services for coorbiting platforms, and the need for Shuttle testing of proposed Station laboratory equipment and procedures.

  19. Clinical performance of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) for the prediction of prostate cancer in obese men: data from the PROMEtheuS project, a multicentre European prospective study.

    PubMed

    Abrate, Alberto; Lazzeri, Massimo; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Bini, Vittorio; Haese, Alexander; de la Taille, Alexandre; McNicholas, Thomas; Redorta, Joan Palou; Gadda, Giulio M; Lista, Giuliana; Kinzikeeva, Ella; Fossati, Nicola; Larcher, Alessandro; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Mistretta, Francesco; Freschi, Massimo; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    To test serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), p2PSA/free PSA (%p2PSA) and Prostate Health Index (PHI) accuracy in predicting prostate cancer in obese men and to test whether PHI is more accurate than PSA in predicting prostate cancer in obese patients. The analysis consisted of a nested case-control study from the pro-PSA Multicentric European Study (PROMEtheuS) project. The study is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN04707454. The primary outcome was to test sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (clinical validity) of serum p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI, in determining prostate cancer at prostate biopsy in obese men [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) ], compared with total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and fPSA/tPSA ratio (%fPSA). The number of avoidable prostate biopsies (clinical utility) was also assessed. Multivariable logistic regression models were complemented by predictive accuracy analysis and decision-curve analysis. Of the 965 patients, 383 (39.7%) were normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2) ), 440 (45.6%) were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2) ) and 142 (14.7%) were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) ). Among obese patients, prostate cancer was found in 65 patients (45.8%), with a higher percentage of Gleason score ≥7 diseases (67.7%). PSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI were significantly higher, and %fPSA significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer (P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression models, PHI significantly increased accuracy of the base multivariable model by 8.8% (P = 0.007). At a PHI threshold of 35.7, 46 (32.4%) biopsies could have been avoided. In obese patients, PHI is significantly more accurate than current tests in predicting prostate cancer. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  20. Associations Between Chronic Kidney Disease and Outcomes With Use of Prasugrel Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Report From the PROMETHEUS Study.

    PubMed

    Baber, Usman; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna S; Kapadia, Samir; Weintraub, William; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Vogel, Birgit; Faggioni, Michela; Farhan, Serdar; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Toma, Catalin; DeFranco, Anthony; Baker, Brian A; Keller, Stuart; Effron, Mark B; Henry, Timothy D; Rao, Sunil; Pocock, Stuart; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-07-27

    The study sought to compare clinical outcomes in a contemporary acute coronary syndrome (ACS) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cohort stratified by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status. Patients with CKD exhibit high risks for both thrombotic and bleeding events, thus complicating decision making regarding antiplatelet therapy in the setting of ACS. The PROMETHEUS study was a multicenter observational study comparing outcomes with prasugrel versus clopidogrel in ACS PCI patients. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 90 days and at 1 year were defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or unplanned revascularization. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed for adjusted associations between CKD status and clinical outcomes. Hazard ratios for prasugrel versus clopidogrel treatment were generated using propensity score stratification. The total cohort included 19,832 patients, 28.3% with and 71.7% without CKD. CKD patients were older with greater comorbidities including diabetes and multivessel disease. Prasugrel was less often prescribed to CKD versus non-CKD patients (11.0% vs. 24.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). At 1 year, CKD was associated with higher adjusted risk of MACE (1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 1.37) and bleeding (1.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 1.73). Although unadjusted rates of 1-year MACE were lower with prasugrel versus clopidogrel in both CKD (18.3% vs. 26.5%, p < 0.001) and non-CKD (10.9% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001) patients, associations were attenuated after propensity stratification. Similarly, unadjusted differences in 1-year bleeding with prasugrel versus clopidogrel (6.0% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.18 in CKD patients; 2.6% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.008 in non-CKD patients) were not significant after propensity score adjustment. Although risks for 1-year MACE were significantly higher in ACS PCI patients with

  1. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a modular space station. In 1970 the Marshall Space Flight Center arnounced the completion of a study concerning a modular space station that could be launched by the planned-for reusable Space Shuttle. The study envisioned a space station composed of cylindrical sections 14 feet in diameter and of varying lengths joined to form any one of a number of possible shapes. The sections were restricted to 14 feet in diameter and 58 feet in length to be consistent with a shuttle cargo bay size of 15 by 60 feet. Center officials said that the first elements of the space station could be in orbit by about 1978 and could be manned by three or six men. This would be an interim space station with sections that could be added later to form a full 12-man station by the early 1980s.

  2. Evaluation of materials proposed for use in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The cutaneous primary irritancy and allergenicity potential of cotton shirts/fabrics treated with flame retardants were evaluated in order to establish their suitability for spacecraft crew use. Twenty-five volunteer human subjects were patch tested on the back utilizing standard methodology, with both treated and untreated cotton fabric. The fabric was treated with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium hydroxide and subsequently cured with gaseous ammonia. The final treatment comprised adding on dicyandiamine phosphoric acid. None of the individuals experienced primary irritant or allergic reactions attributable to the fabric during induction or challenge patch testing. Likewise, there were no reactions to treated or untreated fabric patches placed on ten subjects of the usage panel at the conclusion of the study.

  3. Undergraduate Space Training: A Review of the Proposed Curriculum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Interplanetary Magnetic Field c. Effects of Flares d. Interplanetary Spacecraft 4. Magnetosphere a. Structure b. Trapped Radiation Belts c. Earth’s...5) Tri-propellants b. Solid (1) Heterogenous Charges (2) Homogenous Charges c. Core Designs (1) Progressive Thrust (2) Regressive Thrust (3) Stable...evaluation units under many different commands (e.g. SAC, AFSC, NORAD, etc.). Although a 20XX career progression guide complete with specified or desired

  4. Collision avoidance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Taylor, R. E.; Landry, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Collisions in earth orbital space between operational payloads and various forms of space debris (nonoperational payloads, nonfunctional mission-related objects and fragments resulting from collisions and explosions) are discussed and possible means of avoiding them are considered. From 10,000 to 15,000 objects are estimated to be in earth orbital space, most of which represent spacecraft fragments and debris too small to be detected and tracked by earth-based sensors, and it is considered likely that some of them will be or have already been involved in direct collisions with the ever increasing number of operational satellites and space stations. Means of protecting proposed large space structures and smaller spacecraft from significant damage by larger space objects, particularly in the 400-4000 km altitude range where most debris occurs, include structural redundancy and the double shielding of sensitive components. Other means of collision avoidance are the collection or relocation of satellites, rocket bodies and other objects by the Space Shuttle, the prevention of explosions and the disposal of spent rocket parts by reentry. Finally, a management structure would be required to administer guidelines for the prevention and elimination of space debris.

  5. Space Van system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  6. Advanced space transportation technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of propulsion technologies for space transportation are discussed in the literature. It is clear from the literature review that a single propulsion technology cannot satisfy the many mission needs in space. Many of the technologies tested, proposed, or in experimental stages relate to: chemical and nuclear fuel; radiative and corpuscular external energy source; tethers; cannons; and electromagnetic acceleration. The scope and limitation of these technologies is well tabulated in the literature. Prior experience has shown that an extensive amount of fuel needs to be carried along for the return mission. This requirement puts additional constraints on the lift off rocket technology and limits the payload capacity. Consider the possibility of refueling in space. If the return fuel supply is guaranteed, it will not only be possible to lift off more payload but also to provide security and safety of the mission. Exploration to deep space where solar sails and thermal effects fade would also be possible. Refueling would also facilitate travel on the planet of exploration. This aspect of space transportation prompts the present investigation. The particle emissions from the Sun's corona will be collected under three different conditions: in space closer to the Sun, in the Van Allen Belts; and on the Moon. It is proposed to convert the particle state into gaseous, liquid, or solid state and store it for refueling space vehicles. These facilities may be called space pump stations and the fuel collected as space fuel. Preliminary estimates of fuel collection at all three sites will be made. Future work will continue towards advancing the art of collection rate and design schemes for pumping stations.

  7. Skylab, Classroom in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Lee B., Ed.

    In the Skylab student project, high school students submitted proposals for experiments that could be performed on board Skylab by the astronauts. This book describes the experiments designed by the students and reports what happened to those experiments in the space laboratory. The student experiments included studies of the central nervous…

  8. Entanglement in theory space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2013-07-01

    We propose a new concept of entanglement for quantum systems: entanglement in theory space. This is defined by decomposing a theory into two by an un-gauging procedure. We provide two examples where this newly introduced entanglement is closely related to conventional geometric entropies: deconstruction and AGT-type correspondence.

  9. Skylab, Classroom in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Lee B., Ed.

    In the Skylab student project, high school students submitted proposals for experiments that could be performed on board Skylab by the astronauts. This book describes the experiments designed by the students and reports what happened to those experiments in the space laboratory. The student experiments included studies of the central nervous…

  10. Conceptualizing Learner Support Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Bruce, Ronald R.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based online help systems for instructional software focuses on three types of learner support: for optimizing use of a computer program; for learning content; and for monitoring and enhancing learning. Proposes a multi-dimensional model of learner-support space defined by the intrusiveness of the delivery methods and…

  11. Space market model space industry input-output model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.

  12. NASA's Space Grant program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. Julius

    1990-01-01

    Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

  13. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  14. NASA's Space Grant program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. Julius

    1990-01-01

    Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

  15. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  16. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  17. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  18. 76 FR 2152 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... respondents is the dollar cost of approximately $86.1 million (1,284,478 yearly hours x $67). The total burden... cost of physical space, computer hardware and software, etc., which vary widely depending on the size... active, registered broker-dealers x $5,000). Written comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed...

  19. Science and Exploration Deep Space Gateway Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a workshop whose outcome is a publically disseminated product that articulates SMD investigations and HEOMD Life Science research, including international collaborations, that are made possible by the new opportunities in space that result from the Deep Space Gateway.

  20. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  1. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Research and Applications Modules (RAM). Evolutionary growth was an important consideration in space station plarning, and another project was undertaken in 1971 to facilitate such growth. The RAM study, conducted through a Marshall Space Flight Center contract with General Dynamics Convair Aerospace, resulted in the conceptualization of a series of RAM payload carrier-sortie laboratories, pallets, free-flyers, and payload and support modules. The study considered two basic manned systems. The first would use RAM hardware for sortie mission, where laboratories were carried into space and remained attached to the Shuttle for operational periods up to 7 days. The second envisioned a modular space station capability that could be evolved by mating RAM modules to the space station core configuration. The RAM hardware was to be built by Europeans, thus fostering international participation in the space program.

  2. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) were each awarded 16-month contracts in April 1976 for the Space Station Systems Analysis Study (SSSAS). Grumman Aerospace Corporation was MSFC's contractor and McDornell Douglas Aerospace Company was JSC's contractor. The goal of this study was to formulate plans for a permanent operational base and laboratory facility in Earth orbit in addition to developing a space construction base design for implementing the program. An expended Space Shuttle external tank was to be the central core platform of the base, and additional pressurized modules could be added to provide laboratory facilities. This artist's concept depicts a space construction base design for implementing the SSSAS.

  3. Space Debris and Space Safety - Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, W.; Krag, H.

    Man's activities in space are creating a shell of space debris around planet Earth which provides a growing risk of collision with operating satellites and manned systems. Including both the larger tracked objects and the small, untracked debris, more than 98% of the estimated 600,000 objects larger than 1 cm currently in orbit are “space junk”--dead satellites, expended rocket stages, debris from normal operations, fragments from explosions and collisions, and other material. Recognizing the problem, space faring nations have joined together to develop three basic principles for minimizing the growth of the debris population: prevent on-orbit breakups, remove spacecraft and orbital stages that have reached the end of their mission operations from the useful densely populated orbit regions, and limit the objects released during normal operations. This paper provides an overview of what is being done to support these three principles and describes proposals that an active space traffic control service to warn satellite operators of pending collisions with large objects combined with a program to actively remove large objects may reduce the rate of future collisions. The paper notes that cost and cost effectiveness are important considerations that will affect the evolution of such systems.

  4. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    adversaries’ perceptions of US space capabilities and makes them less confident of success in interfering with those capabilities. DSC is built on...Responsibilities IV-17 transportation and space-based tourism , are no longer out of reach. Due to the demand for space-based products and services, the USG has...1) A well-organized missile warning system structure allows commanders to maximize detection and warning of inbound ballistic missiles, thereby

  5. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is an endeavor that has universal appeal, is far reaching in its consequences, crossing borders and spanning intellectual disciplines from art to literature to mathematics, with a purpose and reach that can potentially unite. To enhance awareness and strengthen cooperation within the space community, and provide inspiration for new activities, Dr. McGrath will provide a brief glimpse into a few of the exciting space exploration activities currently being undertaken by NASA.

  6. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  7. Indian Ocean proposed drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curray, Joseph R.

    1984-04-01

    Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the Indian Ocean and any important problems, including tectonics, nature of the lithosphere, paleoceanography, and sedimentary processes will be considered.Please send proposals, with appropriate charts and copies of pertinent data, in triplicate to the Office of Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES Office, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149) and, if possible, also send one copy to the chairman or to any other members of the panel. Proposals and letters received before September 1 will be reviewed at the panel meeting scheduled for the first week of September.

  8. COCORP solicits site proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) is encouraging members of the earth science community to submit proposals for sites to be surveyed by COCORP. New proposals (as well as those previously received for sites yet to be profiled) are evaluated annually by the COCORP Site Selection Advisory Committee, and the crew schedule is updated accordingly.The committee wishes to design future sites to contribute toward building a transcontinental traverse to be presented during the 1989 International Geological Congress in Washington, D.C. Figure 1 shows the sites that have either been surveyed by COCORP or are tentatively scheduled to be surveyed in the future. The COCORP committee has recommended that COCORP continue its primary strategy of reconnaissance surveying and has emphasized the continued need for long lines guided by specific geologic problems. For information on how to submit COCORP site proposals, contact S. Kaufman, Executive Director, COCORP, Snee Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; telephone 607-255-7165.

  9. A modest proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, W. I.; Farley, D. T.; Helliwell, R. A.; Kennel, C. F.

    Soon after Neil Brice's death, W.I. Axford and C.F. Kennel proposed to AGU a “Neil Brice Memorial Lecture” on planetary magnetospheric physics. Many of his friends and colleagues wrote to AGU in support. We do not know why this proposal failed. Perhaps it was because an honorarium and travel expenses were involved. We do know that Neil Brice cared about ideas, not money. Why not just name an annual lecture after Neil Brice? To speak under his name is honor enough. If you agree, why don't you write George Reid, the president of the AGU Solar-Planetary Relationships Section? He has agreed to take charge of the proposal, should there be enough support for it. Please write, today, before you forget, to George C. Reid, Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.

  10. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  11. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-12-01

    During 1980 and the first half of 1981, the Marshall Space Flight Center conducted studies concerned with a relatively low-cost, near-term, manned space platform to satisfy current user needs, yet capable of evolutionary growth to meet future needs. The Science and Application Manned Space Platform (SAMSP) studies were to serve as a test bed for developing scientific and operational capabilities required by later, more advanced manned platforms while accomplishing early science and operations. This concept illustrates a manned space platform.

  12. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  13. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1980-01-01

    In the late 1970s, NASA, the Marshall Space Flight Center, and its contractors began focusing on designs for Shuttle-tended space platforms capable of extended periods in space and utilizing a variety of temporarily emplaced payloads. As a result, McDornell Douglas studied the Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). The emphasis was placed on payloads that did not require a crewman's presence during normal operations. Most of the payloads would occupy one or more Spacelab-like pallets. This artist concept depicts the SASP.

  14. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  15. Biomimetic Approach to Advanced Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, C.; Seidl, T.; Broschart, M.

    This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, transfer, parking, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and new biomimetic concepts are proposed to conceive new space systems and subsystems both for the short- and long-term future.

  16. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  17. Disclosure: a modest proposal.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2009-01-01

    In 1729, Jonathan Swift wrote an essay with the "modest proposal" that one way to manage overpopulation among the poor would be for the rich to eat them. Although not as serious a problem as that faced by Swift's England, we have a problem with the effective impotence of our current methods used to disclose potential conflicts of interest in publications and presentations. If speakers or writers cannot be relied upon to describe honestly and accurately their conflicts, perhaps we may turn to their peers to do it for them. Although there are reasons this modest proposal may be as impractical as Swift's, at least it does not involve eating our lecturers.

  18. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  19. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  20. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  1. Social Science: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charles Gene

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course surveying basic social science skills and information, including scientific method, map usage, evolution, native peoples, social groups, and U.S. Government. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose for the course indicates that it is designed to provide…

  2. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  3. Volleyball: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in volleyball. Following a standard cover form, a course description and statement of purpose explain that the course is designed to teach students the skills and fundamentals of team play, the rules and etiquette of the game, and the…

  4. Social Science: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charles Gene

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course surveying basic social science skills and information, including scientific method, map usage, evolution, native peoples, social groups, and U.S. Government. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose for the course indicates that it is designed to provide…

  5. Badminton: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in Badminton. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose explains that the course is designed to introduce students to the techniques, knowledge, and strategies of badminton. Next, course goals and a course outline are…

  6. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  7. A Proposal for Reconciliation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Proposes a cooperative research program to extend the conclusions from Goodyear's review, and to test the hypotheses behind the recommendations of Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, and Sampson.…

  8. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based on our…

  9. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  10. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based on our…

  11. Tennis: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in tennis. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose explains that the course is designed to provide instruction and practice in the basic tennis techniques of the forehand, backhand, serve, volley, and overhead. Next,…

  12. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  13. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  14. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  15. Space Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  16. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  17. Space Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-09

    The Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly is being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this photo, one of many segments of the mirror assembly is being set up inside the 24-ft vacuum chamber where it will undergo x-ray calibration tests. MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  18. Space Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-09

    This photo (rear view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  19. Space Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-09

    The Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly is being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this photo, an MSFC employee is inspecting one of many segments of the mirror assembly for flaws. MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  20. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  1. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This is an illustration of the Space Base concept. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial-gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  2. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  3. Space Jurisdiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Declan

    United Societies In Space (USIS) marks its official beginning at Georgetown University Law School in October, 1992. The setting was the Moot Court proceedings of the International Institute of Space Lawyers at the law school. Dr. George S. Robinson, III was presiding over the Court Competition. Dr. Robinson was Associate General Counsel for the Smithsonian Institution at that time…

  4. Space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  5. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  6. Space Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-21

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. Dr. Joe Ritter examines a replicated electro-formed nickel-alloy mirror which exemplifies the improvements in mirror fabrication techniques, with benefits such as dramtic weight reduction that have been achieved at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC).

  7. Space Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    Pictured is the chosen artist's rendering of NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, was named the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. To further our understanding of the way our present universe formed following the the big bang, NASA is developing the JWST to observe the first stars and galaxies in the universe. This grand effort will help to answer the following fundamental questions: How galaxies form and evolve, how stars and planetary systems form and interact, how the universe builds up its present elemental/chemical composition, and what dark matter is. To see into the depths of space, the JWST is currently plarning to carry instruments that are sensitive to the infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. The new telescope will carry a near-infrared camera, a multi-object spectrometer, and a mid-infrared camera/spectrometer. The JWST is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by creating an ultra-lightweight mirror for the telescope at MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center. GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the JWST, and TRW will design and fabricate the observatory's primary mirror and spacecraft. The program has a number of industry, academic, and government partners, as well as the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. (Image: Courtesy of TRW)

  8. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  9. A proposed interprofessional oath.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sara Simpson; Garber, Jeannie Scruggs; Lash, Judy; Schnurman-Crook, Abrina

    2014-09-01

    Identifying and capitalizing on shared professional values, health-care professionals have the potential to promote collaboration and facilitate enhanced patient outcomes. This paper describes a qualitative study that sought to identify values shared among health-care professionals through the development of an interprofessional health-care provider oath. Core competencies for collaborative practice of all health-care workers were delineated by the recent report from the Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel and these include values and ethics of collaboration as well as an understanding of team roles. This proposed interprofessional oath was developed from a qualitative analysis of oaths developed by interprofessional teams of health-care students. Using Colaizzi's method, 18 oaths were evaluated to identify significant statements, formulated meanings, and themes. A proposed interprofessional oath was developed based on these elements and is offered for consideration along with discussion of the potential benefits and challenges of an interprofessional oath.

  10. Beardmore Glacier proposals wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proposals for research projects to be conducted in the upper Beardmore Glacier area of Antarctica during the 1985-1986 field season are being accepted by t h e National Science Foundation (NSF) through August 15. Later proposal submissions should be discussed with the appropriate program managers (see below).A temporary camp with helicopter support will be established in the region. Occupation by scientific parties will likely be between mid-November 1985 and mid-January 1986. Transportation in the field will be by UH1-N twin-engine Huey helicopters (with a range of approximately 185 km) and by motor toboggans. Satellite tent camps will be established within the range of the helicopters. The exact position of the main camp will be determined in November. Likely candidates, however, are Buckley Island Quadrangle, in the area of the Walcott Névé or the Bowden Névé, near Coalsack Bluff or Mount Sirius.

  11. Proposed safety standards reviewed

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, S.

    1984-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is in the process of developing specific rules and regulations for the well service and drilling industry. OSHA had formerly investigated the well sites with only construction industry safety standards which were inadequate. Their new proposals push for more training on how to respond to actual on-site conditions and emergencies, and pre-job planning. This would allow for details of the layout and operation before the fact.

  12. Project Proposals Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encheva, Sylvia; Tumin, Sharil

    2009-08-01

    Collaboration among various firms has been traditionally used trough single project joint ventures for bonding purposes. Eventhough the performed work is usually beneficial to some extend to all participants, the type of collaboration option to be adapted is strongly influenced by overall purposes and goals that can be achieved. In order to facilitate a choice of collaboration option best suited to a firm's need a computer based model is proposed.

  13. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    NASA Program Executive for SBIR/STTR Programs Carl Ray speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    NASA's Manager of Centennial Challenges Andy Petro speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    David Steitz, from NASA's Office of Communications, kicks off the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    James Reuther, second from right, Director of Strategic Integration at NASA Headquarters, speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Wednesday, July 14, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun, center, listens as NASA's Manager of Centennial Challenges Andy Petro, right, answers a reporter's question during a press conference held at the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Bobby Braun, third from right, NASA Chief Technologist, answers a question during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Wednesday, July 14, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Keith Belvin, NASA Systems Engineer at NASA Langley Research Center, speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Wednesday, July 14, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    James Reuther, Director of Strategic Integration at NASA Headquarters, speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Wednesday, July 14, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Program Executive for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program Jay Falker speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Retired NASA Astronaut and Air Force Col. Buzz Aldrin talks with other attendees of NASA's New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Bobby Braun, second from right, NASA Chief Technologist, listens as James Reuther, Director of Strategic Integration at NASA Headquarters, speaks during the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Wednesday, July 14, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Space Technology Industry Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    NASA's Manager of Centennial Challenges Andy Petro, right, listens as NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun answers a reporter's question during a press conference held at the NASA New Space Technology Industry Forum being held at the University of Maryland in College Park on Tuesday, July 13, 2010. During the two-day event, speakers are focusing on the president's fiscal year 2011 budget request for NASA's new Space Technology Program. Representatives from industry, academia and the federal government are in attendance to discuss strategy, development and implementation of NASA's proposed new technology-enabled exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Laser welding in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Workman, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Autogenous welds in 304 stainless steel were performed by Nd-YAG laser heating in a simulated space environment. Simulation consists of welding on the NASA KC-135 aircraft to produce the microgravity and by containing the specimen in a vacuum chamber. Experimental results show that the microgravity welds are stronger, harder in the fusion zone, have deeper penetration and have a rougher surface rippling of the weld pool than one-g welds. To perform laser welding in space, a solar-pumped laser concept that significantly increases the laser conversion efficiency and makes welding viable despite the limited power availability of spacecraft is proposed.

  6. The Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    The definition and development of the next generation space communications and navigation architecture is underway. The primary goals are to remove communications and navigations constraints from missions and to enable increased autonomy. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) is an architectural concept that includes new technology and operations that will provide flight systems with an similar user experience to terrestrial wireless mobile networks. This talk will describe the SMN and its proposed new features, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), optical communications, and User Initiated Services (UIS).

  7. 75 FR 23841 - Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: The FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) requests...

  8. Proposed nomenclature for microhaplotypes.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Kenneth K

    2016-06-17

    Microhaplotypes are a new type of genetic marker in forensics and population genetics. A standardized nomenclature is desirable. A simple approach that does not require a central authority for approval is proposed. The nomenclature proposed follows the recommendation of the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( http://www.genenames.org ): "We strongly encourage naming families and groups of genes related by sequence and/or function using a "root" symbol. This is an efficient and informative way to name related genes, and already works well for a number of established gene families…" The proposal involves a simple root consisting of "mh" followed by the two-digit chromosome number and unique characters established by the authors in the initial publication. We suggest the unique symbol be an indication of the laboratory followed by characters unique to the chromosome and laboratory. For instance, the microhaplotype symbol mh01KK-001 refers to a locus on chromosome 1 published by the Kidd Lab (KK-) as their #001. Publication defines mh01KK-001 as comprised of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4648344, rs6663840, rs58111155, and rs6688969.

  9. Space smarts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Frank

    1991-02-01

    A review is presented of design and development work in space data processors at the Honeywell Space Systems Group in Florida. Space computers, some hardened for the first time against radiation from both man-made nuclear events and the natural space environment, are described. A specific illustration of this is the Space Shuttle main engine control which monitors some 120 engine parameters 50 times per second and operates the actuators that control the liquid-fueled engine through its eight minute burn. It is further pointed out that Space Station processors will be tied together by three different data buses, each with its own protocol, while the backbone of the data management system will be an optical fiber distributed data interface handling up to 100 Mbits/sec. Radiation hardening without heavy shielding can be accomplished in several ways, i.e., at the materials level, by insulating substrates which can limit the photo-currents generated by a nuclear event, and at the topological level, by spacing transistors so that photocurrents cannot concentrate at any particular node.

  10. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  11. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

  12. Space shuttle EVA opportunities. [a technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, D. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on space extravehicular activities (EVA) that will be possible when the space shuttle orbiter is completed and launched. The use of EVA in payload systems design is discussed. Also discussed is space crew training. The role of EVA in connection with the Large Space Telescope and Skylab are described. The value of EVA in constructing structures in space and orbital assembly is examined. Excellent color illustrations are provided which show the proposed EVA functions that were described.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe (center) is welcomed to the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. Central Florida leaders are proposing the research park as the site for the new NASA Shared Services Center. The center would centralize NASA’s payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration by NASA.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe (center) is welcomed to the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. Central Florida leaders are proposing the research park as the site for the new NASA Shared Services Center. The center would centralize NASA’s payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration by NASA.

  14. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  15. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  16. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  17. Space Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-01

    NASA’s Virtual Glovebox (VGX) was developed to allow astronauts on Earth to train for complex biology research tasks in space. The astronauts may reach into the virtual environment, naturally manipulating specimens, tools, equipment, and accessories in a simulated microgravity environment as they would do in space. Such virtual reality technology also provides engineers and space operations staff with rapid prototyping, planning, and human performance modeling capabilities. Other Earth based applications being explored for this technology include biomedical procedural training and training for disarming bio-terrorism weapons.

  18. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to underscore the importance of continued studies on the effects of space on human physiology. With particular reference to the Space Station, it is pointed out that there are two aspects which are challenging to life scientists: first is the development of a research capability for the life sciences which will be used to conduct investigations necessary to extend the time humans can remain in space; second is the challenge to develop a medical capability to provide prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. A discussion of physiological changes that have been observed in spacecrews follows along the lines of the two aspects mentioned.

  19. Space Station Freedom: Dynamic instrumentation for a large space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, John P.; Cooper, Paul A.; Johnson, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed approach called Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) for obtaining on-orbit dynamic response measurements on Space Station Freedom, the first of a family of large, flexible space structures is discussed. The Phase 2 conceptual design study which provides a conceptual design of a proposed measurement system and an experimental protocol for inobstrusively collecting dynamic response data critical to characterizing important vibration modes of Space Station Freedom were recently concluded. The case for conducting such a measurement program is presented and the specific MIE objectives that were identified, are listed. The sequence of discrete Space Station Freedom assembly configurations is described, and the Phase 2 conceptual design of the experiment and instrumentation system are defined. In addition, a plan to utilize a space station hydrid scale model in laboratory simulations as part of the design process are discussed.

  20. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)