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Sample records for proposed prometheus space

  1. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  2. Future Mission Proposal Opportunities: Discovery, New Frontiers, and Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, S. M.; Morgan, T. H.; Niebur, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science is expanding opportunities to propose missions to comets, asteroids, and other solar system targets. The Discovery Program continues to be popular, with two sample return missions, Stardust and Genesis, currently in operation. The New Frontiers Program, a new proposal opportunity modeled on the successful Discovery Program, begins this year with the release of its first Announcement of Opportunity. Project Prometheus, a program to develop nuclear electric power and propulsion technology intended to enable a new class of high-power, high-capability investigations, is a third opportunity to propose solar system exploration. All three classes of mission include a commitment to provide data to the Planetary Data System, any samples to the NASA Curatorial Facility at Johnson Space Center, and programs for education and public outreach.

  3. Electric Propulsion System Modeling for the Proposed Prometheus 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Dougherty, Ryan; Manzella, David

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 spacecraft would utilize nuclear electric propulsion to propel the spacecraft to its ultimate destination where it would perform its primary mission. As part of the Prometheus 1 Phase A studies, system models were developed for each of the spacecraft subsystems that were integrated into one overarching system model. The Electric Propulsion System (EPS) model was developed using data from the Prometheus 1 electric propulsion technology development efforts. This EPS model was then used to provide both performance and mass information to the Prometheus 1 system model for total system trades. Development of the EPS model is described, detailing both the performance calculations as well as its evolution over the course of Phase A through three technical baselines. Model outputs are also presented, detailing the performance of the model and its direct relationship to the Prometheus 1 technology development efforts. These EP system model outputs are also analyzed chronologically showing the response of the model development to the four technical baselines during Prometheus 1 Phase A.

  4. Space Shielding Materials for Prometheus Application

    SciTech Connect

    R. Lewis

    2006-01-20

    At the time of Prometheus program restructuring, shield material and design screening efforts had progressed to the point where a down-selection from approximately eighty-eight materials to a set of five ''primary'' materials was in process. The primary materials were beryllium (Be), boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), tungsten (W), lithium hydride (LiH), and water (H{sub 2}O). The primary materials were judged to be sufficient to design a Prometheus shield--excluding structural and insulating materials, that had not been studied in detail. The foremost preconceptual shield concepts included: (1) a Be/B{sub 4}C/W/LiH shield; (2) a Be/B{sub 4}C/W shield; (3) and a Be/B{sub 4}C/H{sub 2}O shield. Since the shield design and materials studies were still preliminary, alternative materials (e.g., {sup nal}B or {sup 10}B metal) were still being screened, but at a low level of effort. Two competing low mass neutron shielding materials are included in the primary materials due to significant materials uncertainties in both. For LiH, irradiation-induced swelling was the key issue, whereas for H{sub 2}O, containment corrosion without active chemistry control was key, Although detailed design studies are required to accurately estimate the mass of shields based on either hydrogenous material, both are expected to be similar in mass, and lower mass than virtually any alternative. Unlike Be, W, and B{sub 4}C, which are not expected to have restrictive temperature limits, shield temperature limits and design accommodations are likely to be needed for either LiH or H{sub 2}O. The NRPCT focused efforts on understanding swelting of LiH, and observed, from approximately fifty prior irradiation tests, that either casting ar thorough out-gassing should reduce swelling. A potential contributor to LiH swelling appears to be LiOH contamination due to exposure to humid air, that can be eliminated by careful processing. To better understand LiH irradiation performance and mitigate the risks in Li

  5. Space Reflector Materials for Prometheus Application

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash; V. Munne; LL Stimely

    2006-01-31

    The two materials studied in depth which appear to have the most promise in a Prometheus reflector application are beryllium (Be) and beryllium oxide (BeO). Three additional materials, magnesium oxide (MgO), alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were also recently identified to be of potential interest, and may have promise in a Prometheus application as well, but are expected to be somewhat higher mass than either a Be or BeO based reflector. Literature review and analysis indicates that material properties for Be are largely known, but there are gaps in the properties of Be0 relative to the operating conditions for a Prometheus application. A detailed preconceptual design information document was issued providing material properties for both materials (Reference (a)). Beryllium oxide specimens were planned to be irradiated in the JOY0 Japanese test reactor to partially fill the material property gaps, but more testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) test reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was expected to be needed. A key issue identified for BeO was obtaining material for irradiation testing with an average grain size of {approx}5 micrometers, reminiscent of material for which prior irradiation test results were promising. Current commercially available material has an average grain size of {approx}10 micrometers. The literature indicated that improved irradiation performance could be expected (e.g., reduced irradiation-induced swelling) with the finer grain size material. Confirmation of these results would allow the use of historic irradiated materials test results from the literature, reducing the extent of required testing and therefore the cost of using this material. Environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with manufacturing are significant but manageable for Be and BeO. Although particulate-generating operations (e.g., machining, grinding, etc.) involving Be

  6. Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  7. Prometheus update

    SciTech Connect

    Haymes, R.C.; Moss, M.J.; Walker, P.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Prometheus I is a very low background 0.03 - 6.5 MeV gamma-ray balloon-borne imager. It eliminates the activation component of instrumental background through use of a gamma ray detector that is segmented in two dimensions, an active collimator fabricated from low-Z matter, an active collimator that vetoes prompt events due to fast neutrons, and a radiationless absorber of slow neutrons. The segmented detector rejects beta rays emitted by internal Nal activated nuclei because a beta causes only one segment to pulse, but a gamma ray interacting through Compton scattering causes several segments to simultaneously pulse. It serves as a position sensitive gamma-ray detector for the coded mask that fills the collimator's aperture. Because of its low background, the 3 [sigma] spectral-line sensitivity at 1 MeV of Prometheus II is expected to be 5 [times] 10[sup -5] photons cm[sup -2] sec[sup -1], given six hours observing time at midlatitude balloon altitudes. Prometheus will be used to produce a 0.5 - degree map of the entire sky in an energy band above that of the hard X-ray band, but below that of the COMPTEL:sky map. The map will be the principal objective of two Long Duration Balloon flights that are planned for 1994 and 1995. Prometheus has an in-flight selectable field of view (FOV) that ranges from 4 deg [times] 4 deg to 38 deg [times] 38 deg, and 30 arc-minute angular resolution. The localizability of bright sources is about 3 arc minutes. Since there is no unvetoed activation gamma radiation from the collimator, the energy spectrum of the aperture radiation may be unambiguously determined by measuring the dependence of counting rate upon size of the FOV. This has implications for an independent means of measuring the MeV bump' in the spectrum of the diffuse extragalactic background.

  8. Key Factors Influencing the Decision on the Number of Brayton Units for the Prometheus Space Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, John; Belanger, Sean; Burdge, Wayne; Clementoni, Eric; Jensen, Krista; Proctor, N. Beth; Zemo-Fulkerson, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors (NR) Program and its DOE Laboratories, KAPL and Bettis, were assigned responsibility to develop space reactor systems for the Prometheus Program. After investigating all of the potential reactor and energy conversion options, KAPL and Bettis selected a direct gas Brayton system as the reference approach for the nuclear electric propulsion missions, including the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). In order to determine the optimal plant architecture for the direct gas system, KAPL and Bettis investigated systems with one or two active Brayton units and up to two spare units. No final decision was made on the optimal system configuration for the NEP gas-Brayton system prior to closeout of the project. The two most promising options appear to be a single system without spares and a three Brayton system with two operating units, each producing half of the required load, with a single spare unit. The studies show that a single Brayton system, without spares, offers the lowest mass system, with potential for lower operating temperature, and a minimum of system and operational complexity. The lower required mass and increased system efficiency inherent in the single Brayton system may be exploited to satisfy other design objectives such as reduced reactor and radiator operating temperatures. While Brayton system lifetimes applicable to a JIMO or other nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission have not been demonstrated, there is no fundamental limit on the lifetime of the Brayton hardware. Use of additional Brayton units with installed spares will allow for continued operation in the event of a failure of an individual Brayton unit. However, preliminary system reliability evaluations do not point to any substantial reliability benefit provided by carrying spare Brayton units. If a spare unit is used, operating two of the units at full power with an unpowered spare proved more efficient than operating all three units at a reduced power and temperature

  9. Prometheus: Io's wandering plume.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, S W; Lopes-Gautier, R; McEwen, A; Smythe, W; Keszthelyi, L; Carlson, R

    2000-05-19

    Unlike any volcanic behavior ever observed on Earth, the plume from Prometheus on Io has wandered 75 to 95 kilometers west over the last 20 years since it was first discovered by Voyager and more recently observed by Galileo. Despite the source motion, the geometric and optical properties of the plume have remained constant. We propose that this can be explained by vaporization of a sulfur dioxide and/or sulfur "snowfield" over which a lava flow is moving. Eruption of a boundary-layer slurry through a rootless conduit with sonic conditions at the intake of the melted snow can account for the constancy of plume properties. PMID:10817989

  10. Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    T. Angeliu

    2006-01-19

    Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron ,exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the Be0 control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

  11. Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    T Angeliu; J Ward; J Witter

    2006-04-04

    Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the BeO control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

  12. Saturn's Dynamic Duo, Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dones, L.; Levison, H. F.; Lissauer, J. J.; French, R. G.; McGhee, C. A.

    2002-09-01

    Saturn's moons Prometheus and Pandora, the putative shepherds of the F Ring, orbit Saturn at rates that differ significantly from the rates at the time of the Voyager flybys in 1980/1981 (C. A. McGhee et al., Icarus 152, 282--315, 2001). Specifically, Prometheus is running slow, and Pandora is running fast. Soon after Prometheus' lag was discovered, collisions between Prometheus and the F Ring, occurring every ~19 years when their apses were anti-aligned, were proposed to explain the lag (C. D. Murray and S. M. Giuliatti Winter, Nature 380, 139--141, 1996). Prometheus's eccentricity now appears to be smaller than previously thought, implying that it does not enter the F Ring (M. W. Evans, Ph. D. thesis, Queen Mary College, 2001; R. G. French et al., this meeting). Furthermore, Pandora's orbital advance cannot be explained by interactions with the F Ring, since it does not come as close to the ring as Prometheus does. Instead, chaos is likely to be important for Pandora (F. Poulet and B. Sicardy, MNRAS 322, 343--355, 2001). The orbital anomalies of Prometheus and Pandora are anticorrelated, suggesting that their motions are coupled. This conclusion is strengthened by the even more deviant odyssey they both embarked upon in 2001 (R. G. French et al., this meeting). We will present numerical integrations of bodies with orbits similar to those of Prometheus and Pandora, and will discuss ways in which their motions might be coupled, possibly through the action of mass distributed in the ``F Ring region'' between them. We thank the NASA Planetary Geology & Geophysics program for grants to LD, HFL, JJL, and RGF, and to STScI for a grant to RGF.

  13. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  14. Space station proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

  15. Experiences in managing the Prometheus Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Clark, Karla B.; Cook, Beverly A.; Gavit, Sarah A.; Kayali, Sammy A.; McKinney, John C.; Milkovich, David C.; Reh, Kim R.; Taylor, Randall L.; Casani, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA?s Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. The Project had two major objectives: (1) to develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration, deep-space exploration and (2) to explore the three icy moons of Jupiter - Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa - and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences. Early in Project planning, it was determined that the development of the Prometheus nuclear powered Spaceship would be complex and require the intellectual knowledge residing at numerous organizations across the country. In addition, because of the complex nature of the Project and the multiple partners, approaches beyond those successfully used to manage a typical JPL project would be needed. This paper1 will describe the key experiences in managing Prometheus that should prove useful for future projects of similar scope and magnitude

  16. The Prometheus 1 spacecraft preliminary electric propulsion system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Ryan C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Dipprey, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 mission is an ambitious plan to orbit and explore the Jovian moons of Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. Such an ambitious mission is enabled by the first interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (EP) system.

  17. Lags of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Thamiris; Winter, O.; Mourão, D. D.; Cruz, C. C.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Observational data obtained during Saturn's ring plane crossing of 1995 indicated angular lags for the predicted positions of Prometheus and Pandora. Using additional observational data the lags were confirmed, with Prometheus about 19 degrees ahead and Pandora about 25 degrees behind their predicted longitudes. Chaotic motion associated to a 121:118 mean motion resonance between the two satellites is the theory currently accepted to explain these lags. In the present work we return to this problem proposing that an analysis of the temporal evolution of the semi-major axis of the satellites in order to explain the lags. Due to the secular interaction between the satellites their apsidal lines are periodically anti-aligned every 6.2 years, producing close encounters between the two bodies. During these moments there is a stronger interaction that produces variations in their semi-major axis. The main point is that the data used to propagate the orbits of the satellites was obtained near to the moment of one of these close approaches.

  18. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  19. Prometheus Project final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Randall

    2005-01-01

    This Final Report serves as an executive summary of the Prometheus Project's activities and deliverables from November 2002 through September 2005. It focuses on the challenges from a technical and management perspective, what was different and innovative about this project, and identifies the major options, decisions, and accomplishments of the Project team as a whole. However, the details of the activities performed by DOE NR and its contractors will be documented separately in accordance with closeout requirements of the DOE NR and consistent with agreements between NASA and NR.

  20. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  1. Understanding the behavior of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Alison J.; Goldreich, Peter

    2006-02-01

    We revisit the dynamics of Prometheus and Pandora, two small moons flanking Saturn's F ring. Departures of their orbits from freely precessing ellipses result from mutual interactions via their 121:118 mean motion resonance. Motions are chaotic because the resonance is split into four overlapping components. Orbital longitudes were observed to drift away from predictions based on Voyager ephemerides. A sudden jump in mean motions took place close to the time at which the orbits' apses were antialigned in 2000. Numerical integrations reproduce both the longitude drifts and the jumps. The latter have been attributed to the greater strength of interactions near apse antialignment (every 6.2 yr), and it has been assumed that this drift-jump behavior will continue indefinitely. We re-examine the dynamics of the Prometheus-Pandora system by analogy with that of a nearly adiabatic, parametric pendulum. In terms of this analogy, the current value of the action of the satellite system is close to its maximum in the chaotic zone. Consequently, at present, the two separatrix crossings per precessional cycle occur close to apse antialignment. In this state libration only occurs when the potential's amplitude is nearly maximal, and the "jumps" in mean motion arise during the short intervals of libration that separate long stretches of circulation. Because chaotic systems explore the entire region of phase space available to them, we expect that at other times the Prometheus-Pandora system would be found in states of medium or low action. In a low action state it would spend most of the time in libration, and separatrix crossings would occur near apse alignment. We predict that transitions between these different states can happen in as little as a decade. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume that sudden changes in the orbits only happen near apse antialignment.

  2. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  3. Prometheus and the Keeler gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; French, Richard G.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2014-11-01

    Linblad resonances with Saturn’s satellites are located at many radii in the rings. While some cause density or bending waves, others hold gap edges from spreading, like the 2:1 resonance with Mimas located at the B-ring edge, the 7:6 resonance with Janus at the A-ring edge, and the 32:31 resonance with Prometheus at the inner edge of the Keeler gap. The latter is the case of study here.Theoretically, the inner edge of the Keeler gap should have 32 regular sinusoidal lobes, where either the maximum or the minimum radius is expected to be aligned with Prometheus and rotating with its mean motion. We show that such is not the case. Fit of occultation data shows the presence of the 32:31 resonance, however, the fit residuals is as high as the amplitude of the resonance amplitude (about 2 km). Analysis of the ISS data, shows irregularities overlapping the lobes (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), that follow Keplerian motion. These irregularities may be due to clumps of particles with different eccentricities than the rest of the edge particles. This phenomenon may be caused by the resonance, as it has not been observed at other circular edges were no resonance is present at their location. The ISS data also shows that the lobe’s minimum/maximum is not perfectly aligned with the longitude of Prometheus, which may be due to libration about the centre of the resonance.

  4. Initial Assessment of Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Prometheus Project

    SciTech Connect

    M. Frederick

    2005-12-15

    Depending upon final design and materials selections, a variety of engineering solutions may need to be considered to avoid chemical degradation of components in a notional space nuclear power plant (SNPP). Coatings are one engineered approach that was considered. A comprehensive review of protective coating technology for various space-reactor structural materials is presented, including refractory metal alloys [molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and niobium (Nb)], nickel (Ni)-base superalloys, and silicon carbide (Sic). A summary description of some common deposition techniques is included. A literature survey identified coatings based on silicides or iridium/rhenium as the primary methods for environmental protection of refractory metal alloys. Modified aluminide coatings have been identified for superalloys and multilayer ceramic coatings for protection of Sic. All reviewed research focused on protecting structural materials from extreme temperatures in highly oxidizing conditions. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that some of these coatings may not be protective in the high-temperature, impure-He environment expected in a Prometheus reactor system. Further research is proposed to determine extensibility of these coating materials to less-oxidizing or neutral environments.

  5. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  6. Status of a Power Processor for the Prometheus-1 Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Hill, Gerald M.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott; Griebeler, Elmer; Hewitt, Frank; Scina, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies for nuclear electric propulsion for proposed deep space missions in support of the Exploration initiative under Project Prometheus. Electrical power produced by the combination of a fission-based power source and a Brayton power conversion and distribution system is used by a high specific impulse ion propulsion system to propel the spaceship. The ion propulsion system include the thruster, power processor and propellant feed system. A power processor technology development effort was initiated under Project Prometheus to develop high performance and lightweight power-processing technologies suitable for the application. This effort faces multiple challenges including developing radiation hardened power modules and converters with very high power capability and efficiency to minimize the impact on the power conversion and distribution system as well as the heat rejection system. This paper documents the design and test results of the first version of the beam supply, the design of a second version of the beam supply and the design and test results of the ancillary supplies.

  7. Overview of the Project Prometheus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, G. M.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the Project Prometheus Program (PPP, formerly the Nuclear Systems Initiative, NSI) and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project (a component of PPP), a mission to the three icy Galilean moons of Jupiter.

  8. Prometheus as Total Theatre: Production Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Erik

    1970-01-01

    Explains the interpretation and techniques the author used in directing "Prometheus Bound," emphasizing the use of the chorus to express emotion and tensions rather than to react to them; illustrated. (SW)

  9. Numerical Simulations of the Orbits of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, N. J.; Murray, C. D.

    2003-05-01

    We present the results of a numerical study of the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora. The full equations of motion have been integrated numerically for a variety of starting epochs between 1981 and 2004 using the Runge-Kutta-Nystrom RKN12(10)17M algorithm of Dormand et al. (1987). Included in the simulations are the effects of the 8 major satellites of Saturn, together with Janus and Epimetheus. Perturbations due to the Sun and Jupiter are also taken into account, along with the effects of Saturn's oblateness, up to terms in J6. The results show that the anti-correlation in the temporal variation of the mean longitudes of Prometheus and Pandora, demonstrated by Goldreich and Rappaport (Icarus 162 (2003), 391) in their two-satellite simulations, survives the addition of the other satellites to the model. Chaos is also apparent through extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and a positive value for the Lyapunov characteristic exponent. The simulations also clearly show the influence of the nearby 3:2 corotation eccentricity resonance due to Mimas on the mean longitude of Pandora, as predicted by theory and as detected by French et al. in their HST observations (Icarus 162 (2003), 143). The smaller effect due to the corresponding 3:2 inner Lindblad resonance is also detectable, though apparently much less significant. We investigate the possible role of the other satellites in the short-term evolution of the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora and consider the effects of various nearby resonances. Finally, we estimate the possible uncertainties in the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora during the Cassini tour, and discuss how the proposed sequence of observations for these satellites by Cassini may be expected to improve the precision of their orbits. The authors thank the U.K. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council for financial support.

  10. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R&D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions.

  11. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  12. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

    2006-02-08

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  13. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  14. Saturn's wayward shepherds: the peregrinations of Prometheus and Pandora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee, Colleen A.; Dones, Luke; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2003-03-01

    Saturn's narrow F ring is flanked by two nearby small satellites, Prometheus and Pandora, discovered in Voyager images taken in 1980 and 1981 (Synnott et al., 1983, Icarus 53, 156-158). Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the ring plane crossings (RPX) of 1995 led to the unexpected finding that Prometheus was ˜19° behind its predicted orbital longitude, based on the Synnott et al. (1983) Voyager ephemeris (Bosh and Rivkin, 1996 Science 272, 518-521; Nicholson et al., 1996, Science 272, 509-515). Whereas Pandora was at its predicted location in August 1995, McGhee (2000, Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University) found from the May and November 1995 RPX data that Pandora also deviates from the Synnott et al. (1983) Voyager ephemeris. Using archival HST data from 1994, previously unexamined RPX images, and a large series of targeted WFPC2 observations between 1996 and 2002, we have determined highly accurate sky-plane positions for Prometheus, Pandora, and nine other satellites found in our images. We compare the Prometheus and Pandora measurements to the predictions of substantially revised and improved ephemerides for the two satellites based on an extensive analysis of a large set of Voyager images (Murray et al., 2000, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1090; Evans, 2001 Ph.D. thesis, Queen Mary College). From December 1994 to December 2000, Prometheus' orbital longitude lag was changing by -0.71° year -1 relative to the new Voyager ephemeris. In contrast, Pandora is ahead of the revised Voyager prediction. From 1994 to 2000, its longitude offset changed by +0.44° year -1, showing in addition an ˜585 day oscillatory component with amplitude Δλ CR0 = 0.65 ± 0.07° whose phase matches the expected perturbation due to the nearby 3:2 corotation resonance with Mimas, modulated by the 71-year libration in the longitude of Mimas due to its 4:2 resonance with Tethys. We determine orbital elements for freely precessing equatorial orbits from fits to the 1994

  15. Some comments on the F ring-Prometheus-Pandora environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliatti Winter, S. M.; Winter, O. C.

    2004-01-01

    The system formed by the F ring and two close satellites, Prometheus and Pandora, has been analysed since the time that Voyager visited the planet Saturn. During the ring plane crossing in 1995 the satellites were found in different positions as predicted by the Voyager data. Besides the mutual effects of Prometheus and Pandora, they are also disturbed by a massive F ring. Showalter et al. [Icarus 100 (1992) 394] proposed that, the core of the ring has a mass which corresponds to a moonlet varying in size from 15 to 70 km in radius which can prevent the ring from spreading due to dissipative forces, such as Poynting-Robertson drag and collisions. We have divided this work into two parts. Firstly we analysed the secular interactions between Prometheus-Pandora and a massive F ring using the secular theory. Our results show the variation in eccentricity and inclination of the satellites and the F ring taking into account a massive ring corresponding to a moonlet of different sizes. There is also a population of dust particles in the ring in the company of moonlets at different sizes [Icarus 109 (1997) 304]. We also analysed the behaviour of these particles under the effects of the Poynting-Robertson drag and radiation pressure. Our results show that the time scale proposed for a dust particle to leave the ring is much shorter than predicted before even in the presence of a coorbital moonlet. This result does not agree with the confinement model proposed by Dermott et al. [Nature 284 (1980) 309]. In 2004, Cassini mission will perform repeated observations of the whole system, including observations of the satellites and the F ring environment. These data will help us to better understand this system.

  16. Proposal for a remotely manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minsky, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    The United States is in trouble in space. The costs of the proposed Space Station Freedom have grown beyond reach, and the present design is obsolete. The trouble has come from imagining that there are only two alternatives: manned vs. unmanned. Both choices have led us into designs that do not appear to be practical. On one side, the United States simply does not possess the robotic technology needed to operate or assemble a sophisticated unmanned space station. On the other side, the manned designs that are now under way seem far too costly and dangerous, with all of its thousands of extravehicular activity (EVA) hours. More would be accomplished at far less cost by proceeding in a different way. The design of a space station made of modular, Erector Set-like parts is proposed which is to be assembled using earth-based remotely-controlled binary-tree telerobots. Earth-based workers could be trained to build the station in space using simulators. A small preassembled spacecraft would be launched with a few telerobots, and then, telerobots could be ferried into orbit along with stocks of additional parts. Trained terrestrial workers would remotely assemble a larger station, and materials for additional power and life support systems could be launched. Finally, human scientists and explorers could be sent to the space station. Other aspects of such a space station program are discussed.

  17. Ion Engine Plume Interaction Calculations for Prototypical Prometheus 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Myron J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Katz, Ira; Randolph, Tom; Dougherty, Ryan; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2005-01-01

    Prometheus 1 is a conceptual mission to demonstrate the use of atomic energy for distant space missions. The hypothetical spacecraft design considered in this paper calls for multiple ion thrusters, each with considerably higher beam energy and beam current than have previously flown in space. The engineering challenges posed by such powerful thrusters relate not only to the thrusters themselves, but also to designing the spacecraft to avoid potentially deleterious effects of the thruster plumes. Accommodation of these thrusters requires good prediction of the highest angle portions of the main beam, as well as knowledge of clastically scattered and charge exchange ions, predictions for grid erosion and contamination of surfaces by eroded grid material, and effects of the plasma plume on radio transmissions. Nonlinear interactions of multiple thrusters are also of concern. In this paper we describe two- and three-dimensional calculations for plume structure and effects of conceptual Prometheus 1 ion engines. Many of the techniques used have been validated by application to ground test data for the NSTAR and NEXT ion engines. Predictions for plume structure and possible sputtering and contamination effects will be presented.

  18. The heartbeat of the volcano: The discovery of episodic activity at Prometheus on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, A.G.; Wilson, L.; Matson, D.; Leone, G.; Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.

    2006-01-01

    The temporal signature of thermal emission from a volcano is a valuable clue to the processes taking place both at and beneath the surface. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observed the volcano Prometheus, on the jovian moon Io, on multiple occasions between 1996 and 2002. The 5 micron (??m) brightness of this volcano shows considerable variation from orbit to orbit. Prometheus exhibits increases in thermal emission that indicate episodic (though non-periodic) effusive activity in a manner akin to the current Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha (afterwards referred to as the Pu'u 'O'o) eruption of Kilauea, Hawai'i. The volume of material erupted during one Prometheus eruption episode (defined as the interval from minimum thermal emission to peak and back to minimum) from 6 November 1996 to 7 May 1997 is estimated to be ???0.8 km3, with a peak instantaneous volumetric flux (effusion rate) of ???140 m3 s-1, and an averaged volumetric flux (eruption rate) of ???49 m3 s-1. These quantities are used to model subsurface structure, magma storage and magma supply mechanisms, and likely magma chamber depth. Prometheus appears to be supplied by magma from a relatively shallow magma chamber, with a roof at a minimum depth of ???2-3 km and a maximum depth of ???14 km. This is a much shallower depth range than sources of supply proposed for explosive, possibly ultramafic, eruptions at Pillan and Tvashtar. As Prometheus-type effusive activity is widespread on Io, shallow magma chambers containing magma of basaltic or near-basaltic composition and density may be common. This analysis strengthens the analogy between Prometheus and Pu'u 'O'o, at least in terms of eruption style. Even though the style of eruption appears to be similar (effusive emplacement of thin, insulated, compound pahoehoe flows) the scale of activity at Prometheus greatly exceeds current activity at Pu'u 'O'o in terms of volume erupted, area covered, and magma flux. Whereas the estimated magma chamber at

  19. Mayo v. Prometheus: A Year Later.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Brian R

    2013-07-11

    Last year's U.S. Supreme Court decision in Mayo v. Prometheus regarding the patent eligibility of diagnostic method claims will probably have the most profound lasting effect of any recent court decision on the biopharmaceutical industry. The Mayo decision changed the evaluation of patent eligibility of a method claim under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The new evaluation is a more difficult standard to clear and needs to be considered prior to filing a patent application. PMID:24900711

  20. US Space VLBI Proposed Outreach Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The study of how VLBI might be pursued in space began in the late 1970's, when it was realized that the size of the earth was a serious limitation to the study of compact radio sources. By going to space, achieving angular resolution at radio wavelengths that could not be obtained with VLBI systems that were limited by the size of the earth, important tests could not be made of quasar models. The technology appeared to be within reach, and an early space VLBI concept, QUASAT, emerged as a joint project, involving both US and European scientists. In 1984, a workshop was held in Gross Enzerdorf, Austria, under joint sponsorship of NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The principal conclusion of the workshop was that a VLBI station in space, telemetering its data to ground data stations, working in connection with ground-based radio telescopes, would give the opportunity to achieve angular resolution of a few tens of micro-arc-seconds, and could develop high-quality radio maps of many classes of radio sources. The ground telemetry stations would also function as the source of a stable local oscillator for the spacecraft, which needs a highly stable frequency reference. The Deep Space Network of NASA could play a vital role in both the frequency-locking system and data acquisition. One outcome of the Gross Enzerdorf workshop was the convening, by COSPAR, of an ad hoc Committee on Space VLBI, to review and recommend procedures by which international collaboration on VLBI in space might be coordinated and promoted. In October 1985, the committee met in Budapest and recommended that the Inter-Agency Consultative Group (IACG) would be an appropriate body to coordinate VLBI activities in space. At the same time ESA convened a committee to explore the technical aspects of coordinating ground and space VLBI activities. At this stage both NASA and ESA were supporting preliminary studies of the QUASAT mission, with effective coordination between the two groups. The Soviet

  1. Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Stephens

    2006-01-13

    This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

  2. The Effect of Prometheus on the F Ring

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie features a simulation showing the changes to a portion of Saturn's F ring as the shepherding moon Prometheus swings by it. The animation uses data obtained by the imaging cameras aboard ...

  3. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    SciTech Connect

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  4. NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  5. Prometheus and Pandora: masses and orbital positions during the Cassini tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Stéfan; Sicardy, Bruno; French, Richard G.

    2005-03-01

    Hubble Space Telescope ( HST) images of Prometheus and Pandora show longitude discrepancies of about 20° with respect to the Voyager ephemerides, with an abrupt change in mean motion at the end of 2000 (French et al., 2003, Icarus 162, 143-170; French and McGhee, 2003, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 06.07). These discrepancies are anti-correlated and arise from chaotic interactions between the two moons, occurring at interval of 6.2 yr, when their apses are anti-aligned (Goldreich and Rappaport, 2003a, Icarus 162, 391-399). This behavior is attributed to the overlap of four 121:118 apse-type mean motion resonances (Goldreich and Rappaport, 2003b, Icarus 166, 320-327). We study the Prometheus-Pandora system using a Radau-type integrator taking into account Saturn's oblateness up to and including terms in J, plus the effects of the major satellites. We first confirm the chaotic behavior of Prometheus and Pandora. By fitting the numerical integrations to the HST data (French et al., 2003, Icarus 162, 143-170; French and McGhee, 2003, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 06.07), we derive the satellite masses. The resulting GM values (with their standard 3- σ errors) for Prometheus and Pandora are respectively GM=(1.41-0.25+0.10)×10 and GM=(1.03-0.19+0.10)×10 kms. Using the nominal shape of the two moons (Thomas, 1989, Icarus 77, 248-274), we derive Prometheus and Pandora's densities, 0.40 +0.03-0.07 and 0.49 +0.05-0.09 g cm -3, respectively. Our numerical fits also enable us to constrain the time of the latest apse anti-alignment in 2000. Finally, using our fit, we predict the orbital positions of the two satellites during the Cassini tour, and provide a lower limit of the uncertainties due to chaos. These uncertainties amount to about 0.2° in mean longitude at the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft in July 2004, and to about 3° in 2008, at the end of the nominal tour.

  6. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1992-10-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  7. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  8. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.

  9. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture. PMID:18794562

  10. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  11. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order ~20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  12. A proposal test of the space-time metricity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, A. M.; Strini, G.

    Among the standard hypothesis about gravitational theories, there is the "metricity" hypothesis for the space-time metric. Hehl, McCrea, Ne'eman and others have proposed a non-metricity. With the help of simple additional hypothesis, based on a previous experiment by Harris et al., the authors propose a metricity test by means of spectroscopic tests on meteorites.

  13. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  14. Evaluation criteria for commercially oriented materials processing in space proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. F.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    An approach and criteria for evaluating NASA funded experiments and demonstrations which have commercial potential were developed. Methods for insuring quick initial screening of commercial proposals are presented. Recommendations are given for modifying the current evaluation approach. New criteria for evaluating commercially orientated materials processing in space (MPS) proposals are introduced. The process for selection of qualified individuals to evaluate the phases of this approach and criteria is considered and guidelines are set for its implementation.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5 call for proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document invites and supports participation by the international astronomical community in the HST General Observer and Archival Research programs. These documents contain the basic procedural and technical information required for HST proposal preparation and submission, including applicable deadlines. The telescope and its instruments were built under the auspices of the NASA and the European Space Agency.

  16. Proprietary Manned Space Flight Proposals, 1973 to 2013, plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Philip

    2016-03-01

    In 1973 a concept for a manned space flight experiment was submitted to NASA as an unsolicited proprietary proposal,*. In 1998*, 2004*, and 2013* proposals successively more details were provided. An abbreviation of the 1998 proposal was published. By 2013 the five technical variables of 1998 had increased to over ten. Some technical and management details of the proposals will be presented and updated. The first flight of two could use some hardware now being developed. The experiment seems superior to any mission publicly advocated by NASA, so this talk's purpose is to encourage NASA to delay landing humans on Mars until the first spacecraft can be developed and activated. *Complete proposals are in the Philip C. Fisher papers, Niels Bohr Library and Archives, American Institute of Physics (available one year after author's death). Work after 1982 supported by successive forms of Ruffner Associates.

  17. Proposal of Space Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hidetaka; Nishiyama, Takaaki; Nakashima, Hideki

    Currently, the solar battery, the chemical cell, and the RI battery are used for the energy source in space. However, it is difficult for them to satisfy requirements for deep space explorations. Therefore, other electric power sources which can stably produce high electric energy output, regardless of distance from the sun, are necessary to execute such missions. Then, we here propose small nuclear reactors as power sources for deep space exploration, and consider a conceptual design of a small nuclear reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion System. It is found from nuclear analyses that the Gas-Cooled reactor could not meet the design requirement imposed on the core mass. On the other hand, a light water reactor is found to be a promising alternative to the Gas-Cooled reactor.

  18. Proposed CMG momentum management scheme for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, L. R.; Bishop, R. H.; Lindsay, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    A discrete control moment gyro (CMG) momentum management scheme (MMS) applicable to spacecraft with principal axes misalignments, such as the proposed NASA dual keel space station, is presented in this paper. The objective of the MMS is to minmize CMG angular momentum storage requirements for maintaining the space station near local vertical in the presence of environmental disturbances. It utilizes available environmental disturbances, namely gravity gradient torques, to minimize CMG momentum storage. The MMS is executed once per orbit and generates a commanded torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) time history which consists of a yaw, pitch and roll angle command profile. Although the algorithm is called only once per orbit to compute the TEA profile, the space station will maneuver several discrete times each orbit.

  19. Relative efficacy of the proposed Space Shuttle antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordinsky, J. R.; Schwartz, E.; Beier, J.; Martin, J.; Aust, G.

    1982-07-01

    Space motion sickness has been estimated as affecting between 1/3 and 1/2 of all space flight participants. NASA has at the moment proposed a combination of promethazine and ephedrine ( P/E) and one of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine ( S/D), both given orally, as well as a transdermally applied scopolamine (TAS), as preventive and ameliorative measures. The reported double-blind study tests the early phase actions and efficacy of the transdermal scopolamine (Transderm ™-V of ALZA Corporation) and compares these in detail to the oral medications. Motion sickness resistance was tested by standardized head movements while accelerating at 0.2°/sec 2 to a maximum rotation of 240°/sec, with an intermediate plateau of 10 min at 180°/sec. To permit weighting motion sickness protection against other system influences, cardiovascular, psychological (subjective and objective), and visual parameter changes were documented for the three therapeutic modes. The relative impact of the various modalities on operational and experimental components of space missions is discussed. A comparison to intramuscularly administered promethazine (a backup therapeutic mode suggested for Space Shuttle use) is also included.

  20. Technology insight: artificial extracorporeal liver support--how does Prometheus compare with MARS?

    PubMed

    Krisper, Peter; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2007-05-01

    Artificial extracorporeal liver support or 'liver dialysis' has been used in patients with severe liver failure with increasing frequency since the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS), a variant of albumin dialysis, was introduced in 1999. Nevertheless, liver dialysis must still be thought of as experimental because its contribution to improved patient survival has not been proven in large randomized trials. Prometheus is a novel device for fractionated plasma separation via an albumin-permeable filter that was developed to improve removal of albumin-bound toxins. Initial studies have proven clinical use of Prometheus to be feasible and safe. Head-to-head comparisons of Prometheus and MARS have shown treatment with the former to be more efficient with respect to removal of most albumin-bound and water-solved markers. As controlled studies with clinical end points are lacking, it is not known whether the observed greater detoxification capacity of Prometheus will translate into clinical benefit; two small studies indicate that there might be a beneficial effect in hepatic encephalopathy and pruritus. In a recent randomized comparison of MARS and Prometheus, however, hemodynamic improvement was observed in response to MARS, but not Prometheus, treatment. A large randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Prometheus on survival--the HELIOS study--has been initiated. First results are expected in 2008 and will be crucial to establishing a role for Prometheus in the field of extracorporeal liver support.

  1. Effusion Rate Variability at Zamama, Culann, Tupan Patera and Prometheus on Io during the Galileo Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Ennis, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Zamama, Culann, and Tupan Patera are three large, persistent volcanic centers on the jovian moon Io. As part of an ongoing project to quantify contributions from individual volcanic centers to Io's thermal budget, we have quantified the radiant flux and effusion rates from all suitable observations made by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) of these volcanoes [1], in some cases filling omissions in previous analyses. Eruption rates at these three volcanoes are on the order of 30 m3 s-1, consistent with a previous analysis of NIMS observations of Prometheus [2], and nearly an order of magnitude greater than Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i, Earth's most active volcano. We propose that future missions to the jovian system could better constrain activity at these volcanoes and others where similar styles of activity are taking place by obtaining data on a time scale of, ideally, at least one observation per day.

  2. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  3. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  4. Evaluation of materials proposed for use in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The primary irritancy and allergenicity of flame resistant treated cotton knit shirts proposed for use in space flight were evaluated. The knitted shirts were supplied by NASA as follows: knitted shirts with collars were made of two-ply mercerized single-knit cotton jersey. The fabric was treated with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium hydroxide and subsequently cured with gaseous ammonia (THPOH/NH3). The final treatment comprised adding on diammonium phosphate (DAP)/urea. The treated fabric was process scoured to remove extraneous materials, top softened and mechanically or chemically finished as required for specific needs. Diammonium phosphate is a more efficient flame inhabitant than the phosphonium; thus, the combination treatment served to impart higher resistance to ignition and sustained combustion as required by NASA test standard.

  5. The proposal for new space-based gravitational experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Zharov, Vladimir

    The development of space technologies opens new perspectives in solving the fundamental problems of gravity. We propose the experimental investigation of General Relativity (GR) in space experiments in following: a) measurement of post-Newtonian parameters (PPN), b) gravity wave detection in the low frequency band. The accuracy, with which GR is currently confirmed, is fractions of percent: 2.3× 10(-5) . However, in spite of the remarkable success of GR in the weak-field approximation, there are many reasons to consider alternative relativistic theories of gravity that predict the existence of effects other than GR, thus motivating new fundamental gravitational experiments. In this connection, the experimental measurements of PPN of parameters play a special role. To improve the accuracy of measurement of geodetic effects in the gravitational field of the Earth the clusters of spacecrafts, connected by microwave radio links and optical links, are widely used. Such a scheme allows to suppress effectively a coherent noise acting on the spacecraft, and to measure the distance between the satellites within a fraction of a millimeter. This technology was already tested for GRACE and GRAIL NASA missions. Furthermore, there are technologies allowing to effectively compensate non-gravitational noise to the level of 10(-10) - 10(-12) \\ m/s(2/sqrt{Hz}) . The project, which assume the lunch of cluster of the spacecrafts intended to study fundamental processes in the Universe, including the measurement of the PPN parameters and low frequency gravitational waves, is proposed in this report. We study the space-based systems in a configuration of few spacecrafts on different orbits in the gravitational field of the Earth for measuring these effects. Measurements of distances between spacecrafts are performed using microwave radio links, laser interferometry and ultra stable frequency standards. Developed modern technologies for distant measurements allow to reach the accuracy

  6. Proposed School of Earth And Space Sciences, Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2004-05-01

    The hallmarks of the proposed school in the University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad,India, would be synergy, inclusivity and globalism. The School will use the synergy between the earth (including oceanic and atmospheric realms), space and information sciences to bridge the digital divide, and promote knowledge-driven and job-led economic development of the country. It will endeavour to (i) provide the basic science underpinnings for Space and Information Technologies, (ii) develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources (water, soils, sediments, minerals, biota, etc.)in ecologically-sustainable, employment-generating and economically-viable ways, (iii) mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards through preparedness systems,etc. The School will undertake research in the inter-disciplinary areas of earth and space sciences (e.g. climate predictability, satellite remote sensing of soil moisture) and linking integrative science with the needs of the decision makers. It will offer a two-year M.Tech. (four semesters, devoted to Theory, Tools, Applications and Dissertation, respectively ) course in Earth and Space Sciences. The Applications will initially cover eight course clusters devoted to Water Resources Management, Agriculture, Ocean studies, Energy Resources, Urban studies, Environment, Natural Hazards and Mineral Resources Management. The School will also offer a number of highly focused short-term refresher courses / supplementary courses to enable cadres to update their knowledge and skills. The graduates of the School would be able to find employment in macro-projects, such as inter-basin water transfers, and Operational crop condition assessment over large areas, etc. as well as in micro-projects, such as rainwater harvesting, and marketing of remote sensing products to stake-holders (e.g. precision agricultural advice to the farmers, using the large bandwidth of thousands of kilometres of unlit optical fibres). As the School is highly

  7. Revenge of the Sheep: Effects of Saturn's F Ring on the Orbit of Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, M. R.; Dones, L.; Lissauer, J. J.

    1999-09-01

    Prometheus is the larger and closer of the two ``shepherding'' moons straddling Saturn's F Ring. It was found to be lagging its predicted orbital longitude by 19(deg) in 1995, compared to extrapolations from Voyager data in 1980 and 1981. That lag has been increasing since. We have identified two related gravitational interactions with F Ring material that will produce a pseudo-random walk in Prometheus' orbit, plausibly causing the lag observed. (1) When Prometheus passes a sector of the ring, its gravitational perturbations generate periodic clumps. These clumps persist until the next passage, where Prometheus' gravity can systematically ``throw'' the ring to an orbit higher or lower by ~ 1 km. Because energy is conserved, Prometheus' must recoil slightly. Our numerical and analytic models reveal that if the F Ring has a mass comparable to that of Prometheus, then the integrated effect of this recoil can explain the orbital lag. (2) The F Ring could easily contain 100--1000 as-yet undetected objects ~ 5 km in radius, which contain the bulk of the ring's mass. The net gravitational perturbations from these bodies could introduce an additional random component to Prometheus' motion. This research is supported by NASA through RTOP 344-30-51-05.

  8. Proposal of a Tethered Space Walking Robot - REX-J: Robot Experiment on JEM -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Mitsushige; Sawada, Hirotaka; Yoshi, Masahiro; Konoue, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Ueno, Taihei

    A unique space robot is proposed to support astronauts' EVA work. The robot moves around the surface of a space facility, e.g. a space station. Usefulness of the proposed robot system will be tested in 2012 on the International Space Station Japanese Experiment Module.

  9. A proposal for epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials. Advanced thin film materials to be epitaxially grown in space include semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin film high temperature superconductors.

  10. Discovery of episodic volcanism at Prometheus on Io: implications for magma supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data show the ionian volcanoes Prometheus and Amirani have significant thermal emission in excess of non-volcanic background emission in every geometrically appropriate NIMS observation.

  11. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Giovanni; Davies, Ashley G.; Wilson, Lionel; Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle.

  12. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, G.; Gerard, Davies A.; Wilson, L.; Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. A dusty ringlet with connections to both Prometheus and the F ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Matthew M.; Carter, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Prometheus is a small satellite of Saturn that orbits between the planet's main rings and the narrow and dusty F ring. Prometheus' complex interactions with the F-ring material have been investigated in some detail using data from the Cassini and Voyager spacecraft, but the moon's influences on other nearby dusty rings are still largely unexplored. Here we examine a very faint ringlet that can be seen in high-phase images of the region around Prometheus' orbit taken by the Cassini spacecraft. These data reveal that the mean radius of this ringlet is close to Prometheus' semi-major axis, suggesting that it consists of material co-orbiting with that moon. However, images taken at different times and longitudes also reveal that the ringlet is eccentric, and its apsidal precession rate is not that expected for material close to Prometheus' orbit (semi-major axis of 139,380 km). Instead, the ringlet appears to be precessing at the same rate as the F-ring (mean radius around 140,200 km). The structure and dynamics of this ringlet therefore probably involve interactions with both Prometheus and the F ring.

  14. Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase

  15. A Proposal for the Common Safety Approach of Space Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    For all applications, business and systems related to Space programs, Quality is mandatory and is a key factor for the technical as well as the economical performances. Up to now the differences of applications (launchers, manned space-flight, sciences, telecommunications, Earth observation, planetary exploration, etc.) and the difference of technical culture and background of the leading countries (USA, Russia, Europe) have generally led to different approaches in terms of standards and processes for Quality. At a time where international cooperation is quite usual for the institutional programs and globalization is the key word for the commercial business, it is considered of prime importance to aim at common standards and approaches for Quality in Space Programs. For that reason, the International Academy of Astronautics has set up a Study Group which mandate is to "Make recommendations to improve the Quality, Reliability, Efficiency, and Safety of space programmes, taking into account the overall environment in which they operate : economical constraints, harsh environments, space weather, long life, no maintenance, autonomy, international co-operation, norms and standards, certification." The paper will introduce the activities of this Study Group, describing a first list of topics which should be addressed : Through this paper it is expected to open the discussion to update/enlarge this list of topics and to call for contributors to this Study Group.

  16. 75 FR 59686 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space- Based Data Collection System (DCS) Agreements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by...

  17. 78 FR 68816 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space- Based Data Collection System (DCS) Agreements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by...

  18. Proposal of Network-Based Multilingual Space Dictionary Database System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Ninomiya, K.

    2002-01-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is now constructing a multilingual dictionary database system of space-friendly terms. The database consists of a lexicon and dictionaries of multiple languages. The lexicon is a table which relates corresponding terminology in different languages. Each language has a dictionary which contains terms and their definitions. The database assumes the use on the internet. Updating and searching the terms and definitions are conducted via the network. Maintaining the database is conducted by the international cooperation. A new word arises day by day, thus to easily input new words and their definitions to the database is required for the longstanding success of the system. The main key of the database is an English term which is approved at the table held once or twice with the working group members. Each language has at lease one working group member who is responsible of assigning the corresponding term and the definition of the term of his/her native language. Inputting and updating terms and their definitions can be conducted via the internet from the office of each member which may be located at his/her native country. The system is constructed by freely distributed database server program working on the Linux operating system, which will be installed at the head office of IAA. Once it is installed, it will be open to all IAA members who can search the terms via the internet. Currently the authors are constructing the prototype system which is described in this paper.

  19. "Active" and "Passive" Lava Resurfacing Processes on Io: A Comparative Study of Loki Patera and Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Matson, D. L.; Leone, G.; Wilson, L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data and ground based data of volcanism at Prometheus and Loki Patera on Io reveal very different mechanisms of lava emplacement at these two volcanoes. Data analyses show that the periodic nature of Loki Patera s volcanism from 1990 to 2001 is strong evidence that Loki s resurfacing over this period resulted from the foundering of a crust on a lava lake. This process is designated passive , as there is no reliance on sub-surface processes: the foundering of the crust is inevitable. Prometheus, on the other hand, displays an episodicity in its activity which we designate active . Like Kilauea, a close analog, Prometheus s effusive volcanism is dominated by pulses of magma through the nearsurface plumbing system. Each system affords views of lava resurfacing processes through modelling.

  20. UVIS ring occultations show F ring feature location and optical depth correlated with Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Esposito, L. W.; Albers, N.

    2010-05-01

    We find 24 statistically significant features in the F ring occultations using the High Speed Photometer (HSP) channel of the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). These features are likely transient clumps of material embedded in the ring, each of which attenuates stellar signal during an occultation because the ring material is more densely packed at that location. In fact, two of these features are opaque, indicating they may be solid moonlets. Two trends are evident in the azimuthal location of these 24 F ring features with respect to that of Prometheus. First, the orbital locations of these features are mostly opposite Prometheus, as 11 of the 24 occupy the orbital region separated from Prometheus by 180° ± 20°. Second, average feature optical depth is maximum near the antipode of Prometheus in orbit. Our hypothesis is that these results show aggregation and disaggregation of clumps after Prometheus passes by. As Prometheus passes interior to the F ring, it encounters material once every synodic period, 68 days. Optical depth indicates density of ring material along the line of sight, so as material clumps together, we expect to see higher optical depths. Thus we infer that the encounter stimulates clumping of material that reaches a maximum 180° downstream. This may reinforce similar evidence that Ring-Moon interaction stimulates clumping in the F ring region from Cassini imaging (Beurle, et al., 2010) and at the B ring edge (Esposito, et al., 2010). Esposito, et al. (2010) suggest that the combined mass and velocity evolution of the ring system resembles a predator/prey model. This research was supported by the Cassini Project.

  1. Initial description of primate-specific cystine-knot Prometheus genes and differential gene expansions of D-dopachrome tautomerase genes.

    PubMed

    Premzl, Marko

    2015-06-01

    Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and public genomic sequence data sets, the present work attempted to update and revise two gene data sets. The most comprehensive third party annotation gene data sets of eutherian adenohypophysis cystine-knot genes (128 complete coding sequences), and d-dopachrome tautomerases and macrophage migration inhibitory factor genes (30 complete coding sequences) were annotated. For example, the present study first described primate-specific cystine-knot Prometheus genes, as well as differential gene expansions of D-dopachrome tautomerase genes. Furthermore, new frameworks of future experiments of two eutherian gene data sets were proposed. PMID:25941635

  2. The Pulse of the Volcano: Discovery of Episodic Activity at Prometheus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of thermal output from a volcano yields valuable clues to the processes taking place at and beneath the surface. Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data show that the ionian volcanoes Prometheus and Amirani have significant thermal emission in excess of nonvolcanic background emission in every geometrically appropriate NIMS observation. The 5 micron brightness of these volcanoes shows considerable variation from orbit to orbit. Prometheus in particular exhibits an episodicity that yields valuable constraints to the mechanisms of magma supply and eruption. This work is part of an on-going study to chart and quantify the thermal emission of Io's volcanoes, determine mass eruption rates, and note eruption style.

  3. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  4. Proposal Drafted for Allocating Space-to-Space Frequencies in the GPS Spectrum Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Rodney L.

    2000-01-01

    Radionavigation Satellite Service (RNSS) systems such as the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) are primarily being used today in the space-to-Earth direction (i.e., from GPS satellite to Earth user) for a broad range of applications such as geological surveying; aircraft, automobile, and maritime navigation; hiking and mountain climbing; and precision farming and mining. However, these navigation systems are being used increasingly in space. Beginning with the launch of the TOPEX/Poseidon remote-sensing mission in 1992, over 90 GPS receivers have flown onboard spacecraft for such applications as real-time spacecraft navigation, three-axis attitude control, precise time synchronization, precision orbit determination, and atmospheric profiling. In addition to use onboard many science spacecraft, GPS has been used or is planned to be used onboard the shuttles, the International Space Station, the International Space Station Emergency Crew Return Vehicle, and many commercial satellite systems such as Orbcomm, Globalstar, and Teledesic. From a frequency spectrum standpoint, however, one important difference between the space and terrestrial uses of GPS is that it is being used in space with no interference protection. This is because there is no frequency allocation for the space-to-space use of GPS (i.e., from GPS satellite to user spacecraft) in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) regulatory table of frequency allocations. If another space-based or groundbased radio system interferes with a spaceborne GPS user, the spaceborne user presently has no recourse other than to accept the interference. Consequently, for the past year and a half, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and other Government agencies have been working within ITU toward obtaining a GPS space-to-space allocation at the next World Radio Conference in the year 2000 (WRC 2000). Numerous interference studies have been

  5. Power Processing for a Conceptual Project Prometheus Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scina, Joseph E., Jr.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott S.; Hewitt, Frank; Miller, Leonard; Elbuluk, Malik; Pinero, Luis R. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA has proposed a bold mission to orbit and explore the moons of Jupiter. This mission, known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would significantly increase NASA s capability to explore deep space by making use of high power electric propulsion. One electric propulsion option under study for JIMO is an ion propulsion system. An early version of an ion propulsion system was successfully used on NASA's Deep Space 1 mission. One concept for an ion thruster system capable of meeting the current JIMO mission requirement would have individual thrusters that are 16 to 25 kW each and require voltages as high as 8.0 kV. The purpose of this work is to develop power processing schemes for delivering the high voltage power to the spacecraft ion thrusters based upon a three-phase AC distribution system. In addition, a proposed DC-DC converter topology is presented for an ion thruster ancillary supply based upon a DC distribution system. All specifications discussed in this paper are for design convenience and are speculative in nature.

  6. The Arts of the Practical: Variations on a Theme of Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garver, Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Presents teaching writing as one way of teaching the arts of the practical and discusses the relationship between practical and scientific reasoning. Joseph Schwab's career is read as a series of explorations into the consequences of the Prometheus myth for effective action today. (MJL)

  7. Evidence of Tectonic Fractures as Magma Conduits in the Prometheus Area on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, G.; Davies, A. G.; Wilson, L.; Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2007-12-01

    As previously observed during the preliminary analysis of the first Galileo high resolution imaging [1], magma stored in a shallow reservoir exploited a vent along a tectonic fissure extending from the southern corner of the Prometheus patera [2, 3] to feed the long lava flows located in the flow field west of the Prometheus Mesa (see NASA image PIA02565 (Sources of Volcanic Plumes Near Prometheus). Recent analysis of the I24 and I27 imagery have shown that lava flows have been erupted from the westernmost of the tectonic fractures which is connected to the southern tip of the patera and to the eastern hotspot in the inset image in NASA image PIA02512 (Ongoing Geologic Activity at Prometheus Volcano, Io), thus suggesting that the fractures could be directly linked to the Prometheus plumbing system favouring a path to the surface for rising magmas. Although some flows, perhaps the most recent, come from this fracture, we cannot rule out patera overflows yet as a possible source of some of the southern flow field (as well as the northern flows coming out of the patera) due to the low resolution of the available images. Further analysis of the I24 data also shows that the south-eastern margin of the flow field does not contain vents and its morphology is suggestive of embayment in the rough topography along the main fault which heads to the southern tip of the Prometheus patera rather than originating from it as previously thought in the preliminary observations. The tectonic scenario observed in the Prometheus area, mainly thrust faults, is consistent with the horizontal stress, much greater than the (essentially lithostatic) vertical stress component throughout most of the lithosphere of Io, due to the volcanic activity which produces the high eruptive resurfacing rate and the consequent subsidence of the crust. References: [1] McEwen et al., Science 288, 1193, 2000. [2] Davies et al., Icarus 184, 460, 2006. [3] Keszthelyi et al., JGR 106, 33,025, 2001. Part of this

  8. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5. Phase 1: Proposal instructions, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document has the following purposes: it describes the information that must be submitted to the Space Telescope Science Institute by Phase 1 proposers, both electronically and on paper, and describes how to submit it; it describes how to fill out the proposal LATEX templates; it describes how to estimate the number of spacecraft orbits that the proposed observations will require; it provides detailed information about the parameters that are used in the forms to describe the requested observations; and it provides information about the preparation and electronic submission of proposal files. Examples of completed proposal forms are included.

  9. Review of Helium and Xenon Pure Component and Mixture Transport Properties and Recommendation of Estimating Approach for Project Prometheus (Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, Melissa A.; Vargo, David D.

    2007-01-30

    The selected configuration for the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant was a direct coupling of Brayton energy conversion loop(s) to a single reactor heat source through the gas coolant/working fluid. A mixture of helium (He) and xenon (Xe) gas was assumed as the coolant/working fluid. Helium has superior thermal conductivity while xenon is added to increase the gas atomic weight to benefit turbomachinery design. Both elements have the advantage of being non-reactive. HeXe transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity) were needed to calculate pressure drops and heat transfer rates. HeXe mixture data are limited, necessitating the use of semi-empirical correlations to calculate mixture properties. Several approaches are available. Pure component properties are generally required in the mixture calculations. While analytical methods are available to estimate pure component properties, adequate helium and xenon pure component data are available. This paper compares the sources of pure component data and the approaches to calculate mixture properties. Calculated mixture properties are compared to the limited mixture data and approaches are recommended to calculate both pure component and mixture properties. Given the limited quantity of HeXe mixture data (all at one atmosphere), additional testing may have been required for Project Prometheus to augment the existing data and confirm the selection of mixture property calculation methods.

  10. NASA's Proposed Budget Sees Small Dip, Emphasizes Innovation and Autonomy in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2014-03-01

    NASA's proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2015, released on 4 March, includes new plans to send a probe to Jupiter's icy moon Europa, a ramp up in funding for a mission to redirect an asteroid into near-Earth orbit, funds to extend the life of the International Space Station (ISS) by at least a decade, and plans to return to the United States the capability to launch astronauts into space, among other highlights.

  11. The proposal entry processor: Telescience applications for Hubble Space Telescope science operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Robert; Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Lindenmayer, Kelly; Monger, Patricia; Vick, Shon; Lerner, Robin; Richon, Joel

    1988-01-01

    The Proposal Entry Processor (PEP) System supports the submission, entry, technical evaluation review, selection and implementation of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing proposals. The PEP system is described concentrating on features which illustrate principles of telescience as applied to the HST. These principles are applicable to other observatories, both space and ground based. The PEP proposal forms allow a scientist to specify scientific objectives without becoming needlessly involved in implementation details. The Remote Proposal Submission System (RPSS) allows proposers to submit proposals electronically via Telenet, SPAN, and other networks. The RPSS performs syntax and sematic checks on proposals. The PEP uses a fourth generation database system to store proposal information and to allow general queries and reports. The Transformation subsystem uses an expert system written in OPS5 to cast a scientific description of an observing program into parameters used by the planning and scheduling system. The TACOS system is a natural language database which supports the proposal selection process. Technical evaluations for resource usage and duplicate science are performed using rulebased systems.

  12. Perturbations to Saturn's F-ring strands at their closest approach to Prometheus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giuliatti, Winter S.M.; Murray, C.D.; Gordon, M.

    2000-01-01

    The strange morphology of the F ring of Saturn is thought to be caused by the perturbing effects of two close satellites, Prometheus and Pandora. The F ring and the satellites also experience periodic close encounters as a result of differential precession arising from Saturn's oblateness. Using the orbits of the F-ring strands derived by Murray et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 304-316) the behaviour of the ring particles at their closest approach to Prometheus is analysed using numerical simulations. The results show that a gap and a wave are formed in the ring at each encounter with the satellite. However, the gap is expected to have a short lifetime due to keplerian shear. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gravitational Vortices And Clump Formation In Saturn's F ring During An Encounter With Prometheus

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.

    2013-01-01

    Saturn rings are most beautiful and dynamic places in the solar system, consisting of ice particles in a constant battle between the gravitational forces of Saturn and its many moons. Fan, spiral, propellers, moonlets and streamer-channels observed by CASSINI in the F-ring have been attributed to encounters by Prometheus on the F ring, with investigations of optical thickness revealing large populations of transient moonlets. Taking into account gravitational interaction between particles and a multi-stranded F-ring structure we show that Prometheus' encounters create rotational flows, like atmospheric vortices and the self-gravity enhances the accelerated growth and size of moonlets. Vortex patches form caustics, which is a primary cause of the transient particle density clumps of 20 km width and 100 km length, and they are elongated to cover an area of 1600 km by 150 km, which may eventually combine into a vortex sheet. PMID:23429480

  14. Gravitational vortices and clump formation in Saturn's F ring during an encounter with Prometheus.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Phil J; Kusmartsev, Feodor V

    2013-01-01

    Saturn rings are most beautiful and dynamic places in the solar system, consisting of ice particles in a constant battle between the gravitational forces of Saturn and its many moons. Fan, spiral, propellers, moonlets and streamer-channels observed by CASSINI in the F-ring have been attributed to encounters by Prometheus on the F ring, with investigations of optical thickness revealing large populations of transient moonlets. Taking into account gravitational interaction between particles and a multi-stranded F-ring structure we show that Prometheus' encounters create rotational flows, like atmospheric vortices and the self-gravity enhances the accelerated growth and size of moonlets. Vortex patches form caustics, which is a primary cause of the transient particle density clumps of 20 km width and 100 km length, and they are elongated to cover an area of 1600 km by 150 km, which may eventually combine into a vortex sheet.

  15. Gravitational Vortices And Clump Formation In Saturn's F ring During An Encounter With Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.

    2013-02-01

    Saturn rings are most beautiful and dynamic places in the solar system, consisting of ice particles in a constant battle between the gravitational forces of Saturn and its many moons. Fan, spiral, propellers, moonlets and streamer-channels observed by CASSINI in the F-ring have been attributed to encounters by Prometheus on the F ring, with investigations of optical thickness revealing large populations of transient moonlets. Taking into account gravitational interaction between particles and a multi-stranded F-ring structure we show that Prometheus' encounters create rotational flows, like atmospheric vortices and the self-gravity enhances the accelerated growth and size of moonlets. Vortex patches form caustics, which is a primary cause of the transient particle density clumps of 20 km width and 100 km length, and they are elongated to cover an area of 1600 km by 150 km, which may eventually combine into a vortex sheet.

  16. Description of the Prometheus Program Alternator/Thruster Integration Laboratory (ATIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Birchenough, Arthur G.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.

    2005-01-01

    The Project Prometheus Alternator Electric Thruster Integration Laboratory's (ATIL) primary two objectives are to obtain test data to influence the power conversion and electric propulsion systems design, and to assist in developing the primary power quality specifications prior to system Preliminary Design Review (PDR). ATIL is being developed in stages or configurations of increasing fidelity and complexity in order to support the various phases of the Prometheus program. ATIL provides a timely insight of the electrical interactions between a representative Permanent Magnet Generator, its associated control schemes, realistic electric system loads, and an operating electric propulsion thruster. The ATIL main elements are an electrically driven 100 kWe Alternator Test Unit (ATU), an alternator controller using parasitic loads, and a thruster Power Processing Unit (PPU) breadboard. This paper describes the ATIL components, its development approach, preliminary integration test results, and current status.

  17. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein, or the modern Prometheus: a psychological study of unrepaired shame.

    PubMed

    Severino, Sally K; Morrison, Nancy K

    2013-01-01

    Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's modern Prometheus shows us the eternal punishment of unrepaired shame--eternal entrapment within the shame triangle of victim, perpetrator and rescuer. This paper describes how Shelley's insight--that lack of love creates a monster living in shame--is being confirmed by neuroscience and how this is exemplified in two characters--the creature and Victor Frankenstein. Additionally, it delineates how pastoral counselors can help those suffering from unrepaired shame PMID:24720244

  18. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein, or the modern Prometheus: a psychological study of unrepaired shame.

    PubMed

    Severino, Sally K; Morrison, Nancy K

    2013-01-01

    Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's modern Prometheus shows us the eternal punishment of unrepaired shame--eternal entrapment within the shame triangle of victim, perpetrator and rescuer. This paper describes how Shelley's insight--that lack of love creates a monster living in shame--is being confirmed by neuroscience and how this is exemplified in two characters--the creature and Victor Frankenstein. Additionally, it delineates how pastoral counselors can help those suffering from unrepaired shame

  19. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an objective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  20. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  1. Color Photometry of the Small Saturnian Satellites: Global and Regional Variations on Prometheus and Calypso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sarah J.; Helfenstein, P.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate color variations of Prometheus and Calypso using recent high resolution calibrated Cassini Imaging Subsystem (ISS) images with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) broadband filters UV3 (338 nm) , GRN (568 nm), and IR3 (930 nm) in comparison to those of Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, and Telesto examined previously (Morrison et al., 2009, DPS 45.04). The average UV3/IR3 ratio values are as follows: Prometheus- 0.47, Pandora- 0.53, Janus- 0.57, Epimetheus- 0.58, Telesto- 0.95, and Calypso- 0.77 with formal uncertainties < 0.01 due to noise. While both Prometheus and Calypso continue the trend of increasing blueness toward the E-ring, Calypso differs in color from Telesto with a lower UV3/IR3 ratio and a mean UV3/GRN ratio value of 0.7 compared to Telesto's mean UV3/GRN value of 0.9 despite both being Trojans of Tethys. Calypso's surface also exhibits wider color and albedo variations than on Telesto and distinct UV3-bright units undergoing downslope transport with UV3/IR3 ratio values of 0.05 greater than the mean. Calypso's mean global CLR (611 nm) albedo at normal incidence and 35° phase is 13% higher than Telesto's, but its albedo range is broader and overlaps Telesto's. The color differences between these two moons may reflect varying degrees of surface burial and contamination from ring particles.

  2. Prometheus: Scalable and Accurate Emulation of Task-Based Applications on Many-Core Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Kestor, Gokcen; Gioiosa, Roberto; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Modeling the performance of non-deterministic parallel applications on future many-core systems requires the development of novel simulation and emulation techniques and tools. We present “Prometheus”, a fast, accurate and modular emulation framework for task-based applications. By raising the level of abstraction and focusing on runtime synchronization, Prometheus can accurately predict applications’ performance on very large many-core systems. We validate our emulation framework against two real platforms (AMD Interlagos and Intel MIC) and report error rates generally below 4%. We, then, evaluate Prometheus’ performance and scalability: our results show that Prometheus can emulate a task-based application on a system with 512K cores in 11.5 hours. We present two test cases that show how Prometheus can be used to study the performance and behavior of systems that present some of the characteristics expected from exascale supercomputer nodes, such as active power management and processors with a high number of cores but reduced cache per core.

  3. Proposal Auto-Categorizer and Manager for Time Allocation Review at Space Telescope Science Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Sophia; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Lagerstrom, Jill; Weissman, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute annually receives more than one thousand formal proposals for Hubble Space Telescope time, exceeding the available time with the observatory by a factor of over four. With JWST, the proposal pressure will only increase, straining our ability to provide rigorous peer review of each proposal's scientific merit. Significant hurdles in this process include the proper categorization of proposals, to ensure Time Allocation Committees (TACs) have the required and desired expertise to fairly and appropriately judge each proposal, and the selection of reviewers themselves, to establish diverse and well-qualified TACs. The Panel Auto-Categorizer and Manager (PACMan; a naive Bayesian classifier) was developed to automatically sort new proposals into their appropriate science categories and, similarly, to appoint panel reviewers with the best qualifications to serve on the corresponding TACs. We will provide an overview of PACMan and present the results of its testing on five previous cycles of proposals. PACMan will be implemented in upcoming cycles to support and eventually replace the process for constructing the time allocation reviews.

  4. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-Space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50kWe to one half of the ion thrusters and science modules but is capable of supplying the total power re3quirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  5. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  6. The ESR model: A proposal for a noncontextual and local Hilbert space extension of QM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garola, C.; Sozzo, S.

    2009-04-01

    The extended semantic realism (ESR) model proposes a new theoretical perspective that embodies the mathematical formalism of standard (Hilbert space) quantum mechanics (QM) in a noncontextual framework, reinterpreting quantum probabilities as conditional instead of absolute. We provide here a Hilbert space representation of the generalized observables introduced by the ESR model. By using this representation, we supply a straightforward generalization of the projection postulate and justify it in the case of discrete generalized observables by introducing a reasonable physical assumption on the evolution of the compound system made up of the (microscopic) measured system and the (macroscopic) measuring apparatus.

  7. Improvements of the gravity field from satellite techniques as proposed to the European Space Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reigber, C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the European Earth Sciences Space Programme and the requirements for each gravity field mapping resulting from this programme are given. Three satellite experiments for gravity field improvement proposed to the European Space Agency in the last years are shortly characterized. One of these experiments, the low-low-SST-SLALOM experiment, based on laser interferometry for a "two target-one Spacelab telescope" configuration, is discussed in more detail. Reasons for the low-low concept selection are given and some mission aspects and a possible system concept for a compact ranging, acquisition and tracking system are presented.

  8. A detailed numerical analysis of asymmetrical density distribution in Saturn's F ring during an encounter with Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's rings, reminiscent of an early Solar system present a unique opportunity to investigate experimentally some mechanisms thought to be responsible for planet and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary discs. Here, we extended the comparison of our numerical models of Prometheus encountering the F ring employing non-interacting and interacting particles. Higher resolution analysis revealed that the density increases known to exist at channel edges is more complex and localized than previously thought. Asymmetry between density increases on channel edges revealed that the channel edge facing way from Prometheus to be the most stable but with lowest maximum increases. However, on the channel edge facing Prometheus the interacting model showed large chaotic fluctuations in the maximum density of some clumps, much larger than those of the other channel. The likely cause of this asymmetry is a variance in localized turbulence introduced into the F ring by Prometheus. High-resolution velocity dispersion maps showed that there was a spatial link between the highest densities and the highest velocity dispersions in the interacting model. Thus, suggesting that the high velocity dispersion we see is the reason for the observed inhomogeneous distribution of fans (evidence of embedded moonlets) on some of the channel edges facing Prometheus.

  9. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  10. Proposed ground-based control of accelerometer on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative control of an accelerometer to support the needs of the scientists operating science experiments that are on-board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Accelerometers in support of science experiments on the shuttle have typically been passive, record-only devices that present data only after the mission or that present limited data to the crew or ground operators during the mission. With the advent of science experiment operations on SSF, the principal investigators will need microgravity acceleration data during, as well as after, experiment operations. Because their data requirements may change during the experiment operations, the principal investigators will be allocated some control of accelerometer parameters. This paper summarizes the general-purpose Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) operation that supports experiments on the shuttle and describes the control of the SAMS for Space Station Freedom. Emphasis is placed on the proposed ground-based control of the accelerometer by the principal investigators.

  11. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  12. Proposed U.S. Space Weather Budget for Fiscal Year 2011 Would Fund Key Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    The proposed U.S. federal budget for space weather research for fiscal year (FY) 2011 would provide funding for key space weather programs within several U.S. agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Air Force. Funding for the programs comes ahead of the upcoming solar maximum, a period of the solar cycle with heightened solar activity, projected for 2013. Several officials indicated that while funding is not tied to a particular solar maximum or minimum, available assets could help with studying and preparing for the solar maximum. The proposed FY 2011 budget for the Heliophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate is $641.9 million, compared with the FY 2010 enacted budget of $627.4 million. Within the proposed budget is $166.9 million for heliophysics research, down slightly from $173 million for FY 2010. The proposed budget would include $31.7 million for heliophysics research and analysis (compared with $31 million for FY 2010); $66.7 million for “other missions and data analysis,” including Cluster II, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission; and $48.9 million for sounding rockets.

  13. Study of hydrogen isotopes super permeation through vanadium membrane on 'Prometheus' setup

    SciTech Connect

    Musyaev, R. K.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Lebedev, B. S.; Busnyuk, A. O.; Notkin, M. E.; Samartsev, A. A.; Livshits, A. I.

    2008-07-15

    To develop the membrane pumping technology by means of superpermeable membranes at RFNC-VNIIEF in the 'Prometheus' setup, the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membranes were carried out. The experimental results on superpermeation of thermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes including tritium through a cylindrical vanadium membrane are presented. The possibility of effective pumping, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. The evaluation of membrane pumping rates and asymmetry degree of pure vanadium membrane was given. The work was performed under the ISTC-2854 project. (authors)

  14. Space Weathering: A Proposed Laboratory Approach to Explaining the Sulfur Depletion on Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, M. A.; Kracher, A.; Sears, D. W. G.; Cassidy, W.; Hapke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Space weathering is the cumulative effect of physical and chemical changes that occur to substances exposed on the exterior of body void of an atmosphere [1], in this case the regolith on asteroid Eros. It is only recently that the scientific community has accepted the theory first developed in the mid- 1970s by Hapke and his colleagues of how space weathering occurs. The theory [1] asserts that optical and magnetic effects, first studied on moon rocks and lunar regolith, are caused by submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe), smaller than the wavelength of light in vapor deposit coatings, on regolith grains, and in agglutinates. This vapor is generated by solar wind and micrometeorite impacts and does not require additional heating, melting, or a reducing environment to produce space weathering. One of the major finds of the first detailed reconnaissance of an asteroid by the NEAR Shoemaker mission was that the surface of Eros was essentially chondritic yet showed major depletions in sulfur [2, 3]. Here we propose space weathering sputtering experiments that may contribute to the explanation of sulfur depletion on asteroid Eros.

  15. Proposed Space Test of the New Equivalence Principle with Rotating Extended Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Feng-Tian; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel scheme for a space free-fall based test of the new equivalence principle (NEP) with two rotating extended bodies made of the same material. The measurement will be carried out by placing the two concentric spinning masses of very different momenta inside a differential electrostatic accelerometer in a drag-free compensated orbit. A difference in the forces necessary to maintain the common trajectory will be an indication of a violation of equivalence or the existence of spin-spin force between the rotating mass and the Earth. The conceptual design of the inertial sensor and its operation mode is presented. Details specific to the model and performance requirements are discussed by using up-to-date space technologies to test the NEP with an accuracy of better than 10-15.

  16. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  17. Research in human performance related to space: A compilation of three projects/proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasson, Scott M.

    1989-01-01

    Scientific projects were developed in order to maximize performance in space and assure physiological homeostatis upon return. Three projects that are related to this common goal were either initiated or formulated during the Faculty Fellowship Summer Program. The projects were entitled: (1) Effect of simulated weightlessness (bed rest) on muscle performance and morphology; (2) Effect of submaximal eccentric muscle contractions on muscle injury, soreness and performance: A grant proposal; and (3) Correlation between isolated joint dynamic muscle strength to end-effector strength of the push and pull extravehicular activity (EVA) ratchet maneuver. The purpose is to describe each of these studies in greater detail.

  18. Proposed parameters of specific rain attenuation prediction for Free Space Optics link operating in tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriza, A. Z.; Md Rafiqul, Islam; Wajdi, A. K.; Naji, A. W.

    2013-03-01

    As the demand for higher and unlimited bandwidth for communication channel is increased, Free Space Optics (FSO) is a good alternative solution. As it is protocol transparent, easy to install, cost effective and have capabilities like fiber optics, its demand rises very fast. Weather condition, however is the limiting factor for FSO link. In the temperate region the major blockage for FSO link feasibility is fog. In the tropical region high rainfall rate is expected to be the major drawback of FSO link availability. Rain attenuation is the most significant to influence FSO link availability in tropical region. As for now the available k and α values are developed using data from temperate regions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose new parameters for specific rain attenuation prediction model that represents tropical weather condition. The proposed values are derived from data measured in Malaysia and using methods recommended by ITU-R.

  19. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  20. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  1. [Proposal from space radiation biologists. Importance of Centrifuge Facility in the study of biological effect by space radiation].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Ohnishi, T

    2001-10-01

    In microgravity, astronauts were constantly exposed to space radiation containing various kinds of radiation with a low-dose rate during long-term stays in space. It is very difficult to define the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation under microgravity. In order to understand correct the RBE of space radiation, therefore, utilization of Centrifuge Facility is desired as a control experiment at orbit for removing other factors such as microgravity except space radiation. Here, we summarized the importance of Centrifuge Facility in the study of biological effect of space radiation. PMID:11997596

  2. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Learning with Information Technology in Mathematics and Science Education: A Report on Project Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Project Prometheus involves IBM Canada, college faculty, and classroom teachers in Manitoba who cooperate to discover the most effective ways to use information technology to promote mathematics and science literacy. The article analyzes teachers' very positive perceptions of how technology affected their classroom teaching styles and learning…

  4. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  5. On-orbit free molecular flow aerodynamic characteristics of a proposal space operations center configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, P. O.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed configuration for a Space Operations Center is presented in its eight stages of buildup. The on orbit aerodynamic force and moment characteristics were calculated for each stage based upon free molecular flow theory. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics was accomplished through the use of an orbital aerodynamic computer program, and the computation method is described with respect to the free molecular theory used. The aerodynamic characteristics are presented in tabulated form for each buildup stage at angles of attack from 0 to 360 degrees and roll angles from -60 to +60 degrees. The reference altitude is 490 kilometers, however, the data should be applicable for altitudes below 490 kilometers down to approximately 185 kilometers.

  6. The proposed EROSpace institute, a national center operated by space grant universities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Paul L.; Swiden, LaDell R.; Waltz, Frederick A.

    1993-01-01

    The "EROSpace Institute" is a proposed visiting scientist program in associated with the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC). The Institute would be operated by a consortium of universities, possible drawn from NASA's Space Grant College and Fellowship Program consortia and the group of 17 capability-enhancement consortia, or perhaps from consortia though out the nation with a topical interest in remote sensing. The National Center for Atmospheric Research or the Goddard Institute for Space Studies provide models for the structure of such an institute. The objectives of the Institute are to provide ready access to the body of data housed at the EDC and to increase the cadre of knowledgeable and trained scientists able to deal with the increasing volume of remote sensing data to become available from the Earth Observing System. The Institute would have a staff of about 100 scientists at any one time, about half permanent staff, and half visiting scientists. The latter would include graduate and undergraduate students, as well as faculty on temporary visits, summer fellowships, or sabbatical leaves. The Institute would provide office and computing facilities, as well as Internet linkages to the home institutions so that scientists could continue to participate in the program from their home base.

  7. Enhanced methods for determining operational capabilities and support costs of proposed space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the work accomplished during the first two years of research to provide support to NASA in predicting operational and support parameters and costs of proposed space systems. The first year's research developed a methodology for deriving reliability and maintainability (R & M) parameters based upon the use of regression analysis to establish empirical relationships between performance and design specifications and corresponding mean times of failure and repair. The second year focused on enhancements to the methodology, increased scope of the model, and software improvements. This follow-on effort expands the prediction of R & M parameters and their effect on the operations and support of space transportation vehicles to include other system components such as booster rockets and external fuel tanks. It also increases the scope of the methodology and the capabilities of the model as implemented by the software. The focus is on the failure and repair of major subsystems and their impact on vehicle reliability, turn times, maintenance manpower, and repairable spares requirements. The report documents the data utilized in this study, outlines the general methodology for estimating and relating R&M parameters, presents the analyses and results of application to the initial data base, and describes the implementation of the methodology through the use of a computer model. The report concludes with a discussion on validation and a summary of the research findings and results.

  8. Proposal of a Simple Plant Growth System under Microgravity Conditions in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou

    2012-07-01

    Plant culture in space has multiple functions for human life support such as providing food and purifying air and water. It is also suggested that crew can relieve their stress by watching growing plants and by enjoying fresh vegetable food during staying for several months in the International Space Station. Under such circumstances, it is an utmost importance to develop plant culture equipment that can be handled more easily by crew. This study aims to develop an easy-to-use plant growth system with modification of commercial household plant culture equipment. The item is equipped with a peltier device for cooling air and collecting water vapor in the growth room. The study was conducted to examine the performance of the equipment under microgravity conditions that were created by the parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the temperature of the peltier device was affected under the microgravity conditions due to the absence of heat convection. When an air flow was made with an air circulation fan, the temperature of the peltier device was stable to gravity changes. The water recycling method for an automatic nutrient solution supply system in the closed plant culture equipment under microgravity is proposed. In addition, a high output white LEDs showing a good performance for growing leafy vegetables will be introduced.

  9. Prometheus and Pandora : masses and orbital positions during the Cassini tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.

    2004-05-01

    HST images of Prometheus and Pandora show longitude differences of about 20 degrees from the Voyager ephemeris, with an abrupt change in mean motion at the end of 2000 (French, R.G. et al., Icarus, 162, 143-170, 2003; French, R.G., and McGhee, C.A., BAAS, 34, No. 06.07, 2003). These discrepancies arise from chaotic interactions between the two moons, occuring at interval of 6.2 years when their apses are anti-aligned (Goldreich, P. and Rappaport, N., Icarus, 162, 391-399, 2003), a behavior attributed to the overlap of four 121:118 apse-type mean motion resonances (Goldreich, P. and Rappaport, N., Icarus, 166, 320-327, 2003). This is confirmed by numerical integrations that include the perturbations of the major satellites of Saturn (Renner, S. and Sicardy, B., BAAS, 35, No. 04.06, 2003; Cooper, N.J. and Murray, C.D., AJ, 127, 1204-1217, 2004). We study the Prometheus-Pandora system using a radau-type integrator taking into account Saturn's oblateness up to terms in J6 and the effects of the major satellites. By fitting the numerical integrations to the HST data (French et al., 2003), we derive the satellite masses. Using the nominal shape of the two moons (Thomas, P.C., Icarus, 77, 248-274, 1989), Prometheus and Pandora densities are 0.40 ± 0.040.07 and 0.49 ± 0.060.09 g.cm-3, respectively, with a 99,99 % confidence level. Our numerical fits also allow us to constrain better the time of the latest apse anti-alignment in 2000. Finally, using our fit, we predict the orbital positions of the two satellites during the Cassini tour. We provide a lower limit of the uncertainties due to chaos, amounting to about 0.2 degrees in mean longitude at the arrival of Cassini in July 2004, and about 3 degrees in 2008.

  10. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  11. Prometheus Cleft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    This poetic-prose piece is my personal ethnic educational history. It challenges the misconception that Cuban students (so-called voluntary minorities) are not oppressed, especially not by their Cuban teachers, and that they thus achieve more academic success than other Latinos. Some may be hiding. Perhaps this work will help to find them.

  12. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  13. Material Requirements, Selection And Development for the Proposed JIMO SpacePower System

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, P.J.; Sayre, E.D.

    2004-02-04

    NASA is proposing a major new nuclear Space initiative--The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). A mission such as this inevitably requires a significant power source both for propulsion and for on-board power. Three reactor concepts, liquid metal cooled, heat pipe cooled and gas cooled are being considered together with three power conversion systems Brayton (cycle), Thermoelectric and Stirling cycles, and possibly Photo voltaics for future systems. Regardless of the reactor system selected it is almost certain that high temperature (materials), refractory alloys, will be required. This paper revisits the material selection options, reviewing the rationale behind the SP-100 selection of Nb-1Zr as the major cladding and structural material and considers the alternatives and developments needed for the longer duty cycle of the JIMO power supply. A side glance is also taken at the basis behind the selection of Uranium nitride fuel over UO2 or UC and a brief discussion of the reason for the selection of Lithium as the liquid metal coolant for SP-100 over other liquid metals.

  14. Material Requirements, Selection And Development for the Proposed JIMO SpacePower System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, P. J.; Sayre, E. D.

    2004-02-01

    NASA is proposing a major new nuclear Space initiative-The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). A mission such as this inevitably requires a significant power source both for propulsion and for on-board power. Three reactor concepts, liquid metal cooled, heat pipe cooled and gas cooled are being considered together with three power conversion systems Brayton (cycle), Thermoelectric and Stirling cycles, and possibly Photo voltaics for future systems. Regardless of the reactor system selected it is almost certain that high temperature (materials), refractory alloys, will be required. This paper revisits the material selection options, reviewing the rationale behind the SP-100 selection of Nb-1Zr as the major cladding and structural material and considers the alternatives and developments needed for the longer duty cycle of the JIMO power supply. A side glance is also taken at the basis behind the selection of Uranium nitride fuel over UO2 or UC and a brief discussion of the reason for the selection of Lithium as the liquid metal coolant for SP-100 over other liquid metals.

  15. A description of a proposed space-based high resolution ozone imaging instrument (HIROIG)

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, J.; Gutierrez, D.; Rossano, G.; Sivjee, M.; Skinner, W.J.; McKenzie, D.; Ross, M.; Warren, D.

    1994-12-31

    The authors propose to measure the effect of rocket exhaust on stratospheric ozone and aerosol profiles by deploying a space-based mid-UV spectrograph capable of making measurements at high spatial resolution (1--2 km) of the intensity and state of polarization of solar light backscattered by the atmosphere. This paper describes the design of an instrument called HIROIG (HIgh Resolution Ozone ImaGer) which is expected to be deployed in a sun synchronous orbit sometime after 1995. The instrument consists of three identical spectrographs, each one sensitive to light that is plane-polarized in one direction. Each spectrograph uses a frame-transfer CCD which images the entire, 270--370 nm spectrum at {approx} 1 nm spectral resolution. Images are exposed for 140 msec, in the push broom mode, providing an effective spatial resolution of better than 2 km for typical orbital velocities. The HIROIG field of view is 100 km cross-track. A ground-based prototype consisting of a single spectrograph has been constructed, and the characterization of this instrument will be discussed.

  16. Proposed noncryogenic, nondrag-free test of the equivalence principle in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Catastini, G.; Polacco, E.; Genta, G.; Brusa, E.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.; Cook, A. J.; Hough, J.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Polnarev, A.; Flury, W.; Barlier, F.; Marchal, C.

    1998-04-01

    Ever since Galileo scientists have known that all bodies fall with the same acceleration regardless of their mass and composition. Known as the Universality of Free Fall, this is the most direct experimental evidence of the Weak Equivalence Principle, a founding pillar of General Relativity according to which the gravitational (passive) mass mg and the inertial mass mi are always in the same positive ratio in all test bodies. A space experiment offers two main advantages: a signal about a factor of a thousand bigger than on Earth and the absence of weight. A new space mission named GALILEO GALILEI (GG) has been proposed (Nobili et al., 1995 [J. Astronautical Sciences, 43, 219]; GALILEO GALILEI (GG), PRE PHASE A REPORT, ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), September 1996) aimed at testing the weak Equivalence Principle (EP) to 1 part in 10 17 in a rapidly spinning (5 Hz) drag-free spacecraft at room temperature, the most recent ground experiments having reached the level of 10 -12 (Adelberger et al., 1990 [PhRvD, 42, 3267]; Su et al., 1994 [PhRvD, 50, 3614]). Here we present a nondrag-free version of GG which could reach a sensitivity of 1 part in 10 16. The main feature of GG is that, similarly to the most recent ground experiments, the expected (low frequency) signal is modulated at higher frequency by spinning the system, in this case by rotating the test bodies (in the shape of hollow cylinders) around their symmetry axes, the signal being in the perpendicular plane. They are mechanically suspended inside the spacecraft and have very low frequencies of natural oscillation (due to the weakness of the springs that can be used because of weightlessness) so as to allow self-centering of the axes; vibrational noise around the spin/signal frequency is attenuated by means of mechanical suspensions. The signal of an EP violation would appear at the spin frequency as a relative ( differential) displacement of the test masses perpendicularly to the spin axis, and be detected

  17. Computational exploration of a protein receptor binding space with student proposed peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results.

  18. Computational exploration of a protein receptor binding space with student proposed peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results. PMID:26537635

  19. A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

    In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

  20. 78 FR 44536 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and with the national security...

  1. 75 FR 32360 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... the licensing of private operators of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of...

  2. New space research frequency band proposals in the 20- to 40.5-GHz range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Future space research communications systems may require spectra above 20 GHz. Frequency bands above 20 GHz are identified that are suitable for space research. The selection of the proper bands depends on consideration of interference with other radio services, adequate bandwidths, link performance, and technical requirements for practical implementation.

  3. DART: Delta Advanced Reusable Transport. An alternate manned space system proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART) craft is being developed to add, multiple, rapid, and cost effective space access to the U.S. capability and to further the efforts towards a permanent space presence. The DART craft provides an augmentative and an alternative system to the Shuttle. As a supplement launch vehicle, the DART adds low cost and easily accessible transport of crew and cargo to specific space destinations to the U.S. program. This adds significant opportunities for manned rated missions that do not require Shuttle capabilities. In its alternative role, the DART can provide emergency space access and satellite repair, the continuation of scientific research, and the furthering of U.S. manned efforts in the event of Shuttle incapabilities. In addition, the DART is being designed for Space Station Freedom compatibility, including its use as a 'lifeboat' emergency reentry craft for Freedom astronauts, as well as the transport of crew and cargo for station resupply.

  4. The "Space Cycle" Self Powered Human Centrifuge: a proposed countermeasure for prolonged human spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Kreitenberg, A; Baldwin, K M; Bagian, J P; Cotten, S; Witmer, J; Caiozzo, V J

    1998-01-01

    The Self Powered Human Centrifuge, or Space Cycle, is a countermeasure to the adverse physiologic effects of prolonged human exposure to spaceflight microgravity. This unique device simultaneously provides exercise, impact loading and gravity analogous acceleration to emulate conditions on Earth. One or two crewmembers pedal themselves about a shaft mounted to the space craft located "above" their heads. This creates a short arm centrifuge with a head-to-toe acceleration orientation. The potential advantages of the Space Cycle include: a) reversal of cephalad fluid shift, minimizing post flight orthostatic intolerance; b) pedaling to maintain muscular and cardiovascular fitness; and c) enhancement of skeletal homeostasis by impact loading with a pedal-crank mounted cam and frame mounted resistive device. Other anticipated advantages include generation of usable electricity, physiologic monitoring and a means of mass measurement. Motion sickness is controlled with restraints and virtual reality headsets. The device is compatible with International Space Station dimensional constraints. PMID:9451537

  5. Tritium Superpermeability: Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Tritium Recirculation in 'Prometheus' Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Musyaev, R.K.; Lebedev, B.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Busnyuk, A.A; Notkin, M.E.; Samartsev, A.A.; Livshits, A.I.

    2005-07-15

    The superpermeability phenomenon was suggested to use in fusion machines to separate the fuel mixture from helium ashes, to arrange in-vessel fuel recirculation contours and effective evacuation of fuel mixture out of machine exhaust. To develop this technology and to simulate tritium recirculation in RFNC-VNIIEF at the 'Prometheus' setup the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membrane were realized.The results of experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through cylindrical niobium membrane are presented. As the experiment has shown, membrane pumping rate is inversely proportional to square root of isotope mass and amount to 2.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for protium, 1.8 l/cm{sup 2}s for deuterium and 1.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for tritium. The possibility of effective pumping, separation of hydrogen isotopes from helium and residual gas, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. It follows from results that the separation of D/T from He with employment of the techniques of superpermeable membranes might reduce the total amount of tritium in fuel cycle and substantially enhance the resource of cryogenic pumps evacuating helium.

  6. Mechanical response and fatigue analysis of the first wall of the prometheus IFE reactor

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1994-12-31

    Following the micro explosions in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor, the first wall structures are subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loads, which result in stresses and displacements that vary with time. In the Prometheus IFE reactor the first wall is protected by a flowing thin film of liquid lead. The mechanical loading on the first wall includes two different mechanisms: (1) surface ablation momentum due to the early deposition of x-rays and the instantaneous evaporation of the protecting film, at the instant of the micro explosion, and (2) time dependent pressure due to propagating pressure waves that travel between the first wall and the center of the reactor chamber. Careful determination of the resulting stresses in the first wall structures helps choose and design these structures for maximum fatigue life time. In the present work, a solution of the equation of motion of the first wall structural elements and the associated stresses and displacements is presented. It is found that segmentation of the first wall into smaller plates minimizes the resulting stresses and, in turn, prolongs the fatigue life time of the first wall.

  7. Studies of Space Charge Effects in the Proposed CERN PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert; De Maria, Riccardo; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wienands, Ulrich; /SLAC

    2012-06-22

    A new proton synchrotron, the PS2, is under design study to replace the current proton synchrotron at CERN for the LHC upgrade. Nonlinear space charge effects could cause significant beam emittance growth and particle losses and limit the performance of the PS2. In this paper, we report on studies of the potential space-charge effects at the PS2 using three-dimensional self-consistent macroparticle tracking codes, IMPACT, MaryLie/IMPACT, and Synergia. We will present initial benchmark results among these codes. Effects of space-charge on the emittance growth, especially due to synchrotron coupling, aperture sizes, initial painted distribution, and RF ramping scheme will also be discussed.

  8. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective "in silico" method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The…

  9. Proposed space shuttle cargo handling criteria at the operational site (preliminary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    The criteria for cargo handling at the operational site of space shuttles are presented, based on assumed program requirements. The concepts for the following functions are described: maintenance and checkout facility, transfer to launch pad, and launch pad. The requirements for the ground equipment are given along with the general sequences for cargo loading.

  10. Appearance of Saturn’s F ring azimuthal channels for the anti-alignment configuration between the ring and Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos E.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we explore the aspect of the F ring with respect to the anti-alignment configuration between the ring and Prometheus. We focus our attention on the shape of the F ring's azimuthal channels which were first reported by Porco et al. (Porco, C.C., Baker, E., Barbara, J., Beurle, K., Brahic, A., Burns, J.A., Charnoz, S., Cooper, N., Dawson, D.D., Del Genio, A.D., Denk, T., Dones, L., Dyudina, U., Evans, M.W., Giese, B., Grazier, K., Helfenstein, P., Ingersoll, A.P., Jacobson, R.A., Johnson, T.V., McEwen, A., Murray, C.D., Neukum, G., Owen, W.M., Perry, J., Roatsch, T., Spitale, J., Squyres, S., Thomas, P., Tiscareno, M., Turtle, E., Vasavada, A.R., Veverka, J., Wagner, R., West, R. [2005] Science, 307, 1226-1236) and numerically explored by Murray et al. (Murray, C.D., Chavez, C., Beurle, K., Cooper, N., Evans, M.W., Burns, J.A., Porco, C.C. [2005] Nature 437, 1326-1329) who found excellent agreement between Cassini's ISS reprojected images and their numerical model via a direct comparison. We find that for anti-alignment the channels are wider and go deeper inside the ring material. From our numerical model we find a new feature, an island in the middle of the channel. This island is made up of the particles that have been perturbed the most by Prometheus and only appears when this satellite is close to apoapsis. In addition, plots of the anti-alignment configuration for different orbital stages of Prometheus are obtained and discussed here.

  11. Mapping a Space for a Rhetorical-Cultural Analysis: A Case of a Scientific Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorpenyo, Isidore Kafui

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes a proposal submitted to a funding unit in Michigan Technological University by a PhD Forestry student. A rhetorical-cultural approach of the text provides evidence to argue that scientific writing is rooted in a cultural practice that valorizes certain kinds of thought, practices, rituals, and symbols; that a scientist's work…

  12. Stereosat: A proposed private sector/government joint venture in remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.

  13. Unusual visual stimulation in dynamic balance conditions: proposal for a space motion sickness test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séverac, Alexandra; Bessou, Paul; Pagès, Bernard

    1994-08-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficiency of normal vision/unusual vestibular cues conflict to induce motion sickness. In the present study, we investigate whether, inversely, unusual visual information/normal vestibular function conflict also elicited motion sickness. The experiments were again carried out in dynamic balance conditions to increase proprioceptive input. Circular translation of the visual field with diplopia were produced by rotating Fresnel prismatic glasses. The stimulation triggered SMS-like symptoms and dynamic balance disturbance. A positive relationship was found between discomfort and balance disturbance. Unusual visual information should therefore be included in Space Motion Sickness susceptibility testing.

  14. Design of a device to remove lunar dust from space suits for the proposed lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, David; Havens, Jack; Hester, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans to begin construction of a lunar base soon after the turn of the century. During the Apollo missions, lunar dust proved to be a problem because the dust adhered to all exposed material surfaces. Since lunar dust will be a problem during the establishment and operation of this base, the need exists for a device to remove the dust from space suits before the astronauts enter clean environments. The physical properties of lunar dust were characterized and energy methods for removing the dust were identified. Eight alternate designs were developed to remove the dust. The final design uses a brush and gas jet to remove the dust. The brush bristles are made from Kevlar fibers and the gas jet uses pressurized carbon dioxide from a portable tank. A throttling valve allows variable gas flow. Also, the tank is insulated with Kapton and electrically heated to prevent condensation of the carbon dioxide when the tank is exposed to the cold (- 240 F) lunar night.

  15. Proposal for an astronaut mass measurement device for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Neil; Lomme, Jon; Mccollough, Holly; Price, Bradford; Weber, Heidi

    1994-01-01

    For medical reasons, astronauts in space need to have their mass measured. Currently, this measurement is performed using a mass-spring system. The current system is large, inaccurate, and uncomfortable for the astronauts. NASA is looking for new, different, and preferably better ways to perform this measurement process. After careful analysis our design team decided on a linear acceleration process. Within the process, four possible concept variants are put forth. Among these four variants, one is suggested over the others. The variant suggested is that of a motor-winch system to linearly accelerate the astronaut. From acceleration and force measurements of the process combined Newton's second law, the mass of an astronaut can be calculated.

  16. Surface Catalysis and Characterization of Proposed Candidate TPS for Access-to-Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface properties have been obtained on several classes of thermal protection systems (TPS) using data from both side-arm-reactor and arc-jet facilities. Thermochemical stability, optical properties, and coefficients for atom recombination were determined for candidate TPS proposed for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. The systems included rigid fibrous insulations, blankets, reinforced carbon carbon, and metals. Test techniques, theories used to define arc-jet and side-arm-reactor flow, and material surface properties are described. Total hemispherical emittance and atom recombination coefficients for each candidate TPS are summarized in the form of polynomial and Arrhenius expressions.

  17. Space Radiation Effects and Reliability Consideration for the Proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.

  18. Effect of Prometheus liver assist system on systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Dethloff, Thomas; Tofteng, Flemming; Frederiksen, Hans-Jorgen; Hojskov, Michael; Hansen, Bent Adel; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate treatment safety and hemodynamic changes during a single 6-h treatment with the Prometheus™ liver assist system in a randomized, controlled study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were randomized to either the study group or to one of two control groups: Fractionated Plasma Separation Adsorption and Dialysis, Prometheus™ system (Study group; n = 8); Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS)™ (Control group 1, n = 8); or hemodialysis (Control group 2; n = 8). All patients included in the study had decompensated cirrhosis at the time of the inclusion into the study. Circulatory changes were monitored with a Swan-Ganz catheter and bilirubin and creatinine were monitored as measures of protein-bound and water-soluble toxins. RESULTS: Systemic hemodynamics did not differ between treatment and control groups apart from an increase in arterial pressure in the MARS group (P = 0.008). No adverse effects were observed in any of the groups. Creatinine levels significantly decreased in the MARS group (P = 0.03) and hemodialysis group (P = 0.04). Platelet count deceased in the Prometheus group (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Extra-corporal liver support with Prometheus is proven to be safe in patients with end-stage liver disease but does not exert the beneficial effects on arterial pressure as seen in the MARS group. PMID:18395908

  19. A proposed concept for the extraction of energy stored in magnetic or electric fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papailiou, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that enormous energy resources associated with electric, magnetic, gravitational, and other fields exist in space. It is also known that the major difficulty in 'tapping' this energy arises from the extremely low density level at which this energy exists. An analytical study has been made of a particular scheme that appears promising for an efficient utilization of some of these energy resources in propulsion. The principle involves the exchange of energy between a fluctuating magnetic field and a velocity field of electrically conducting fluid in turbulent motion located onboard a spacecraft. Under certain conditions the total energy of the turbulent flow field onboard the spacecraft can be increased and this increase appears in the form of Joulean heat. The utilization of the fluctuating part of the magnetic field, in the form of Joulean dissipation (because of its random character) does not introduce any drag on the spacecraft. The application appears promising for flights in the vicinity of Jupiter and other planets. The rate at which energy is gained by the conducting fluid is of the order of 100 watts when the rms value of the fluctuating magnetic field strength is about 1 gauss.

  20. Proposal for a zero-gravity toilet facility for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleri, Edgar L., Jr.; Galliano, Paul A.; Harrison, Mark E.; Johnson, William B.; Meyer, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    This proposed toilet facility has a straightforward design. It has few moving parts and is easily maintained. Air and water flow provide sanitary movement of the waste. The toilet's chambers are coated with Teflon which, along with the water flow, makes it self-cleaning. An added disinfectant called Betadiene kills any bacteria that may form on the chamber walls. The chair is contoured to take into account the neutral body position and the necessary strain position for defecation. Restraints at the ankles, knees, and midsection hold the body in the chair. The waste is stored in discs of Gortex material which are inside a replaceable storage chamber. This chamber can be removed, capped and stored until eventual return to earth.

  1. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  2. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  3. A Proposal for an Experiment in Space: Laser Welding of Ceramics in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favuzza, M.; Camiolo, F.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramics are brittle because of their strong covalent or ionic bonds. Brittleness is not the only limitation of ceramics, also the presence of generally up to 20% porosity and the presence of microcracks (c.a. 25%) make ceramics rarely used for advanced applications. Often metals and composites are preferred for certain applications because of its higher fracture toughness. Nevertheless, there are also many advantages in using ceramics if compared to metals and composites such as high hardness, strength retention over a broad temperature range, wear and acid resistance, thermal shock resistance, possibility to be ground with a very smooth surface to high tolerances and low cost. Hence, during the last years, the ceramics market for engineering applications is to be considered in expansion. By keeping into consideration that today a values of KIC25 MPa m1/2 can be attained for some types of ceramics, one of the main factors that influences the utilisation of ceramics for engineering structures is the strong difficulty in joining its together. Most of the modern "Advanced Ceramics" are, in fact, highly-reactive so that its manufacturing and sintering procedures must be carried out only under controlled atmosphere. All that make the possibility to join advanced ceramics by any heat treatment basically impossible under normal conditions. Today, uses of that kind of ceramics are generally restricted to advanced small structural shapes. Starting from the consideration that a future possibility to join ceramics with a safe joint would be really important for structural applications especially where high wear and acid resistance is necessary, the aim of this paper is to show as, according to our theory, a first step of laser welding of reactive ceramics is possible under microgravity and oxigen deficiency conditions. It is enough to think about a satellite or a part of the ISS made from absolutely fire, chemical and wear proof ceramic parts assembled directly on space by

  4. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C M; Bishop, S C; Marion, G

    2015-06-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob-Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed 'model-based proposal' (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2-8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. PMID:25994297

  5. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C M; Bishop, S C; Marion, G

    2015-06-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob-Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed 'model-based proposal' (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2-8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large.

  6. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, C. M.; Bishop, S. C.; Marion, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob–Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed ‘model-based proposal’ (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2–8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. PMID:25994297

  7. Investigation of detection conditions of captured microbes in space with PCR Microbes capture experiment on ISS proposed in "Tanpopo" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Yang, Yinjie; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Tabata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Mita, Hajime; Imai, Eiichi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Okudaira, Kyoko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamashita, Masamichi; Yano, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Terrestrial life may fly off into outer space by volcanic eruption meteorological impacts, and so on. Microbes have been collected from high altitude up to 70 km since 1936 [1]. We also isolated microbes at high altitude up to 35 km using an airplane and balloons [2, 3]. The two isolates of these microbes are new species, one of which shows higher UV ray tolerance than Deinococcus radiodurans [2, 3]. On the other hand, there is a hypothesis on the origin of terrestrial life called panspermia [4, 5], in which terrestrial life is thought to have come from space (or astronomical bodies other than Earth). This hypothesis suggests that life may migrate between Earth and other planets. If microbes were to exist at the high altitude of low earth orbit (400 km), it would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of terrestrial lifeWe proposed, the Tanpopo mission to examine interplanetary migration of microbes and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). We will capture micro-particles including microbes and micro-meteoroids at the altitude of ISS orbit (400 km) with ultra low-density aerogel exposed to space for a given period of time. After retreaving the aerogel, we will investigate captured micro particles and tracks followed by microbiological, organic chemical and mineralogical analyses.Captured particles will be analyzed after the initial curation of the aerogel and tracks. Particles potentially containing microbes will be used for PCR amplification of small subunit (ss) rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing. Comparision between the determined sequences and known ss rRNA gene sequences of terrestrial organisms will suggest the origin and properties of the organism.The density of microbes at the ISS altitude might be quite low, and microbe cell number on each captured particle may be quite limited. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the effective PCR procedure for quite small amount of DNA template

  8. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the

  9. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  10. Analysis of Proposed 2007-2008 Revisions to the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for United States Space Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, J. E.; Krider, E. P.; Merceret, F. J.; Willett, J. C.; Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; Rust, W. D.; Walterscheid, R.; O'Brien, T. P.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Ascending space vehicles are vulnerable to both natural and triggered lightning. Launches under the jurisdiction of the United States are generally subject to a set of rules called the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC). The LLCC protect both the vehicle and the public by assuring that the launch does not take place in conditions posing a significant risk of a lightning strike to the ascending vehicle. Such a strike could destroy the vehicle and its payload, thus causing failure of the mission while releasing both toxic materials and debris. To assure safety, the LLCC are conservative and sometimes they may seriously limit the ability of the launch operator to fly as scheduled even when conditions are benign. In order to safely reduce the number of launch scrubs and delays attributable to the LLCC, the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) program was undertaken in 2000 - 2001. The effort was directed to collecting detailed high-quality data on the electrical, microphysical, radar and meteorological properties of thunderstorm-associated clouds. The expectation was that this additional knowledge would provide a better physical basis for the LLCC and allow them to be revised to be both safer and less restrictive. That expectation was fulfilled, leading to significant revisions to the LLCC in 2003 and 2005. The 2005 revisions included the application of a new radar-derived quantity called the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) in the rules governing flight through anvil clouds. Analysis of the ABFM data has continued, and two additional revisions to the LLCC were proposed in late 2006 for adoption in 2007 or 2008. One proposal was to apply the VAHIRR concept to debris clouds, and the other was to reduce the "stand-off distances" in the rules for anvil and/or debris clouds. The stand-off distance is the clearance (out side of the cloud) required between the flight path of the vehicle and the edge of a cloud that it is not permissible to fly through

  11. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the Space Station Mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    This research has continued along two lines, one at Marshall Space Flight Center with Salad Machine Rack development and the design and construction of a mockup for placement in the Huntsville Space Station Freedom mockup. The second avenue of research has addressed issues of relevance to the operation of the Salad Machine and Bioregenerative systems. These issues include plant species compatibility when grown on shared hydroponic systems and microbial populations of mixed species hydroponic systems. Significant progress is reported.

  12. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  13. Market Driven Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2004-02-01

    Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA's recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance Jupiter type missions, but it also important for providing greater access to planets and bodies nearer to the Earth. NASA has been working with industrial partners since 1987 through its Research Partnerships Centers (RPCs) to utilize the attributes of space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Plans are now being made to utilize the RPCs and industrial partners in extending the duration and boundaries of human space flight to create new opportunities for exploration and discovery. Private investors are considering setting up shops in LEO for commercial purposes. The trend is for more industrial involvement in space. Nuclear power and propulsion will hasten the progress. The objective of this paper is to show the progression of space market driven research and its potential for supporting space exploration given nuclear power and propulsion capabilities.

  14. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the space station mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.; Sharma, Govind C.; Beyl, Caula A.

    1990-01-01

    A desire for fresh vegetables for consumption during long term space missions has been foreseen. To meet this need in a microgravity environment within the limited space and energy available on Space Station requires highly productive vegetable cultivars of short stature to optimize vegetable production per volume available. Special water and nutrient delivery systems must also be utilized. As a first step towards fresh vegetable production in the microgravity of Space Station, several soil-less capillary action media were evaluated for the ability to support growth of two root crops (radish and carrot) which are under consideration for inclusion in a semi-automated system for production of salad vegetables in a microgravity environment (Salad Machine). In addition, productivity of different cultivars of radish was evaluated as well as the effect of planting density and cultivar on carrot production and size. Red Prince radish was more productive than Cherry Belle and grew best on Jiffy Mix Plus. During greenhouse studies, vermiculite and rock wool supported radish growth to a lesser degree than Jiffy Mix Plus but more than Cellular Rooting Sponge. Comparison of three carrot cultivars (Planet, Short n Sweet, and Goldinhart) and three planting densities revealed that Short n Sweet planted at 25.6 sq cm/plant had the greatest root fresh weight per pot, the shortest mean top length, and intermediate values of root length and top fresh weight per pot. Red Prince radish and Short n Sweet carrot showed potential as productive cultivars for use in a Salad Machine. Results of experiments with solid capillary action media were disappointing. Further research must be done to identify a solid style capillary action media which can productively support growth of root crops such as carrot and radish.

  15. Space system developments at Stanford University: from launch experience of microsatellites to the proposed future use of picosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiggs, Robert J.

    2000-11-01

    The Space Systems Development Laboratory was established in 1994 at Stanford University to give graduate and undergraduate students project based learning experience in microsatellite design, fabrication, test, launch integration and space operations. These students have completed two satellites - one called OPAL was launched on January 26, 2000, and the second called SAPPHIRE is tentatively scheduled for launch in late 2002. There are three additional satellites now in developments. OPAL had a unique primary objective payload. This was to launch six small Klondike ice cream bar size picosatellites. It completed this mission to gain a record of orbiting the world's smallest functional satellites. The next generation in picosats under developement that have a tentative late 2002 launch are called CubeSats. Launchers are under development to release multiple 4-inch cube CubeSats that can be used by amateur radio enthusiast, universities and government laboratories for inexpensive space testing.

  16. Solar cosmic ray measurements at high heliocentric latitudes. [proposed space missions of solar probes to study solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review is presented of what might result from a program of solar cosmic ray observations on 'out-of-the-ecliptic' spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: (1) The magnetic fields of the sun at high latitudes, (2) propagation of fast charged particles in the solar corona and in interplanetary space at high latitudes, (3) origin of interplanetary particle populations and the solar wind, (4) other particle phenomena in interplanetary space (e.g., acceleration of shock waves), and (5) effect of spacecraft mission characteristics on solar cosmic ray studies at high latitudes. Maps of polar coronal magnetic fields are shown.

  17. A proposal to conduct a Caribbean plate project involving the application of space technology to the study of Caribbean geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadge, G.

    The Caribbean plate project is designed to improve current understanding of geological resources and geological hazards within the Caribbean region. Models of mineral occurrence and genesis (including energy resources) on a regional scale, which contribute to nonrenewable resource investigations. Models of lithospheric stress and strain on a regional scale, which contribute to forecasting geological hazards such as earthquakes and major volcanic eruptions are developed. Geological information is synthesize, and research tools provided by space technology the study of the Earth's crust are used. The project was organized in a thematic fashion, to focus on specific geological aspects of the Caribbean plate which are considered to be key factors in developing the types of models described. The project adopts a synoptic perspective in seeking to characterize the three dimensional structure, composition, state of stress, and evolution of the entire Caribbean plate. Geological information derived from analysis of space acquired data is combined with information provided by conventional methods to obtain insight into the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust. In addition, very long baseline interferometry and laser ranging techniques, which are also based upon the use of space technology, obtain information concerning crustal motion that, in turn, provides insight into the distribution and localization of crustal stress.

  18. A proposal to conduct a Caribbean plate project involving the application of space technology to the study of Caribbean geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The Caribbean plate project is designed to improve current understanding of geological resources and geological hazards within the Caribbean region. Models of mineral occurrence and genesis (including energy resources) on a regional scale, which contribute to nonrenewable resource investigations. Models of lithospheric stress and strain on a regional scale, which contribute to forecasting geological hazards such as earthquakes and major volcanic eruptions are developed. Geological information is synthesize, and research tools provided by space technology the study of the Earth's crust are used. The project was organized in a thematic fashion, to focus on specific geological aspects of the Caribbean plate which are considered to be key factors in developing the types of models described. The project adopts a synoptic perspective in seeking to characterize the three dimensional structure, composition, state of stress, and evolution of the entire Caribbean plate. Geological information derived from analysis of space acquired data is combined with information provided by conventional methods to obtain insight into the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust. In addition, very long baseline interferometry and laser ranging techniques, which are also based upon the use of space technology, obtain information concerning crustal motion that, in turn, provides insight into the distribution and localization of crustal stress.

  19. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the Space Station Mockup Facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.

    1992-01-01

    The Salad Machine Research has continued to be a two path effort with the research at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focusing on the design, construction, and operation of a semiautomated system (Salad Machine) for the production of salad vegetables within a standard rack. Boeing Corporation in cooperation with NASA MSFC constructed a four drawer Salad Machine which was occasionally placed within the Space Station Freedom Mockup facility for view by selected visitors. Final outfitting of the Salad Machine is awaiting the arrival of parts for the nutrient delivery system. Research at the Alabama A&M facilities focused on compatibility of radish and lettuce plants when grown on the same nutrient solution. Lettuce fresh weight shoot yield was significantly enhanced when lettuce plants were grown on nutrient solution which was shared with radish. Radish tuber production was not significantly affected although there was a trend for radish from shared solutions to be heavier than those grown on separate nutrient solutions. The effect of sharing nutrient solutions on carbohydrate partitioning reflected the effect of sharing solution on fresh weight yield. Lettuce shoot dry weight was significantly greater for plants from shared solutions than from separate. There was no significant effect on sharing nutrient solution on radish tuber dry weight. Partitioning of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and potassium was not affected by sharing, there was, however, a disproportionate amount of potassium in the tissues, suggesting luxury consumption of potassium in all plants and tissues. It is concluded that lettuce plants benefit from sharing nutrient solution with radish and that radish is not harmed.

  20. Putting ROSE to Work: A Proposed Application of a Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine for Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Muery, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Scheduling engines are found at the core of software systems that plan and schedule activities and resources. A Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) is one that processes a single request (adding a task to a timeline) and then waits for another request. For the International Space Station, a robust ROSE-based system would support multiple, simultaneous users, each formulating requests (defining scheduling requirements), submitting these requests via the internet to a single scheduling engine operating on a single timeline, and immediately viewing the resulting timeline. ROSE is significantly different from the engine currently used to schedule Space Station operations. The current engine supports essentially one person at a time, with a pre-defined set of requirements from many payloads, working in either a "batch" scheduling mode or an interactive/manual scheduling mode. A planning and scheduling process that takes advantage of the features of ROSE could produce greater customer satisfaction at reduced cost and reduced flow time. This paper describes a possible ROSE-based scheduling process and identifies the additional software component required to support it. Resulting changes to the management and control of the process are also discussed.

  1. Common benefit from a perspective of "Non-traditional Partners": A proposed agenda to address the status quo in Global Space Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganaba-Jeanty, Timiebi

    2015-12-01

    It is presupposed that there is a dominant position in interpreting the freedom of Outer Space which has not given much real significance to the idea of common benefit. The reason that this causes difficulty is that there is an ambiguity to common benefit. This dominant position however sees the issue of benefit sharing in the context of the perceived tension between established space faring nations and emerging and aspirant States and the idea that freedom could take on a different meaning depending on where one is on the scale of development. It fails to recognize that solutions to contemporary and historical governance challenges have been much less oriented towards the interests of less developed States or new entrants, making the accrual and sharing of benefits dependent on the free will of those States able to carry out a variety of space activities independently. As a result of this, the debate around common benefit is exploited to seek individual benefit derived for a State as opposed to what our effort to use space collectively can generate. In recent times, the issue has not received much attention. This is because it is believed to be partly resolved through normative frameworks such as Article 1 of the Outer Space Treaty and the Space Benefits Declaration. While an attempt to re-address historical contentious issues, asserted to be resolved, may appear illusory or futile; such analysis can be useful depending on the account that the reader believes should be given to the normative character of human nature. To this end, the writings of legal, political and social theorists and methodologies from Critical Legal Schools may prove insightful for a deeper contextualization of the historical debate, the current understanding of the freedoms of Outer Space as well as unearth future perspectives to aid in addressing the current pressing space related issue of our time: Sustainability of Space Activities. This article proposes three main issue areas to

  2. AURIO: A proposal for flying auroral imaging observatory on the Polar Platform in the Space Station/Columbus program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadsnes, J.; Aarsnes, K.; Anger, C. D.; Bjordal, J.; Brekke, A.; Bryant, D.; Broenstad, K.; Carter, J.; Chaloner, C.; Cogger, L. L.

    1987-08-01

    It is proposed to fly high resolution auroral imaging instruments and particle spectrometers on the Columbus Polar Platform (PPF). A set of UV and X-ray imagers with wide field of view (horizon to horizon) will map the large scale (semiglobal) features of the aurora at day and night with fairly high spatial and temporal resolution. A set of visible and X-ray imagers and imaging spectrographs in visible and UV range with narrow field (NF) of view will give images with very high spatial resolution (better than 1 km and a few km respectively for optical and X-ray imagers) and a time resolution of 1 sec. The NF-imagers will be mounted on a pointable instrument pedestal to be operated in different modes. Particle spectrometers will cover electrons and ions over a wide energy range, and with high time resolution (10 ms). It is also desireable to fly a magnetometer. The particle and field instruments should be integrated in a separate package mounted on a boom protruding at least 10 m from the PPF, to minimize the contamination from the PPF environment.

  3. Analysis of Proposed 2007-2008 Revisions to the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for United States Space Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Krider, E. Phillip; Merceret, Francis J.; Willett, John C.; Bateman, Monte G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Walterscheid, Richard; O'Brien, T. Paul; Christian, Hugh J.

    2008-01-01

    Ascending space vehicles are vulnerable to both natural and triggered lightning. Launches under the jurisdiction of the United States are generally subject to a set of rules called the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider etal., 1999; Krider etal., 2006). The LLCC protect both the vehicle and the public by assuring that the launch does not take place in conditions posing a significant risk of a lightning strike to the ascending vehicle. Such a strike could destroy the vehicle and its payload, thus causing failure of the mission while releasing both toxic materials and debris. To assure safety, the LLCC are conservative and sometimes they may seriously limit the ability of the launch operator to fly as scheduled even when conditions are benign. In order to safely reduce the number of launch scrubs and delays attributable to the LLCC, the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM II) program was undertaken in 2000 - 2001. The effort was directed to collecting detailed high-quality data on the electrical, microphysical, radar and meteorological properties of thunderstorm-associated clouds. Details may be found in Dye et al., 2007. The expectation was that this additional knowledge would provide a better physical basis for the LLCC and allow them to be revised to be less restrictive while remaining at least as safe. That expectation was fulfilled, leading to significant revisions to the LLCC in 2003 and 2005. The 2005 revisions included the application of a new radar-derived quantity called the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) in the rules governing flight through anvil clouds. VAHIRR is the product of the volume averaged radar reflectivity times the radardetermined cloud thickness. The reflectivity average extends horizontally 5 km west, east, south and north of a point along the flight track and vertically from the 0 C isotherm to the top of the radar cloud. This region is defined as the "Specified Volume". See Dye et al., 2006 and Merceret et

  4. A PROPOSAL TO MEASURE THE CROSS SECTION OF THE SPACE STAR IN NEUTRON-DEUTERON BREAKUP IN A RECOIL GEOMETRY SETUP

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin J. Crowe III

    2009-09-30

    Nucleon-deuteron (Nd) breakup is an important tool for obtaining a better understanding of three-nucleon (3N) dynamics and for developing meson exchange descriptions of nuclear systems. The kinematics of the nd breakup reaction enable observables to be studied in a variety of exit-channel configurations that show sensitivity to realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential models and three-nucleon force (3NF) models. Rigorous 3N calculations give very good descriptions of most 3N reaction data. However, there are still some serious discrepancies between data and theory. The largest discrepancy observed between theory and data for nd breakup is for the cross section for the space-star configuration. This discrepancy is known as the “Space star Anomaly”. Several experimental groups have obtained results consistent with the “Space Star Anomaly”, but it is important to note that they all used essentially the same experimental setup and so their experimental results are subject to the same systematic errors. We propose to measure the space-star cross-section at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using an experimental technique that is significantly different from the one used in previous breakup experiments. This technique has been used by a research group from the University of Bonn to measure the neutron-neutron scattering length. There are three possible scenarios for the outcome of this work: 1) the new data are consistent with previous measurements; 2) the new data are not in agreement with previous measurements, but are in agreement with theory; and 3) the new data are not in agreement with either theory or previous measurements. Any one of the three scenarios will provide valuable insight on the Space Star Anomaly.

  5. Prometheus the impostor.

    PubMed

    Laor, N

    1985-03-01

    The problem of scientific fraud has been used to indict the whole system of science. The response of the scientific community has been understandably heated but insufficient. The discussion seems to have reached an impasse as both parties in the dispute share mistaken views. A switch is needed to a framework in which the democratic foundation of the scientific society and the free spirit of scientific inquiry can be preserved. PMID:3918715

  6. Prometheus the impostor.

    PubMed

    Laor, N

    1985-03-01

    The problem of scientific fraud has been used to indict the whole system of science. The response of the scientific community has been understandably heated but insufficient. The discussion seems to have reached an impasse as both parties in the dispute share mistaken views. A switch is needed to a framework in which the democratic foundation of the scientific society and the free spirit of scientific inquiry can be preserved.

  7. Prometheus College Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austell, David B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on interviews conducted to assess the status of humanities instruction in North Carolina's community colleges. Includes Dallas Herring's reflections on the establishment and growth of the state's community college system. Summarizes interviews with central office representatives and two-year college managers concerning the mission and…

  8. The science of Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauskopf, Seymour

    2012-10-01

    For roughly the last half century, chemistry has perhaps been the most disparaged of the sciences. Among members of the public, the very word "chemical" has come to have opprobrious connotations, and some physicists (and even chemists) have argued that chemistry is reducible to physics, and thus not truly an independent science.

  9. Television: Education's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)

  10. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  11. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-04

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  12. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  13. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  14. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  15. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  16. An Analysis of the California Community Colleges Library Space Standards with Proposed Revisions to the California Code of Regulations, Title 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmer, Linda

    This document serves as a "talking paper" for the Consultation Task Force for Library Space Standards. The current required formulae for planning library and learning resource facilities for community colleges in California are found in the California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 5, Section 57030, "Library Space." This section has been in…

  17. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  18. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  19. Flowfield computations over the Space Shuttle Orbiter with a proposed canard at a Mach number of 5.8 and 50 degrees angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, William H.; Buning, Pieter G.; Hobson, Garth V.

    1993-01-01

    An effective control canard design to provide enhanced controllability throughout the flight regime is described which uses a 3D, Navier-Stokes computational solution. The use of canard by the Space Shuttle Orbiter in both hypersonic and subsonic flight regimes can enhance its usefullness by expanding its payload carrying capability and improving its static stability. The canard produces an additional nose-up pitching moment to relax center-of-gravity constraint and alleviates the need for large, lift-destroying elevon deflections required to maintain the high angles of attack for effective hypersonic flight.

  20. Proposed dynamic phase difference method for the detection of tile debonding from the space shuttle orbiter. [recertification techniques for the orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noncontracting, semi-global, dynamic technique was developed for detecting loose tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. In laboratory tests on a single tile, the substrate was excited into lateral motion at a constant frequency and amplitude of 2g. The phase relationship between the motions of tile and substrate was examined by noncontacting probes in order to relate the dynamic properties of the tile SIP system to its fatigue history; by a visual technique using a stroboscope and split screen video monitor for practical application in the field. When the substrate is excited at an appropriate frequency (between 30 and 60 Hz), a good tile moves in phase and a loose tile out of phase with the substrate. The out of phase motion is readily observable in the form of a "beat" between the tile and a reference marker on the substrate.

  1. Space America's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space America prepared a private sector land observing space system which includes a sensor system with eight spectral channels configured for stereoscopic data acquisition of four stereo pairs, a spacecraft bus with active three-axis stabilization, a ground station for data acquisition, preprocessing and retransmission. The land observing system is a component of Space America's end-to-end system for Earth resources management, monitoring and exploration. In the context of the Federal Government's program of commercialization of the US land remote sensing program, Space America's space system is characteristic of US industry's use of advanced technology and of commercial, entrepreneurial management. Well before the issuance of the Request for Proposals for Transfer of the United States Land Remote Sensing Program to the Private Sector by the US Department of Commerce, Space Services, Inc., the managing venturer of Space America, used private funds to develop and manage its sub-orbital launch of its Conestoga launch vehicle.

  2. Proposal to National Aeronautics and Space Administration for continuation of a grazing incidence imaging telescope for X-ray astronomy using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of a high resolution imaging telescope experiment payload suitable for launch on an Astrobee F sounding rocket was proposed. Also integration, launch, and subsequent data analysis effort were included. The payload utilizes major component subassemblies from the HEAO-B satellite program which were nonflight development units for that program. These were the X ray mirror and high resolution imager brassboard detector. The properties of the mirror and detector were discussed. The availability of these items for a sounding rocket experiment were explored with the HEAO-B project office.

  3. Proposed Facility Modifications to Support Propulsion Systems Testing Under Simulated Space Conditions at Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Preparing NASA's Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) to support NASA's new generation of launch vehicles has raised many challenges for B-2 s support staff. The facility provides a unique capability to test chemical propulsion systems/vehicles while simulating space thermal and vacuum environments. Designed and constructed 4 decades ago to support upper stage cryogenic engine/vehicle system development, the Plum Brook Station B-2 facility will require modifications to support the larger, more powerful, and more advanced engine systems for the next generation of vehicles leaving earth's orbit. Engine design improvements over the years have included large area expansion ratio nozzles, greater combustion chamber pressures, and advanced materials. Consequently, it has become necessary to determine what facility changes are required and how the facility can be adapted to support varying customers and their specific test needs. Instrumental in this task is understanding the present facility capabilities and identifying what reasonable changes can be implemented. A variety of approaches and analytical tools are being employed to gain this understanding. This paper discusses some of the challenges in applying these tools to this project and expected facility configuration to support the varying customer needs.

  4. Proposal Improvements That Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, F.

    1998-01-01

    Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, an operating location of Boeing in Canoga Park, California is under contract with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama for design, development, production, and mission support of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). The contract was restructured in 1996 to emphasize a mission contracting environment under which Rocketdyne supports the Space Transportation System launch manifest of seven flights a year without the need for a detailed list of contract deliverables such as nozzles, turbopumps, and combustion devices. This contract structure is in line with the overall Space Shuttle program goals established by the NASA to fly safely, meet the flight manifest, and reduce cost. Rocketdyne's Contracts, Pricing, and Estimating team has worked for the past several years with representatives from MSFC, the local Defense Contract Management Command, and the DCAA to improve the quality of cost proposals to MSFC for contract changes on the SSME. The contract changes on the program result primarily from engineering change proposals for product enhancements to improve safety, maintainability, or operability in the space environment. This continuous improvement team effort has been successful in improving proposal quality, reducing cycle time, and reducing cost. Some of the principal lessons learned are highlighted here to show how proposal improvements can be implemented to enhance customer satisfaction and ensure cost proposals can be evaluated easily by external customers.

  5. A Study to Compare the Failure Rates of Current Space Shuttle Ground Support Equipment with the New Pathfinder Equipment and Investigate the Effect that the Proposed GSE Infrastructure Upgrade Might Have to Reduce GSE Infrastructure Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to compare the current Space Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) infrastructure with the proposed GSE infrastructure upgrade modification. The methodology will include analyzing the first prototype installation equipment at Launch PAD B called the "Pathfinder". This study will begin by comparing the failure rate of the current components associated with the "Hardware interface module (HIM)" at the Kennedy Space Center to the failure rate of the neW Pathfinder components. Quantitative data will be gathered specifically on HIM components and the PAD B Hypergolic Fuel facility and Hypergolic Oxidizer facility areas which has the upgraded pathfinder equipment installed. The proposed upgrades include utilizing industrial controlled modules, software, and a fiber optic network. The results of this study provide evidence that there is a significant difference in the failure rates of the two studied infrastructure equipment components. There is also evidence that the support staff for each infrastructure system is not equal. A recommendation to continue with future upgrades is based on a significant reduction of failures in the new' installed ground system components.

  6. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    D. Poeth

    2005-12-09

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that {sup 10}B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights.

  7. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  8. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  9. Space making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    With discoveries from Mars, the Hubble Deep Field, and Ganymede reawakening Washington's interest in space, the U.S. federal government has started fine-tuning its stance on space flight and exploration. The attention comes as prelude to a proposed November meeting to discuss astronomical and planetary discoveries, and to a rumored space summit in December between Vice President Al Gore and congressional leaders.On September 17, the House of Representatives passed by voice vote H.R. 3936, the Space Commercialization Promotion Act. A measure with strong bipartisan support, the bill officially encourages private companies to participate in the space industry and requires NASA to find more ways to work with the private sector. Updating and amending several existing U.S. policies about commerce in space, H.R. 3936 gives the Department of Transportation the authority to provide and administer licenses for commercial spacecraft to reenter American airspace from orbit and outer space. It also prods NASA to purchase scientific data about the Earth and the solar system from the private sector, whenever possible.

  10. Program Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  11. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  12. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I)—a class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for cosmic vision 2015-2025: 2010 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braxmaier, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg; Foulon, Bernard; Göklü, Ertan; Grimani, Catia; Guo, Jian; Herrmann, Sven; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ni, Wei-Tou; Peters, Achim; Rievers, Benny; Samain, Étienne; Selig, Hanns; Shaul, Diana; Svehla, Drazen; Touboul, Pierre; Wang, Gang; Wu, An-Ming; Zakharov, Alexander F.

    2012-10-01

    ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test General Relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over 3 orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system; and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, thereby probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTROD I goals.For this mission, accurate pulse timing with an ultra-stable clock, and a drag-free spacecraft with reliable inertial sensor are required. T2L2 has demonstrated the required accurate pulse timing; rubidium clock on board Galileo has mostly demonstrated the required clock stability; the accelerometer on board GOCE has paved the way for achieving the reliable inertial sensor; the demonstration of LISA Pathfinder will provide an excellent platform for the implementation of the ASTROD I drag-free spacecraft. These European activities comprise the pillars for building up the mission and make the technologies needed ready. A second mission, ASTROD or ASTROD-GW (depending on the results of ASTROD I), is envisaged as a three-spacecraft mission which, in the case of ASTROD, would test General Relativity to one part per billion, enable detection of solar g-modes, measure the solar Lense-Thirring effect to 10 parts per million, and probe gravitational waves at frequencies below the LISA bandwidth, or in the case of ASTROD-GW, would be

  13. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging opportunities must be found in the reports of its Office of Exploration, which was established in 1987. That office's report, released in November 1989, of a 90-day study of possible plans for human exploration of the Moon and Mars is NASA's response to the new initiative proposed by President Bush on July 20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon: "First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s, Space Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon, back to the future, and this time, back to stay. And then a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars." This report, Space Resources, offers substantiation for NASA's bid to carry out that new initiative.

  14. Astronomer's Proposal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) is a computer program that assists astronomers in preparing their Phase 1 and Phase 2 Hubble Space Telescope science programs. APT is a successor to the Remote Proposal Submission System 2 (RPS2) program, which has been rendered obsolete by more recent advances in computer software and hardware. APT exploits advances associated with widespread use of the Internet, multiplatform visual development software tools, and overall increases in the power of desktop computer hardware, all in such a way as to make the preparation and submission of proposals more intuitive and make observatory operations less cumbersome. APT provides documentation and help that are friendly, up to date, and easily accessible to users of varying levels of expertise, while defining an extensible framework that is responsive to changes in both technology and observatory operations. APT consists of two major components: (1) a set of software tools that are intuitive, visual, and responsive and (2) an integrated software environment that unifies all the tools and makes them interoperable. The APT tools include the Visual Target Tuner, Proposal Editor, Exposure Planner, Bright Object Checker, and Visit Planner.

  15. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  16. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  17. Nuclear power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S. ); Hafemeister, D.W. ); Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N. ); Primack, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space.

  18. Space charge stopband correction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.

    2005-09-01

    It is speculated that the space charge effect cause beam emittance growth through the resonant envelope oscillation. Based on this theory, we propose an approach, called space charge stopband correction, to reduce such emittance growth by compensation of the half-integer stopband width of the resonant oscillation. It is illustrated with the Fermilab Booster model.

  19. HVAC BESTEST: A Procedure for Testing the Ability of Whole-Building Energy Simulation Programs to Model Space Conditioning Equipment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J,; Judkoff, R.; Knabe, G.; Le, H.-T.; Durig, M.; Glass, A.; Zweifel, G.

    2001-07-03

    Validation of Building Energy Simulation Programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques (Judkoff 1988). An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. Field trials of the method were conducted by researchers from nations participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme Task 22, using a number of detailed hourly simulation programs from Europe and the United States, including: CA-SIS, CLIM2000, PROMETHEUS, TRNSYS-TUD, and two versions of DOE-2.1E. Analytical solutions were also developed for the test cases.

  20. New Active Remote-sensing Capabilities: Laser Ablation Spectrometer and Lidar Atmospheric Species Profile Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, R. J.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: With the anticipated development of high-capacity fission power and electric propulsion for deep-space missions, it will become possible to propose experiments that demand higher power than current technologies (e.g. radioisotope power sources) provide. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), the first mission in the Project Prometheus program, will explore the icy moons of Jupiter with a suite of high-capability experiments that take advantage of the high power levels (and indirectly, the high data rates) that fission power affords. This abstract describes two high-capability active-remote-sensing experiments that will be logical candidates for subsequent Prometheus-class missions.

  1. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Comment on "Critique of proposed limit to space-time measurement based on Wigner's clocks and mirrors" by L. Diósi and B. Lukács

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Y. J.; van Dam, H.

    1997-05-01

    Diósi and Lukács in paper [1] claim to have shown that the uncertainty in space-time measurements derived by us [2] implies uncertainties of the Riemannian curvature. Here we show that their argument is wrong: they mistake a metric fluctuation [3] for a matter energy density fluctuation.

  3. 78 FR 64442 - NASA FAR Supplement: Proposal Adequacy Checklist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 1815 and 1852 RIN 2700-AE13 NASA FAR Supplement: Proposal Adequacy Checklist AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NASA is proposing to amend the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to incorporate a proposal adequacy checklist for...

  4. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  5. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  6. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  7. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  8. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  9. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Space... proposals to continue the development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system...

  10. Flaming in CMC: Prometheus' Fire or Inferno's?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Zsuzsanna Ittzes

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a descriptive study with 75 intermediate college learners of German participating in two sessions of synchronous computer mediated communication during the course of a semester that investigated students' flaming behavior--aggressive interpersonal language and rude behavior. Shows that not only is flaming a very infrequent occurrence,…

  11. Power combining considerations for Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, S. K.; Menninger, W. L.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviws the planning for a nuclear-electric spacecraft. It includes information concerning one considered mission, communications requirements, power combining, four-beam cluster antenna, and amplitude and phase variations.

  12. Space industrialization. Volume 4: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Program development and analysis and recommendations for NASA activities are discussed. The impact of international space law on future use of outer space is examined in the light of applicable international agreements. Recommendations for actions designed to facilitate space industralization are also proposed.

  13. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  14. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  15. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  16. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  17. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  18. Capacity building in space law and space policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2009-11-01

    A high level of expertise in space policy and law is required to initiate and keep pace with the expansion of space activities, including those undertaken by the private space industry. Space activities generally refer to those undertakings that are carried out with the use of several technologies for the exploration and utilization of outer space often for scientific, military, economic and social proposes within international and national policy and regulatory frameworks. Space policies and legal regimes determine the scope, nature, pace, possibility and development of space undertakings. Therefore, appropriate space policies and regulatory regimes, both at the international and national levels, are indispensable for the initiation, operation and enhancement of space activities. There are various regulatory models and approaches for regulating space activities, and for building capacity in space law and space policy. It is imperative to have the appropriate human resources and capabilities in the development and implementation of space policies and space legal regimes. This crucial requirement has been well recognized in the more advanced space-faring nations, but not to the same level in other space-faring or space-aspiring nations.

  19. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    , Interpersonal Skills, Telecommunications, Earth Observation and Navigation. A group CCP, a major asset of this unique program, is a focused project, aimed at the formation of a credible virtual commercial space-related business. Participants exercise space systems engineering fundamentals as well as marketing and business engineering tools, with the goal of creating a financially viable business opportunity. They then present the result, in the form of an unsolicited proposal to potential investors, as well as a varied group of engineers, managers and executives from the space community. During the CCP, participants learn the ties between mission and system design and the potential return to investors. They develop an instinct for the technical concepts and which of the parameters to adjust to make their newly conceived business more effective and profitable.

  20. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  1. Capacity Building in Space Law and Space Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, Ram

    A high level of expertise in space policy and law is required to keep pace with expansion of space activities (including space industry). Space activities are generally referred to those activities that are carried out with the use of several technologies for exploration and utilization of outer space often for scientific, economic and social proposes within international and national policy and regulatory frameworks. Space policy and legal regimes determine the scope, nature, pace, possibility and development of space undertakings. Therefore, appropriate space policies and regulatory regimes, both at international and national levels, are indispensable for the initiation, operation and enhancement of space activities. It is imperative to have appropriate human resources and capacities in such space policies and legal regimes. This crucial requirement has been well recognized in the more advanced space-faring nations like the United States, but not to the same level in other space-faring or space-aspiring nations. There are various models and approaches for the building capacity in space law and space policy that may be identified in order to allow a country to choose the most appropriate one, within its national requirements, to develop space activities in organized manner.

  2. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  3. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  4. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  5. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  6. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  7. Space basic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Dexter

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  8. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The medical aspects of space flight are briefly discussed. The problems of space adaptation syndrome, commonly known as space sickness, are described, and its cause is shown. The adaptation of the cardiovascular system to weightlessness, the problems of radiation in space, atrophy of bones and muscles, and loss of blood volume are addressed. The difficulties associated with the reexperience of gravity on return to earth are briefly considered.

  9. Multipurpose Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized…

  10. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  11. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  12. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  13. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  14. Space market model space industry input-output model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.

  15. Skylab, Classroom in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Lee B., Ed.

    In the Skylab student project, high school students submitted proposals for experiments that could be performed on board Skylab by the astronauts. This book describes the experiments designed by the students and reports what happened to those experiments in the space laboratory. The student experiments included studies of the central nervous…

  16. 48 CFR 1815.207 - Handling proposals and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information. 1815.207 Section 1815.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 1815.207 Handling proposals and information....

  17. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  18. NASA's Space Grant program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. Julius

    1990-01-01

    Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

  19. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  20. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is an endeavor that has universal appeal, is far reaching in its consequences, crossing borders and spanning intellectual disciplines from art to literature to mathematics, with a purpose and reach that can potentially unite. To enhance awareness and strengthen cooperation within the space community, and provide inspiration for new activities, Dr. McGrath will provide a brief glimpse into a few of the exciting space exploration activities currently being undertaken by NASA.

  1. Space Debris and Space Safety - Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, W.; Krag, H.

    Man's activities in space are creating a shell of space debris around planet Earth which provides a growing risk of collision with operating satellites and manned systems. Including both the larger tracked objects and the small, untracked debris, more than 98% of the estimated 600,000 objects larger than 1 cm currently in orbit are “space junk”--dead satellites, expended rocket stages, debris from normal operations, fragments from explosions and collisions, and other material. Recognizing the problem, space faring nations have joined together to develop three basic principles for minimizing the growth of the debris population: prevent on-orbit breakups, remove spacecraft and orbital stages that have reached the end of their mission operations from the useful densely populated orbit regions, and limit the objects released during normal operations. This paper provides an overview of what is being done to support these three principles and describes proposals that an active space traffic control service to warn satellite operators of pending collisions with large objects combined with a program to actively remove large objects may reduce the rate of future collisions. The paper notes that cost and cost effectiveness are important considerations that will affect the evolution of such systems.

  2. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  3. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  4. To Preserve the Sense of Earth from Space. A Report of the Panel on the Information Policy Implications of Archiving Satellite Data, regarding the Archiving Requirements of the Proposed Transfer to the Private Section of the U. S. Civil Space Remote-Sensing Satellite Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the results of a 3-month effort to assess the archiving requirements that should be imposed in the event of a transfer of the United States land remote-sensing satellite systems to the private sector. The emphasis is not on judging the desirability of the proposed transfer, but on recommending the requirements that should be…

  5. Chinese Space Program for Heliophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Gan, Weiqun; Wang, Chi; Liu, Weining; Yan, Yihua; Liu, Yong; Sun, Lilin; Liu, Ying

    As one of the major field of space science, heliophysics research in China has not only long history but also strong research forces. Many space missions have been proposed by the community but with few got support. Since 2006, Chinese Academy of Science has organized a long term strategic study in space science. In 2011, the space science program has been kicked off with several new missions being selected for Phase A study. In this presentation, first a brief review on past programs, such as Double Star, Chang’e, and an introduction on the space science strategic study are given. Under the guidance of this strategic study or roadmap, a few missions have been proposed or re-proposed with new element, such as DSO, KUAFU, MIT, SPORT and ASO-S. Brief introductions of these programs and their current status will be given.

  6. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  7. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  8. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  9. Space Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  10. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  11. Space microbiology.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M; Mancinelli, Rocco L

    2010-03-01

    The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis.

  12. Space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  13. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  14. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  15. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  16. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  17. Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Design Studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactor. This third of three three volumes discusses the following topics: Driver system definition; vacuum system; fuel processing systems (FPS); cavity design and analysis; heat transport and thermal energy conversion; balance of plant systems; remote maintenance systems; safety and environment; economics; and comparison of IFE designs.

  18. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  19. Evaluation of materials proposed for use in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The cutaneous primary irritancy and allergenicity potential of cotton shirts/fabrics treated with flame retardants were evaluated in order to establish their suitability for spacecraft crew use. Twenty-five volunteer human subjects were patch tested on the back utilizing standard methodology, with both treated and untreated cotton fabric. The fabric was treated with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium hydroxide and subsequently cured with gaseous ammonia. The final treatment comprised adding on dicyandiamine phosphoric acid. None of the individuals experienced primary irritant or allergic reactions attributable to the fabric during induction or challenge patch testing. Likewise, there were no reactions to treated or untreated fabric patches placed on ten subjects of the usage panel at the conclusion of the study.

  20. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  1. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to underscore the importance of continued studies on the effects of space on human physiology. With particular reference to the Space Station, it is pointed out that there are two aspects which are challenging to life scientists: first is the development of a research capability for the life sciences which will be used to conduct investigations necessary to extend the time humans can remain in space; second is the challenge to develop a medical capability to provide prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. A discussion of physiological changes that have been observed in spacecrews follows along the lines of the two aspects mentioned.

  2. Prospects for space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Carl

    The use of the space environment for astronomy and the study of the earth is examined. Particular attention is given to the exploration of the electromagnetic spectrum and the solar system. It is argued that it is necessary to complete the proposed missions to rendezvous with a comet and to send an entry probe into the atmosphere of Titan. The need for the development of a Space Station is discussed, and the benefits of manned versus unmanned missions are considered. The political, social, and economic benefits of a joint U.S./Soviet manned mission to Mars are also discussed.

  3. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  4. The qualitative research proposal.

    PubMed

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  5. 76 FR 15039 - Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation... development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system, which supports the National...

  6. 75 FR 23841 - Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: The FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) requests...

  7. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the proposed use of space transportation vouchers for space science payloads. The vouchers would be financially backed by the government, and would be issued to researches for redemption on any mode of space transportation. The possible impact of vouchers on the pace of space science and developments in space transportation are examined, focusing on the costs and benefits of vouchers and strategies for designing a voucher program.

  8. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  9. Space Station Freedom: Dynamic instrumentation for a large space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, John P.; Cooper, Paul A.; Johnson, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed approach called Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) for obtaining on-orbit dynamic response measurements on Space Station Freedom, the first of a family of large, flexible space structures is discussed. The Phase 2 conceptual design study which provides a conceptual design of a proposed measurement system and an experimental protocol for inobstrusively collecting dynamic response data critical to characterizing important vibration modes of Space Station Freedom were recently concluded. The case for conducting such a measurement program is presented and the specific MIE objectives that were identified, are listed. The sequence of discrete Space Station Freedom assembly configurations is described, and the Phase 2 conceptual design of the experiment and instrumentation system are defined. In addition, a plan to utilize a space station hydrid scale model in laboratory simulations as part of the design process are discussed.

  10. Space Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Nikon's F3 35mm camera was specially modified for use by Space Shuttle astronauts. The modification work produced a spinoff lubricant. Because lubricants in space have a tendency to migrate within the camera, Nikon conducted extensive development to produce nonmigratory lubricants; variations of these lubricants are used in the commercial F3, giving it better performance than conventional lubricants. Another spinoff is the coreless motor which allows the F3 to shoot 140 rolls of film on one set of batteries.

  11. Space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet on the NASA space science program is presented. Some of the subjects considered include the following: (1) the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, (2) the Orbiting Solar Observatory, (3) the Small Astronomy Satellite, (4) lunar programs, (5) planetary programs using the Mariner, Pioneer 10, and Viking space probes, and (6) the Scout, Thor-Delta, and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. For each program there is a description of the effort, the schedule, management, program officials, and funding aspects in outline form.

  12. Taxonomy of space tessellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Li, Z. L.; Li, Y. L.

    When we map an area or create a digital database for it, the first task is often to partition the space into smaller units. There are traditionally two methods of partitioning: vector and raster. A vector partition delineates the boundary of features by polylines while a raster partition subdivides the space into a regular matrix of square or rectangular pixels. These two are complementary methods of subdividing the space either by features or by unconstrained space cells. In the third dimension, they are extended to polyhedra and voxels, respectively. We will argue in this paper that the terms "vector" and "raster" cannot describe all cases of tessellation. With advances in data modelling, variations of the two traditional methods have been developed, such as the representation of a feature by pixels and not by polylines. At present, there is a lack of systematic terminology to describe the various methods of tessellation. In this paper, we will propose a taxonomy for three-dimensional space tessellation. Its essential feature is to distinguish between abstract concepts of tessellation and their encoding methods. We recognise that tessellation of geographic space is carried out in different stages with increasingly precise mathematical meaning. This provides us with an insight into the process of spatial tessellation and a model to systematically describe the various structures. These concepts could form a basis for spatial data models.

  13. Compactification on phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelady, Benjamin; Wheeler, James

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge for string theory is to understand the dimensional reduction required for comparison with the standard model. We propose reducing the dimension of the compactification by interpreting some of the extra dimensions as the energy-momentum portion of a phase-space. Such models naturally arise as generalized quotients of the conformal group called biconformal spaces. By combining the standard Kaluza-Klein approach with such a conformal gauge theory, we may start from the conformal group of an n-dimensional Euclidean space to form a 2n-dimensional quotient manifold with symplectic structure. A pair of involutions leads naturally to two n-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds. For n = 5, this leaves only two extra dimensions, with a countable family of possible compactifications and an SO(5) Yang-Mills field on the fibers. Starting with n=6 leads to 4-dimensional compactification of the phase space. In the latter case, if the two dimensions each from spacetime and momentum space are compactified onto spheres, then there is an SU(2)xSU(2) (left-right symmetric electroweak) field between phase and configuration space and an SO(6) field on the fibers. Such a theory, with minor additional symmetry breaking, could contain all parts of the standard model.

  14. Space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade

    An essential pre-requisite to a successful space technology applications programme is the building of various indigenous capacities, particularly human resources. Efforts to accomplish such a capacity-building must be devoted, at the local level, to the development of necessary high-level knowledge and expertise in space science and technology fields. Such a programme must also focus on long-term in-depth education and research opportunities in the developing countries, where the beneficiaries would gain an in-depth understanding and appreciation of not only the application potentials of a given technology but also an insight into why and how the technology works the way it does. In recognition of such a pre-requisite, it is universally acknowledged that if effective assimilation of space science and appropriate application of space technology are to succeed in the developing countries, and particularly if such a discipline as satellite remote sensing is to transcend its current image of being a technology-driven tool into a user-driven one, efforts must be devoted, at the local level, to the development of necessary high-level knowledge and expertise in requisite space science and technology fields. The justification for such an in-depth education is not far-fetched particularly as one reflects on the myriad of space science and technology activities that are both in progress and are planned. Aspects of these are reflected in this paper.

  15. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    SciTech Connect

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  16. Space power stations - Space construction, transportation, and pre-development, space project requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R.

    1977-01-01

    Several features of solar energy space power stations are discussed. An end-to-end analysis of a system using silicon solar cells is reviewed, and the merits of construction in low earth orbit and in geosynchronous orbit are compared. A suggested space construction procedure, described in detail, would use a 'beam builder', an automated machine, to fabricate the first sublevel truss structural members from strip stock material that is stored on reels. An assembly jig would then be used to position a number of beam builders in the proper location and to support the beams as they are produced to facilitate joining them to form the final space power station structure. Space projects for evaluating the construction concept are proposed, and a possible space construction sequence is considered. Space transportation that would be required in conjunction with the space power station is described.

  17. Music Ensemble: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Brian

    A proposal is presented for a Music Ensemble course to be offered at the Community College of Philadelphia for music students who have had previous vocal or instrumental training. A standardized course proposal cover form is followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major course goals, a course outline, and a bibliography. Next,…

  18. The Proposal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The proposal project stretches over a significant portion of the semester-long sophomore course Professional Communication (ENG 250) at Monroe Community College. While developing their proposal project, students need to use time management skills to successfully complete a quality project on time. In addition, excellent oral and written…

  19. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  20. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  1. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-20

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry,more » obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. In conclusion, we discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.« less

  2. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-01

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry, obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. We discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.

  3. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  4. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  5. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  6. Space station furnace facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  7. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  8. Space resources - Breaking the bonds of earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John S.; Lewis, Ruth A.

    It is shown how space resources can be used to make a prospective space program affordable. Ways of reducing costs through the use of new technologies based on space resources are suggested. It is maintained that space activities can provide a net economic as well as scientific and technological gain for earth. The space races before and after 1968 are discussed together with lunar resource exploitation, the emergence of near-earth asteroids, current plans and goals for space development, and a proposal for a renewed space program.

  9. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  10. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

  11. Enhancing the Design Process for Complex Space Systems through Early Integration of Risk and Variable-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri; Osburg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    An important enabler of the new national Vision for Space Exploration is the ability to rapidly and efficiently develop optimized concepts for the manifold future space missions that this effort calls for. The design of such complex systems requires a tight integration of all the engineering disciplines involved, in an environment that fosters interaction and collaboration. The research performed under this grant explored areas where the space systems design process can be enhanced: by integrating risk models into the early stages of the design process, and by including rapid-turnaround variable-fidelity tools for key disciplines. Enabling early assessment of mission risk will allow designers to perform trades between risk and design performance during the initial design space exploration. Entry into planetary atmospheres will require an increased emphasis of the critical disciplines of aero- and thermodynamics. This necessitates the pulling forward of EDL disciplinary expertise into the early stage of the design process. Radiation can have a large potential impact on overall mission designs, in particular for the planned nuclear-powered robotic missions under Project Prometheus and for long-duration manned missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond under Project Constellation. This requires that radiation and associated risk and hazards be assessed and mitigated at the earliest stages of the design process. Hence, RPS is another discipline needed to enhance the engineering competencies of conceptual design teams. Researchers collaborated closely with NASA experts in those disciplines, and in overall space systems design, at Langley Research Center and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report documents the results of this initial effort.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  13. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  14. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  15. The Sunset Chemicals Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Jeffery A.

    1990-01-01

    The background of the proposal is discussed. The debate over the management of hazardous materials by ban or phase-out is related. The conclusions of the meeting of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development are presented. (CW)

  16. Some Additional Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Herbert J.

    1978-01-01

    Expands Elihu Katz's proposals for social research on broadcasting with suggestions for "decentering" the media, studying the effects of society on the media, and looking at what researchers do to, for, and against television and its viewers. (JMF)

  17. Proposed EEOC Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Michael

    1978-01-01

    This article explains how proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regulations attempt to circumvent the case of Weber vs Kaiser Aluminum Corp. by providing employers with backpay immunity in reverse discrimination suits. (Author)

  18. Entering Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  19. Space trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertachinidealmeidaprado, Antonio Fernando

    The objective of this study is to present a description of the models and methods used to calculate the optimum space trajectories, from the point of view of the smallest fuel consumption that could be used to transfer a space vehicle between two given orbits. Several options for the shaping of the dynamics, the actuators' action and optimal methods are described. Classic methods (Hohmann's transfer, bi-elliptical, etc.) and modern methods (involving gravitational capture and gravity assisted maneuvers) are stated briefly, and several references are mentioned to supply more detail.

  20. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    SciTech Connect

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  1. Space Science Network Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Space Science Network Northwest (S2N2) is a new NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator that serves the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The headquarters of S2N2 is at the University of Washington in Seattle and the Director is Julie Lutz (206-543-0214; nasaerc@u.washington.edu). Each state has an S2N2 representative. Their contact information can be found on the Web site (www.s2n2.org) or by contacting Julie Lutz. The purpose of S2N2 is to form and nurture partnerships between space scientists and others (K-12 teachers, schools and districts, museums, planetariums, libraries, organizations such as Girl Scouts, amateur astronomy clubs, etc.). S2N2 can help space scientists come up with appropriate activities and partners for education and public outreach proposals and projects. S2N2 also provides information and advice about education materials and programs that are available from all of the Office of Space Science missions and scientific forums (Solar System Exploration, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, Astronomical Search for Origins).

  2. Found Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ted; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    When education providers confront obstacles such as shrinking budgets and swelling enrollments, a multi-million-dollar new facility or major additions probably are not feasible. Converting vacant and underused buildings into school facilities enables administrators to acquire additional space quickly and cheaply. In this article, the authors…

  3. Friendly Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Elia, William

    1996-01-01

    The creation of usable space for gatherings and socializing is an important consideration in any campus planning program. The University of California-San Diego has a large outdoor assembly area. An addition at Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo encompasses an existing pedestrian path. A new building at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, is designed as a…

  4. Trading Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  5. Space Gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  6. Training Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  7. Space Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Geodesy is the science studying the size and the figure of the Earth including the determination of the Earth's gravitational field. Geodetic astronomy is that part of astronomy dealing with the definition and realization of a terrestrial and a celestial reference frame (see TERRESTRIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND FRAMES). By space geodesy we mean, then, those aspects of geodesy and geodetic astronomy...

  8. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  9. The pore space scramble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  10. 14 CFR 1260.17 - Evaluation and selection of unsolicited proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research and do not jeopardize the unsolicited status of any subsequently submitted proposal. (b) NASA will... proposals. 1260.17 Section 1260.17 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... unsolicited proposals. (a) Unsolicited proposals are for new and innovative ideas. Federal...

  11. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  12. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  13. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  14. Space Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  15. [Space diet].

    PubMed

    Luigi, R

    1989-06-01

    Food prepared for astronauts meets various physical and biological requirements determined by living conditions in a space environment. Onboard systems, work programs, launch costs impose weight and volume limitations. For all investigated food items, the manufacturing technique must take into account all flight specific mechanical parameters. From a nutrition and sanitation standpoint, food packs must be designed to comply with certain specific effects of long term flights ans selected food items must be thoroughly safe, which requires very strict laboratory testing. The diet must also be varied, if possible it should match astronauts' personal preferences. Food preparations must be easy to use. Space food items are original applications of existing technologies: they are of very high quality.

  16. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  17. Space Pens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Fisher's Space Pen was developed for use in gravity free environments. The cartridge, pressurized with nitrogen, seals out air preventing evaporation and oxidation of the ink. Internal pressures force ink outward toward the ball point. A thixotropic ink is used. The pen will operate from minus 50 to plus 45 degrees Fahrenheit, and will withstand atmospheric extremes. It was used both on the Apollo missions and by Soviet Cosmonauts.

  18. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths.

  19. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths. PMID:14696587

  20. World Ethics Body Proposed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1972-01-01

    Outlines the main features and areas of responsibility of an international, non-governmental body proposed by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences to explore the moral and social issues raised by recent and impending developments in biology and medicine. (AL)

  1. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  2. Writing Winning Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Judith Mirick

    Guidelines for proposal writers who are seeking foundation or corporate support for colleges or schools cover: conducting effective research; deciding on the contents and its organization; designing a budget that reflects what the project will cost, how the costs will be covered, and how much is being requested; deciding on the format, writing…

  3. Social Science: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charles Gene

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course surveying basic social science skills and information, including scientific method, map usage, evolution, native peoples, social groups, and U.S. Government. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose for the course indicates that it is designed to provide…

  4. A Proposal for Reconciliation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Proposes a cooperative research program to extend the conclusions from Goodyear's review, and to test the hypotheses behind the recommendations of Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, and Sampson.…

  5. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based…

  6. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  7. Proposed Drill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  8. Badminton: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in Badminton. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose explains that the course is designed to introduce students to the techniques, knowledge, and strategies of badminton. Next, course goals and a course outline are…

  9. Volleyball: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in volleyball. Following a standard cover form, a course description and statement of purpose explain that the course is designed to teach students the skills and fundamentals of team play, the rules and etiquette of the game, and the…

  10. Space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  11. Space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-02-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  12. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  13. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  14. Management of space networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, R. W.; Williams, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA has proposed missions to the Moon and Mars that reflect three areas of emphasis: human presence, exploration, and space resource development for the benefit of Earth. A major requirement for such missions is a robust and reliable communications architecture. Network management--the ability to maintain some degree of human and automatic control over the span of the network from the space elements to the end users on Earth--is required to realize such robust and reliable communications. This article addresses several of the architectural issues associated with space network management. Round-trip delays, such as the 5- to 40-min delays in the Mars case, introduce a host of problems that must be solved by delegating significant control authority to remote nodes. Therefore, management hierarchy is one of the important architectural issues. The following article addresses these concerns, and proposes a network management approach based on emerging standards that covers the needs for fault, configuration, and performance management, delegated control authority, and hierarchical reporting of events. A relatively simple approach based on standards was demonstrated in the DSN 2000 Information Systems Laboratory, and the results are described.

  15. America plans for space

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Contents include: pursuing a balanced space program; the space defense initiative; warfare in space; the lunar laboratory; the role of space in preserving the peace; living off the land - the use of resources in space for future civilian space operations; the military uses of space; C3I(command control communications and intelligence); aspects of space technology; arms control in space: preserving critical strategic space systems without weapons in space; space and arms control: a skeptical view; options for space arms control; space arms control.

  16. Observing with HST IV: Proposal Status and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, B.; Jackson, R.; Roman, A.; Sleiman, G.; Berman, A.

    1994-12-01

    The ongoing effort of the Project to Re-Engineer Space Telescope Observing (PRESTO) project, at the Space Telescope Science Institute (ST ScI), to provide better service to the astronomical community, has produced a new World Wide Web (WWW) server page that provides plenty of information for a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Observer or a future HST Observer. Using a client program such as Mosaic or Lynx an observer can access information about specific HST observing proposals, generic scheduling information, such as observing timeline reports, Science Instrument (SI) calibration plans, Science Program Holds and Delays as well as copies of the current ST ScI observing documents (Call for Proposals, Proposal Instructions, and the SI Handbooks). This WWW page also provides links to the other ST ScI WWW pages, the STEIS - Space Telescope Electronic Information Service page, the HDA - Hubble Data Archive/Starview page, and the STSDAS - Space Telescope Science Data Analysis System page.

  17. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  18. Beardmore Glacier proposals wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proposals for research projects to be conducted in the upper Beardmore Glacier area of Antarctica during the 1985-1986 field season are being accepted by t h e National Science Foundation (NSF) through August 15. Later proposal submissions should be discussed with the appropriate program managers (see below).A temporary camp with helicopter support will be established in the region. Occupation by scientific parties will likely be between mid-November 1985 and mid-January 1986. Transportation in the field will be by UH1-N twin-engine Huey helicopters (with a range of approximately 185 km) and by motor toboggans. Satellite tent camps will be established within the range of the helicopters. The exact position of the main camp will be determined in November. Likely candidates, however, are Buckley Island Quadrangle, in the area of the Walcott Névé or the Bowden Névé, near Coalsack Bluff or Mount Sirius.

  19. Humans in Space &Space Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legner, Klaus

    Inevitably, members of the human species will again walk on the face of the moon and ultimately establish a permanently occupied lunar base. Also, inevitably, humans will venture to the planets within the solar system, most likely beginning with Mars or the Martian satellite, Phobos. These missions will take place because the species that contemplates them is driven by an insatiable desire for knowledge and understanding and because the technical means to accomplish these objectives are possible. There is no question that humans will establish outposts on Earth's moon and make interplanetary journeys. The only uncertainties concern when and how these expeditions are to be made. Just as a 90- or 120-day tour onboard an international space station is fundamentally different from a brief space shuttle mission; a one-year lunar base tour or a two- or three-year mission to Mars will be unique. Despite superficial similarities to other space missions and analogues, the extended durations and astronomical distances involved in lunar and Martian missions will make these activities far more difficult and dangerous. Crowded conditions, language and cultural differences, logistics problems, radiation concerns, communications lag times, workloads, and a variety of additional issues will conspire to impair the performance and affect the behaviour of long duration crew personnel. Above all stressors, however, the durations of the missions will impose the greatest burdens and extract the most severe tolls on the humans involved. On long-duration space missions, time will be the factor that can compound all issues, however trivial, into serious problems.

  20. Proposed SOLCOST maintenance activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This document provides a short description of work that has been accomplished to date and work in progress. A discussion of the program status as it is currently configured follows and finally proposed work by Solar Environmental Engineering Company (SEEC) in its most recently signed contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) is given. Early statements are designed to give the reader a good background so that the suggested SOLCOST maintenance activities will be more easily understood.

  1. Project Proposals Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encheva, Sylvia; Tumin, Sharil

    2009-08-01

    Collaboration among various firms has been traditionally used trough single project joint ventures for bonding purposes. Eventhough the performed work is usually beneficial to some extend to all participants, the type of collaboration option to be adapted is strongly influenced by overall purposes and goals that can be achieved. In order to facilitate a choice of collaboration option best suited to a firm's need a computer based model is proposed.

  2. CEDAR proposal deadline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The deadline for submitting a proposal for the National Science Foundation's Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) initiative is November 1, 1990. This year, according to the CEDAR steering committee, the deadline is firm!The CEDAR program is a broad-based community-initiated program to link the various regions of the upper atmosphere (above about 70 km) in terms of coupling, energetics, and dynamics on regional and global scales.

  3. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  4. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  5. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  6. The aerobraking space transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Glen; Carpenter, Brian; Corns, Steve; Harris, Robert; Jun, Brian; Munro, Bruce; Pulling, Eric; Sekhon, Amrit; Welton, Walt; Jakubowski, A.

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Station and the proposed Geosynchronous Operation Support Center (GeoShack) in the early 21st century, the need for a cost effective, reusable orbital transport vehicle has arisen. This transport vehicle will be used in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and GeoShack. The vehicle will transfer mission crew and payloads between low earth and geosynchronous orbits with minimal cost. Recent technological advances in thermal protection systems such as those employed in the Space Shuttle have made it possible to incorporate and aerobrake on the transfer vehicle to further reduce transport costs. The research and final design configuration of the aerospace senior design team from VPISU, working in conjunction with NASA, are presented. The topic of aerobraking and focuses on the evolution of an Aerobraking Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), is addressed.

  7. Subcommittee reviews space council reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The House Science Subcommittee on Space began the 103rd Congress with several hearings to review U.S. space policy. The hearings, held February 2 and 4, with a third scheduled for February 17, consider a series of reports released by the National Space Council under former Vice-President Quayle. The hearing room was full with new members of the subcommittee, many of whom are from districts deeply affected by the aerospace industry.On February 2, the subcommittee reviewed recommendations from the report, “A Post Cold War Assessment of U.S. Space Policy.” This report examined the historical context of all the U.S. space programs: civil, military, intelligence, and commercial and proposed policies for their future based on the changed global circumstances. As chair of the task force that produced the report, Laurel Wilkening, provost of the University of Washington, Seattle, summarized its main points.

  8. Space Technospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  9. Space Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Xontech, Inc.'s software package, XonVu, simulates the missions of Voyager 1 at Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Giotto in close encounter with Comet Halley. With the program, the user can generate scenes of the planets, moons, stars or Halley's nucleus and tail as seen by Giotto, all graphically reproduced with high accuracy in wireframe representation. Program can be used on a wide range of computers, including PCs. User friendly and interactive, with many options, XonVu can be used by a space novice or a professional astronomer. With a companion user's manual, it sells for $79.

  10. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  11. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  12. Space at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects of space R&D at JPL are reviewed and illustrated with photographs. The career and achievements of interplanetary-spacecraft designer Ronald Draper (beginning with work on Mariner 2 in 1961) are described, with emphasis on the ongoing development of the Galileo Jupiter spacecraft and the proposed Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby spacecraft; the technological challenges posed by the Magellan mission to Venus (scheduled launch in 1989) are examined; and the histories of three mathematical problems with space applications are briefly recalled: the study of conic sections (applicable to orbits and trajectories), the development of formal logic (applicable to expert systems and artificial intelligence), and the restricted three-body problem of celestial mechanics.

  13. Plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond; Levine, Howard G.; Paul, Anna Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Virtually all scenarios for the long-term habitation of spacecraft and other extraterrestrial structures involve plants as important parts of the contained environment that would support humans. Recent experiments have identified several effects of spaceflight on plants that will need to be more fully understood before plant-based life support can become a reality. The International Space Station (ISS) is the focus for the newest phase of space-based research, which should solve some of the mysteries of how spaceflight affects plant growth. Research carried out on the ISS and in the proposed terrestrial facility for Advanced Life Support testing will bring the requirements for establishing extraterrestrial plant-based life support systems into clearer focus.

  14. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  15. NSF wants GOFS proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), with the National Aeronautics and Space, Administration (NASA), continues to support the planning and implementation of the U.S. Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS). GOFS is expected to be fully implemented during the 1990s.The purpose of GOFS is to identify and quantify the physical, chemical, and biological processes controlling biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, and their interactions with the global atmosphere. The goal is to understand the processes governing the production and fate of biogenic materials in the sea well enough to predict their influences on and responses to perturbations on a global scale. The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), the planned international initiative under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR), is a key element of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP).

  16. X-33 Contractor Design Proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This artist's rendering depicts the three designs submitted for the X-33 proposal for a technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have create new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components

  17. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  18. A Model for E-Education: Extended Teaching Spaces and Extended Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Latchem, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a model for e-education in instruction, training, initiation and induction based upon the concept of extended teaching spaces involving execution, facilitation and liberation, and extended learning spaces used for acquisition, application and construction cemented by dialogue and reflection. The proposed model is based upon…

  19. World Thai Expert Link: A Proposal in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Terry; Kedseemake, Siriluck

    1997-01-01

    Many corporate and governmental strategists perceive virtual space mobility as merely a new communications tool to speed things up. This article argues that virtual space will revolutionize the way nations and corporations do business; introduces the concept of "diaspora" communications; and proposes World Thai Expert Link (WorldTEL) to link Thai…

  20. 14 CFR 161.203 - Notice of proposed restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of proposed restriction. 161.203 Section 161.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Notice Requirements for Stage 2 Restrictions § 161.203 Notice...

  1. Space Debris Orbit Determination Method with the Use of Onboard Optical Sensors of Space Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, N.; Ivanov, V.; Nosova, K.; Selezneva, I.

    2013-08-01

    The analytical method is proposed for determining the parameters of space debris orbits avoiding the iterative calculation process. The initial information is the measurements of absolute magnitude and orientation of the vector connecting the center of mass of operated space vehicle and the position of space debris fragment. The calculation errors are estimated depending on the initial data.

  2. Space Shuttle redesign status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

  3. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  4. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for space station authorizations....114 Applications for space station authorizations. (a) A comprehensive proposal shall be submitted for each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  5. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for space station authorizations....114 Applications for space station authorizations. (a) A comprehensive proposal shall be submitted for each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  6. Space tourism: A flight of fantasy or the next major space product? Paper session 3: Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1994-01-01

    In the euphoria of the early 1980's, a number of creative proposals for nontraditional uses of space were suggested. Taking tourists to space, possibly as early as the 1990's, was one such proposal. While it is now obvious that wherever explorers go, tourists (and hoteliers, restauranteurs, and tour guides) will someday follow. This paper discusses past and present efforts to promote space as a tourist destination.

  7. Why Do We Explore Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

    2006-09-01

    The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

  8. Working safely in confined spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.; Versweyveld, J. )

    1992-08-13

    Working in confined spaces is a delicate balance of the correct equipment, hazard knowledge, proper training, and common sense. Anything less has potentially deadly consequences. The dangerous atmospheric and physical hazards often encountered in confined spaces must be recognized and accounted for. In addition, procedures and practices must conform to Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) confined space regulations. Last year, three men were asphyxiated while surveying beneath a manhole in Boulder, CO. An area newspaper called the deaths the result of a freak accident. Whatever the cause, entering a manhole without first monitoring the air and posting an outside attendant is both extremely dangerous and a violation of safe entry procedures. The National Institute for Health and Occupational Safety (NIOSH) estimates that millions of workers from a wide range of occupations and industries are exposed to confined space hazards every year. Although confined space deaths are not a new phenomenon, only recently has the problem received serious study. Government regulatory agencies are becoming more involved OSHA recently proposed ruling 1910.146, Permit Required Confined Spaces, to mandate safe entry practices and procedures. The ruling requires all employers to develop a specific action plan for confined space entry, including entry procedures, worker training, safety equipment, and emergency action. This first article defines a confined space and examines some common hazards, including toxic, combustible, and oxygen-deficient atmospheres and combustible dusts. A subsequent article will review the use of test instruments, personal protective equipment, worker training, and emergency response.

  9. Flora: A Proposed Hyperspectral Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen; Asner, Gregory; Green, Robert; Knox, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In early 2004, one of the authors (Stephen Ungar, NASA GSFC) presented a mission concept called "Spectrasat" at the AVIRIS Workshop in Pasadena, CA. This mission concept grew out of the lessons learned from the Earth Observing-One (EO-1) Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer and was structured to more effectively accomplish the types of studies conducted with Hyperion. The Spectrasat concept represented an evolution of the technologies and operation strategies employed on EO-I. The Spectrasat concept had been preceded by two community-based missions proposed by Susan Ustin, UC Davis and Robert Green, NASA JPL. As a result of community participation, starting at this AVIRIS Workshop, the Spectrasat proposal evolved into the Flora concept which now represents the combined visions of Gregory Asner (Carnegie Institute), Stephen Ungar, Robert Green and Robert Knox, NASA GSFC. Flora is a proposed imaging spectrometer mission, designed to address global carbon cycle science issues. This mission centers on measuring ecological disturbance for purposes of ascertaining changes in global carbon stocks and draws heavily on experience gained through AVIRIS airborne flights and Hyperion space born flights. The observing strategy exploits the improved ability of imaging spectrometers, as compared with multi-spectral observing systems, to identify vegetation functional groups, detect ecosystem response to disturbance and assess the related discovery. Flora will be placed in a sun synchronous orbit, with a 45 meter pixel size, a 90 km swath width and a 31 day repeat cycle. It covers the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers with a spectral sampling interval of 10 nm. These specifications meet the needs of the Flora science team under the leadership of Gregory Asner. Robert Green, has introduced a spectrometer design for Flora which is expected to have a SNR of 600: 1 in the VNIR and 450: 1 in the SWIR. The mission team at NASA GSFC is designing an Intelligent Payload Module (IPM

  10. Setting standards: Legislative proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-11-01

    This article, second of a two-part series examining the standard-setting process reviews legislative proposals that would change the way drinking water standards are set. How drinking water standards should be set and which contaminants should be regulated is a central issue for Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) reauthorization. Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum of issues. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Others note that the high costs associated with meeting increasingly strict standards are not justified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits.

  11. Adaptive structures. [for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.; Fanson, J. L.; Crawley, E. F.

    1990-01-01

    Current research in the field of advanced adaptive structures for space applications is reviewed. A classification of adaptive structures is proposed whereby such structures are subdivided into adaptive, sensory, controlled, active, and intelligent structures. The definition and properties of each type of adaptive structures are presented, and methods of structure control are discussed.

  12. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each proposed GSO space station or NGSO satellite constellation on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule... blanket authority for an NGSO satellite constellation comprised of space stations that are not all... type of space station in the constellation. (b) Each application for a new or modified space...

  13. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  14. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss.

  15. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss. PMID:15130010

  16. Concrete: Potential material for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

  17. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

  18. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyancy-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chambers are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrohydrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field have not been considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  19. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyance-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chamber are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field were not considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  20. 48 CFR 1852.215-81 - Proposal page limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Proposal page limitations. 1852.215-81 Section 1852.215-81 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.215-81 Proposal page limitations. As prescribed in 1815.209-70(d), insert the following...

  1. 48 CFR 1815.207-70 - Release of proposal information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information. 1815.207-70 Section 1815.207-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 1815.207-70 Release of proposal information. (a) NASA...

  2. Space telerobotic systems: Applications and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L.

    1987-01-01

    The definition of a variety of assembly, servicing, and maintenance missions has led to the generation of a number of space telerobot concepts. The remote operation of a space telerobot is seen as a means to increase astronaut productivity. Dexterous manipulator arms are controlled from the Space Shuttle Orbiter cabin or a Space Station module. Concepts for the telerobotic work system have been developed by the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center through contracts with the Grumman Aerospace Corporation and Marin Marietta Corporation. These studies defined a concept for a telerobot with extravehicular activity (EVA) astronaut equivalent capability that would be controlled from the Space Shuttle. An evolutionary development of the system is proposed as a means of incorporating technology advances. Early flight testing is seen as needed to address the uncertainties of robotic manipulation in space. Space robotics can be expected to spin off technology to terrestrial robots, particularly in hazardous and unstructured applications.

  3. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  4. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  5. The space transformation in the simulation of multidimensional random fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.

    1987-01-01

    Space transformations are proposed as a mathematically meaningful and practically comprehensive approach to simulate multidimensional random fields. Within this context the turning bands method of simulation is reconsidered and improved in both the space and frequency domains. ?? 1987.

  6. Tool for Merging Proposals Into DSN Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Kwok, John; Call, Jared

    2008-01-01

    A Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) script called merge7da has been developed to facilitate determination, by a project scheduler in NASA's Deep Space Network, of whether a proposal for use of the DSN could create a conflict with the current DSN schedule. Prior to the development of merge7da, there was no way to quickly identify potential schedule conflicts: it was necessary to submit a proposal and wait a day or two for a response from a DSN scheduling facility. By using merge7da to detect and eliminate potential schedule conflicts before submitting a proposal, a project scheduler saves time and gains assurance that the proposal will probably be accepted. merge7da accepts two input files, one of which contains the current DSN schedule and is in a DSN-standard format called '7da'. The other input file contains the proposal and is in another DSN-standard format called 'C1/C2'. merge7da processes the two input files to produce a merged 7da-format output file that represents the DSN schedule as it would be if the proposal were to be adopted. This 7da output file can be loaded into various DSN scheduling software tools now in use.

  7. Proposed reliability cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  8. Gore proposes green strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    A national environmental technology strategy laying out incentives for developing and using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technology was announced last week by Vice President Al Gore. The plan proposes a national goal of cutting waste 40%-50% and using 20%-25% less materials/unit of gross domestic product by Earth Day 2020. To meet that goal, the federal government aims to streamline environmental permitting, provide federal sites where US firms can test and demonstrate new technologies, create flexible regulation that encourages efficient and effective technologies, encourage research on pollution prevention, and improve monitoring data and information systems. The Administration says environmental technology is providing job growth twice that of the economy as a whole, and global markets are expected to rise from $300 billion to $500 billion by 2000. It adds that the US is the world market leader but only by a slim- and slipping-margin. Whereas previous federal support for environmental technologies focused on the front end of R&D and prototyping, the new strategy aims to bring technologies to market and encourage exports, according to the Administration`s National Commission for Employment Policy, which issued two reports last week. The commission says federal environmental policies now produce 68,000-80,000 jobs and contribute $3.5 billion-$3.7 billion to the economy.

  9. Manned space stations - A perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  10. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  11. Parsing surrounding space into regions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, N; Henkel, L A; Zangas, T

    1995-07-01

    Surrounding space is not inherently organized, but we tend to treat it as though it consisted of regions (e.g., front, back, right, and left). The current studies show that these conceptual regions have characteristics that reflect our typical interactions with space. Three experiments examined the relative sizes and resolutions of front, back, left, and right around oneself. Front, argued to be the most important horizontal region, was found to be (a) largest, (b) recalled with the greatest precision, and (c) described with the greatest degree pf detao. Our findings suggest that some of the characteristics of the category model proposed by Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan (1991) regarding memory for pictured circular displays may be generalized to space around oneself. More broadly, our results support and extend the spatial framework analysis of representation of surrounding space (Franklin & Tversky, 1990).

  12. Space Medicine: A Surgeon's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, David L.

    1999-01-01

    For the first four decades of human space flight NASA's priorities in life sciences and medical programs have been preventative medicine (astronaut selection and training); assessment of the physiologic effects of microgravity and other unique aspects of space flight, implementation of countermeasures to protect against adverse effects, and amelioration of these adverse effects. Because most of the U.S. space flight experience has been on short duration missions, the need for medical and diagnostic treatment capabilities have been limited.The first long-term crews will arrive on the International Space Station (ISS) in early 2000. This will usher in a new era, an era of sustained human presence in Low Earth Orbit. One of the principal purposes of the ISS program is to increase the knowledge of the effects of long duration space flight on humans, a pre-requisite to future exploration class missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (e.g., a return to the Moon or an exploration of Mars). Areas of particular interest include protection from radiation, muscle atrophy, bone loss, cardiovascular alterations, immune dysfunction, adverse psychological response to hazards and confinement, and neurovestibular alterations. In addition, long duration space flight requires the development of autonomous medical care capabilities, as the distances involved eliminate the possibility of real-time telemedicine or robotic intervention, and prevent a mission abort and a rapid return to Earth. The objectives of this presentation include: 1. A description of the International Space Station project, including its research facilities and on-orbit medical capabilities; 2. An overview of the physiological and medical problems associated with microgravity in space flight; 3. A review of NASA's biomedical research priorities and ongoing work to develop clinical care capabilities for space flight crews (including surgical interventions) and; 4. An overview of current and proposed research priorities for

  13. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  14. Space habitats. [prognosis for space colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Differences between space industrialization and space colonization are outlined along with the physiological, psychological, and esthetic needs of the inhabitants of a space habitat. The detrimental effects of zero gravity on human physiology are reviewed, and the necessity of providing artificial gravity, an acceptable atmosphere, and comfortable relative humidity and temperature in a space habitat is discussed. Consideration is also given to social organization and governance, supply of food and water, and design criteria for space colonies.

  15. ATF2 Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, Boris Ivanovich; Logachev, Pavel; Podgorny, Fedor; Telnov, Valery; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Appleby, Robert; Jones, James; Kalinin, Alexander; Napoly, Olivier; Payet, Jacques; Braun, Hans-Heinrich; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank; Barlow, Roger; Bailey, Ian; Jenner, Leo; Jones, Roger; Kourevlev, German; Walker, Nick; Takahasi, Tohru; Gao, Jie; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2005-08-23

    This document is the first of two volumes describing the ATF2 project. The present volume discusses the technical justification for ATF2 and presents a design description. Since the International Committee for Future Accelerator (ICFA) decision on the choice of technology, a world-wide collaboration on the design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) has rapidly progressed [1]. The formation of the Global Design Effort (GDE) will accelerate the work towards a final design. An important technical challenge is obviously the high gradient acceleration but what is similarly challenging is the collision of extremely small beams of a few nanometer size. The latter challenge has three distinct issues: creating small emittance beams, preserving the emittance during acceleration and transport, and focusing the beams to nanometers. Most studies have been done using computer simulations but many issues still remain that require experimental verification. Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK was built to create small emittance beams, and succeeded in obtaining an emittance that almost satisfies the ILC requirements [2]. In this proposal we present a project, ATF2, which addresses the focusing of the beam into a nanometer spot. The ATF2 project will extend the extraction beamline of the ATF with an ILC-type final focus system to create a tightly focused, stable beam by making use of the small emittance of the ATF. The layout is shown in Figure 1.1. In the longer term, the ATF2 project would also provide invaluable input for the CLIC design of a future multi-TeV collider.

  16. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  17. Active Control of Cryogenic Propellants in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William

    2011-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space. This requires development of active control systems to mitigate the effect of heat leak. This work summarizes current state of the art, proposes operational design strategies and presents options for future architectures. Scaling and integration of active systems will be estimated. Ideal long range spacecraft systems will be proposed with Exploration architecture benefits considered.

  18. Resource Letter SW1: Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    This Resource Letter describes the phenomena and effects on technological systems that are known collectively as space weather. A brief history of the topic is provided, and the scientific understandings of drivers for such phenomena are discussed. The impacts of space disturbances are summarized, and the strategies for dealing with space weather threats are examined. The Resource Letter concludes with description of approaches that have been proposed to deal with threats to our increasingly technological society.

  19. Cardiovascular dynamics during space sickness and deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Rigney, David R.

    1991-01-01

    We are currently funded by NASA for the project, 'Cardiovascular Dynamics During Space Sickness and Deconditioning.' NASA has given priority to the investigation of two problems encountered in the long-term space flights currently being planned: (1) space motion sickness; and (2) cardiovascular deconditioning. We have proposed to use spectral and nonlinear dynamical analysis of heart rate data to quantify the presence of these problems and to evaluate countermeasures against them.

  20. Shape control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, M. T.

    1982-01-01

    A survey has been conducted to determine the types of control strategies which have been proposed for controlling the vibrations in large space structures. From this survey several representative control strategies were singled out for detailed analyses. The application of these strategies to a simplified model of a large space structure has been simulated. These simulations demonstrate the implementation of the control algorithms and provide a basis for a preliminary comparison of their suitability for large space structure control.

  1. Space Station end effector strategy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  2. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  3. "Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

  4. Space Biosciences, Space-X, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Space Biosciences Research on the International Space Station uses living organisms to study a variety of research questions. To enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. To develop the fundations for a safe, productive human exploration of space. To improve the quality of life on earth.

  5. The Personal Construction of Information Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Cliff

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of Repertory Grid methodology as a means of externalizing an individual's view of information space. Discusses personal construct theory (PCT), describes the Grid method with a single participant, and proposes future work which will investigate the extent to which individuals share perceptions of information space. (Author/LRW)

  6. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  7. Finite Topological Spaces as a Pedagogical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmstutler, Randall D.; Higginbottom, Ryan S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of finite topological spaces as examples in a point-set topology class especially suited to help students transition into abstract mathematics. We describe how carefully chosen examples involving finite spaces may be used to reinforce concepts, highlight pathologies, and develop students' non-Euclidean intuition. We end with a…

  8. Telemetry formats for the Space Station RF links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, Walter

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the formats that have been proposed for the manned Space Station space/ground RF link. In addition to discussing the specific RF formats, the paper seeks to discuss the requirements that have caused the proposed format to exist in its current form. The paper begins by briefly discussing the historical basis for telemetry formats within NASA, and then discusses the unique requirements that the Space Station imposes, compared to traditional space probes. The paper next treats the overall requirements that must be satisfied by the Space Station communications system. Finally the paper discusses the details of the RF format and its proposed operational usage.

  9. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional electro-optical (EO) imaging payloads consist of an optical telescope to collect the light from the object scene and map the photons to an image plane to be digitized by a focal plane detector array. The size, weight, and power (SWaP) for the traditional EO imager is dominated by the optical telescope, driven primarily by the large optics, large stiff structures, and the thermal control needed to maintain precision free-space optical alignments. We propose a non-traditional Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for EO Reconnaissance (SPIDER) imager concept that is designed to substantially reduce SWaP, by at least an order of magnitude. SPIDER maximizes performance by providing a larger effective diameter (resolution) while minimizing mass and cost. SPIDER replaces the traditional optical telescope and digital focal plane detector array with a densely packed interferometer array based on emerging photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies. Lenslets couple light from the object into a set of waveguides on a PIC. Light from each lenslet is distributed among different waveguides by both field angle and optical frequency, and the lenslets are paired up to form unique interferometer baselines by combining light from different waveguides. The complex spatial coherence of the object (for each field angle, frequency, and baseline) is measured with a balanced four quadrature detection scheme. By the Van-Cittert Zernike Theorem, each measurement corresponds to a unique Fourier component of the incoherent object intensity distribution. Finally, an image reconstruction algorithm is used to invert all the data and form an image. Our approach replaces the large optics and structures required by a conventional telescope with PICs that are accommodated by standard lithographic fabrication techniques (e.g., CMOS fabrication). The standard EO payload integration and test process which involves precision alignment and test of optical components to form a diffraction

  10. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  11. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  12. The Space Puppets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, M. Miguel; Esteban Berea, J.; Miñambres Fernández, M.; Rufino, M.

    2002-01-01

    This proposal is a response to the initiative "Physics on Stage 2" to excite interest in physics and science by a dance and puppetry performance. The purpose of this piece is to show the possibilities and characteristics of entertainment with space knowledge and education for the audience of teachers and children through a show. Two virtually opposite areas (science and arts), both generally inaccessible for children, will be introduced in a funny and amusing way, with the interaction of puppets. Education is not "fashion"... we need to develop an educational package to focus the attention of children on the uses of Space in everyday life. Our world today is mainly logic and mathematical. The presence of art in the children's lives is often scarce or even inexistent. With the performance children will gain a better understanding of space physics through the joy of a dance performance like an educational tool. Dance as body expression, is a very powerful tool to explain and interact with children and teachers. Through dance the physics of movement may be studied in a visual way, within the body's limits. We consider as priority the use of dance as well as theater (in this case, puppet theater) as an efficient and fun didactic method, which we may go further and explain in an imaginative funny way all those complex processes of physics, which are further unknown. Aiming to teach in a relaxing atmosphere the performance is based on the " Earth Space Alphabet", a first dictionary for Primary Schools combining Science, Space and Education... Did you ever realize that people are not interested in something because they do not understand the words or the meaning? The alphabet is intended to meet the overwhelming need that exists for education on space, and allows both teachers and children to learn about the "Art of Teaching Space" combining earth and space language linked by space technology. The performance explains many concepts of physics through a comet puppet, which

  13. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  14. Power systems for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipbaugh, Calvin; Solomon, Kenneth A.

    The Outreach Program was designed to solicit creative ideas from academia, research institutions, private enterprises, and the general public and is intended to be helpful in defining promising technical areas and program paths for more detailed study. To the Outreach Program, a number of power system concepts were proposed. In conclusion, there are a number of advanced concepts for space power and propulsion sources that deserve study if we want to expand our ability to not only explore space, but to utilize it. Advanced nuclear concepts and power beaming concepts are two areas worthy of detailed assessments.

  15. Power systems for space exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Outreach Program was designed to solicit creative ideas from academia, research institutions, private enterprises, and the general public and is intended to be helpful in defining promising technical areas and program paths for more detailed study. To the Outreach Program, a number of power system concepts were proposed. In conclusion, there are a number of advanced concepts for space power and propulsion sources that deserve study if we want to expand our ability to not only explore space, but to utilize it. Advanced nuclear concepts and power beaming concepts are two areas worthy of detailed assessments.

  16. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  17. Structural materials for space mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, C.

    1990-06-01

    Work leading to the development of XMM telescope mirrors is described. Although a carbon/epoxy composite structure was specified, a hot type of material was proposed. The further use of such technology in the development of substrates for space mirrors is discussed. The specifications for the plane plates used for the XMM telescope are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of various other materials in producing substrates for space mirrors are discussed. The potential uses of glass matrix ceramics reinforced with carbon or silicon carbide fibers is given particular attention.

  18. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  19. Comparing future options for human space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  20. Space options for tropical cyclone hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, Isabelle; Nakamura, Ryoko; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Okada, Kazuyuki; Itahashi, Takamasa; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates potential space options for mitigating the impact of tropical cyclones on cities and civilians. Ground-based techniques combined with space-based remote sensing instrumentation are presented together with space-borne concepts employing space solar power technology. Two space-borne mitigation options are considered: atmospheric warming based on microwave irradiation and laser-induced cloud seeding based on laser power transfer. Finally technology roadmaps dedicated to the space-borne options are presented, including a detailed discussion on the technological viability and technology readiness level of our proposed systems. Based on these assessments, the space-borne cyclone mitigation options presented in this paper may be established in a quarter of a century.

  1. Space resources. Volume 4: Social concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. This volume, Social Concerns, covers some of the most important issues which must be addressed in any major program for the human exploration of space. The volume begins with a consideration of the economics and management of large scale space activities. Then the legal aspects of these activities are discussed, particularly the interpretation of treaty law with respect to the Moon and asteroids. The social and cultural issues of moving people into space are considered in detail, and the eventual emergence of a space culture different from the existing culture is envisioned. The environmental issues raised by the development of space settlements are faced. Some innovative approaches are proposed to space communities and habitats and self-sufficiency is considered along with human safety at a lunar base or outpost.

  2. Space station freedom life sciences activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

  3. Becker-Blaschke problem of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Julien

    2015-11-01

    In a letter to Weyl, Becker proposed a new way to solve the problem of space in the relativistic context. This is the result of Becker's encounter with the two traditions of thinking about space: Husserlian transcendental phenomenology and Blaschke's equiaffine differential geometry. I reconstruct the mathematical content of the Becker-Blaschke solution to the problem of space and highlight the philosophical ideas that guide this construction. This permits me to underline some common properties of Riemannian and Minkowskian manifolds in terms of an unusual notion of isotropy. Finally, I will use this construction as a support to analyze several philosophical differences between Weyl's and Becker's proposals.

  4. Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

  5. National Holographic Centre, England: proposal report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Andrew T.

    1998-02-01

    A National Holographic Center has been proposed for construction in England. Its aim is to offer teaching facilities for creative holography to degree level students, the design based holography industry, the local community, school children and members of the public. There are also plans to provide advanced studies and master classes from artists and scientists renowned for their work in the field as well as formal artist-in-residencies. Unlike other teaching and display facilities, this will be a purpose- designed building with labs, gallery space and accommodation for users.

  6. Occupational ergonomics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  7. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  8. Space on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes ideas for applying research from space programs to life science instruction including plants in space, exercise and diet on space flights, environmental advantages from space exploration, and the effects of microgravity on health. Discusses space spinoffs used in medicine including digital imaging processing and the Ingestible Thermal…

  9. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-01-01

    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  10. Sensory substitution for space gloves and for space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach-Y-rita, P.; Webster, J. G.; Tompkins, W. J.; Crabb, T.

    1987-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems for space applications are described. Physical sensors replace missing human receptors and feed information to the interpretive centers of a different sense. The brain is plastic enough so that, with training, the subject localizes the input as if it were received through the missing receptors. Astronauts have difficulty feeling objects through space suit gloves because of their thickness and because of the 4.3 psi pressure difference. Miniature force sensors on the glove palm drive an electrotactile belt around the waist, thus augmenting the missing tactile sensation. A proposed teleoperator system with telepresence for a space robot would incorporate teleproprioception and a force sensor/electrotactile belt sensory substitution system for teletouch.

  11. Systematic Alternatives to Proposal Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.; And Others

    Educators who have to develop proposals must be concerned with making effective decisions. This paper discusses a number of educational systems management tools which can be used to reduce the time and effort in developing a proposal. In addition, ways are introduced to systematically increase the quality of the proposal through the development of…

  12. Vibration suppression in a large space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narendra, Kumpati S.

    1988-01-01

    The Yale University Center for Systems Science and the NASA Johnson Space Center collaborated in a study of vibration suppression in a large space structure during the period January 1985 to August 1987. The research proposal submitted by the Center to NASA concerned disturbance isolation in flexible space structures. The general objective of the proposal was to create within the Center a critical mass of expertise on problems related to the dynamics and control of large flexible space structures. A specific objective was to formulate both passive and active control strategies for the disturbance isolation problem. Both objectives were achieved during the period of the contract. While an extensive literature exists on the control of flexible space structures, it is generally acknowledged that many important questions remain open at even a fundamental level. Hence, instead of studying grossly simplified models of complex structural systems, it was decided as a first step to confine attention to detailed and thorough analyses of simple structures.

  13. Quantum Hall effect in momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically discuss a momentum-space analog of the quantum Hall effect, which could be observed in topologically nontrivial lattice models subject to an external harmonic trapping potential. In our proposal, the Niu-Thouless-Wu formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a torus is realized in the toroidally shaped Brillouin zone. In this analogy, the position of the trap center in real space controls the magnetic fluxes that are inserted through the holes of the torus in momentum space. We illustrate the momentum-space quantum Hall effect with the noninteracting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model, for which we numerically demonstrate how this effect manifests itself in experimental observables. Extension to the interacting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model is also briefly considered. We finally discuss possible experimental platforms where our proposal for the momentum-space quantum Hall effect could be realized.

  14. Delimitation of air space and outer space - Is such a boundary needed now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the question of establishing a boundary between air space and outer space. Four theories and approaches for establishing a delimitation between air space and outer space are examined. Spatial approaches include demarcation based on the division of the atmosphere into layers, demarcation based on aerodynamic characteristics of flight instrumentalities (von Karman Line), demarcation according to the lowest perigee of an orbiting satellite, and demarcation based upon the earth's gravitational effects. The functionalist approach is based on the delimitation or definition of the air space/outer space regime by the purpose and activities for which an object is designed in air space or outer space. The arbitrarist approach is supported by those who wish to draw an arbitrary line between air space and outer space. It is proposed that a pragmatist approach will be more useful than the other three approaches. The pragmatist approach advocates not establishing a boundary between air space and outer space at the present time or in the immediate future. It is argued that there are at present no serious problems that can be resolved by the definition/delimitation of air space and outer space.

  15. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  16. Gravitational biology on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  17. Actuated Hybrid Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Ealey, Mark; Redding, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new, large, ultra-lightweight, replicated, actively controlled mirrors, for use in space telescopes. These mirrors utilize SiC substrates, with embedded solid-state actuators, bonded to Nanolaminate metal foil reflective surfaces. Called Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AHMs), they use replication techniques for high optical quality as well as rapid, low cost manufacturing. They enable an Active Optics space telescope architecture that uses periodic image-based wavefront sensing and control to assure diffraction-limited performance, while relaxing optical system fabrication, integration and test requirements. The proposed International Space Station Observatory seeks to demonstrate this architecture in space.

  18. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  19. The Second Space Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  20. Angry Birds in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA created a video using Angry Birds Space to explain how physics works in space, including demonstrating trajectories in mic...

  1. Preventing Technique of Metal Deposition on Optical Devices in Space Diode Laser Welding for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Kenji; Ohtani, Masato; Shobako, Shinichiro; Terajima, Noboru; Hiraoka, Nobuaki

    In future space developments, the welding in space may be required for the repairs of the ISS and the constructions of lunar base and space structures. The authors have studied the space Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc (GHTA) welding process since 1993. This paper describes the results for space applying the space Diode Laser (DL) welding process which the authors proposed in 2002. It is necessary to prevent the metal deposition on optical devices in order to utilize the space DL welding process in space. The authors studied the preventing technique of metal deposition which covered optical devices with the nozzle and blew the shielding gas out from nozzle outlet. The metal deposition can be reduced by supplying the nozzle with inert gas and blowing the gas out from nozzle outlet. The shielding gas argon perfectly prevents the metal deposition on optical devices when argon pressurizes the nozzle to over 19.9 Pa and spouts out from the nozzle outlet.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  3. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  4. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  5. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  6. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  7. Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  8. Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  9. Space-based optical image encryption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2010-12-20

    In this paper, we propose a new method based on a three-dimensional (3D) space-based strategy for the optical image encryption. The two-dimensional (2D) processing of a plaintext in the conventional optical encryption methods is extended to a 3D space-based processing. Each pixel of the plaintext is considered as one particle in the proposed space-based optical image encryption, and the diffraction of all particles forms an object wave in the phase-shifting digital holography. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new optical encryption strategy instead of the conventional 2D processing, and may open up a new research perspective for the optical image encryption.

  10. [Space radiation biology].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Ohnishi, T

    2001-03-01

    Astronauts were constantly exposed to space radiation containing various kinds of energy with a low-dose rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to judge correctly the biological effect of space radiation for human health. In addition, research for space radiation might give us useful information concerning birth and evolution of lives on the earth. Here, we described a view of the future about space experiments at an International Space Station. Therefore, we desire to educate the space researcher of the next generation for importance of research for space radiation. PMID:12101375

  11. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, David W S; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  12. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS): Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA's current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  14. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  15. 14 CFR 1204.1508 - Time limitations for receiving comments on proposed direct Federal development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limitations for receiving comments on proposed direct Federal development. 1204.1508 Section 1204.1508 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS... Aeronautics and Space Administration Programs and Activities § 1204.1508 Time limitations for...

  16. 14 CFR 1204.1508 - Time limitations for receiving comments on proposed direct Federal development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Time limitations for receiving comments on proposed direct Federal development. 1204.1508 Section 1204.1508 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS... Aeronautics and Space Administration Programs and Activities § 1204.1508 Time limitations for...

  17. 76 FR 6634 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...; Proposed Application for Use of Public Space by Non-DOL Agencies in the Frances Perkins Building ACTION... Management (OASAM) titled, ``Application for Use of Public Space by Non-DOL Agencies in the Frances Perkins... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The DOL has created the Application for Use of Public Space by Non-DOL Agencies...

  18. 14 CFR 1230.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 1230.123 Section 1230.123 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.123 Early termination of...

  19. 14 CFR 1230.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 1230.123 Section 1230.123 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.123 Early termination of...

  20. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  1. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  2. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  3. 14 CFR 1230.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 1230.123 Section 1230.123 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.123 Early termination of...

  4. 14 CFR 1204.1508 - Time limitations for receiving comments on proposed direct Federal development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time limitations for receiving comments on proposed direct Federal development. 1204.1508 Section 1204.1508 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS... Aeronautics and Space Administration Programs and Activities § 1204.1508 Time limitations for...

  5. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  6. 14 CFR 1230.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 1230.123 Section 1230.123 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.123 Early termination of...

  7. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  8. Space Station Program implications from the viewpoint of the Space Station Operations Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville E.; Lyman, Peter; Shelley, Carl B.

    1987-01-01

    An operational concept for the Space Station which has been developed by the Space Station Operations Task Force is described. The operations functions are described, and the relationships of these functions to the overall framework for operations are defined. Product flows for the recommended framework are discussed, and the roles and responsibilities for the proposed operations organization during both the development and the mature operations phases of the Space Station Program are examined.

  9. Utility of space transportation system to space communication community: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) offers the opportunity for maintaining, and perhaps accelerating, growth of the space communication community. This new launch vehicle service, however, must be obtained at a cost lower than the current expandable launch vehicles cost. A cost competitive STS is defined for geostationary payloads. It is concluded that the STS will be useful to the space communication community, as well as to other geostationary satellite system users, if the proposed recommendations are adapted.

  10. Proposal for a Universal Particle Detector Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, J. C.; Cain, R. P; Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Particle Detector Experiment (UPDE), which consists of parallel planes of two diode laser beams of different wavelengths and a large surface metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) impact detector, is proposed. It will be used to perform real-time monitoring of contamination particles and meteoroids impacting the spacecraft surface with high resolution of time, position, direction, and velocity. The UPDE will discriminate between contaminants and meteoroids, and will determine their velocity and size distribution around the spacecraft environment. With two different color diode lasers, the contaminant and meteroid composition will also be determined based on laboratory calibration with different materials. Secondary particles dislodged from the top aluminum surface of the MOS detector will also be measured to determine the kinetic energy losses during energetic meteoroid impacts. The velocity range of this instrument is 0.1 m/s to more than 14 km/s, while its size sensitivity is from 0.2 microns to millimeter-sized particles. The particulate measurements in space of the kind proposed will be the first simultaneous multipurpose particulate experiment that includes velocities from very slow to hypervelocities, sizes from submicrometer- to pellet-sized diameters, chemical analysis of the particulate composition, and measurements of the kinetic energy losses after energetic impacts of meteroids. The experiment will provide contamination particles and orbital debris data that are critically needed for our present understanding of the space environment. The data will also be used to validate contamination and orbital debris models for predicting optimal configuration of future space sensors and for understanding their effects on sensitive surfaces such as mirrors, lenses, paints, and thermal blankets.

  11. Fast Access to Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata', P.; Martineau, N.

    2002-01-01

    creating a revolutionary space-orbiting habitat dedicated to tourism. Up to now, such proposals have focused on two approaches. The first accounts for financial and technological constraints on space flight and living, and sacrifices creativity for practicality. The second is more utopic in nature and proposes projects, which are imaginative but unfeasible in the near future. This proposal is innovative because it considers the current obstacles to space tourism and utilizes existing technologies and infrastructures, but also includes the forethinking of futuristic commercial projects. Project Objectives: NASA claims that commercialization of space activities is so difficult that it will require decades more funding of so-called space-technology development. The benefits of this project show that this is not true. First, safety has been addressed because this proposal utilizes already space tested and assured technologies. Second, the project demonstrates potential for significant economic profit within the near future. Because we are using the least expensive technology available, we have limited start up costs. We forecast up to forty flights per year, with a potential capacity of eighty tourists. The design objectives focus on the proposal of a new approach to space tourism. These include: the expansion of the living space in the interiors, innovative and creative interior design, increased concern for the physiological and psychological comfort of tourists, and attention to entertainment possibilities. Project Content: The efficiency of the launch and configuration phase is one of the strengths of the proposed project. We propose the use of the Zenith 2 launcher, a large two-stage vehicle developed in the Soviet Union in the early 1980s, for the configuration of the orbiting platform. Following the Russian outfitting philosophy, once in orbit, the platform is already functional. The interior design is based on advanced lightweight inflatable technologies which

  12. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  13. Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

  14. NASA's Contribution to Global Space Geodesy Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Space Geodesy program continues to be a major provider of space geodetic data for the international earth science community. NASA operates high performance Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at well over 30 locations around the world and works in close cooperation with space geodetic observatories around the world. NASA has also always been at the forefront in the quest for technical improvement and innovation in the space geodesy technologies to make them even more productive, accurate and economical. This presentation will highlight the current status of NASA's networks; the plans for partnerships with international groups in the southern hemisphere to improve the geographic distribution of space geodesy sites and the status of the technological improvements in SLR and VLBI that will support the new scientific thrusts proposed by interdisciplinary earth scientists. In addition, the expanding role of the NASA Space geodesy data archive, the CDDIS will be described.

  15. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  16. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  17. Spatial imaging in color and HDR: prometheus unchained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2013-03-01

    The Human Vision and Electronic Imaging Conferences (HVEI) at the IS and T/SPIE Electronic Imaging meetings have brought together research in the fundamentals of both vision and digital technology. This conference has incorporated many color disciplines that have contributed to the theory and practice of today's imaging: color constancy, models of vision, digital output, high-dynamic-range imaging, and the understanding of perceptual mechanisms. Before digital imaging, silver halide color was a pixel-based mechanism. Color films are closely tied to colorimetry, the science of matching pixels in a black surround. The quanta catch of the sensitized silver salts determines the amount of colored dyes in the final print. The rapid expansion of digital imaging over the past 25 years has eliminated the limitations of using small local regions in forming images. Spatial interactions can now generate images more like vision. Since the 1950's, neurophysiology has shown that post-receptor neural processing is based on spatial interactions. These results reinforced the findings of 19th century experimental psychology. This paper reviews the role of HVEI in color, emphasizing the interaction of research on vision and the new algorithms and processes made possible by electronic imaging.

  18. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David G.

    1992-01-01

    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  19. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  20. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.