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Sample records for propranolol

  1. Propranolol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Debra S.; Praderio, Nestor H.

    1994-01-01

    Research indicates that the beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol has been used effectively in the treatment of aggressive behavior in diverse populations of both children and adults with and without organic diagnoses. The literature is reviewed and some of the current proposed explanations for propranolol's antiaggressive effect are…

  2. Propranolol.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdulrahman A; Bakheit, Ahmed H H; Abdel Aziz, Hatem A; Alajmi, Fahad M; AlRabiah, Haitham

    Propranolol is a noncardioselective β-blocker. It is reported to have membrane-stabilizing properties, but it does not own intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Propranolol hydrochloride is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is also used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in the management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders, and tremor. Other indications cover the prophylaxis of migraine and of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. This study provides a detailed, comprehensive profile of propranolol, including formulas, elemental analysis, and the appearance of the drug. In addition, the synthesis of the drug is described. The chapter covers the physicochemical properties, including X-ray powder diffraction, pK, solubility, melting point, and procedures of analysis (spectroscopic, electrochemical, and chromatographic). In-depth pharmacology is also presented (pharmacological actions, therapeutic dosing, uses, Interactions, and adverse effects and precautions). More than 60 references are given as a proof of the abovementioned studies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generalized pustular psoriasis provoked by propranolol.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Miller, A C; Peppercorn, R; Farber, E M

    1985-10-01

    An 80-year-old man who had had plaque-type psoriasis for 40 years experienced a rapid onset of generalized pustular psoriasis three days after initiation of propranolol hydrochloride therapy. Trial therapy with propranolol on two occasions resulted in similar episodes. The skin lesions and systemic symptoms resolved after the discontinuation of propranolol therapy and administration of methotrexate sodium. This case study documents propranolol--a beta-blocker--as another causal factor for pustular psoriasis.

  4. Propranolol in the Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Widerøe, Tor-Erik; Vigander, Tor

    1974-01-01

    Beta-blocking drugs that prevent cranial vasodilatation are potentially valuable in the prophylaxis of migraine. Forty-nine patients with either classic or common migraine were treated with propranolol 160 mg/day for an average of six months. The first 30 of the patients to respond well to this treatment then participated in a double-blind cross-over trial with a placebo and propranolol. The mean frequency of headache attacks was significantly reduced by propranolol. None of the patients expressed a preference for placebo. Propranolol seems to be an effective prophylactic for common and classic migraine but the antimigraine properties of the various beta-blocking agents probably differ. PMID:4604977

  5. Propranolol reduces implicit negative racial bias.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Kahane, Guy; McTavish, Sarah; Savulescu, Julian; Cowen, Philip J; Hewstone, Miles

    2012-08-01

    Implicit negative attitudes towards other races are important in certain kinds of prejudicial social behaviour. Emotional mechanisms are thought to be involved in mediating implicit "outgroup" bias but there is little evidence concerning the underlying neurobiology. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of noradrenergic mechanisms in the generation of implicit racial attitudes. Healthy volunteers (n = 36) of white ethnic origin, received a single oral dose of the β-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (40 mg), in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, design. Participants completed an explicit measure of prejudice and the racial implicit association test (IAT), 1-2 h after propranolol administration. Relative to placebo, propranolol significantly lowered heart rate and abolished implicit racial bias, without affecting the measure of explicit racial prejudice. Propranolol did not affect subjective mood. Our results indicate that β-adrenoceptors play a role in the expression of implicit racial attitudes suggesting that noradrenaline-related emotional mechanisms may mediate negative racial bias. Our findings may also have practical importance given that propranolol is a widely used drug. However, further studies will be needed to examine whether a similar effect can be demonstrated in the course of clinical treatment.

  6. Propranolol as an adjunct therapy for hyperthyroid tremor.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J M; Portmann, L; Van Melle, G; Haller, E; Ghika, J A

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the use of propranolol as an adjunct to carbimazole in the treatment of hyperthyroid tremor and tachycardia in a double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled study. Seven patients were given carbimazole plus either placebo or propranolol (40 mg) for 1 month and then switched to the alternative adjunct treatment for a further month. All patients showed significant improvements (p < 0.001) of heart rate and tremor amplitude after 1 or 2 months from baseline. One month after the baseline, the mean improvements of heart rate were 23% for the carbimazole + placebo group and 38% for carbimazole + propranolol group. Tremor also improved during the 1st month of the study by 31% in the carbimazole + placebo group versus 59% in the carbimazole + propranolol group. Whereas further improvements were observed in both variables in those receiving propranolol as the second adjunct treatment, this was not the case in those who received placebo during the same period. These findings confirm that the beta-blocker propranolol is a useful adjunct in the early treatment of both the tremor and tachycardia of hyperthyroidism.

  7. Successful management of airway hemangioma with propranolol.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Varghese, Bincy; Chander, Ram; Parakh, Ankit; Solanki, Ravi S

    2013-06-01

    Airway hemangiomas can be difficult to manage and cause anxiety in both the parents and the treating physician. Propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, has recently been used for treating proliferating infantile hemangiomas. We report successful management of a proliferating, large, mixed infantile hemangioma with subglottic extension in an Indian infant using oral propranolol in a dose of 2mg/kg/day without any side effects. Induction of early involution and freedom from the side effects of steroid therapy seem encouraging for using propranolol as a first line treatment modality in the management of troublesome hemangiomas. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Propranolol attenuates hemorrhage and accelerates wound healing in severely burned adults.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arham; Herndon, David N; Mamachen, Ashish; Hasan, Samir; Andersen, Clark R; Grogans, Ro-Jon; Brewer, Jordan L; Lee, Jong O; Heffernan, Jamie; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2015-05-04

    Propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker, exerts an indirect effect on the vasculature by leaving α-adrenergic receptors unopposed, resulting in peripheral vasoconstriction. We have previously shown that propranolol diminishes peripheral blood following burn injury by increasing vascular resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether wound healing and perioperative hemodynamics are affected by propranolol administration in severely burned adults. Sixty-nine adult patients with burns covering ≥ 30% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Patients received standard burn care with (n = 35) or without (control, n = 34) propranolol. Propranolol was administered within 48 hours of burns and given throughout hospital discharge to decrease heart rate by approximately 20% from admission levels. Wound healing was determined by comparing the time between grafting procedures. Blood loss was determined by comparing pre- and postoperative hematocrit while factoring in operative graft area. Data were collected between first admission and first discharge. Demographics, burn size, and mortality were comparable in the control and propranolol groups. Patients in the propranolol group received an average propranolol dose of 3.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg/day. Daily average heart rate over the first 30 days was significantly lower in the propranolol group (P < 0.05). The average number of days between skin grafting procedures was also lower in propranolol patients (10 ± 5 days) than in control patients (17 ± 12 days; P = 0.02), indicative of a faster donor site healing time in the propranolol group. Packed red blood cell infusion was similar between groups (control 5.3 ± 5.4 units vs. propranolol 4.4 ± 3.1 units, P = 0.89). Propranolol was associated with a 5 to 7% improvement in perioperative hematocrit during grafting procedures of 4,000 to 16,000 cm(2) compared to control (P = 0.002). Administration of propranolol during the acute

  9. Postmarketing comparison of labetalol and propranolol in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Due, D L; Giguere, G C; Plachetka, J R

    1986-01-01

    A survey was conducted to compare the safety and effectiveness of labetalol and propranolol under routine conditions of clinical use. Patients received either labetalol (n = 805) or propranolol (n = 135) twice daily, according to package insert instructions, for six weeks. Every two weeks the patients were evaluated and weight, heart rate, blood pressure, dose, and adverse symptoms were recorded. Both treatment groups experienced a significant decline in blood pressure at six weeks; blood pressure decreased by 24/15 mmHg in the labetalol patients and by 20/14 mmHg in the propranolol patients. Heart rate decreased significantly in both groups, but the drop in the propranolol group was greater than in the labetalol group. Significantly more propranolol-treated patients reported fatigue (15.2% versus 6.3%), impotence (9.0% versus 3.2%), bad dreams (2.3% versus 0.3%), and cold extremities (2.3% versus 0%). Dizziness was reported more frequently by the labetalol group (9.1% versus 3.8%). Overall, both drugs were safe and effective in treating hypertension, but complaints of beta-blocker-associated side effects were more frequent with propranolol.

  10. [Infantile hemangioma and propranolol: a therapeutic "revolution". Literature review].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, L; Dangoisse, C; Semaille, P

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common benign vascular tumour affecting children. Most infantile hemangiomas are self-limiting, but some require specific treatment. Propranolol has been proposed for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism of action of propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas and to demonstrate its safety and efficacy through a review of the literature. The non cardioselective bêta-blocker propranolol has been used in a pediatric setting for 40 years and, since 2008, has a new indication. A clearly significant improvement has been observed in the condition of children with complicated IH (10%) treated with propranolol. This new indication has been widely described in the international literature. Various explanations have been put forward for the mechanism of action including a vasoconstrictor, antiangiogenic and apoptotic effect of propranolol on the different cells making up an IH. Overall tolerance is good and the efficacy markedly superior to that of any other treatments used for this purpose. In conclusion, with its good tolerance profile and superior efficacy versus all the other available therapies, propranolol can be considered to be a first-line treatment for complicated IH.

  11. Comparison of propranolol and metoprolol in the management of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Murchison, L E; How, J; Bewsher, P D

    1979-12-01

    1 Propranolol and metoprolol were both effective in controlling the symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. 2 Propranolol caused a highly significant increase in serum reverse T3 concentrations with lesser changes in other serum thyroid hormone levels, whereas metoprolol did not have this effect. 3 Steady-state plasma propranolol and metoprolol levels showed marked inter-individual variation. Metoprolol concentrations showed relatively little intra-individual variability, and could be related to the clinical efficacy of the drug, whereas no such relationship was demonstrated for propranolol.

  12. Comparison of propranolol and metoprolol in the management of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Murchison, L E; How, J; Bewsher, P D

    1979-01-01

    1 Propranolol and metoprolol were both effective in controlling the symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. 2 Propranolol caused a highly significant increase in serum reverse T3 concentrations with lesser changes in other serum thyroid hormone levels, whereas metoprolol did not have this effect. 3 Steady-state plasma propranolol and metoprolol levels showed marked inter-individual variation. Metoprolol concentrations showed relatively little intra-individual variability, and could be related to the clinical efficacy of the drug, whereas no such relationship was demonstrated for propranolol. PMID:391258

  13. Propranolol reduces the anxiety associated with day case surgery.

    PubMed

    Mealy, K; Ngeh, N; Gillen, P; Fitzpatrick, G; Keane, F B; Tanner, A

    1996-01-01

    To find out if propranolol, a non-cardioselective beta-blocker, can reduce the anxiety associated with day case surgery. Prospective randomized double blind trial. University hospital, Ireland. An unselected group of 53 patients undergoing day case surgery. Subjects randomised to receive either propranolol (10 mg) or placebo on the morning of operation. Blood pressure; pulse, anxiety, pain score and patient satisfaction. Mean (SD) Hospital Anxiety and Depression score was significantly lower in the propranolol group than in the control group (2.5 (0.7) compared with 4.6 (0.7), p < 0.0001) before discharge. A low dose of propranolol given on the morning of day case surgery significantly reduced patients' anxiety.

  14. A randomized, controlled trial of oral propranolol in infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Hoeger, Peter; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Guibaud, Laurent; Baselga, Eulalia; Posiunas, Gintas; Phillips, Roderic J; Caceres, Hector; Lopez Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Ballona, Rosalia; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Powell, Julie; Perek, Danuta; Metz, Brandie; Barbarot, Sebastien; Maruani, Annabel; Szalai, Zsuzsanna Zsofia; Krol, Alfons; Boccara, Olivia; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Febrer Bosch, Maria Isabel; Su, John; Buckova, Hana; Torrelo, Antonio; Cambazard, Frederic; Grantzow, Rainer; Wargon, Orli; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Roessler, Jochen; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Valencia, Adriana M; Przewratil, Przemyslaw; Glick, Sharon; Pope, Elena; Birchall, Nicholas; Benjamin, Latanya; Mancini, Anthony J; Vabres, Pierre; Souteyrand, Pierre; Frieden, Ilona J; Berul, Charles I; Mehta, Cyrus R; Prey, Sorilla; Boralevi, Franck; Morgan, Caroline C; Heritier, Stephane; Delarue, Alain; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2015-02-19

    Oral propranolol has been used to treat complicated infantile hemangiomas, although data from randomized, controlled trials to inform its use are limited. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, adaptive, phase 2-3 trial assessing the efficacy and safety of a pediatric-specific oral propranolol solution in infants 1 to 5 months of age with proliferating infantile hemangioma requiring systemic therapy. Infants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or one of four propranolol regimens (1 or 3 mg of propranolol base per kilogram of body weight per day for 3 or 6 months). A preplanned interim analysis was conducted to identify the regimen to study for the final efficacy analysis. The primary end point was success (complete or nearly complete resolution of the target hemangioma) or failure of trial treatment at week 24, as assessed by independent, centralized, blinded evaluations of standardized photographs. Of 460 infants who underwent randomization, 456 received treatment. On the basis of an interim analysis of the first 188 patients who completed 24 weeks of trial treatment, the regimen of 3 mg of propranolol per kilogram per day for 6 months was selected for the final efficacy analysis. The frequency of successful treatment was higher with this regimen than with placebo (60% vs. 4%, P<0.001). A total of 88% of patients who received the selected propranolol regimen showed improvement by week 5, versus 5% of patients who received placebo. A total of 10% of patients in whom treatment with propranolol was successful required systemic retreatment during follow-up. Known adverse events associated with propranolol (hypoglycemia, hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchospasm) occurred infrequently, with no significant difference in frequency between the placebo group and the groups receiving propranolol. This trial showed that propranolol was effective at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram per day for 6 months in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. (Funded by

  15. Mechanistic study of fulvic acid assisted propranolol photodegradation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Makunina, Maria P; Pozdnyakov, Ivan P; Chen, Yong; Grivin, Vyacheslav P; Bazhin, Nikolay M; Plyusnin, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    Laser flash (355 nm) and stationary (365 nm) photolysis were used to study the mechanisms of propranolol photolysis in the presence of fulvic acid in aqueous solutions. The FA-assisted photodegradation of propranolol was observed using UV-A irradiation (where propranolol is stable). Direct evidence indicated that the photodegradation resulted from the static quenching of the FA triplet state by propranolol via the electron transfer mechanism. The triplet state yield (ϕT≈0.6%) and the T-T absorption coefficient (ɛT(620 nm)≈5×10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) were estimated for the first time by modeling the yields of the FA triplet state in the presence of propranolol. Thus, fulvic acid is a promising agent for accelerating propranolol photodegradation in aqueous solutions under UV-A light irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring propranolol treatment in periocular infantile haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Burne, R; Taylor, R

    2014-11-01

    To develop a tool for assessing amblyopic risk and monitoring the treatment effect of propranolol in periocular haemangioma management. We present a study of nine children with periocular haemangioma who underwent propranolol treatment at York Hospital between 2009 and 2013.A proposed measure of amblyogenic risk based on the induced anisometropia resulting from a periocular haemangioma was calculated in the form of a single quantitative value, measured in dioptres. This calculation used published work and developed it to produce a new function, termed the delta defocus equivalent (DFE-∂).Refraction measurements were retrospectively collected from patients' notes in order to measure the trend of DFE-∂ over the treatment period with propranolol. The average DFE-∂ at commencement of propranolol was 1.54 (±0.62) D. The average at the end of treatment was 0.39 (±0.38) D. This work presents a possible tool for assessing amblyopic risk in cases of periocular infantile haemangioma. The DFE-∂ gives a measure in dioptres, which may represent the true amblyopic risk, and so be useful in supporting treatment decisions in paediatric ophthalmology.

  17. Oral Propranolol: A New Treatment for Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    PubMed

    Bührer, Christoph; Bassler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oral propranolol has improved the treatment of infantile hemangiomas, and a pediatric oral solution of propranolol has recently been licensed in the USA and Europe. In very preterm infants, infantile hemangiomas are associated with the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and both diseases share a peculiar time course, featuring a lag phase after birth followed by rapid growth and then gradual regression. To identify clinical studies evaluating the use of oral propranolol in preterm infants with ROP. Two small bicentric, pilot, randomized controlled trials found a nonsignificant reduction of ROP requiring intervention by laser treatment or bevacizumab injection of similar magnitude. Together, 6 of 35 (17%) infants who had been receiving oral propranolol underwent ROP intervention, as opposed to 14 of 36 (39%) controls (relative risk 0.42, 95% CI: 0.15-1.16). Randomized controlled trials are ongoing that investigate early preventive oral propranolol starting at 1 week of age and propranolol eye drops in preterm infants with stage 2 ROP. Further, large interventional studies are required to determine the clinical benefit-risk ratio of oral propranolol to prevent vision-threatening ROP in very preterm infants. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Basheir A.; Shreef, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed. PMID:24899888

  19. Propranolol in treatment of huge and complicated infantile hemangiomas in egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Basheir A; Shreef, Khalid S

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  20. Comparison of propranolol and practolol in the management of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Murchison, L E; Bewsher, P D; Chesters, M I; Ferrier, W R

    1976-04-01

    Twenty-one hyperthyroid patients participated in an 8-week double-blind crossover trial of propranolol and practolol, and the effecte of these drugs on the clinical and metabolic features of the disease were studied. Propranolol was marginally more effective than practolol, as measured by the hyperthyroid diagnostic index and anxiety scale. Propranolol produced a significant reduction in the serum concentration ratio of tri-iodothyronine to thyroxine, compatible with partial inhibition of peripheral deiodination of thyroxine. Adverse reactions occurred more frequently with propranolol than with practolol. In veiw of the efficacy of practoloo, further trials in hyperthyroid patients of newer beta1-adrenoceptor antagonists, preferably without partial agonist activity, are indicated.

  1. Systemic propranolol acts centrally to reduce conditioned fear in rats without impairing extinction.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Sotres-Bayon, Francisco; Mueller, Devin; Quirk, Gregory J

    2009-05-15

    Previous work has implicated noradrenergic beta-receptors in the consolidation and reconsolidation of conditioned fear. Less is known, however, about their role in fear expression and extinction. The beta-receptor blocker propranolol has been used clinically to reduce anxiety. With an auditory fear conditioning task in rats, we assessed the effects of systemic propranolol on the expression and extinction of two measures of conditioned fear: freezing and suppression of bar-pressing. One day after receiving auditory fear conditioning, rats were injected with saline, propranolol, or peripheral beta-receptor blocker sotalol (both 10 mg/kg, IP). Twenty minutes after injection, rats were given either 6 or 12 extinction trials and were tested for extinction retention the following day. The effect of propranolol on the firing rate of neurons in prelimbic (PL) prefrontal cortex was also assessed. Propranolol reduced freezing by more than 50%, an effect that was evident from the first extinction trial. Suppression was also significantly reduced. Despite this, propranolol had no effect on the acquisition or retention of extinction. Unlike propranolol, sotalol did not affect fear expression, although both drugs significantly reduced heart rate. This suggests that propranolol acts centrally to reduce fear. Consistent with this, propranolol reduced the firing rate of PL neurons. Propranolol reduced the expression of conditioned fear, without interfering with extinction learning. Reduced fear with intact extinction suggests a possible use for propranolol in reducing anxiety during extinction-based exposure therapies, without interfering with long-term clinical response.

  2. Concentration of (+/-)-propranolol in isolated, perfused lungs of rat.

    PubMed Central

    Dollery, C T; Junod, A F

    1976-01-01

    1 The metabolism and the accumulation of (+/-)-propranolol have been studied in isolated lungs of the rat, perfused with an artificial medium. 2 Little or no metabolism took place during the perfusion periods (up to 10 minutes). 3 Accumulation was observed with high tissue/medium ratios for substrate concentrations of 0.2 muM to 1 mM; there was evidence for saturability, but no real plateau could be seen. The presence of two binding sites with different affinities was established. 4 Cold greatly inhibited the accumulation process at low substrate concentrations, but had no effect at 1 mM propranolol. 5 Inhibition of accumulation was measured in the presence of imipramine, desmethylimipramine, nortryptiline, chlorpromazine and of Na+-free medium. Cocaine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline had no effect. Lidocaine enhanced the accumulation process. Release of previously bound propranolol was accelerated in the presence of propranolol and imipramine, unaffected by a Na+-free medium and decreased by cold and by lidocaine. 6 Experiments on lung tissue slices yielded qualitatively similar results to those obtained with perfused lungs. Ouabain and KCN had no or little effect on propranolol accumulation. PMID:1276542

  3. Control of lithium tremor with propranolol.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Y D

    1976-04-03

    Lithium tremor is an irregular, nonrhythmic tremor of the distal extremities, variable in both intensity and frequency. It is clinically differentiated from essential tremor and tremors due to anxiety and neuroleptics. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are hypothesized to be of perpheral origin. Five patients were successfully treated with propranolol. In general, the dosage of propranolol must be individually adjusted and is usually from 30 to 40 mg daily in divided doses. This blocker of beta-adrenergic receptors remains effective with long-term administration and increases in dosage are not required.

  4. Control of lithium tremor with propranolol.

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Y. D.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tremor is an irregular, nonrhythmic tremor of the distal extremities, variable in both intensity and frequency. It is clinically differentiated from essential tremor and tremors due to anxiety and neuroleptics. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are hypothesized to be of perpheral origin. Five patients were successfully treated with propranolol. In general, the dosage of propranolol must be individually adjusted and is usually from 30 to 40 mg daily in divided doses. This blocker of beta-adrenergic receptors remains effective with long-term administration and increases in dosage are not required. PMID:1260604

  5. Labetalol compared with propranolol in the treatment of black hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E; Curry, C; Hinds, J; Kong, B W; Medakovic, M; Poland, M; Roper, K

    1987-09-01

    A double-blind parallel group study was conducted to examine the effects of oral labetalol, in doses from 100 to 800 mg BID, and propranolol, 40 to 320 mg, in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The doses of labetalol (n = 74) and propranolol (n = 79) were titrated weekly to achieve a sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of less than 90 mmHg or at least a 10-mmHg decrease from placebo baseline on two consecutive visits. A 2-month fixed-dose maintenance phase followed in which a diuretic could be added if the sitting DBP was greater than or equal to 100 mmHg on maximum doses of either drug. BP and heart rate were measured 8-12 hours after a dose in the sitting and standing positions. Labetalol was significantly more effective at the end of monotherapy than propranolol was in lowering both the sitting (p less than .05) and standing (p less than .04) DBP. The reduction in the systolic, although more pronounced for those on labetalol, was not significantly different; 53% of patients had a "good" response to labetalol compared with 30% of the propranolol group. Propranolol significantly (p less than 0.01) lowered heart rate compared with labetalol. Nine patients in the labetalol group and 10 in the propranolol group required a diuretic. The decrease in BP after the addition of a diuretic was comparable. Changes in plasma lipids were not significant, but HDL increased 9% with labetalol and decreased 2% with propranolol. Triglycerides increased 25% with labetalol and 31% with propranolol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. One and three doses of propranolol a day in hypertension.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, G; Boer, P; van Asten, P; Dorhout Mees, E J; Geyskes, G G

    1980-01-01

    In 26 patients with essential hypertension who were on continuous chlorthalidone therapy, 1 and 3 daily doses of propranolol were compared in a crossover study. Plasma propranolol levels and heart rates had larger daily fluctuations on single-dose therapy than on 3 times daily; plasma renin activity was more constant. There was no significant difference in blood pressures. Once-daily propranolol dosage was well tolerated and possibly gave less rise to the troublesome side effect of vivid dreaming.

  7. No enhanced elimination of propranolol in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, T; Masuno, M; Tawara, K

    1980-09-01

    Propranolol, a widely used beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drug extracted mostly by the liver, plays an important role in the various aspects of managment of hyperthyroidism. If the elimination of this drug is enhanced in thyrotoxic patients, one may consider necessary a modification of the dosage regimien when treating patients with this dysfunction. We examined the disposition profiles of propranolol in four patients with hyperthyroidism before and after their thyroid states became euthyroid and compared them to those of the seven control subjects. The data indicated that the values (mean +/- SEM) of half-life (3.34 +/- 0.81 hr) and systemic availability estimated (28.2 +/- 3.5%) in the hyperthyroid state were comparable to those in the euthyroid state (2.98 +/- 0.32 hr and 29.2 +/- 5.1%) and these in the control subjects (3.20 +/- 0.32 hr and 29.0 +/- 4.0%). Although our observations were obtained from a small number of subjects, there appears to be no considerable difference in propranolol elimination from the plasma of hyperthyroid and euthyroid states or healthy subjects, and therefore adjustment of the dosage regimen seems unwarranted. Adjustment of propranolol therapy based on individual plasma levels might be useful in thyrotoxic patients who respond inadequately until additional data relating more precisely to propranolol disposition becomes available.

  8. Eye drop propranolol administration promotes the recovery of oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dal Monte, Massimo; Casini, Giovanni; la Marca, Giancarlo; Isacchi, Benedetta; Filippi, Luca; Bagnoli, Paola

    2013-06-01

    The mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is a well-established model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), characterized by the abnormal formation of new blood vessels, which is similar to ROP. In this model, we have recently shown that subcutaneous (sc) administration of the non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker propranolol ameliorates angiogenic processes in the retina when its effects are evaluated at postnatal day (PD) 17. In the present study, we investigated whether propranolol application as collyrium can promote the recovery of OIR. After propranolol administration on the eye, mice were first tested for retinal concentrations of propranolol as compared with those measured after sc or per os administration. Subsequently, we determined the effects of propranolol ophthalmic solutions, at the optimal dose for delivery, on VEGF, IGF-1, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and retinal neovascularization as assessed in both the superficial and the deep vascular plexuses. The results showed that 2% topical propranolol has an efficiency (in terms of final propranolol concentration in the retina) comparable to that of 20 mg/kg propranolol sc or per os and significantly higher than those observed with doses and administration routes that are currently used with children. Propranolol ophthalmic solutions reduced VEGF and IGF-1 up-regulation in response to hypoxia and drastically inhibited HIF-1α accumulation and STAT3 phosphorylation. As a result of its inhibitory effects on hypoxia-induced proangiogenic factors, propranolol significantly reduced retinal neovascularization in the superficial but not in the deep vascular plexus. An evaluation of retinal neovascularization at PD21 showed that propranolol was still effective in inhibiting OIR. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that β-AR blockade can efficiently counteract OIR and suggest that topical eye application of

  9. [Effects of propranolol on oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization in mouse].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuerong; Wang, Yajuan; Yang, Guangran; Yang, Zixin; Zhang, Jingshang

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether propranolol application as collyrium or intraperitoneal (IP) injection can promote the recovery of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Thirty-six 7-day-old mice were divided into the following 6 groups: normal control, propranolol eye drops, propranolol IP injection, eye drops negative control, IP injection negative control, and pathological model with 6 mice in each. In a typical model of OIR, litters of mice pups with their nursing mothers were exposed to an infant incubator to high oxygen concentration (75 ± 5)% between postnatal day (PD) 7 and PD12, prior to returning to room air. Two routes of propranolol treatment were assessed from PD12 to PD17: IP injection and eye drop, with doses 2 mg/(kg·time), three times a day. Another three groups were given citric acid buffer eye drops, IP injection of citric acid buffer, and negative control were not treated with any drug. Neonatal mice fed in normal conditions served as normal control. Mice were sacrificed at PD17 to evaluate the morphological changes of retinal vessels by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran perfusion and retinal whole mount. The retinal neovascularization was evaluated by counting the number of nuclei of the endothelial cell breaking through the internal limiting membrane (ILM). Compared with the oxygen-exposed group, the branches of retinal vessels went normal with a less un-perfused area in the propranolol eye drops and propranolol IP injection groups [(38.9 ± 9.9)% and (5.6 ± 2.3)% vs. (16.2 ± 10.0)% and (2.2 ± 0.8)%, (25.9 ± 5.0)% and (2.1 ± 2.7)%, F=36.12 and 14.55, P both<0.001]. The number of nuclei of endothelial cells breaking through the ILM on the retinal cross-section in the propranolol eye drops group decreased (14.2 ± 5.1) per slide, which was less than that in the oxygen-exposed group (49.1 ± 8.9) per slide and the propranolol IP injection group (18.0 ± 5.9) per slide; it was also less than that in the eye drops negative control group (47.4 ± 8.1) per

  10. Evaluation of Propranolol Effect on Experimental Acute and Chronic Toxoplasmosis Using Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies against toxoplasmosis are limited, and drugs have significant side effects and low efficacies. We evaluated the potential anti-Toxoplasma activity of propranolol at a dose of 2 or 3 mg/kg of body weight/day in vivo in the acute and chronic phases. Propranolol as a cell membrane-stabilizing agent is a suitable drug for inhibiting the entrance of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into cells. The acute-phase assay was performed using propranolol, pyrimethamine, and propranolol plus pyrimethamine before (pretreatment) and after (posttreatment) intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 103 tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii strain RH in BALB/c mice. Also, in the chronic phase, treatment was performed 12 h before intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 106 tachyzoites of the virulent strain RH of T. gondii in rats. One week (in the acute phase) and 2 months (in the chronic phase) after postinfection, tissues were isolated and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, parasite load was calculated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the acute phase, in both groups, significant anti-Toxoplasma activity was observed using propranolol (P < 0.001). Propranolol in the pretreatment group showed higher anti-Toxoplasma activity than propranolol in posttreatment in brain tissues, displaying therapeutic efficiency on toxoplasmosis. Also, propranolol combined with pyrimethamine reduced the parasite load as well as significantly increased survival of mice in the pretreatment group. In the chronic phase, anti-Toxoplasma activity and decreased parasite load in tissues were observed with propranolol. In conclusion, the presented results demonstrate that propranolol, as an orally available drug, is effective at low doses against acute and latent murine toxoplasmosis, and the efficiency of the drug is increased when it is used in combination therapy with pyrimethamine. PMID:27645234

  11. Kinetic determination of propranolol in tablets by oxidation with ceric sulphate.

    PubMed

    Sultan, S M; Altamrah, S A; Aziz Alrahman, A M; Alzamil, I Z; Karrar, M O

    1989-01-01

    A simple and accurate kinetic method for the determination of propranolol has been developed. Cerium(IV) sulphate (0.5 M) is used to oxidize propranolol in 2 M sulphuric acid at room temperature to the ketone form that absorbs light at a lambda max of 525 nm. The fixed-concentration method is used by recording the exact time, t(s), taken for the reaction to reach a fixed absorbance of 0.100. The unknown concentration, c(M), of propranolol is calculated from the equation: l/t = 0 0.000217 + 0.03 c. The method has been applied to the determination of propranolol in proprietary tablets and the results were compared with those obtained by the B.P. and other standard methods.

  12. Limited Efficacy of Propranolol on the Reconsolidation of Fear Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muravieva, Elizaveta V.; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol might be a novel, potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This hypothesis stemmed mainly from rodent studies showing that propranolol interferes with the reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning (FC). However, subsequent investigations…

  13. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Enantio-selective optode for the β-blocker propranolol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huarui; Uray, Georg; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1991-03-01

    We present a scheme for sensing optical isomers (enantiomers) of biogenic amines such as the Bblocker propranolol. Recognition of one of the enantiomers of propranolol is accomplished by specific interaction of the amine (which is present in the protonated ammonium form at physiological pH) with an optically active substrate (dibutyl tartrate) in a pvc membrane. As the ammonium ion is carried into the pvc membrane a proton is simultaneously released from the proton carrier (a lipophilic phenolic xanthene dye which undergoes protolytic dissociation in the pvc membrane) which thereby suffers a color change. The sensor responds to propranolol but also to other biogenic amines such as 1-phenylethylamine and norephedrine in the 20 pM to 10 mM range but has a pH-dependent response. The selectivity factors depend on the type of receptor and range from 0. 0 to 0. 30.

  15. Simultaneous Quantitation of Atenolol, Metoprolol, and Propranolol in Biological Matrices Via LC/MS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Simultaneous Quantitation of Atenolol, Metoprolol , and Propranolol in Biological Matrices Via LC/MS Robert D. Johnson Russell J. Lewis Civil...authorized 1 SIMULTANEOUS QUANTITATION OF ATENOLOL, METOPROLOL , AND PROPRANOLOL IN BIOLOGICAL MATRICES VIA LC/MS INTRODUCTION The Federal Aviation...detect beta-blocker compounds such as atenolol, metoprolol , or propranolol in the submitted biological samples. In forensic toxicol- ogy laboratories

  16. A clinical trial of the beta blocker propranolol in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Magnus, R V

    1984-01-01

    Twelve male patients, with a primary complaint of premature ejaculation in a setting of chronic anxiety with prominent somatic manifestations, participated in a double-blind trial: propranolol against placebo. The study consisted of 5 X 4 week phases: run-in, propranolol or placebo--120 mg/day allocated randomly, wash-out; placebo or propranolol and run-out, in a balanced design. Anxiety was rated initially, and every 2 weeks, throughout the trial using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Sitting blood pressure and pulse were also noted. The time to coital ejaculation (every 3 days) was recorded using a stopwatch, and subjects were also required to rate "overall coital satisfaction" and "quality of erection". Neither prematurity nor other signs/symptoms of anxiety improved on the preparations, which were statistically equivalent. Moderate beta-blockade was achieved with propranolol as evidenced by a median reduction in pulse rate of 5 beats/min.

  17. Zolmitriptan: a novel portal hypotensive agent which synergizes with propranolol in lowering portal pressure.

    PubMed

    Reboredo, Mercedes; Chang, Haisul C Y; Barbero, Roberto; Rodríguez-Ortigosa, Carlos M; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Morán, Asunción; García, Mónica; Banales, Jesús M; Carreño, Norberto; Alegre, Félix; Herrero, Ignacio; Quiroga, Jorge; Prieto, Jesús; Sangro, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Only a limited proportion of patients needing pharmacological control of portal hypertension are hemodynamic responders to propranolol. Here we analyzed the effects of zolmitriptan on portal pressure and its potential interaction with propranolol. ZOLMITRIPTAN, PROPRANOLOL OR BOTH WERE TESTED IN TWO RAT MODELS OF PORTAL HYPERTENSION: common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and CCl4-induced cirrhosis. In these animals we measured different hemodynamic parameters including portal venous pressure, arterial renal flow, portal blood flow and cardiac output. We also studied the changes in superior mesenteric artery perfusion pressure and in arterial wall cAMP levels induced by zolmitriptan, propranolol or both. Moreover, we determined the effect of splanchnic sympathectomy on the response of PVP to zolmitriptan. In both models of portal hypertension zolmitriptan induced a dose-dependent transient descent of portal pressure accompanied by reduction of portal flow with only slight decrease in renal flow. In cirrhotic rats, splanchnic sympathectomy intensified and prolonged zolmitriptan-induced portal pressure descent. Also, propranolol caused more intense and durable portal pressure fall when combined with zolmitriptan. Mesenteric artery perfusion pressure peaked for about 1 min upon zolmitriptan administration but showed no change with propranolol. However propranolol enhanced and prolonged the elevation in mesenteric artery perfusion pressure induced by zolmitriptan. In vitro studies showed that propranolol prevented the inhibitory effects of β2-agonists on zolmitriptan-induced vasoconstriction and the combination of propranolol and zolmitriptan significantly reduced the elevation of cAMP caused by β2-agonists. Zolmitriptan reduces portal hypertension and non-selective beta-blockers can improve this effect. Combination therapy deserves consideration for patients with portal hypertension failing to respond to non-selective beta-blockers.

  18. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    PubMed Central

    Giustino, Thomas F.; Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Maren, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal. PMID:26808441

  19. Effects of Propranolol, a β-noradrenergic Antagonist, on Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Drougard, Anne; Lafragette, Marie; Muzotte, Elodie; Pech, Stéphane; Bui, Eric; Brunet, Alain; Birmes, Philippe; Roullet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Memory reconsolidation impairment using the β-noradrenergic receptor blocker propranolol is a promising novel treatment avenue for patients suffering from pathogenic memories, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, in order to better inform targeted treatment development, the effects of this compound on memory need to be better characterized via translational research. We examined the effects of systemic propranolol administration in mice undergoing a wide range of behavioral tests to determine more specifically which aspects of the memory consolidation and reconsolidation are impaired by propranolol. We found that propranolol (10 mg/kg) affected memory consolidation in non-aversive tasks (object recognition and object location) but not in moderately (Morris water maze (MWM) to highly (passive avoidance, conditioned taste aversion) aversive tasks. Further, propranolol impaired memory reconsolidation in the most and in the least aversive tasks, but not in the moderately aversive task, suggesting its amnesic effect was not related to task aversion. Moreover, in aquatic object recognition and location tasks in which animals were forced to behave (contrary to the classic versions of the tasks); propranolol did not impair memory reconsolidation. Taken together our results suggest that the memory impairment observed after propranolol administration may result from a modification of the emotional valence of the memory rather than a disruption of the contextual component of the memory trace. This is relevant to the use of propranolol to block memory reconsolidation in individuals with PTSD, as such a treatment would not erase the traumatic memory but only reduce the emotional valence associated with this event. PMID:27014009

  20. Preventing postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome after rhinoplasty with propranolol: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ronald P; Roberts, Christa; Schooler, Wesley; Pitman, Roger K

    2009-03-01

    Rhinoplasty patients are commonly anxious about their result when the splint is removed. A small group of them, however, are overtly unhappy with their appearance despite objectively satisfactory early results, cannot be reassured about their favorable long-term prognosis, and remain dissatisfied despite objectively satisfactory end results. The authors have termed this symptom complex "postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome." In these patients, it seems that persistence of the original negative image of their appearance at the time of splint removal fails to yield to an improved self-image as healing progresses. The authors theorized that the syndrome is analogous to the persistence of negative emotional memories seen in posttraumatic stress disorder. In trauma-exposed patients, the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, when given within a few hours of the traumatic event, may reduce the subsequent emotional strength of the traumatic memory. The authors hypothesized that giving propranolol to postrhinoplasty patients with the above early symptomatology would reduce the likelihood of postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome. A retrospective review of 1000 consecutive rhinoplasty patients identified 11 with early symptomatology. Of these 11 (not taking propranolol), nine (82 percent) developed postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome. In addition, a prospective study was performed of nine additional patients with the same early symptomatology who were immediately treated with propranolol. In contrast, only three developed postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome (p < 0.04). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 50 additional postrhinoplasty patients suggests that propranolol's effect is not due to anxiolysis. Propranolol given immediately after splint removal in anxious, unhappy cosmetic surgery patients may prevent postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome. A double-blind study appears warranted.

  1. D-propranolol attenuates lysosomal iron accumulation and oxidative injury in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mak, I Tong; Chmielinska, Joanna J; Nedelec, Lucie; Torres, Armida; Weglicki, William B

    2006-05-01

    The influence of selected beta-receptor blockers on iron overload and oxidative stress in endothelial cells (ECs) was assessed. Confluent bovine ECs were loaded with iron dextran (15 muM) for 24 h and then exposed to dihydroxyfumarate (DHF), a source of reactive oxygen species, for up to 2 h. Intracellular oxidant formation, monitored by fluorescence of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCF; 30 microM), increased and peaked at 30 min; total glutathione decreased by 52 +/- 5% (p < 0.01) at 60 min. When the ECs were pretreated 30 min before iron loading with 1.25 to 10 microM d-propranolol, glutathione losses were attenuated 15 to 80%, with EC(50) = 3.1 microM. d-Propranolol partially inhibited the DCF intensity increase, but atenolol up to 10 microM was ineffective. At 2 h, caspase 3 activity was elevated 3.2 +/- 0.3-fold (p < 0.01) in the iron-loaded and DHF-treated ECs, and cell survival, determined 24 h later, decreased 47 +/- 6% (p < 0.01). Ten micromoles of d-propranolol suppressed the caspase 3 activation by 63% (p < 0.05) and preserved cell survival back to 88% of control (p < 0.01). In separate experiments, 24-h iron loading resulted in a 3.6 +/- 0.8-fold increase in total EC iron determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy; d-propranolol at 5 microM reduced this increase to 1.5 +/- 0.4-fold (p < 0.01) of controls. Microscopic observation by Perls' staining revealed that the excessive iron accumulated in vesicular endosomal/lysosomal structures, which were substantially diminished by d-propranolol. We previously showed that propranolol could readily concentrate into the lysosomes and raise the intralysosomal pH; it is suggested that the lysosomotropic properties of d-propranolol retarded the EC iron accumulation and thereby conferred the protective effects against iron load-mediated cytotoxicity.

  2. Dose-response relationships of propranolol in Chinese subjects with different CYP2D6 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Wei; Lai, Ming-Liang; Lin, Min-Shung; Lee, Hwei-Ling; Huang, Jin-Ding

    2003-01-01

    For clinical treatment, a smaller dosage of propranolol is often used among Chinese people. Propranolol is metabolized by polymorphic CYP2D6. We postulate that the lower propranolol dosage in Chinese is due to a slower CYP2D6 metabolism. A majority of the Chinese population has the nucleotide T188 in the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*10) instead of C188 (CYP2D6*1), which most white subjects have. Chinese subjects of different CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*10 genotypes have been shown to have different propranolol pharmacokinetic characteristics. In this study, we compared the beta-blockade effects of propranolol in Chinese subjects of the two different CYP2D6 genotypes. Based on the nucleotide 188 genotypes, two groups of 10 healthy subjects each were selected. Each subject was given a 10-, 20-, or 40-mg rac-propranolol tablet three times a day for 3 days in 3 different phases. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured in both supine and upright positions. The heart rate was also determined during treadmill exercise test. Plasma concentration of S-propranolol at 2 hrs after the last-dose administration was measured. Despite therebeing higher S-propranolol plasma concentration in CYP2D6*10 subjects than in CYP2D6*1 subjects at 10- and 20-mg dosage, the dose-response relationship was not significantly different in these subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*10 polymorphism may affect the beta-blockade effect of propranolol in Chinese subjects.

  3. Rifaximin and Propranolol Combination Therapy Is More Effective than Propranolol Monotherapy for the Reduction of Portal Pressure: An Open Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yoo Li; Kim, Moon Young; Jang, Yoon Ok; Baik, Soon Koo; Kwon, Sang Ok

    2017-09-15

    Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) are currently the only accepted regimen for preventing portal hypertension (PHT)-related complications. However, the effect of NSBBs is insufficient in many cases. Bacterial translocation (BT) is one of the aggravating factors of PHT in cirrhosis; therefore, selective intestinal decontamination by rifaximin is a possible therapeutic option for improving PHT. We investigated whether the addition of rifaximin to propranolol therapy can improve hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) response. Sixty-four cirrhosis patients were randomly assigned to propranolol monotherapy (n=48) versus rifaximin and propranolol combination therapy (n=16). Baseline and post-treatment HVPG values, BT-related markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), serological data, and adverse event data were collected. HVPG response rate was the primary endpoint. Combination therapy was associated with better HVPG response rates than monotherapy (56.2% vs 87.5%, p=0.034). In combination therapy, posttreatment BT-related markers were significantly decreased (LPS, p=0.005; LBP, p=0.005; IL-6, p=0.005; TNF-α, p=0.047). Rifaximin combination therapy showed an additive effect in improving PHT compared to propranolol monotherapy. These pilot data suggest that the addition of rifaximin to NSBBs could be a good therapeutic option for overcoming the limited effectiveness of NSBBs.

  4. Propranolol medication among coronary patients: relationship to type A behavior and cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Krantz, D S; Durel, L A; Davia, J E; Shaffer, R T; Arabian, J M; Dembroski, T M; MacDougall, J M

    1982-09-01

    The present correlational study compared behavioral and psychophysiological characteristics of coronary patients who were either medicated or not medicated with the beta-adrenergic blocking drug propranolol. Eighty-eight patients were given a structured Type A interview (SI) and a history quiz while heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Data were analyzed controlling for age, sex, extent of coronary artery disease, and history of angina. Results indicated that patients taking propranolol (n = 65) were significantly lower in intensity of Type A behavior than patients not taking propranolol (n = 23). No effects were obtained for patients medicated or not medicated with diuretics, nitrates, or other CNS active drugs. Propranolol patients also showed lesser heart rate and rate-pressure product responses to the interview, but did not differ in blood pressure responses. Components of Type A which were lower in propranolol patients included speech stylistics (loud/explosive, rapid/accelerated, potential for hostility). Content of responses to the SI and scores on the Jenkins Activity Survey did not differ between the groups. An explanation for these results is offered in terms of the effects of propranolol on peripheral sympathetic responses, and evidence for a physiological substrate for Type A behavior. A conceptualization of the Type A pattern in terms of cognitive and physiological components is advanced, and implications for clinical intervention are discussed.

  5. The use of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Fonte, R J; Stevenson, J M

    1985-01-01

    The authors review the available literature on the use of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders. First studied in 1966, propranolol has been shown to be most effective in the control of certain somatic symptoms associated with anxiety. Despite these studies, however, it is still not certain where this beta-adrenergic blocker fits into the overall treatment of anxiety disorders. Reasons for this uncertainty and other related problems are discussed.

  6. Effect of propranolol on the splanchnic and peripheral renin angiotensin system in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Walkíria Wingester; Jr, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira; da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata; Vieira, Renata Lúcia Pereira; Almeida, Jerusa; Nadu, Ana Paula; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of β-blockade on angiotensins in the splanchnic and peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients and also to compare hemodynamic parameters during liver transplantation according to propranolol pre-treatment or not. METHODS: Patients were allocated into two groups: outpatients with advanced liver disease(LD) and during liver transplantation(LT). Both groups were subdivided according to treatment with propranolol or not. Plasma was collected through peripheral venipuncture to determine plasma renin activity(PRA), Angiotensin(Ang) I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7) levels by radioimmunoassay in LD group. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood samples were obtained from the portal vein to measure renin angiotensin system(RAS) components. RESULTS: PRA, Ang I, Ang II and Ang-(1-7) were significantly lower in the portal vein and periphery in all subgroups treated with propranolol as compared to non-treated. The relationships between Ang-(1-7) and Ang I levels and between Ang II and Ang I were significantly increased in LD group receiving propranolol. The ratio between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II remained unchanged in splanchnic and peripheral circulation in patients under β-blockade, whereas the relationship between Ang II and Ang I was significantly increased in splanchnic circulation of LT patients treated with propranolol. During liver transplantation, cardiac output and index as well systemic vascular resistance and index were reduced in propranolol-treated subgroup. CONCLUSION: In LD group, propranolol treatment reduced RAS mediators, but did not change the ratio between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II in splanchnic and peripheral circulation. Furthermore, the modification of hemodynamic parameters in propranolol treated patients was not associated with changes in the angiotensin ratio. PMID:19058308

  7. Atenolol vs. propranolol in essential tremor. A controlled, quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T A; Teräväinen, H; Calne, D B

    1982-11-01

    The beta-1 selective, hydrophilic adrenoceptor blocking drug atenolol (100 mg daily) was compared to the non-selective, lipid-soluble beta-blocker propranolol (240 mg daily), and to placebo, in a double-blind cross-over study in 24 patients with essential tremor. Atenolol and propranolol caused a similar decrease in heart rate. Both beta-blockers also suppressed the tremor intensity; there was no significant difference between them, but both were significantly better than placebo. These drugs did not affect tremor frequency. Twelve of the patients preferred propranolol subjectively, one preferred atenolol and none preferred placebo. No marked side-effects were observed. It was concluded that atenolol and other cardio-selective blockers offer an alternative for patients unable to tolerate the non-selective drugs. The site of action and receptor sub-type involved have still to be determined.

  8. The pathogenesis of propranolol-withdrawal syndrome in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B O; Steiness, E; Weeke, J

    1979-12-01

    1. In hypertension, the beta-adrenoreceptor-blocker-withdrawal syndrome comprises tachycardia, sweating, tremor and general malaise, symptoms resembling thyrotoxicosis. 2. The effect of abrupt cessation of propranolol on serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) was therefore investigated in five patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension, treated with propranolol in doses from 160 to 480 mg/day. 3. Four of the five patients developed one or more of the above-mentioned symptoms within 2-6 days after withdrawal of propranolol. 4. A mean relative increase in serum free T3 of 51% (range 22-74%) was found in these four patients on the day of onset of symptoms. 5. The increase in free T3 in the five patients correlated positively with total serum propranolol on the last day the drug was given (r = 0.91, 2P = 0.03). 6. As an increase in T3 was found only in patients suffering the withdrawal syndrome, and was maximal the day the symptoms appeared, despite a variation in time of onset from 2 to 6 days, it is suggested that the beta-adrenoreceptor-blocker-withdrawal syndrome, at least partially, is caused by rebound increased production of T3, induced by the well-known inhibition of the monodeiodination of T4 to T3 during beta-adrenoreceptor blockade. 7. This assumption may explain the clinical symptoms and the reported transient increased beta-adrenoreceptor sensitivity with unchanged serum concentrations of catecholamines.

  9. Propranolol transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement of a novel organic cation transporter.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yoshimi; Kusagawa, Yusuke; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    The influx transport of propranolol across the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was investigated. In the in vivo analysis of carotid artery single-injection method, [(3) H]propranolol uptake by the retina was greater than that of an internal reference compound, and was reduced by several organic cations. In the in vitro uptake study, TR-iBRB2 cells, an in vitro model of the inner BRB, showed a time-, concentration-, pH- and temperature-dependent [(3) H]propranolol uptake, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport process in the influx of propranolol across the inner BRB. In the inhibition study, various organic cations, including drugs and candidates for the treatment of the retinal diseases, inhibited the [(3) H]propranolol uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells with no significant effects by the substrates and inhibitors of well-characterized organic cation transporters, suggesting that the influx transport of propranolol is performed by a novel transporter at the inner BRB. An analysis of the relationship between the inhibitory effect and the lipophilicity of inhibitors suggests a lipophilicity-dependent inhibitory effect of amines on the [(3) H]propranolol uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells. These results showed that influx transport of propranolol across the inner BRB is performed by a carrier-mediated transport process, suggesting the involvement of a novel organic cation transporter. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The comparative effects of ICI 118551 and propranolol on essential tremor.

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, D; Wharrad, H J; Birmingham, A T; Patrick, J M

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118551 on essential tremor, heart rate and blood pressure were compared with those of propranolol. 2. ICI 118551 (150 mg daily for 7 days) and propranolol (120 mg daily for 7 days) were about equally effective in reducing essential tremor (by about 40%) and were more effective than placebo. 3. When compared with the effect of placebo, propranolol reduced blood pressure and exercise heart rate whereas ICI 118551 had no significant effect on blood pressure and produced a small but significant reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia. 4. ICI 118551 may be useful in the management of essential tremor while having fewer cardiovascular side-effects than non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:2894217

  11. Growth Attenuation of Cutaneous Angiosarcoma With Propranolol-Mediated β-Blockade.

    PubMed

    Chow, William; Amaya, Clarissa N; Rains, Steven; Chow, Michael; Dickerson, Erin B; Bryan, Brad A

    2015-11-01

    Patients with stage T2 multilesion angiosarcomas of the scalp and face that are larger than 10 cm demonstrate a 2-year survival rate of 0%. To our knowledge, major therapeutic advances against this disease have not been reported for decades. Preclinical data indicate that blocking β-adrenergic signaling with propranolol hydrochloride disrupts angiosarcoma cell survival and xenograft angiosarcoma progression. A patient presented with a β-adrenergic-positive multifocal stage T2 cutaneous angiosarcoma (≥20 cm) involving 80% of the scalp, left forehead, and left cheek, with no evidence of metastasis. The patient was immediately administered propranolol hydrochloride, 40 mg twice a day, as his workup progressed and treatment options were elucidated. Evaluation of the proliferative index of the tumor before and after only 1 week of propranolol monotherapy revealed a reduction in the proliferative index of the tumor by approximately 34%. A combination of propranolol hydrochloride, 40 mg 3 times a day, paclitaxel poliglumex, 2 mg/m2 infused weekly, and radiotherapy during the subsequent 8 months resulted in extensive tumor regression with no detectable metastases. Our data suggest that β-blockade alone substantially reduced angiosarcoma proliferation and, in combination with standard therapy, is effective for reducing the size of the tumor and preventing metastases. If successful, β-blockade could be the first major advancement in the treatment of angiosarcoma in decades.

  12. Neuroanatomical Heterogeneity of Essential Tremor According to Propranolol Response

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seok Jong; Kwon, Hunki; Lee, Dong-Kyun; Hong, Jin Yong; Sunwoo, Mun-Kyung; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that essential tremor (ET) is a more complex and heterogeneous clinical entity than initially thought. In the present study, we assessed the pattern of cortical thickness and diffusion tensor white matter (WM) changes in patients with ET according to the response to propranolol to explore the pathogenesis underlying the clinical heterogeneity of ET. Methods A total of 32 patients with drug naive ET were recruited prospectively from the Movement Disorders outpatient clinic. The patients were divided into a propranolol-responder group (n = 18) and a non-responder group (n = 14). We analyzed the pattern of cortical thickness and diffusion tensor WM changes between these two groups and performed correlation analysis between imaging and clinical parameters. Results There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, general cognition, or results of detailed neuropsychological tests between the groups. The non-responder group showed more severe cortical atrophy in the left orbitofrontal cortex and right temporal cortex relative to responders. However, the responders exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy values in the bilateral frontal, corpus callosal, and right parietotemporal WM compared with the non-responder group. There were no significant clusters where the cortical thickness or WM alterations were significantly correlated with initial tremor severity or disease duration. Conclusions The present data suggest that patients with ET have heterogeneous cortical thinning and WM alteration with respect to responsiveness to propranolol, suggesting that propranolol responsiveness may be a predictive factor to determine ET subtypes in terms of neuroanatomical heterogeneity. PMID:24358327

  13. Comparative effectiveness of propranolol and botulinum for the treatment of essential voice tremor.

    PubMed

    Justicz, Natalie; Hapner, Edie R; Josephs, Joshua S; Boone, Benjamin C; Jinnah, Hyder A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the comparative effectiveness of botulinum toxin and propranolol in patients with essential vocal tremor (EVT). Individual prospective cohort study. Study patients were recruited at the Emory Voice Center from patients seeking treatment for EVT. Exclusion criteria included current β-blocker treatment, spasmodic dysphonia, or other disease that prevented the use of propranolol therapy. A 10-week washout period from prior botulinum toxin treatment occurred before enrollment. Patients were assessed via the Voice-Related Quality-Of-Life (VRQOL) questionnaire, Quality of life in Essential Tremor questionnaire, and blinded perceptual voice assessment. These assessments were made at baseline voice 2 weeks after propranolol therapy and 4 weeks after botulinum toxin injection. Eighteen patients were enrolled. After 2 to 4 weeks of propranolol therapy (with a maximum dosage of 60 mg to 90 mg per day), patients report an average ΔVRQOL of 9.31. Six patients report significant VRQOL improvement >10, with the rest reporting changes between -7.5 and 7.5. Fifteen patients were followed for at least 4 weeks after botulinum toxin injection, reporting an average improvement in scaled VRQOL of 22.00. Blinded perceptual voice assessment demonstrates an improvement in overall severity of tremor with botulinum toxin. In some patients with EVT, propranolol led to significant vocal improvement with no major side effects. Although botulinum toxin remains the gold-standard therapy for patients with EVT, propranolol represents a possible alternative or adjuvant therapy for certain patients. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Propranolol and Botulinum for the Treatment of Essential Voice Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Justicz, Natalie; Hapner, Edie R.; Josephs, Joshua S.; Boone, Benjamin C.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Johns, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To assess the comparative effectiveness of botulinum toxin and propranolol in patients with essential vocal tremor (EVT). Study Design Individual prospective cohort study. Methods Study patients were recruited at the Emory Voice Center from patients seeking treatment for EVT. Exclusion criteria included current β-blocker treatment, spasmodic dysphonia, or other disease that prevented the use of propranolol therapy. A 10-week washout period from prior botulinum toxin treatment occurred before enrollment. Patients were assessed via the Voice-Related Quality-Of-Life (VRQOL) questionnaire, Quality of life in Essential Tremor questionnaire, and blinded perceptual voice assessment. These assessments were made at baseline voice 2 weeks after propranolol therapy and 4 weeks after botulinum toxin injection. Results Eighteen patients were enrolled. After 2 to 4 weeks of propranolol therapy (with a maximum dosage of 60 mg to 90 mg per day), patients report an average ΔVRQOL of 9.31. Six patients report significant VRQOL improvement >10, with the rest reporting changes between −7.5 and 7.5. Fifteen patients were followed for at least 4 weeks after botulinum toxin injection, reporting an average improvement in scaled VRQOL of 22.00. Blinded perceptual voice assessment demonstrates an improvement in overall severity of tremor with botulinum toxin. Conclusions In some patients with EVT, propranolol led to significant vocal improvement with no major side effects. Although botulinum toxin remains the gold-standard therapy for patients with EVT, propranolol represents a possible alternative or adjuvant therapy for certain patients. PMID:26198384

  15. Unexpected Effect of Propranolol and Prednisolone on Infantile Facial Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shilpakar, Rojina; Lemperle, Gottfried; Mentzel, Thomas; Shakya, Jaswan; Bhandari, Santosh Bikram

    2017-11-01

    A 14-month-old Nepalese infant had developed a rapidly growing facial tumor originating from a dark spot on her upper eyelid. A cavernous hemangioma was suspected and treated with high doses of propranolol and prednisolone. Remission was dramatic. Histology confirmed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Chemotherapy was planned but not carried out due to complicated logistics. The girl died at the age of 3. We present this case for discussion as to whether propranolol and prednisolone might be effective in rapidly growing rhabdomyosarcomas.

  16. Propranolol for treating emotional, behavioural, autonomic dysregulation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sagar-Ouriaghli, Ilyas; Lievesley, Kate; Santosh, Paramala J

    2018-06-01

    To date, there is no single medication prescribed to alleviate all the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, 2016). Both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and drugs for psychosis possess therapeutic drawbacks when managing anxiety and aggression in ASD. This review sought to appraise the use of propranolol as a pharmacological alternative when managing emotional, behavioural and autonomic dysregulation (EBAD) and other symptoms. Sixteen reports examined the administration of propranolol in the context of ASD. Sixteen reports broadly covered cognitive domains, neural correlates, and behavioural domains. From the eight single-dose clinical trials, propranolol led to significant improvements in cognitive performance - verbal problem solving, social skills, mouth fixation, and conversation reciprocity; and changes in neural correlates - improvement in semantic networks and functional connectivity. The remaining eight case series and single case reports showed improvements in EBAD, anxiety, aggressive, self-injurious and hypersexual behaviours. Additionally, propranolol significantly improved similar behavioural domains (aggression and self-injury) for those with acquired brain injury. This review indicates that propranolol holds promise for EBAD and cognitive performance in ASD. Given the lack of good quality clinical trials, randomised controlled trials are warranted to explore the efficacy of propranolol in managing EBAD in ASD.

  17. Effects of intravenous propranolol on heat pain sensitivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schweinhardt, P; Abulhasan, Y B; Koeva, V; Balderi, T; Kim, D J; Alhujairi, M; Carli, F

    2013-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown opioid-sparing effects of β-adrenergic antagonists perioperatively and β-blockers are being investigated for chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, the direct analgesic effects of β-blockers have rarely been examined in healthy humans. In a randomized, counter-balanced, double-blind, within-subject crossover design, we tested the effect of the lipophilic β-blocker propranolol (0.035 mg/kg body weight i.v.) on heat pain sensitivity in 39 healthy males, compared with placebo. To test for peripheral versus central effects, the peripherally acting β-blocker sotalol was also examined. Experimental stimuli were brief superficial noxious heat stimuli applied to the volar forearm. Non-painful cold stimuli were included to test for specificity. Sedation, mood and anxiety were assessed to investigate potential mechanisms underlying any analgesic effect. β-blocker effects on blood pressure were incorporated into the analysis because of a known inverse relationship between pain sensitivity and systolic blood pressure. Propranolol significantly decreased perceived intensity of heat pain stimuli but only in participants with small propranolol-induced blood pressure decreases. Even in this group, the effect was small (4%). Propranolol did not influence perceived intensity of non-noxious stimuli and had no effect on sedation, anxiety or mood. Sotalol did not influence heat pain sensitivity. Propranolol decreased pain sensitivity but its analgesic effects were small and counteracted by blood pressure decreases. The analgesic effects were not mediated by peripheral β-receptor blockade, sedation, mood or anxiety. The small effect indicates that the utility of β-blockers for clinical pain must be related to factors that do not play a significant role for experimental pain. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  18. Initiation and Use of Propranolol for Infantile Hemangioma: Report of a Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Frommelt, Peter C.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Haggstrom, Anita; Bauman, Nancy M.; Chiu, Yvonne E.; Chun, Robert H.; Garzon, Maria C.; Holland, Kristen E.; Liberman, Leonardo; MacLellan-Tobert, Susan; Mancini, Anthony J.; Metry, Denise; Puttgen, Katherine B.; Seefeldt, Marcia; Sidbury, Robert; Ward, Kendra M.; Blei, Francine; Baselga, Eulalia; Cassidy, Laura; Darrow, David H.; Joachim, Shawna; Kwon, Eun-Kyung M.; Martin, Kari; Perkins, Jonathan; Siegel, Dawn H.; Boucek, Robert J.; Frieden, Ilona J.

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are common neoplasms composed of proliferating endothelial-like cells. Despite the relative frequency of IH and the potential severity of complications, there are currently no uniform guidelines for treatment. Although propranolol has rapidly been adopted, there is significant uncertainty and divergence of opinion regarding safety monitoring, dose escalation, and its use in PHACE syndrome (PHACE = posterior fossa, hemangioma, arterial lesions, cardiac abnormalities, eye abnormalities; a cutaneous neurovascular syndrome characterized by large, segmental hemangiomas of the head and neck along with congenital anomalies of the brain, heart, eyes and/or chest wall). A consensus conference was held on December 9, 2011. The multidisciplinary team reviewed existing data on the pharmacologic properties of propranolol and all published reports pertaining to the use of propranolol in pediatric patients. Workgroups were assigned specific topics to propose protocols on the following subjects: contraindications, special populations, pretreatment evaluation, dose escalation, and monitoring. Consensus protocols were recorded during the meeting and refined after the meeting. When appropriate, protocol clarifications and revision were made and agreed upon by the group via teleconference. Because of the absence of high-quality clinical research data, evidence-based recommendations are not possible at present. However, the team agreed on a number of recommendations that arose from a review of existing evidence, including when to treat complicated IH; contraindications and pretreatment evaluation protocols; propranolol use in PHACE syndrome; formulation, target dose, and frequency of propranolol; initiation of propranolol in infants; cardiovascular monitoring; ongoing monitoring; and prevention of hypoglycemia. Where there was considerable controversy, the more conservative approach was selected. We acknowledge that the recommendations are conservative in

  19. Initiation and use of propranolol for infantile hemangioma: report of a consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Beth A; Frommelt, Peter C; Chamlin, Sarah L; Haggstrom, Anita; Bauman, Nancy M; Chiu, Yvonne E; Chun, Robert H; Garzon, Maria C; Holland, Kristen E; Liberman, Leonardo; MacLellan-Tobert, Susan; Mancini, Anthony J; Metry, Denise; Puttgen, Katherine B; Seefeldt, Marcia; Sidbury, Robert; Ward, Kendra M; Blei, Francine; Baselga, Eulalia; Cassidy, Laura; Darrow, David H; Joachim, Shawna; Kwon, Eun-Kyung M; Martin, Kari; Perkins, Jonathan; Siegel, Dawn H; Boucek, Robert J; Frieden, Ilona J

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are common neoplasms composed of proliferating endothelial-like cells. Despite the relative frequency of IH and the potential severity of complications, there are currently no uniform guidelines for treatment. Although propranolol has rapidly been adopted, there is significant uncertainty and divergence of opinion regarding safety monitoring, dose escalation, and its use in PHACE syndrome (PHACE = posterior fossa, hemangioma, arterial lesions, cardiac abnormalities, eye abnormalities; a cutaneous neurovascular syndrome characterized by large, segmental hemangiomas of the head and neck along with congenital anomalies of the brain, heart, eyes and/or chest wall). A consensus conference was held on December 9, 2011. The multidisciplinary team reviewed existing data on the pharmacologic properties of propranolol and all published reports pertaining to the use of propranolol in pediatric patients. Workgroups were assigned specific topics to propose protocols on the following subjects: contraindications, special populations, pretreatment evaluation, dose escalation, and monitoring. Consensus protocols were recorded during the meeting and refined after the meeting. When appropriate, protocol clarifications and revision were made and agreed upon by the group via teleconference. Because of the absence of high-quality clinical research data, evidence-based recommendations are not possible at present. However, the team agreed on a number of recommendations that arose from a review of existing evidence, including when to treat complicated IH; contraindications and pretreatment evaluation protocols; propranolol use in PHACE syndrome; formulation, target dose, and frequency of propranolol; initiation of propranolol in infants; cardiovascular monitoring; ongoing monitoring; and prevention of hypoglycemia. Where there was considerable controversy, the more conservative approach was selected. We acknowledge that the recommendations are conservative in

  20. Propranolol, isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic band ligation - alone or in varying combinations for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan; Khan, Anwaar A; Alam, Altaf; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Shafqat, Farzana; Sarwar, Shahid

    2009-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of propranolol, propranolol with nitrate, band ligation, and band ligation with propranolol and nitrate for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. A prospective randomized trial. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from November 2003 to July 2005. One hundred and sixty cirrhotic patients with esophageal variceal bleeding were randomized to four treatment groups (propranolol, propranolol plus isosorbide mononitrate, band ligation, band ligation plus propranolol and nitrate) with 40 patients in each group. Patients were followed for 6 months after the enrolment of last patient. Primary end points were recurrence of esophageal variceal bleeding and death. Treatment complications were noted. Four treatment groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Esophageal variceal rebleeding occurred in 22% patients in band ligation plus drugs group, 26% patients in drug combination group, 31% patients in banding group and 38% patients in propranolol group (p=0.41). Difference in mortality rates was also not significant. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding.

  1. Effect on finger tremor of withdrawal of long-term treatment with propranolol or atenolol.

    PubMed Central

    Wharrad, H J; Birmingham, A T; Wilson, C G; Williams, E J; Roland, J M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the withdrawal of long-term beta-adrenoceptor blockade on pulse rate and finger tremor was studied in 27 patients who had been treated for 2 years following an uncomplicated myocardial infarction with either atenolol, propranolol or placebo. During treatment, pulse rate was significantly lower in patients treated with propranolol or atenolol compared with placebo. Compared with the response in the placebo group the mean increase in tremor on withdrawal of propranolol was statistically significant for postural and for work tremor in both hands. A significant increase in tremor on withdrawal of atenolol occurred only in the postural position and in a narrow frequency band (left hand, 7-11 Hz; right hand, 7-9 Hz). The differences in the effect on tremor of withdrawal of treatment with propranolol or atenolol in doses which produced similar reductions in heart rate, emphasise the beta 2 classification of peripheral receptors associated with normal muscle tremor but do not exclude the involvement of beta 1-adrenoceptors. PMID:6487471

  2. Haemodynamic and hormonal effects of cilazapril in comparison with propranolol in healthy subjects and in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Kleinbloesem, C. H.; Erb, K.; Essig, J.; Breithaupt, K.; Belz, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    1 The purpose of the present studies was to compare the pharmacodynamic profile of the new ACE inhibitor cilazapril with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol in healthy subjects and in hypertensive patients. 2 Hormonal and haemodynamic responses at rest and after pharmacological interventions with angiotensin I and isoprenaline were investigated in six healthy volunteers following a 1 week treatment with placebo, propranolol (120 mg day-1) and cilazapril (2.5 mg day-1) in a double-blind cross over design with a wash-out period of 1 week between the different treatments. 3 Cilazapril induced a pronounced increase of plasma renin activity and angiotensin I concentrations, whereas after propranolol both parameters decreased. After both compounds slight decreases in angiotensin II concentrations were found. After the pharmacological challenges with angiotensin I and isoprenaline specific effects of the ACE inhibitor and β-adrenoceptor blocker were found respectively. 4 Seventeen hypertensive patients received after a 2 week placebo period in random order cilazapril (2.5 mg day-1) or propranolol (120 mg day-1) for 3 weeks. A cross over design switched the patients to the other treatment. On the last day of each treatment period blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were determined at rest and during handgrip test. In addition, bicycle exercise test was done and blood lactate concentrations were determined. 5 At rest blood pressure was lowered by both drugs, but total peripheral resistance increased after propranolol and decreased after cilazapril. After hand grip test, blood pressure was lowered after both drugs, but peripheral resistance decreased only after cilazapril. After bicycle exercise the median maximal exercise was 175 W after cilazapril and 150 W after propranolol, whereas lactate concentrations were higher in the propranolol group. 6 It could be concluded that cilazapril and propranolol suppressed the renin

  3. Enantiospecific adsorption of propranolol enantiomers on naturally chiral copper surface: A molecular dynamics simulation investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghamiz, Tahereh; Bahrami, Maryam; Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Adsorption of propranolol enantiomers on naturally chiral copper (Cu(3,1,17)S) and achiral copper (Cu(100)) surfaces were studied by molecular dynamics simulation to unravel the features of adsorbate-adsorbent enantioselectivity. Adsorption of S- and R-propranolol on Cu(3,1,17)S terraces (with 100 plane) leads mainly to endo- and exo-conformers, respectively. Simulated pair correlation function (g(r)) and mean square displacement (MSD) were analyzed to identify adsorption sites of enantiomers on Cu(3,1,17)S substrate surface, and their simulated binding energies were used to access the adsorption strength. According to (g(r)), R-propranolol adsorbs via naphtyl group while S-propranolol mainly adsorbs through chain group. R-enantiomer binds more tightly to the chiral substrate surface than S-enantiomer as indicated by a higher simulated binding energy by 2.74 kJ mol-1 per molecule. The difference in binding energies of propranolol enantiomers on naturally chiral Cu(3,1,17)S is almost six times larger than on the achiral Cu(100) surface, which substantiates the appreciably strong specific enantioselective adsorption on the former surface.

  4. The renal effects of droxidopa are maintained in propranolol treated cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sarai; Raurell, Imma; Ezkurdia, Nahia; Augustin, Salvador; Esteban, Rafael; Genescà, Joan; Martell, María

    2015-02-01

    Droxidopa improves hemodynamic and renal alterations of cirrhotic rats without changing portal pressure. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a combined treatment with droxidopa and non-selective beta-blockers or statins in order to decrease portal pressure, while maintaining droxidopa beneficial effects. Acute studies combining droxidopa with carvedilol, propranolol or atorvastatin in four-week bile-duct ligated (BDL) rats and a chronic study combining propranolol and droxidopa for 5 days in CCl4 -cirrhotic rats were performed. Hemodynamic values were registered and biochemical parameters from blood and urine samples analyzed. Bile-duct ligated rats treated with carvedilol + droxidopa showed no changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and portal pressure (PP) compared to vehicles. Atorvastatin + droxidopa combination also failed to reduce PP, but maintained the beneficial increase in MAP and superior mesenteric artery resistance (SMAR) and decrease in blood flow (SMABF) caused by droxidopa. In contrast, the acute administration of propranolol + droxidopa significantly reduced PP maintaining a mild increase in MAP and improving, in an additive way, the decrease in SMABF and increase in SMAR caused by droxidopa. This combination also preserved droxidopa diuretic effect. When chronically administered to CCl4 -cirrhotic rats, propranolol + droxidopa caused a decrease in PP, a significant reduction in SMABF and an increase in SMAR. The combination did not alter liver function and droxidopa diuretic and natriuretic effect, and even improved free water clearance. Droxidopa could be effective for the renal alterations of cirrhotic patients on propranolol therapy and the combination of both drugs may balance the adverse effects of each treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of labetalol and propranolol on the pressor response to sexual arousal in women.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, A J; Riley, E J

    1981-01-01

    1 The effect of a single oral dose of labetalol (100 mg), propranolol (80 mg) and placebo on the pressor response to sexual autostimulation has been studied in six female volunteers. 2 Labetalol but not propranolol significantly reduced the increase in blood pressure that occurred at orgasm. 3 The subjective features of the sexual response were assessed by each subject using visual analogue scales. 4 Subjects reported a significant reduction in vaginal lubrication with labetalol compared to both placebo and propranolol. 5 No other effects were noted. PMID:7295463

  6. Simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and propranolol in their binary mixture by synchronous spectrofluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Abasawi, Nasr M.; Attia, Khalid A. M.; Abo-serie, Ahmad A. M.; Morshedy, Samir; Abdel-Fattah, Ashraf

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin calcium and propranolol hydrochloride using the first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry was described. This method involves measuring the synchronous fluorescence of both drugs in ethanol using, Δ λ = 60 nm then the first derivative was recorded and the peak amplitudes were measured at 350 and 374 nm for rosuvastatin calcium and propranolol hydrochloride, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the linear ranges of rosuvastatin calcium and propranolol hydrochloride were 0.2-2 μg/mL and 0.1-1 μg/mL, respectively. The method was used for quantitative analysis of the drugs in raw materials and pharmaceutical dosage form. The validity of the proposed method was assessed according to an international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

  7. Effect of long-term propranolol treatment on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nkontchou, Gisèle; Aout, Mounir; Mahmoudi, Amel; Roulot, Dominique; Bourcier, Valérie; Grando-Lemaire, Véronique; Ganne-Carrie, Nathalie; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Vicaut, Eric; Beaugrand, Michel

    2012-08-01

    Propranolol bears antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties and antitumoral effects and therefore is potentially active in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively assessed the impact of propranolol treatment on HCC occurrence in a cohort of 291 patients with compensated viral C (HCV) cirrhosis, prospectively followed and screened for HCC detection. Of the 291 patients included in the cohort, 93 patients [50 males: mean age, 59.5 ± 12 years; body mass index (BMI), 25.7 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); and platelet count, 111 ± 53 Giga/L] developed esophageal varices (OV) or had OV at inclusion and 198 patients (111 males: mean age, 55.8 ± 13 years; BMI, 25.7 ± 5 kg/m(2); platelet count, 137 ± 59 Giga/L) did not. Among patients with OV, 50 received treatment by propranolol. During a median follow-up of 54 months interquartile range (32-82), 61 patients developed an HCC. The 3- and 5-year HCC incidence was 4% and 4%, and 10% and 20% for patients treated and not treated by propranolol, respectively (Gray test, P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, propranolol treatment was associated with a decrease risk of HCC occurrence [HR, 0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.65; P = 0.004], and was the only independent predictive factor of HCC occurrence in patients with OV (HR, 0.16; CI, 0.06-0.45; P = 0.0005). The benefit of propranolol was further supported by propensity scores analyses. This retrospective long-term observational study suggests that propranolol treatment may decrease HCC occurrence in patients with HCV cirrhosis. These findings need to be verified by prospective clinical trial.

  8. Metoprolol and propranolol in essential tremor: a double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Calzetti, S; Findley, L J; Gresty, M A; Perucca, E; Richens, A

    1981-01-01

    Single oral doses of propranolol (120 mg), metoprolol (150 mg) and placebo were given in a randomised, double-blind fashion to 23 patients with essential tremor. Both beta blockers were significantly more effective than placebo in reducing the magnitude of tremor. The decrease in tremor produced by metoprolol (47, sem 9%, n = 23) was not significantly different from that observed propranolol (55, sem 5%, n = 23). Tachycardia on standing was antagonised by both drugs to a similar extent. These findings suggest that metoprolol may represent a valuable alternative to propranolol in the treatment of essential tremor. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that the tremorolytic effect of beta blockers in these patients may be unrelated to peripheral beta-2 adreno-receptor blockade, being possibly mediated by other central or peripheral modes of action of these drugs. However, it cannot be excluded that at the dose used, metoprolol had lost its relative cardio-selectivity and that the reduction in tremor was mediated by competitive antagonism at beta-2 receptor sites in skeletal muscle. PMID:7031187

  9. Propranolol and pyrogen effects on shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, B. A.; Hanes, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of pyrogen and propranolol (a beta-adrenergic antagonist) on shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in male rats exposed to 24-25 C and 17-18 C is studied. It is found that intavenous injection of an exogenous pyrogen into rats exposed to 24-25 C elicited a thermogenic response manifested by elevated body temperature, rate of oxygen consumption, and shivering activity, and that propranolol markedly diminished the pyrogen-induced increases in oxygen consumption and colonic temperature, with little changes in shivering activity. In contrast, in cold-exposed rats, propranolol did nor significantly affect the pyrogen-evoked thermogenesis; shivering rather tended to increase when NST was blocked. It is suggested that the fibrile responses evoked by exogenous pyrogen involve differential effects on the two modes of heat production. The assumption that pyrogen acts at a site common to both shivering and nonshivering pathways or that it uniformly alters the individual set points and/or thresholds for both thermogenic effectors is therefore unlikely in the light of the data presented.

  10. Propranolol reduces reference-dependence in intertemporal choice

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Lackovic, Sandra F.; Tobe, Russell H.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed. Nevertheless, people tend to choose the less variable option in the choice task. In other words, their choices are reference-dependent and depend on variance in their recent history of offers. This suggests that there may be a causal relationship between reference-dependent choice and arousal, which we investigate here by reducing arousal pharmacologically using propranolol. Here, we show that propranolol reduces reference-dependence, leading to choices that are less influenced by recent history and more internally consistent. PMID:28992268

  11. Simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and propranolol in their binary mixture by synchronous spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    El-Abasawi, Nasr M; Attia, Khalid A M; Abo-Serie, Ahmad A M; Morshedy, Samir; Abdel-Fattah, Ashraf

    2018-06-05

    Simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin calcium and propranolol hydrochloride using the first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry was described. This method involves measuring the synchronous fluorescence of both drugs in ethanol using, ∆ λ = 60 nm then the first derivative was recorded and the peak amplitudes were measured at 350 and 374 nm for rosuvastatin calcium and propranolol hydrochloride, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the linear ranges of rosuvastatin calcium and propranolol hydrochloride were 0.2-2 μg/mL and 0.1-1 μg/mL, respectively. The method was used for quantitative analysis of the drugs in raw materials and pharmaceutical dosage form. The validity of the proposed method was assessed according to an international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the effect of pindolol and propranolol on heart rate after acute and chronic administration.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, M B; O'Connor, P C; Harron, D W; Shanks, R G

    1983-01-01

    1 The present study compared the effects in healthy volunteers of the acute and chronic administration of placebo, pindolol and propranolol to see if the partial agonist activity of pindolol was reduced by the beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of pindolol on chronic administration. 2 Five subjects received in random order for 8 days placebo, propranolol 160 mg and pindolol 10 mg; on days 1 and 8 treatments were given twice at 0 and 2 h. Heart rate in supine position and at end of exercise was recorded before dosing and at 2 and 4 h post-dosing on days 1 and 8. 3 Propranolol and pindolol reduced exercise heart rate to the same extent on days 1 and 8. 4 Propranolol reduced supine heart rate more than pindolol on days 1 and 8 but the difference was only significant on day 8. PMID:6849778

  13. Determinants of Propranolol's Selective Effect on Loss Aversion.

    PubMed

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F; Tobe, Russell H; Camerer, Colin F; Leventhal, Bennett L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Research on emotion and decision making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions, but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. We used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk attitudes, and choice consistency to risky decision making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention's pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e., as a function of initial loss aversion and body mass index), and did not affect risk attitudes or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of emotion and risky decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Effects of beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol on spatial memory and exploratory behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaying; Mao, Yu; Wang, Jianhong; Ma, Yuanye

    2011-07-08

    The beta-adrenergic system has been suggested to be involved in novelty detection and memory modulation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of beta-adrenergic receptors on novelty-based spatial recognition memory and exploratory behavior in mice using Y-maze test and open-field respectively. Mice were injected with three doses of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol (2, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or saline at three different time points (15 min prior to training, immediately after training and 15 min before test). The results showed that higher doses of propranolol (10 and 20 mg/kg) given before the training trial impaired spatial recognition memory while those injected at other two time points did not. A detailed analysis of exploratory behavior in open-field showed that lower dose (2 mg/kg) of propranolol reduced exploratory behavior of mice. Our findings indicate that higher dose of propranolol can impair acquisition of spatial information in the Y-maze without altering locomotion, suggesting that the beta-adrenergic system may be involved in modulating memory processes at the time of learning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A

    2017-04-01

    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  16. Atenolol Versus Propranolol for Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas During the Proliferative Phase: A Retrospective Noninferiority Study.

    PubMed

    Bayart, Cheryl B; Tamburro, Joan E; Vidimos, Allison T; Wang, Lu; Golden, Alex B

    2017-07-01

    The nonselective beta-blocker propranolol is the current criterion standard for treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) and the first therapy that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved for the condition, but concern about adverse effects, such as bronchospasm, hypoglycemia, and sleep disturbances, has sparked interest in the use of alternative agents such as the selective β1 antagonist atenolol. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of atenolol with those of propranolol in the treatment of IHs in a retrospective noninferiority trial. Twenty-seven children with IHs treated with atenolol according to the Cleveland Clinic foundation's standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) met inclusion criteria and were compared with a matched group of 53 children with IHs treated with propranolol. Three reviewers assessed response to therapy using a modified version of the previously validated Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS). The mean change in HAS was -2.94 ± 1.20 for patients treated with atenolol and -2.96 ± 1.42 for those treated with propranolol. There was no statistically significant difference in pre- and posttreatment modified HAS scores between the two groups (p = 0.60). There was no significant difference in the overall rate of adverse effects (p = 0.10), although 11% of patients treated with propranolol experienced reactive airway symptoms, whereas this was not seen in any of the patients treated with atenolol. Our study supports previous findings that atenolol is at least as effective as propranolol for treatment of IHs and poses less risk of bronchospasm. Our SCAMP proposes guidelines for dosing and monitoring parameters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effect of left frontal transcranial direct-current stimulation on propranolol-induced fear memory acquisition and consolidation deficits.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Khani-Abyaneh, Mozhgan; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-28

    Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0.1mg/kg) impaired fear memory retrieval. Pre/post-training application of anodal tDCS when propranolol was administered prior to training reversed contextual memory retrieval whereas only the anodal application prior to training could induce the same result in the auditory test. Meanwhile, anodal stimulation had no effect on fear memories by itself. Moreover, regardless of when cathode was applied and propranolol administered, their combination restored contextual memory retrieval, while only cathodal stimulation prior to training facilitated the contextual memory retrieval. Also, auditory memory retrieval was restored when cathodal stimulation and propranolol occurred prior to training but it was abolished when stimulation occurred after training and propranolol was administered prior to training. Collectively, our findings show that tDCS applied on the left frontal cortex of mice affects fear memory performance. This alteration seems to be task-dependent and varies depending on the nature and timing of the stimulation. In certain conditions, tDCS reverses the effect of propranolol. These results provide initial evidence to support the timely use of tDCS for the modulation of fear-related memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yonga, G O; Ogola, E N; Orinda, D A

    1993-11-01

    In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.

  19. Hematin and propranolol in acute intermittent porphyria. Full recovery from quadriplegic coma and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Brezis, M; Ghanem, J; Weiler-Ravell, D; Epstein, O; Morris, D

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a case of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) in an almost fatal relapse with quadriplegia, bulbar paralysis and coma. Intravenous hematin produced an immediate arousal from coma and allowed a gradual resumption of bulbar and autonomic functions. Persistent tachycardia and hypertension necessitated huge doses of intravenous propranolol. Both hematin and propranolol administrations were followed by a remarkable decrease in urinary amino-levulinic acid and porphobilinogen excretion. Nevertheless, after the acute stage, the patient was left with a severe generalized muscle wasting. After 7 months of intensive physical therapy, complete recovery of all neuromuscular functions was achieved. The modern aspects of the management of AIP are presented; the efficacy and the limits of hematin and propranolol therapy are discussed.

  20. Effect of Vitamin B6 Versus Propranolol on Antipsychotic-Induced Akathisia: A pilot Comparative Double-blind Study.

    PubMed

    Shams-Alizadeh, Narges; Bakhshayesh, Hamid; Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Shams-Alizadeh, Nasim; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz

    2018-01-01

    Akathisia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs and is characterized by subjective feelings of restlessness. First-line treatment usually consists of propranolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist. However, propranolol does not seem to be efficacious in up to 70% of patients. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin B6 versus propranolol on antipsychotic-induced akathisia (AIA). This study was a comparative, double-blind, randomized trial. In the present study, 66 adult patients with antipsychotic-induced akathisia were enrolled and randomized into three groups, and received vitamin B6 300 mg/12 h or 600 mg/12 h or propranolol 20 mg/12 h. The diagnosis of AIA was made by clinical examination and its severity was assessed by the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. Fifty one patients completed 5 days of the trial. The results showed that there was no significant difference in BARS score among the different groups which means that vitamin B6 attenuated the AIA similar to propranolol. However, there wasn't any significant difference between high or low dose of vitamin B6. In conclusion, the results of this trial suggest that vitamin B6 may be beneficial for ameliorating of antipsychotic-induced akathisia.

  1. Reversal of propranolol blockade of adrenergic receptors and related toxicity with drugs that increase cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, V E; Vick, J A; Alleva, F R; Zhang, J; Joseph, X; Balazs, T

    1999-09-01

    An overdose of propranolol, a widely used nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, can result in hypotension and bradycardia leading to irreversible shock and death. In addition, the blockade of adrenergic receptors can lead to alterations in neurotransmitter receptors resulting in the interruption of the activity of other second messengers and the ultimate cellular responses. In the present experiment, three agents, aminophylline, amrinone, and forskolin were tested in an attempt to reverse the potential lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs. Twenty-two anesthetized beagle dogs were given a 10-min infusion of propranolol at a dose of 1 mg/kg/min. Six of the dogs, treated only with intravenous saline, served as controls. Within 15-30 min all six control dogs exhibited profound hypotension and severe bradycardia that led to cardiogenic shock and death. Seven dogs were treated with intravenous aminophylline 20 mg/kg 5 min after the end of the propranolol infusion. Within 10-15 min heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure returned to near control levels, and all seven dogs survived. Intravenous amrinone (2-3 mg/kg) given to five dogs, and forskolin (1-2 mg/kg) given to four dogs, also increased heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure but the recovery of these parameters was appreciably slower than that seen with aminophylline. All of these animals also survived with no apparent adverse effects. Histopathologic evaluation of the hearts of the dogs treated with aminophylline showed less damage (vacuolization, inflammation, hemorrhage) than the hearts from animals given propranolol alone. Results of this study showed that these three drugs, all of which increase cyclic AMP, are capable of reversing the otherwise lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs.

  2. Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol, Propranolol, and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol , Propranolol, and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol ...4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date October 2004 Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol , Propranolol...and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Angier MK

  3. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of the beta-blocker propranolol in multigenerational exposure to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Yong; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-09-01

    Multigenerational bioaccumulation and biotransformation activity and short-term kinetics (e.g., uptake and depuration) of propranolol in Daphnia magna were investigated at environmental concentration. The body burden and the major metabolite, desisopropyl propranolol (DIP), of propranolol were quantified using LC-MS/MS at the end of each generation after exposure for 11 generations. The accumulation of propranolol in D. magna at an environmental concentration of 0.2 μg/L was not much different between the parent (F0) and the eleventh filial (F10) generation. However, at 28 μg/L, its accumulation was 1.6 times higher-up to 18.9 μg/g-in the F10 generation relative to the F0. In contrast to propranolol, DIP intensity gradually increased from F0 to F10 at 0.2 μg/L, reflecting an increase in detoxification load and biotransformation performance; no increasing trend was observed at 28 μg/L. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) showed higher values with a lower concentration and longer period of exposure. The average values of the BAF for 21 days of long-term exposure in successive 11 generations were 440.4 ± 119.7 and 1026.5 ± 208.6 L/kg for 28 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. These are comparable to the BAF of 192 for the short-term 72-h exposure at 28 μg/L in the parent generation. It is also recommended that future studies for pharmaceutical ingredients be conducted on drug-drug interaction and structural characteristics on the prediction of biotransformation activity and bioaccumulation rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of benzocaine and propranolol on phospholipid-based bilayers.

    PubMed

    Mangiapia, G; Gvaramia, M; Kuhrts, L; Teixeira, J; Koutsioubas, A; Soltwedel, O; Frielinghaus, H

    2017-12-06

    Cell membranes play a fundamental role in protecting the cell from its surroundings, in addition to hosting many proteins with fundamental biological tasks. A study of drug/lipid interactions is a necessary and important step in fully clarifying the role and action mechanism of active ingredients, and shedding light on possible complications caused by drug overdosage. In this paper, the influence of benzocaine and propranolol drugs on the structure of l-α-phosphatidylcholine-based membranes has been investigated by means of neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering, and small/ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Investigations allowed discovering a stiffening of the membranes and the formation of stalks, caused by the presence of benzocaine. On the other hand, disordered bilayers (lamellar powders) and highly curved structures were found in the presence of propranolol. The results obtained may be rationalized in terms of the molecular structures of drugs and may serve as a starting point for explaining the toxic behavior in long-term and overdosage scenarios.

  5. Effect of propranolol on thyroid homeostasis of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, M. R.; Franklyn, J. A.; Woods, K. L.; Kendall, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of propranolol on thyroid status was investigated by administering the drug in 2 therapeutic doses (80 mg b.d. and 120 mg b.d.) to 8 healthy volunteers and serially measuring total and free thyroid hormones and their major binding protein. Mean free T3 fell by 1.2 pmol/l (P less than 0.05) whilst mean free T4 and mean rT3 rose by 3.3 pmol/l (P less than 0.01) and 0.16 nmol/l (P less than 0.01) respectively. Mean thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) fell by 1.2 mg/l (P less than 0.001). Despite the change in free hormone levels there was no significant change in TSH. For the first time the effect of propranolol on circulating thyroid hormones and binding proteins in healthy subjects is apparent within one study. The biological significance of the change in free hormone levels is discussed. PMID:3927277

  6. pH Dependent but not P-gp Dependent Bidirectional Transport Study of S-propranolol: The Importance of Passive Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Benet, Leslie Z; Okochi, Hideaki; Chen, Xijing

    2015-08-01

    Recent controversial publications, citing studies purporting to show that P-gp mediates the transport of propranolol, proposed that passive biological membrane transport is negligible. Based on the BDDCS, the extensively metabolized-highly permeable-highly soluble BDDCS class 1 drug, propranolol, shows a high passive permeability at concentrations unrestricted by solubility that can overwhelm any potential transporter effects. Here we reinvestigate the effects of passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transport on S-propranolol. Bidirectional permeability and inhibition of efflux transport studies were carried out in MDCK, MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell lines at different concentrations. Transcellular permeability studies were conducted at different apical pHs in the rat jejunum Ussing chamber model and PAMPA system. S-propranolol exhibited efflux ratios lower than 1 in MDCK, MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. No significant differences of Papp, B->A in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitor GG918 were observed. However, an efflux ratio of 3.63 was found at apical pH 6.5 with significant decrease in Papp, A->B and increase in Papp, B->A compared to apical pH 7.4 in Caco-2 cell lines. The pH dependent permeability was confirmed in the Ussing chamber model. S-propranolol flux was unchanged during inhibition by verapamil and rifampin. Furthermore, pH dependent permeability was also observed in the PAMPA system. S-propranolol does not exhibit active transport as proposed previously. The "false" positive efflux ratio can be explained by the pH partition theory. As expected, passive diffusion, but not active transport, plays the primary role in the permeability of the BDDCS class 1 drug propranolol.

  7. Effects of the beta-blocker propranolol on cued and contextual fear conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Cordova, Jeremy; Morgan, Charles Andrew; Charney, Dennis S; Davis, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the consolidation of emotional memories. Yet, a number of studies using Pavlovian cued fear conditioning have been unable to demonstrate an effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on acquisition or retention of fear conditioning. Evidence for the involvement of beta-adrenergic receptors in emotional memories comes mostly from studies using fear inhibitory avoidance in rodents. It is possible that fear inhibitory avoidance is more akin to contextual conditioning than to cued fear conditioning, suggesting that context conditioning may be disrupted by beta-adrenergic blockade. This study investigated the effects of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol on cued and contextual fear conditioning in humans. Subjects were given either placebo (n=15) or 40 mg propranolol (n=15) prior to differential cued conditioning. A week later, they were tested for retention of context and cued fear conditioning using physiological (startle reflex and electrodermal activity) and subjective measures of emotional arousal. The results were consistent with the hypothesis. The skin conductance level (SCL) and the subjective measure of arousal suggested reduced emotional arousal upon returning to the conditioning context in the propranolol group, compared to the placebo group. The acquisition and retention of cued fear conditioning were not affected by propranolol. These results suggest that beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in contextual fear conditioning.

  8. [Prophylaxis and therapy of post-traumatic stress disorder with propranolol: evidence and ethical analysis].

    PubMed

    Kühlmeyer, K; Jox, R J

    2013-10-01

    The beta-antagonistic agent propranolol is increasingly being used in clinical trials for the prophylaxis and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article discusses the evidence for the effectiveness of propranolol in the prophylaxis and treatment of PTSD and the ethical implications of research on these treatment approaches. The efficacy of a prophylactic or therapeutic use could not be shown during the last decade. Both treatment approaches raise ethical questions that should already be addressed during the clinical trials.

  9. Ecotoxicological evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium to Lemna minor L. (1753) individually and in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Aline A; Kummrow, Fábio; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Z

    2015-07-01

    Antihypertensive pharmaceuticals, including the beta-blockers, are one of the most detected therapeutic classes in the environment. The ecotoxicity of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium was evaluated, both individually and combined in a binary mixture, by using the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The endpoints evaluated in the single-pharmaceutical tests were frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. For the evaluation of the mixture toxicity, the selected endpoint was frond number. Water quality criteria values (WQC) were derived for the protection of freshwater and saltwater pelagic communities regarding the effects induced by propranolol and losartan using ecotoxicological data from the literature, including our data. The risks associated with both pharmaceutical effects on non-target organisms were quantified through the measured environmental concentration (MEC)/predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC) ratios. For propranolol, the total frond area was the most sensitive endpoint (EC50 = 77.3 mg L(-1)), while for losartan there was no statistically significant difference between the endpoints. Losartan is only slightly more toxic than propranolol. Both concentration addition and independent action models overestimated the mixture toxicity of the pharmaceuticals at all the effect concentration levels evaluated. The joint action of both pharmaceuticals showed an antagonistic interaction to L. minor. Derived WQC assumed lower values for propranolol than for losartan. The MEC/PNEC ratios showed that propranolol may pose a risk for the most sensitive aquatic species, while acceptable risks posed by losartan were estimated for most of aquatic matrices. To the authors knowledge these are the first data about losartan toxicity for L. minor.

  10. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    PubMed

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  11. A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based method for measuring propranolol on dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Bagnoli, Paola; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-05-05

    Propranolol, a non-selective beta blocker drug, is used in young infants and newborns for treating several heart diseases; its pharmacokinetics has been extensively evaluated in adult patients using extrapolation to treat pediatric population. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a method to measure propranolol levels in dried blood spots. The analysis was performed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg/L with correlation coefficient r=0.9996. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and biases were less than 8.0% (n=10) and 11.5% (n=10) respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94 to 100% and the matrix effect did not result in a severe signal suppression. Propranolol on dried blood spot showed a good stability at three different temperatures for one month. This paper describes a micromethod for measuring propranolol levels on dried blood spot, which determines a great advantage in neonates or young infants during pharmacokinetic studies because of less invasive sampling and small blood volume required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. pH dependent but not P-gp dependent bidirectional transport study of S-propranolol: the importance of passive diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Benet, Leslie Z.; Okochi, Hideaki; Chen, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent controversial publications, citing studies purporting to show that P-gp mediates the transport of propranolol, proposed that passive biological membrane transport is negligible. Based on the BDDCS, the extensively metabolized-highly permeable-highly soluble BDDCS class 1 drug, propranolol, shows a high passive permeability at concentrations unrestricted by solubility that can overwhelm any potential transporter effects. Here we reinvestigate the effects of passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transport on S-propranolol. Methods Bidirectional permeability and inhibition of efflux transport studies were carried out in MDCK, MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell lines at different concentrations. Transcellular permeability studies were conducted at different apical pHs in the rat jejunum Ussing chamber model and PAMPA system. Results S-propranolol exhibited efflux ratios lower than 1 in MDCK, MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. No significant differences of Papp, B->A in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitor GG918 were observed. However, an efflux ratio of 3.63 was found at apical pH 6.5 with significant decrease in Papp, A->B and increase in Papp, B->A compared to apical pH 7.4 in Caco-2 cell lines. The pH dependent permeability was confirmed in the Ussing chamber model. S-propranolol flux was unchanged during inhibition by verapamil and rifampin. Furthermore, pH dependent permeability was also observed in the PAMPA system. Conclusions S-propranolol does not exhibit active transport as proposed previously. The "false" positive efflux ratio can be explained by the pH partition theory. As expected, passive diffusion, but not active transport, plays the primary role in the permeability of the BDDCS class 1 drug propranolol. PMID:25690341

  13. Comparison of betaxolol, a new beta 1-adrenergic antagonist, to propranolol in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension.

    PubMed

    Davidov, M E; Glazer, N; Wollam, G; Zager, P G; Cangiano, J

    1988-07-01

    A double-blind, multicenter study compared the safety and efficacy of oral betaxolol 10 to 40 mg once daily (n = 68) with propranolol 40 to 160 mg twice daily (n = 73) in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension. Both agents produced significant (P less than 0.01) and comparable reductions in mean supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures (7/11 mm Hg on betaxolol and 9/10 mm Hg on propranolol). Both betaxolol and propranolol significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced mean supine heart rate by 9 beats per minute. Patients achieved a more significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in blood pressure earlier (weeks 2 and 4 of the titration period) with betaxolol. By the end of treatment there was no significant difference in response between treatment groups. A higher incidence of central nervous system side effects (insomnia, bizarre dreams, depression, hallucinations, dizziness), however, was seen with propranolol than with betaxolol. Overall, the data show that in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension, betaxolol 10 to 40 mg administered once daily is as effective as and better tolerated than propranolol 40 to 160 mg administered twice daily.

  14. Development and in vitro evaluation of carboxymethyl chitosan based drug delivery system for the controlled release of propranolol hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernawan; Nur Hayati, Septi; Nisa, Khoirun; Wheni Indrianingsih, Anastasia; Darsih, Cici; Kismurtono, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Propranolol hydrochloride is a nonselective β-adrenergic drug and has been used as angina pectoris, antihypertensive, and that of many other cardiovascular disorders. It has a relatively short plasma half-life and duration of action are considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it’s fascinating to elongate the action. The tablet formula was based on extended-release by a propranolol hydrochloride based carboxymethyl chitosan matrix. Here we used direct compression technique with internal wet granulation to prepare the tablets. The tablets were evaluated for physical properties (hardness, weight variation test, friability) and in vitro release studies. There was no interaction observed between propranolol hydrochloride and excipients. Dissolution profiles of each formulation were followed zero order model. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that in appropriate proportions carboxymethyl chitosan with internal granulation is suitable for formulating propranolol hydrochloride controlled release.

  15. THE EFFECT OF PROPRANOLOL ON GENE EXPRESSION DURING THE BLOOD ALCOHOL CYCLE OF RATS FED ETHANOL INTRAGASTRICALLY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, F; Joan, Oliva; French, BA; Dedes, J; French, SW

    2010-01-01

    Propranolol, a beta adrenergic blocker prevents the blood alcohol (BAL) cycle in rats fed ethanol intragastrically at a constant rate by preventing the cyclic changes in the metabolic rate caused by fluctuating levels of norepinephrine released into the blood. The change in the rate of metabolism changes the rate of alcohol elimination in the blood which causes the BAL to cycle. Microarray analysis of the livers from the rats fed ethanol and propranolol showed similar changes in clusters of functionally related gene expressions. The controls and the trough of the cycle differed dramatically from the cluster pattern seen in the rats at the peaks of the blood alcohol cycle. The changes in gene expression induced by ethanol were similar when propranolol was fed without ethanol especially with the changes in the kinases and phosphatases, Toll-like receptor signaling and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction were also changed. The changes in gene expression caused by ethanol and propranolol feeding are alike probably because both drugs induce β adrenergic receptor desensitization. PMID:19925788

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Transmission of Arterial Pulsation to the Brain on Propranolol Versus Amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Webb, Alastair J S; Rothwell, Peter M

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral arterial pulsatility is associated with leukoaraiosis and depends on central arterial pulsatility and arterial stiffness. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on transmission of central arterial pulsatility to the cerebral circulation is unknown, partly because of limited methods of assessment. In a technique-development pilot study, 10 healthy volunteers were randomized to crossover treatment with amlodipine and propranolol. At baseline and on each drug, we assessed aortic (Sphygmocor) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility (TCDtranscranial ultrasound). We also performed whole-brain, 3-tesla multiband blood-oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (multiband factor 6, repetition time=0.43s), concurrent with a novel method of continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring. Drug effects on relationships between cardiac cycle variation in blood pressure and blood-oxygen level dependent imaging were determined (fMRI Expert Analysis Tool, fMRIB Software Library [FEAT-FSL]). Aortic pulsatility was similar on amlodipine (27.3 mm Hg) and propranolol (27.9 mm Hg, P diff=0.33), while MCA pulsatility increased nonsignificantly more from baseline on propranolol (+6%; P=0.09) than amlodipine (+1.5%; P=0.58). On magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac frequency blood pressure variations were found to be significantly more strongly associated with blood-oxygen level dependent imaging on propranolol than amlodipine. We piloted a novel method of assessment of arterial pulsatility with concurrent high-frequency blood-oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging and noninvasive blood pressure monitoring. This method was able to identify greater transmission of aortic pulsation on propranolol than amlodipine, which warrants further investigation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Preparation and controlled release of mesoporous MCM-41/propranolol hydrochloride composite drug.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This article used MCM-41 as a carrier for the assembly of propranolol hydrochloride by the impregnation method. By means of chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and low-temperature N(2) adsorption-desorption at 77 K, the characterization was made for the prepared materials. The propranolol hydrochloride guest assembly capacity was 316.20 ± 0.31 mg/g (drug/MCM-41). Powder XRD test results indicated that during the process of incorporation, the frameworks of the MCM-41 were not destroyed and the crystalline degrees of the host-guest nanocomposite materials prepared still remained highly ordered. Characterization by SEM and TEM showed that the composite material presented spherical particle and the average particle size of composite material was 186 nm. FT-IR spectra showed that the MCM-41 framework existed well in the (MCM-41)-propranolol hydrochloride composite. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption results at 77 K showed that the guest partially occupied the channels of the molecular sieves. Results of the release of the prepared composite drug in simulated body fluid indicated that the drug can release up to 32 h and its maximum released amount was 99.20 ± 0.11%. In the simulated gastric juice release pattern of drug, the maximum time for the drug release was discovered to be 6 h and the maximum cumulative released amount of propranolol hydrochloride was 45.13 ± 0.23%. The drug sustained-release time was 10 h in simulated intestinal fluid and the maximum cumulative released amount was 62.05 ± 0.13%. The prepared MCM-41 is a well-controlled drug delivery carrier.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation and NMR investigation of the association of the β-blockers atenolol and propranolol with a chiral molecular micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kevin F.; Billiot, Eugene J.; Billiot, Fereshteh H.; Hoffman, Charlene B.; Gladis, Ashley A.; Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Southerland, William M.; Fang, Yayin

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy were used to compare the binding of two β-blocker drugs to the chiral molecular micelle poly-(sodium undecyl-(L)-leucine-valine). The molecular micelle is used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis. This study is part of a larger effort to understand the mechanism of chiral recognition in capillary electrophoresis by characterizing the molecular micelle binding of chiral compounds with different geometries and charges. Propranolol and atenolol were chosen because their structures are similar, but their chiral interactions with the molecular micelle are different. Molecular dynamics simulations showed both propranolol enantiomers inserted their aromatic rings into the molecular micelle core and that (S)-propranolol associated more strongly with the molecular micelle than (R)-propranolol. This difference was attributed to stronger molecular micelle hydrogen bonding interactions experienced by (S)-propranolol. Atenolol enantiomers were found to bind near the molecular micelle surface and to have similar molecular micelle binding free energies.

  19. Prophylactic propranolol for prevention of ROP and visual outcome at 1 year (PreROP trial).

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Kishore Pratap; Kabra, Nandkishor S; Padhi, Phalguni; Singh, Umesh; Dash, Swarup Kumar; Avasthi, Bhupendra S

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the role of prophylactic propranolol in the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants ≤32 weeks of gestational age and their visual outcome at 1 year of corrected gestational age. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group nrolment with allocation ratio of 1:1. Two level III neonatal intensive care units. 109 preterm neonates of ≤32 weeks of gestation with postnatal age ≤8 days old. Study group: Infants with gestational age between 26 and 32 weeks were started on propranolol prophylaxis (0.5 mg/kg/dose every 12 hours) on seventh completed day of life, till a corrected gestational age of 37 weeks or complete vascularisation of retina whichever was later. Control group infants received a placebo. Primary : ROP of all grades; Secondary : evaluation of complications due to propranolol, ROP needing treatment with laser and/or antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) and visual outcome at 12 months corrected age. Prophylactic propranolol in the prescribed dose of 1 mg/kg/day showed a decreasing trend in the incidence of ROP (56.8% vs 68.6%; p=0.39), need for laser therapy (21.56% vs 31.37%; p=0.37), treatment with anti-VEGF (3.92% vs 15.68%; p=0.09) or visual outcomes at 1 year in the study and control groups, respectively, though these reductions were not statistically significant. Decreasing trends favouring propranolol in all other ROP-related outcomes were also noted in the study group. Prophylactic propranolol in the prescribed dose of 1 mg/kg/day showed a decreasing trend in all outcomes of ROP though statistically not significant. CTRI/2013/11/004131. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. EFFICACY OF PROPRANOLOL ON SCHIZOPHRENIC THOUGHT DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, B. B.; Dube, Sanjay

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY 15 schizophrenic patients were treated with dl-propranolol in a 4 week open study. Dosage was gradually increased over a period of 17 days to 1920 mg/day. Improvements were rated on Thought Disorder Scores (A & B) of the MBPRS and GPRS subscale for schizophrenia. Majority of the patients showed a 50% improvement in terms of their residual scores by the 4th week of treatment and the side effects experienced were minimal. PMID:22064778

  1. A complication to be aware of: hyperkalaemia following propranolol therapy for an infant with intestinal haemangiomatozis.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Oguz, Aynur; Okur, Arzu; Dalgic, Buket

    2014-05-19

    Infantile haemangiomas, benign vascular tumours seen in 4-10% of infants are characterised by their spontaneous remission following a 3-9 month period of dynamic growth. Propranolol has been reported to be used as a successful treatment of severe symptomatic infantile haemangiomas. Hyperkalaemia has not been recognised as a serious effect of propranolol since recently. Here, we would like to portray a 2-year-old male patient with intestinal haemangiomatosis who presented with severe hyperkalaemia and was successfully managed with hydration, loop diuretics, potassium binding granules, inhaler β-2 agonists and insulin. To date, this is the first case of intestinal haemangiomatosis complicated with severe hyperkalaemia. Our case suggested the idea of close monitorisation of potassium levels as well as haemodynamic status at the initialisation of the propranolol treatment. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. A complication to be aware of: hyperkalaemia following propranolol therapy for an infant with intestinal haemangiomatozis

    PubMed Central

    Belen, Burcu; Oguz, Aynur; Okur, Arzu; Dalgic, Buket

    2014-01-01

    Infantile haemangiomas, benign vascular tumours seen in 4–10% of infants are characterised by their spontaneous remission following a 3–9 month period of dynamic growth. Propranolol has been reported to be used as a successful treatment of severe symptomatic infantile haemangiomas. Hyperkalaemia has not been recognised as a serious effect of propranolol since recently. Here, we would like to portray a 2-year-old male patient with intestinal haemangiomatosis who presented with severe hyperkalaemia and was successfully managed with hydration, loop diuretics, potassium binding granules, inhaler β-2 agonists and insulin. To date, this is the first case of intestinal haemangiomatosis complicated with severe hyperkalaemia. Our case suggested the idea of close monitorisation of potassium levels as well as haemodynamic status at the initialisation of the propranolol treatment. PMID:24842358

  3. [Propranolol beta-blocker decrease in the concentration of high-affinity binding sites for calcium ions by sarcolemma membranes of the rat heart].

    PubMed

    Seleznev, Iu M; Martynov, A V; Smirnov, V N

    1982-05-01

    In vivo administration of propranolol considerably inhibits the isoproterenol-stimulated increase in 45Ca accumulation by the myocardium and completely eliminates the potentiation of isoproterenol effect by hydrocortisone. A significant lowering of the concentration of high affinity binding sites for calcium in the sarcolemmal membranes can be produced by propranolol in vitro. Under these conditions, the glucocorticoids do not change the sarcolemmal Ca2+-binding parameters or modulate the propranolol effect. Therefore, for the manifestation of glucocorticoid action to be brought about, the integrity of the cells is apparently required, while propranolol seems to change calcium binding by direct interaction with the sarcolemmal membranes. It is suggested that in vivo propranolol inhibition of catecholamine effect on calcium ion accumulation by the myocardium depends on the interaction with the beta-receptors and direct modulation of the concentration of high affinity binding sites for calcium ions on the surface of the sarcolemma.

  4. Cardiorespiratory responses to orthostasis and the effects of propranolol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Cardiac output and gas exchange were determined serially using the single-breath method of Kim et al. before, during, and after orthostasis on six subjects after beta-adrenergic blockage and in duplicate controls. In the latter, heart rate increased and pulse pressure dropped immediately on tilting to 60 deg and remained stable while cardiac output and stroke volume declined gradually over 21 min upright. On propranolol, heart rate was 10 bpm lower supine and 20 bpm less at 60 deg but cardiac output was only slightly lower before and following tilt-up. However, after 15 min upright, stroke volume and cardiac output recovered on propranolol exceeding the controls after 21 min without change in heart rate. Returning to supine, heart rate dropped in all tests with a transitory increase in stroke volume, cardiac output and arteriovenous O2 difference. At the same time, apparent O2 uptake increased temporarily, reflecting the return of pooled venous blood to the lungs. Orthostatic tolerance did not appear to be affected by beta-adrenergic blockade.

  5. [Absence of effect of propranolol on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine in hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Beylot, M; Riou, J P; Sautot, G; Mornex, R

    Lean body mass and muscle protein breakdown were evaluated in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects by measuring the urinary excretion of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine. Since catecholamines probably have an inhibitory effect on muscle protein catabolism through a beta-receptor mechanism, the effects of propranolol on 3-methylhistidine excretion were also evaluated in hyperthyroid subjects. Hyperthyroid subjects had a lower lean body mass (34.9 +/- 6.3 kg versus 47.7 +/- 8.9 kg, p less than 0.001) and a greater 3-methylhistidine excretion (25.1 +/- 7.4 versus 19.0 +/- 4.8 mumol/mmol creatinine, p less than 0.05) than euthyroid subjects. Propranolol administered orally to hyperthyroid subjects decreased pulse rate (p less than 0.01) and plasma triiodothyronine concentrations (from 5.40 +/- 2.28 to 3.61 +/- 1.61 nmol/l, p less than 0.01), but did not modify urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion (24.8 +/- 8.7 versus 25.1 +/- 7.4 mumol/mmol creatinine). These results suggest that muscle wasting in hyperthyroidism is related to increased protein catabolism. This increased protein breakdown is not modified by short term administration of propranolol, a beta-blocking agent widely used in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  6. Improved bone status by the beta-blocker propranolol in an animal model of nutritional growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Lezón, Christian E; Olivera, María I; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to study if the beta-blocker propranolol, which is known to increase bone mass, could reverse the adverse skeletal effects of mild chronic food restriction in weanling rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, control+propranolol (CP), nutritional growth retardation (NGR) and nutritional growth retardation+propranolol (NGRP). Control and CP rats were fed freely with the standard diet. NGR and NGRP rats received, for 4 weeks, 80 % of the amount of food consumed by the control and CP rats, respectively. Results were expressed as mean values and sem. Food restriction induced detrimental effects on body and femur weight and length (P < 0.05) and bone structural and geometrical properties (P < 0.001), confirming results previously shown in our laboratory. However, the beta-blocker overcame the deleterious effect of nutritional stress on load-bearing capacity, yielding load, bone stiffness, cross-sectional cortical bone area and second moment of inertia of the cross-section in relation to the horizontal axis without affecting anthropometric, histomorphometric and bone morphometric parameters. The results suggest that propranolol administration to mildly chronically undernourished rats markedly attenuates the impaired bone status in this animal model of growth retardation.

  7. Comparison effect of oral propranolol and oxytocin versus oxytocin only on induction of labour in nulliparous women (a double blind randomized trial).

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Ashraf Direkvand; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Today, research on new methods for preventing caesarean sections owing to labour induction, have been requested in obstetric practice, because of the increased morbidity related to caesarean section. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of Oral Propranolol and Oxytocin versus Oxytocin only on induction of labour in nulliparous women. A double blind randomized controlled trial was performed at the Ilam Mostafa Hospital, Ilam, Iran, from March 2010 to March 2011 on 146 nulliparous pregnant women who had gestational age of 40-42 weeks of pregnancy and a Bishop score of ≤5. Participants were divided in two groups (with 73 participants in each group). In the first group (placebo plus Oxytocin group = 73), Oxytocin was used for the induction of labour. In the second group (Propranolol plus Oxytocin group = 73 cases), before the use of Oxytocin, 20 mg Propranolol was administrated orally and then the Oxytocin was initiated. Twenty mg Propranolol was repeated after 8 hours if good contraction was not obtained. The mean duration for obtaining good contractions was significantly shorter in the Propranolol group than in the placebo group, on both the first and second day of induction (p<.05). The mean duration of latent phase was shorter in the first in Propranolol group (p<.05). In Propranolol plus Oxytocine group, frequency of cesarean deliveries significantly decreased than in the placebo plus Oxytocin group (21% versus 39.7%). No significant differences in neonate outcome, such as Apgar scores of minutes 1 and 5 and need of admissions to NICU, were found between the groups (p>.05) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study showed that oral Propranolol was effective for labour induction and that it could decrease the frequency of caesarean deliveries without producing any adverse effects on mothers or neonates.

  8. Propranolol's effects on the consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term emotional memory in healthy participants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Michelle H; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Pitman, Roger K; Brunet, Alain

    2013-07-01

    Considering the pivotal role of negative emotional experiences in the development and persistence of mental disorders, interfering with the consolidation/reconsolidation of such experiences would open the door to a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. We conducted a meta-analysis on the experimental evidence regarding the capacity of the ß-blocker propranolol to block the consolidation/reconsolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Selected studies consisted of randomized, double-blind experiments assessing long-term memory for emotional material in healthy adults and involved at least 1 propranolol and 1 placebo condition. We searched PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, PILOTS, Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.org for eligible studies from the period 1995-2012. Ten consolidation (n = 259) and 8 reconsolidation (n = 308) experiments met the inclusion criteria. We calculated effect sizes (Hedges g) using a random effects model. Compared with placebo, propranolol given before memory consolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced stories, pictures and word lists (Hedges g = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.74). Propranolol before reconsolidation also reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced emotional words and the expression of cue-elicited fear responses (Hedges g = 0.56, 95% CI 0.13-1.00). Limitations include the moderate number of studies examining the influence of propranolol on emotional memory consolidation and reconsolidation in healthy adults and the fact that most samples consisted entirely of young adults, which may limit the ecological validity of results. Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy adults. However, future studies will need to investigate whether more powerful idiosyncratic emotional memories can also be weakened and whether this weakening can bring about long-lasting symptomatic relief in clinical populations

  9. Safety Profile during Initiation of Propranolol for Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas in an Ambulatory Day-Care Hospitalization Setting.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Itay; Ollech, Ayelet; Zvulunov, Alex; Valdman-Greenshpon, Yulia; Atar-Sagie, Vered; Friedland, Rivka; Lapidoth, Moshe; Ben-Amitai, Dan

    2018-03-24

    Propranolol is the mainstay of treatment for infantile hemangioma. Despite its good safety profile, it is not risk-free. Guidelines for propranolol initiation and monitoring have been suggested, but protocols vary among practitioners. This study sought to assess the prevalence of adverse events and clinically significant fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters in children with infantile hemangioma during initiation of treatment with propranolol in a day-hospitalization setting. Children with infantile hemangioma treated with propranolol in a day-hospitalization department of a tertiary pediatric medical center in 2008-2014 were identified retrospectively. The pretreatment evaluation included clinical examination by a pediatric dermatologist and electrocardiography, echocardiography, and clinical examination by a pediatric cardiologist. The propranolol dosage was escalated from 0.5mg/kg/day to 2mg/kg/day, divided into 3 doses/day, over 3 days. Heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose level were measured before treatment onset and 60 min after the first two doses each day. The third dose was given at home. The cohort included 220 children aged 1 month to 5 years. No severe treatment-related adverse events were documented; 27 patients had minor side effects. There was a significant decrease in heart rate each day after the first two doses (p<0.001), and in systolic blood pressure, on day 2 (1mg/kg/day) after the first dose (p=0.01). Blood glucose level remained stable. The hemodynamic changes were clinically asymptomatic and did not require intervention. Propranolol treatment (2mg/kg/day in three doses) for infantile hemangioma is well tolerated and safe and may be administered and monitored in an ambulatory setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of propranolol treatment on left ventricular function and intracellular calcium regulation in rats with postinfarction heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Sheldon E; Katz, Sarah E; Morgan, James P; Douglas, Pamela S

    1999-01-01

    Chronic treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents can improve survival in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects and whether these effects are generalizable to ischaemic heart failure are unresolved.We performed echocardiographic-Doppler examinations in rats (n=28) 1 and 6 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery. Rats were randomized to no treatment or propranolol (500 mg/l in drinking water) after the first echocardiogram. Isometric contractions and intracellular Ca transients were recorded simultaneously in noninfarcted left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles.Untreated MI rats had significant LV dilatation (10.6±0.4* vs 8.9±0.3 mm, MI vs control), impaired systolic function (fractional shortening=11±2* vs 38±2%), and a restrictive LV diastolic filling pattern. MI rats receiving propranolol had similar LV chamber sizes (10.6±0.5 mm) and systolic function (13±2%). The propranolol treated animals had higher LV end-diastolic pressures (27±2* vs 20±3 mmHg) and a more restricted LV diastolic filling pattern (increased ratio of early to late filling velocities and more rapid E wave deceleration rate). Contractility of papillary muscles from untreated MI rats was depressed (1.6±0.3 vs 2.4±0.5 g mm−2). In addition, Ca transients were prolonged and the inotropic response to isoproterenol was blunted. Propranolol treatment did not improve force development (1.6±0.3 g mm−2) or the duration of Ca transients during isoproterenol stimulation.Chronic propranolol treatment in rats with postinfarction heart failure did not improve LV remodeling or systolic function. LV diastolic pressures and filling patterns were worsened by propranolol. Treatment also did not produce appreciable improvement in contractility, intracellular Ca regulation or beta-adrenergic responsiveness in the noninfarcted myocardium. PMID:10455325

  11. Effects of propranolol on time of useful function (TUF) in rats.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-02-01

    To assess the effects of propranolol on tolerance to rapid decompression, a series of experiments was conducted measuring time of useful function (TUF) in rats exposed to a rapid decompression profile in an altitude chamber. In other experiments TUF ...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of carvedilol and propranolol on glycemic control and insulin resistance associated with L-thyroxin-induced hyperthyroidism--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Parloop; Makwana, Dharmesh; Santani, Devdas; Goyal, Ramesh

    2007-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of adrenergic antagonists carvedilol and propranolol on L-thyroxin-induced cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats. Treatment with L-thyroxin sodium (75 mg/kg body mass, s.c., every alternate day for 3 weeks), produced a significant increase in food and water intake, body temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, along with an increase in serum T3, T4, and triglyceride levels. Besides a significant reduction in body mass, serum levels of TSH and cholesterol were also reduced following L-thyroxin treatment. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg body mass, orally) and propranolol (10 mg/kg body mass, i.p.) administered daily in the third week to 2 separate groups of L-thyroxin-treated animals reversed thyroxin-induced loss in body mass and rise in body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Propranolol treatment increased TSH levels and decreased T3 and T4 levels in hyperthyroid animals, whereas carvedilol did not produce any effect on thyroid hormones. Carvedilol treatment reversed thyroxin induced hypertriglyceridemia, whereas propranolol treatment had no effect. Both carvedilol and propranolol prevented decrease in cholesterol levels induced by thyroxine. Compared with normal animals, L-thyroxin-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance, as inferred from elevated fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, higher area under the curve over 120 min for glucose, and decreased insulin sensitivity index (KITT). Propranolol and carvedilol treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels. Treatment with propranolol did not alter serum insulin levels, area-under-the-curve glucose, or KITT values. However, treatment with carvedilol significantly reduced area-under-the-curve glucose, decreased fasting serum insulin levels and significantly increased KITT values. In conclusion, carvedilol appears to produce

  13. Paradoxical physiological responses to propranolol in a Rett syndrome patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Santosh, P J; Bell, L; Lievesley, K; Singh, J; Fiori, F

    2016-11-29

    Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT. The prototypical beta blocker propranolol has been used to manage sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with RTT. A 13 year old girl with RTT was referred to the Centre for Interventional Paediatric Psychopharmacology and Rare Diseases (CIPPRD), South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Her clinical picture included disordered breathing with concomitant hyperventilation and apnoea, epilepsy, scoliosis, no QT prolongation (QT/QTc [372/467 ms on automated electrocardiogram [ECG], but manually calculated to be 440 ms]), no cardiac abnormalities (PR interval: 104 ms, QRS duration: 78 ms), and generalised anxiety disorder (ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code F41.1). She was also constipated and was fed via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). To manage the dysautonomia, propranolol was given (5 mg and 10 mg) and in parallel her physiological parameters, including heart rate, skin temperature and skin transpiration, were monitored continuously for 24 h as she went about her activities of daily living. Whilst her skin temperature increased and skin transpiration decreased, unexpectedly there was a significant paradoxical increase in the patient's average heart rate following propranolol treatment. Here, we present a unique case of a paradoxical increase in heart rate response following propranolol treatment for managing dysautonomia in a child with RTT. Further studies are warranted to better understand the underlying dysautonomia in patients with RTT and

  14. Effects of propranolol on conversational reciprocity in autism spectrum disorder: a pilot, double-blind, single-dose psychopharmacological challenge study.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Ferguson, Bradley J; Stichter, Janine P; Porges, Eric C; Ragsdale, Alexandra S; Lewis, Morgan L; Beversdorf, David Q

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacological intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important addition to treatment, yet currently available agents target co-morbid psychiatric concerns, such as aggression and irritability. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist with anxiolytic effects, has been shown to improve verbal fluency and working memory in adults and adolescents with ASD in single-dose challenges. The present pilot study explores the acute effects of propranolol on a measure of conversational reciprocity in this population. We also examined whether autonomic activity and anxiety moderate or mediate response to the drug, given relationships between these variables and ASD, as well as the drug's effects. In a within-subject crossover design, 20 individuals with ASD received a single dose of propranolol or placebo during two sessions in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. After drug administration, participants performed a conversational reciprocity task by engaging in a short conversation with the researcher. Measurements of autonomic activity and anxiety were obtained before and after drug administration. Propranolol significantly improved performance on the conversational reciprocity task total [d = 0.40] and nonverbal communication domain scores when compared to the placebo condition. However, neither autonomic activity nor anxiety was significantly associated with drug response. Acute propranolol administration improved conversational reciprocity in ASD. Further exploration of these preliminary findings, as well as other potential treatment response predictors, with serial doses is warranted.

  15. Effects of short-term oral administration of propranolol on tear secretion in clinically normal dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Arzani, Vahid; Khorami, Nargess; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of short-term oral administration of propranolol on tear secretion in 15 clinically normal crossbreed dogs. The treatment group (n = 8) received propranolol (2 mg/kg q8h) orally for 7 days. The control group (n = 7) received placebo during the study. Schirmer I tear tests were performed on both eyes 1 d prior to drug administration (T0), at 1 (T1), 3 (T3), and 7 (T7) days of treatment. Tear production in dogs, measured by STT, was not significantly reduced in both groups. PMID:22294794

  16. Angiotensin II promotes iron accumulation and depresses PGI₂ and NO synthesis in endothelial cells: effects of losartan and propranolol analogs.

    PubMed

    Mak, I Tong; Landgraf, Kenneth M; Chmielinska, Joanna J; Weglicki, William B

    2012-10-01

    Angiotensin may promote endothelial dysfunction through iron accumulation. To research this, bovine endothelial cells (ECs) were incubated with iron (30 µmol·L⁻¹) with or without angiotensin II (100 nmol·L⁻¹). After incubation for 6 h, it was observed that the addition of angiotensin enhanced EC iron accumulation by 5.1-fold compared with a 1.8-fold increase for cells incubated with iron only. This enhanced iron uptake was attenuated by losartan (100 nmol·L⁻¹), d-propranolol (10 µmol·L⁻¹), 4-HO-propranolol (5 µmol·L⁻¹), and methylamine, but not by vitamin E or atenolol. After 6 h of incubation, angiotensin plus iron provoked intracellular oxidant formation (2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) fluorescence) and elevated oxidized glutathione; significant loss of cell viability occurred at 48 h. Stimulated prostacyclin release decreased by 38% (6 h) and NO synthesis was reduced by 41% (24 h). Both oxidative events and functional impairment were substantially attenuated by losartan or d-propranolol. It is concluded that angiotensin promoted non-transferrin-bound iron uptake via AT-1 receptor activation, leading to EC oxidative functional impairment. The protective effects of d-propranolol and 4-HO-propranolol may be related to their lysosomotropic properties.

  17. Propranolol blocks the stimulatory effects of naloxone on ventilation and oxygen consumption in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, E H; Eikanger, J

    1997-06-01

    The purposes of these studies were: 1) to determine the effects of various doses of propranolol, a nonspecific beta-adrenergic antagonist, on ventilation, oxygen consumption, and body temperature in hamsters, and 2) to test the hypothesis that in hamsters the stimulatory effects of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, on ventilation and oxygen consumption occur, at least in part, through the release of catecholamines that act via beta-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenergic receptor antagonist, at a 20 mg/kg depressed body temperature, oxygen consumption, tidal volume, and ventilation relative to saline. The lower dose of 10 mg/kg had only transitory effects on tidal volume at 60 min and ventilation at 30 min post-injection-Naloxone (1 mg/kg) relative to saline stimulated ventilation and oxygen consumption. These effects were blocked by propranolol pretreatment. The results of these experiments demonstrate that in the hamster, 1) body temperature, oxygen consumption, and ventilation appear to be modulated by beta-adrenergic receptors, and 2) the stimulatory effects of naloxone on oxygen consumption and ventilation may occur through the interaction of endogenous opioids and beta-adrenergic receptor systems.

  18. Propranolol hydrochloride enhancement of tumor perfusion and uptake of gallium-67 in a mouse sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, P.; McCready, R.; Hammersley, P.

    1986-02-01

    The effect of propranolol hydrochloride on the blood perfusion of a mouse sarcoma and other tissues has been studied using /sup 86/Rb. The maximum increase in relative tumor perfusion (2x controls) occurred 15 min after an i.v. administration of 10 mg per kg propranolol hydrochloride. To study the effect of this drug on the uptake of /sup 67/Ga, it was injected at a concentration of 10 mg/kg 10 min before administering 3 microCi (110 kBq) (/sup 67/Ga)citrate. Tissue uptakes were measured 4 hr later. The tumor: blood ratio increased from 1.16 +/- 0.17 to 3.41 +/- 2.27 (s.d.) and tumor:more » liver ratio increased from 2.39 +/- 0.30 to 7.13 +/- 3.52 (s.d.). The results showed that propranolol hydrochloride can improve the relative tumor blood flow and radiopharmaceutical concentration in an animal model. It is hoped that this and other agents will yield similar results in the human situation.« less

  19. Comparative influence of propranolol and verapamil on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity associated with L-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism - an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Parloop A; Makwana, Dharmesh

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the comparative effectiveness of beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and calcium channel blocker verapamil on L-thyroxine-induced alteration on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity on rats and guinea pigs, respectively. Injection of L-thyroxine sodium every alternate day for 3 weeks in guinea pigs (75 microg/kg, i.p.) and rats (75 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a condition similar to thyrotoxicosis. Verapamil and propranolol administered daily in the third week along with L-thyroxine to two separate groups of hyperthyroid animals reversed thyroxine-induced loss in body weight, reduction in serum TSH levels, and rise in body temperature. Effect on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity was studied on rats. Compared to normal rats, L-thyroxine-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. Propranolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels without affecting serum insulin levels, AUC glucose, and K(ITT) values. Treatment with verapamil (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, AUC glucose, and significantly increased K(ITT) values. Effect of propranolol (15 mg/kg, orally) and verapamil (20 mg/kg, orally) treatment on histamine sensitivity was studied on L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs. Compared to normal guinea pigs, L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs showed an increased sensitivity to histamine-induced asphyxia. Verapamil treatment reversed this increased histamine sensitivity while propranolol aggravated it. In conclusion, compared to propranolol, verapamil has advantageous effects on glucose metabolism, insulin and histamine sensitivity and could therefore be a valuable addition as an adjunctive therapy option currently available for thyrotoxicosis associated with diabetes and/or anaphylaxis.

  20. Comparative randomized study on efficacy of losartan versus propranolol in lowering portal pressure in decompensated chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Agasti, Ananta Kumar; Mahajan, Ajay U; Phadke, Aniruddha Y; Nathani, Pratap J; Sawant, Prabha

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, with propranolol on portal hypertension in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease. In all, 30 patients with Child-Pugh B cirrhosis and large varices without any prior therapy for portal hypertension were randomized to either losartan (n = 15) or propranolol (n = 15). Clinical, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters including hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHVP), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP) were measured at baseline and after 4-week therapy. Patients with HVPG < 12 mmHg were regarded as responders. An equal number of responders were seen in both groups (6/15, 40.0%). The reduction of WHVP and HVPG was greater in the losartan group than in the propranolol group, although no significant differences between them were found. Heart rate decreased more in the propranolol arm than in the losartan arm (P < 0.01); however, no correlation between the decrease of heart rate and the reduction of HVPG was observed. One patient in the losartan group, although a responder, had gastrointestinal bleeding 2 months after the drug administration, but the varices were small under endoscopy and did not require definitive therapy. The fall of MABP was greater with losartan, with no statistical difference between the two groups. The effect of losartan was comparable to propranolol in reducing portal pressure in decompensated Child-Pugh B chronic liver disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. The Combined Propranolol/TSST Paradigm – A New Method for Psychoneuroendocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Julie; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2013-01-01

    Upon perception of a stimulus as stressful, the human brain reacts with the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), to mobilize energy resources to better cope with the stressor. Since the perception of the stressor is the initial stimulus, a synchronicity between the subjective perception of stress and the physiological stress reactivity should be expected. However, according to a recent meta-analysis, these associations are weak and inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to investigate the interaction between the SNS, HPA and subjective stress perceptions, by introducing an experimental manipulation of this interaction. For this purpose, we combined the SNS inhibitor propranolol with the Trier Social Stress Test, and measured endocrinological and psychological responses to the stressor. Thirty healthy male participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either a propranolol (PROP; n = 15) or placebo (PLC; n = 15) group. All subjects were administered 80 mg of propranolol 60 minutes prior to exposure to psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase (sAA), heart rate, blood pressure and subjective stress responses were assessed throughout the study. We observed significantly reduced sAA levels and heart rate increases in the PROP group in response to stress, with no effects of the drug on systolic or diastolic blood pressure changes. In line with previous studies, a significant increase in cortisol was seen in response to the stress exposure. Importantly, the cortisol increase was significantly higher in the PROP group. A typical increase in subjective stress could be seen in both groups, with no significant group differences emerging. Complementing previous work, this study further demonstrates a significant interaction between the HPA and the SNS during acute stress. The HPA activity was found to be elevated in the presence of a suppressed SNS in reactivity to the TSST

  2. Mode of action characterization for adverse effect of propranolol in Daphnia magna based on behavior and physiology monitoring and metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Yong; Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Sang Don

    2018-02-01

    Studies are underway to gather information about the mode of action (MOA) of emerging pollutants that could guide practical environmental decision making. Previously, we showed that propranolol, an active pharmaceutical ingredient, had adverse effects on Daphnia magna that were similar to its pharmaceutical action. In order to characterize the mode of action of propranolol in D. magna, which is suspected to be organ-specific pharmaceutical action or baseline toxicity, we performed time-series monitoring of behavior along with heart rate measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolite profiling. Principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering were used to categorize the mode of action of propranolol among 5 chemicals with different modes of action. The findings showed that the mode of action of propranolol in D. magna is organ-specific and vastly different from those of narcotics, even though metabolite regulation is similar between narcotic and non-narcotic candidates. The method applied in this study seems applicable to rapid characterization of the MOA of other cardiovascular pharmaceutical ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A validated RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of propranolol and valsartan in bulk drug and gel formulation

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Syed Sarim; Ahad, Abdul; Aqil, Mohammed; Sultana, Yasmin; Ali, Asgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A simple, precise, and stability indicating high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of propranolol hydrochloride and valsartan in pharmaceutical dosage form. Materials and Methods: The method involves the use of easily available inexpensive laboratory reagents. The separation was achieved on Hypersil ODS C-18 column (250*4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm particle size) with isocratic flow with UV detector. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min consisted of acetonitrile, methanol, and 0.01 M disodium hydrogen phosphate (pH 3.5) in the ratio of 50:35:15 v/v. Results: A linear response was observed over the concentration range 5-50 μg/mL of propranolol and the concentration range 4-32 μg/mL of valsartan. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation for propranolol were 0.27 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, and for valsartan were 0.45 μg/mL and 1.39 μg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines acceptance criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness. Conclusion: The analysis concluded that the method was selective for simultaneous estimation of propranolol and valsartan can be potentially used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage form. PMID:23559826

  4. Disinhibition by propranolol and chlordiazepoxide of nonrewarded lever-pressing in the rat is unaffected by dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion.

    PubMed

    Salmon, P; Tsaltas, E; Gray, J A

    1989-03-01

    Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle and 10 others underwent control operations. The lesion depleted levels of noradrenaline in the hippocampus to 2% of those in the controls. All rats were then trained for 16 sessions to lever-press in a Skinner box on a variable interval 18 sec schedule of food-reinforcement, then for 42 days on a successive discrimination between periods of variable interval (VI 18 sec) food-reinforcement and periods of extinction. This report describes the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP; 5 mg/kg) and propranolol (5 and 10 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally in both groups on modified ABBA designs after this training. Both drugs increased the response rates in extinction periods. The effect of propranolol was similar at each dose and smaller than that of CDP. Although CDP and propranolol (5 mg/kg) increased variable interval response rates also, this could not account for the effect on extinction response rates. Responding did not differ between the lesioned and control animals and the effects of drugs were similar in each group. It is unlikely that CDP or propranolol release nonrewarded responding by disrupting transmission in the dorsal noradrenergic bundle.

  5. Efficacy of carvedilol versus propranolol versus variceal band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Abd ElRahim, Ayman Yosry; Fouad, Rabab; Khairy, Marwa; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Fathalah, Waleed; Khatamish, Haytham; Khorshid, Omayma; Moussa, Mona; Seyam, Moataz

    2018-01-01

    Band ligation and propranolol are the current therapies for primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Carvedilol is a rising nonselective beta-blocker used for reducing portal pressure with favorable outcome. The aim of this study to assess the efficacy of carvedilol, propranolol, and band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding based on the effect of each regimen on progression of Child score and portal hypertensive gastropathy after 1 year. The study included 264 cirrhotic patients with medium/large-sized varices who were candidates for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I: band ligation; group II: propranolol; group III: carvedilol. Group I showed higher success rate of 75 %, followed by group III with 70.2 % and group II with 65.2 %. Risk of bleeding was comparable between the three groups, with group II carrying the highest rate of complications (34.7 %) followed by group III (14.2 %) and finally group I (5.7 %). After 1 year of follow-up, Child score did not improve in any of the studied groups, while portal hypertensive gastropathy significantly increased in group I but decreased in groups II and III. Band ligation is the best treatment option for primary prevention of variceal bleeding with minimal complications. Carvedilol is a good pharmaceutical alternative medicine to propranolol with lesser side-effects. Progress of liver disease as represented by Child score is not affected by any of the primary variceal prophylactic regimens, although medical treatment reduces portal hypertensive gastropathy. Choice of treatment depends on patient will, compliance with treatment, and endoscopist competence.

  6. Increased bioavailability of propranolol in rats by retaining thermally gelling liquid suppositories in the rectum.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J M; Chung, S J; Lee, M H; Kim, C K; ShimCK

    1999-05-20

    Mucoadhesive liquid suppositories were prepared by adding mucoadhesive polymers (0.6%) to a formulation of thermally gelling suppositories that contained poloxamer 407 (15%), poloxamer 188 (15%) and propranolol HCl (2%). Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), carbopol, polycarbophil and sodium alginate were examined as mucoadhesive polymers. The characteristics of the suppositories differed depending on the choice of mucoadhesive polymer. For example, the gelation temperature was between 30 and 36 degrees C, the mucoadhesive force was between 430 and 5800 dyne/cm2, the apparent first-order release rate constant in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, was between 0.399 and 0.271 h-1, the migration distance of the suppository in the rectum 4 h after administration was between 1 and 5 cm, and the bioavailability of propranolol was between 60.9 and 84.7%. Rectal bioavailability increased as the mucoadhesive force increased (r=0.984, p<0.0005), and the migration distance decreased (r=-0.951, p<0.005). No relationship was found between the bioavailability and the gelation temperature, drug release or irritation of the rectal mucosal membrane by the suppository. Therefore, retaining propranolol at the dosed site in the rectum by the addition of appropriate mucoadhesives to the formulation of liquid suppositories appears to be a very important factor in avoiding first-pass hepatic elimination and thereby increasing the bioavailability of the drug. Among the mucoadhesive polymers examined, sodium alginate and polycarbophil exhibited the largest mucoadhesive force and the smallest intrarectal migration resulting in the largest bioavailability of propranolol (84.7 and 82.3%, respectively). In contrast to other polymers, sodium alginate alone caused no irritation of the rectal mucosal membrane. Thus, poloxamer liquid suppositories containing sodium alginate appears to be a preferred formulation for drugs that are sensitive to extensive first-pass metabolism.

  7. Crystal structure, conformation, vibration and optical band gap analysis of bis[ rac-propranolol nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Nehru, K.; Kim, Youngmee

    2009-06-01

    The crystal structure of the title rac-propranolol salt, CHNO2+·NO3-, consists of two protonated propranolol residues and nitrate anions. Three virtually flat fragments, characteristics of most of the β-adrenolytics with oxy-methylene bridge are present in both the cations (A and B). The plane of the propranolol chain is twisted with respect to the plane of the aromatic ring in both the cations. Present study investigates the conformation and hydrogen bonding interactions, which play an important role in biological functions. A gauche conformation is observed for the oxo-methylene bridge of cation A, while a trans conformation prevails in cation B. These conformations are found in majority of β-blockers. Presence of twenty intermolecular hydrogen bonds mediating through the anions stabilizes the crystal packing. Vibration analysis and earlier theoretical predictions complement the structure analysed. From the UV-Vis spectral analysis for the crystal, the optical band gap is found to be Eg = 5.12 eV, where as the chloride salt has Eg = 3.81 eV. The increase in the band gap may be attributed by the increase in the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Good optical transmittance in the entire visible region and the direct band gap property suggest that it is a suitable candidate for optical applications in UV region.

  8. Controlled treatment of primary hypertension with propranolol and spironolactone. A crossover study with special reference to initial plasma renin activity.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, B E; Kågedal, B; Tegler, L; Tolagen, K; Bergman, B

    1976-03-31

    Twenty-seven patients with hypertension were randomly allocated to a 10 month crossover study. Treatment consisted of spironolactone (200 mg/day for 2 months), propranolol (320 mg/day for 2 months) and combined administration of both drugs at half the dosage. Between treatment periods placebo was given for 2 months. Fourteen patients were previously untreated. The average pretreatment blood pressure for the entire group was 188/114 +/- 16/7(mean +/- standard deviation) mm Hg supine and 188/118 +/- 20/9 mm Hg standing. Both spironolactone and propranolol reduced blood pressure significantly in both the supine and standing positions. Upright plasma renin activity was determined by radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I. The average initial level was 1.9 +/- 1.2 (range 0.4 to 5.0) ng/ml/hr. There was a close correlation between plasma renin activity and the effects of the drugs: With increasing renin level the response to propranolol was better whereas the opposite was true for spironolactone. The combination of spironolactone and propranolol decreased the blood pressure still further in the supine and standing positions, irrespective of initial plasma renin activity. All patients achieved a normal supine pressure. Blood pressure and plasma renin activity returned toward pretreatment values during placebo administration. It is concluded that pretreatment levels of plasma renin activity can predict the antihypertensive response to propranolol and spironolactone. The combination of the two drugs, which have different modes of action, will effectively reduce blood pressure in hypertension. The results support the concept that the renin-angiotensin-aldo-sterone system may be involved in primary hypertension.

  9. Combining the α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  10. Long acting propranolol and HSP-70 rich tumor lysate reduce tumor growth and enhance immune response against fibrosarcoma in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Ahmad; Hassan, Zuhair Muhammad; Shahabi, Shahram; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Noori, Shokoofe; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Haybar, Habib; Langroudi, Ladan

    2013-06-01

    Noradrenaline (NA), the principal neurotransmitter released from sympathetic nerve terminals, influences T-cell maturation, not only directly in developing T cells, but also indirectly, by acting on the thymic nonlymphoid cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic properties of propranolol, β-AR blocker, against various cancers. To evaluate the effect of propranolol on efficacy of HSP-70 rich lysate vaccine in immunotherapy of fibrosarcoma. Mouse fibrosarcoma WEHI-164 cells were used to immunize tumor-bearing mice with or without propranolol and HSP-70. Splenocytes proliferation, cytotoxicity activity of the splenocytes, naturally occurring CD4+ CD25high T-reg cells and IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion as well as tumor size, were assessed to describe the anti-tumor immune response. A significant increase in the level of IFN-γ in the mice vaccinated with WEHI-164 cells enriched with HSP-70 and co-treated with propranolol was observed compared to controls. However, HSP enrichment or propranolol treatment alone did not enhance the immune response as measured by the level of IFN-γ. Likewise, a decrease in tumor growth in the test group (p<0.01) and a significant increase in CTL activity (p<0.05) was observed. HSP enriched vaccine shows anti-tumor activity, probably due to the modulation of immune responses.

  11. Daily propranolol administration reduces persistent injury-associated anemia after severe trauma and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Ines G; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Bible, Letitia E; Loftus, Tyler J; Ramos, Harry; Efron, Philip A; Mohr, Alicia M

    2017-04-01

    After severe trauma, patients develop a norepinephrine-mediated persistent, injury-associated anemia. This anemia is associated with suppression of bone marrow (BM) erythroid colony growth, along with decreased iron levels, and elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, which are insufficient to promote effective erythropoiesis. The impact of norepinephrine on iron regulators, such as ferroportin, transferrin, and transferrin receptor-1 (TFR-1), is unknown. Using a clinically relevant rodent model of lung contusion (LC), hemorrhagic shock (HS), and chronic stress (CS), we hypothesize that daily propranolol (BB), a nonselective β blocker, restores BM function and improves iron homeostasis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to LCHS ± BB and LCHS/CS ± BB. BB was achieved with propranolol (10 mg/kg) daily until the day of sacrifice. Hemoglobin, plasma EPO, plasma hepcidin, BM cellularity and BM erythroid colony growth were assessed. RNA was isolated to measure transferrin, TFR-1 and ferroportin expression. Data are presented as mean ± SD; *p < 0.05 versus untreated counterpart by t test. The addition of CS to LCHS leads to persistent anemia on posttrauma day 7, while the addition of BB improved hemoglobin levels (LCHS/CS: 10.6 ± 0.8 vs. LCHS/CS + BB: 13.9 ± 0.4* g/dL). Daily BB use after LCHS/CS improved BM cellularity, colony-forming units granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte megakaryocyte, burst-forming unit erythroid and colony-forming unit erythroid cell colony growth. LCHS/CS + BB significantly reduced plasma EPO levels and increased plasma hepcidin levels on day 7. The addition of CS to LCHS resulted in decreased liver ferroportin expression as well as decreased BM transferrin and TFR-1 expression, thus, blocking iron supply to erythroid cells. However, daily BB after LCHS/CS improved expression of all iron regulators. Daily propranolol administration after LCHS/CS restored BM function and improved anemia after severe trauma. In addition, iron regulators are

  12. Daily propranolol administration reduces persistent injury-associated anemia following severe trauma and chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Alamo, Ines G.; Kannan, Kolenkode B.; Bible, Letitia E.; Loftus, Tyler J.; Ramos, Harry; Efron, Philip A.; Mohr, Alicia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Following severe trauma, patients develop a norepinephrine-mediated persistent, injury-associated anemia. This anemia is associated with suppression of bone marrow erythroid colony growth, along with decreased iron levels, and elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, which are insufficient to promote effective erythropoiesis. The impact of norepinephrine on iron regulators such as ferroportin, transferrin and transferrin receptor-1 (TFR-1) are unknown. Using a clinically relevant rodent model of lung contusion (LC), hemorrhagic shock (HS), and chronic stress (CS), we hypothesize that daily propranolol (BB), a non-selective beta-blocker, restores bone marrow function and improves iron homeostasis. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to LCHS±BB and LCHS/CS±BB. BB was achieved with propranolol (10mg/kg) daily until the day of sacrifice. Hemoglobin (Hgb), plasma EPO, plasma hepcidin, bone marrow cellularity and bone marrow erythroid colony growth were assessed. RNA was isolated to measure transferrin, TFR-1 and ferroportin expression. Data is presented as mean±SD; *p<0.05 vs. untreated counterpart by t-test. Results The addition of CS to LCHS leads to persistent anemia on post-trauma day 7, while the addition of BB improved Hgb levels (LCHS/CS: 10.6±0.8 vs. LCHS/CS+BB: 13.9±0.4* g/dL). Daily BB use following LCHS/CS improved BM cellularity, CFU-GEMM, BFU-E and CFU-E colony growth. LCHS/CS+BB significantly reduced plasma EPO levels and increased plasma hepcidin levels on day 7. The addition of CS to LCHS resulted in decreased liver ferroportin expression as well as decreased bone marrow transferrin and TFR-1 expression, thus, blocking iron supply to erythroid cells. However, daily BB after LCHS/CS improved expression of all iron regulators. Conclusions Daily propranolol administration following LCHS/CS restored bone marrow function and improved anemia after severe trauma. In addition, iron regulators are significantly reduced following LCHS

  13. Posttraining intraamygdala infusions of oxotremorine and propranolol modulate storage of memory for reductions in reward magnitude.

    PubMed

    Salinas, J A; Introini-Collison, I B; Dalmaz, C; McGaugh, J L

    1997-07-01

    These experiments examined the effects of posttraining intraamygdala administration of the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine, and the beta-noradrenergic antagonist, propranolol, on memory for reduction in reward magnitude. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-200 g) implanted with bilateral intraamygdala cannulae were food deprived (maintained at 80% of body weight) and trained to run a straight alley (six trials/day) for either ten 45-mg food pellets (high reward) or one 45-mg food pellet (low reward) for 10 days. In Experiment One, the animals in the high-reward group were than shifted to a one-pellet reward and immediately given intraamygdala infusions (0.5 microliter/side) of either oxotremorine (10 ng) or phosphate buffer. Shifted training continued for 4 more days and no further injections were given. Shifted animals given the buffer solution displayed an increase in runway latencies but returned to preshift latencies by the fifth day of shifted training. In contrast, animals given oxotremorine exhibited increased latencies through the fifth day. In Experiment Two, rats were trained as in Experiment. One but immediately following the shift received intraamygdala infusions of oxotremorine (10 ng), propranolol (0.3 microgram), both, or phosphate buffer. Shifted vehicle-injected rats returned to preshift performance by the fifth day of shifted training. Shifted propranolol rats returned to preshift latencies by the third day of shifted training. In contrast, the shifted oxotremorine and the shifted oxotremorine/propranolol rats displayed longer latencies than unshifted controls through 5 days of shifted training. The findings indicate that the muscarinic cholinergic and beta-noradrenergic systems within the amygdala interact in regulating memory and support the view that noradrenergic influences are mediated through cholinergic activation.

  14. Effects of propranolol on fear of dental extraction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-11-25

    Undergoing an extraction has been shown to pose a significantly increased risk for the development of chronic apprehension for dental surgical procedures, disproportionate forms of dental anxiety (that is, dental phobia), and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that intrusive emotional memories of these events both induce and maintain these forms of anxiety. Addressing these problems effectively requires an intervention that durably reduces both the intrusiveness of key fear-related memories and state anxiety during surgery. Moreover, evidence suggests that propranolol is capable of inhibiting "memory reconsolidation" (that is, it blocks the process of storing a recently retrieved fear memory). Hence, the purpose of this trial is to determine the anxiolytic and fear memory reconsolidation inhibiting effects of the ß-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol on patients with high levels of fear in anticipation of a dental extraction. This trial is designed as a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-group, parallel, double-blind trial of 34 participants. Consecutive patients who have been referred by their dentist to the departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery of a University hospital or a secondary referral hospital in the Netherlands for at least two tooth and/or molar removals and with self-reported high to extreme fear in anticipation of a dental extraction will be recruited. The intervention is the administration of two 40 mg propranolol capsules 1 hour prior to a dental extraction, followed by one 40 mg capsule directly postoperatively. Placebo capsules will be used as a comparator. The primary outcome will be dental trait anxiety score reduction from baseline to 4-weeks follow-up. The secondary outcomes will be self-reported anxiety during surgery, physiological parameters (heart rate and blood pressure) during recall of the crucial fear-related memory, self-reported vividness, and emotional charge of the crucial fear

  15. Effects of the beta-adrenergic blockers propranolol and acebutolol on stress-induced learned helplessness behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Danchev, N; Staneva-Stoytcheva, D

    1995-09-01

    The latency time and escape ability of rats with learned helplessness behavior were studied after 1, 6 and 14 days of oral treatment with beta-adrenergic blockers propranolol (1 and 3 mg/kg) and acebutolol (10 and 30 mg/kg). A dose-dependent significant decrease in latency time and increase in number of avoidances was established after single, 6 and 14 days propranolol treatment. The selective beta 1-blocker acebutolol did not change the escape characteristics. These results suggest a greater impact of beta 1- than beta 2-adrenergic receptors for escape performance after unescapable foot shock, i.e., learned helplessness behavior.

  16. Comparison of the effects of penbutolol and propranolol on glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, J; Reijn, E; Heidendal, G A; Oe, P L; Donker, A J

    1986-01-01

    Penbutolol and propranolol were administered orally in a dosage of 40 mg once daily and 80 mg twice daily, respectively to 12 patients with hypertension and impaired renal function. Both drugs caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Serum creatinine concentration increased significantly by 10% during therapy with propranolol without concomitant decrease in creatinine clearance. No such effect was seen with penbutolol. GFR measured with [125I]-iothalamate showed no significant changes with both drugs. PMID:3533129

  17. Daily propranolol prevents prolonged mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells in a rat model of lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Bible, Letitia E; Pasupuleti, Latha V; Gore, Amy V; Sifri, Ziad C; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Mohr, Alicia M

    2015-09-01

    Propranolol has been shown previously to decrease the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) after acute injury in rodent models; however, this acute injury model does not reflect the prolonged period of critical illness after severe trauma. Using our novel lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock/chronic restraint stress model, we hypothesize that daily administration of propranolol will decrease prolonged mobilization of HPCs without worsening lung healing. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 6 days of restraint stress after undergoing lung contusion or lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. Restraint stress consisted of a daily 2-hour period of restraint interrupted every 30 minutes by alarms and repositioning. Each day after the period of restraint stress, the rats received intraperitoneal propranolol (10 mg/kg). On day 7, peripheral blood was analyzed for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for mobilization of HPCs using c-kit and CD71 flow cytometry. The lungs were examined histologically to grade injury. Seven days after lung contusion and lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock, the addition of chronic restraint stress significantly increased the mobilization of HPC, which was associated with persistently increased levels of G-CSF and increased lung injury scores. The addition of propranolol to lung contusion/chronic restraint stress and lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock/chronic restraint stress models greatly decreased HPC mobilization and restored G-CSF levels to that of naïve animals without worsening lung injury scores. The daily administration of propranolol after both lung contusion and lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock subjected to chronic restraint stress decreased the prolonged mobilization of HPC from the bone marrow and decreased plasma G-CSF levels. Despite the decrease in mobilization of HPC, lung healing did not worsen. Alleviating chronic stress with propranolol

  18. The Efficacy of Propranolol in Retinopathy of Prematurity and its Correlation with the Platelet Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Levent; Baştuğ, Osman; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Korkut, Sabriye; Karaca, Cagatay; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Gunes, Tamer; Kurtoglu, Selim; Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative vitreoretinopathy which is one of the most frequent causes of blindness in children. In an attempt to find a solution to this important problem in preterm children, the search for new, effective treatment modalities with fewer side effects is underway. In our study, which was planned for this reason, we aimed to investigate the effects of propranolol treatment applied to cases of ROP in various stages during the second phase (known as the neovascularization-hypoxia phase) and to determine the correlation of these effects with the platelet mass index (PMI). A total of 171 preterm infants at risk of ROP were selected randomly for inclusion in the study. All of the patients were classified according to their stage of ROP and were divided into control and treatment groups. While the cases in the control group were administered physiological saline solution, those in the treatment group were administered propranolol in the period that corresponded to the second stage of the disease. The thrombocyte and PMI values in the first and second stages of each study group were recorded. A significant difference was found between the control and treatment groups of the stage 2 ROP study subjects. In the stage 2 ROP study group, no significant difference was detected between the control and treatment cases in terms of platelet counts in phase 1 or in the PMI values and the thrombolytic counts in phase 2. On the other hand, in phase 2 of the stage 2 ROP study subjects significant differences were detected between the control and treatment group in terms of PMI values. In the study, it was found in the stage 2 ROP study group that propranolol reduced the need for laser photocoagulation significantly. Also, in parallel to the efficacy of propranolol in this study group, a decrease was observed in PMI values.

  19. Effects of propranolol and pindolol on plasma ANP levels in humans at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bouissou, P; Galen, F X; Richalet, J P; Lartigue, M; Devaux, F; Dubray, C; Atlan, G

    1989-08-01

    In attempt to elucidate whether the beta-adrenoceptor is involved in the control of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion, plasma immunoreactive ANP level was measured at rest, in recumbent and upright positions, and during graded maximal ergocycle exercise in nine healthy male subjects (23 +/- 0.5 years of age) treated for 3 days with nonselective beta-blockers propranolol (150 mg/day) or pindolol (15 mg/day) or with placebo. The effects of beta-blockers, which differ by their hemodynamic actions at rest because of the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of pindolol, were compared. Maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) during beta-blockade was not significantly different from the placebo value. Resting heart rate was not affected by pindolol treatment but was decreased with propranolol (-10 beats/min). Both beta-blockers caused a reduction in heart rate at all the exercise intensities. Mean blood pressure was not affected by beta-blockade at rest but was significantly reduced during exercise. During placebo treatment, plasma ANP increased in response to exercise intensities greater than 65% of VO2max. At 100% VO2max plasma ANP was nearly doubled (101.5 +/- 14 pg/ml) compared with the basal value in upright position (56.6 +/- 15 pg/ml). beta-Blockade caused a marked elevation in plasma ANP at all the levels of activity. Despite different hemodynamic responses to pindolol and propranolol, both beta-blockers produced similar increases in the basal level of plasma ANP. These rises were maintained in the course of exercise tests, and no significant difference was found between propranolol and pindolol. We conclude that beta-adrenoceptor mechanisms are not directly responsible for tonic and exercise-induced ANP secretion in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Propranolol, clonidine, urapidil and trazodone infusion in essential tremor: a double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Caccia, M R; Osio, M; Galimberti, V; Cataldi, G; Mangoni, A

    1989-05-01

    Accelerometric tremorgrams were recorded from 25 subjects affected by essential tremor and analysed by a Berg-Fourier frequency analyser before and during venous infusion of the following drugs: propranolol (beta-blocker), clonidine (alpha-presynaptic adrenergic agonist), urapidil (alpha-postsynaptic blocker), trazodone (adrenolytic agent) and placebo. The washout interval between infusions was 3 days. Recordings and data analyses were performed in a double-blind crossover trial. Tremor was classified as: at rest; postural (arms hyperextended); and intention (finger-nose test). Analysis of the results showed that propranolol and clonidine reduced significantly (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively) the power spectrum of postural tremor, but left at rest and intention tremors unchanged. No significant effects on the tremor power spectrum were observed after placebo, urapidil or trazodone administration. None of the drugs had any effect on tremor frequency.

  1. Effect of Selective Inhibition of Reactivated Nicotine-Associated Memories With Propranolol on Nicotine Craving.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Xue; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Ya-Yun; Zhang, Li-Bo; Wu, Ping; Huang, Geng-Di; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yu-Mei; Shaham, Yavin; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results. To develop and test an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)-induced retrieval-reconsolidation procedure to decrease nicotine craving among people who smoke. A translational rat study and human study in an academic outpatient medical center among 96 male smokers (aged 18- 45 years) to determine the association of propranolol administration within the time window of memory reconsolidation (after retrieval of the nicotine-associated memories by nicotine UCS exposure) with relapse to nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant nicotine seeking in rats, and measures of preference to nicotine-associated CS and nicotine craving among people who smoke. The study rats were injected noncontingently with the UCS (nicotine 0.15 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in their home cage, and the human study participants administered a dose of propranolol (40 mg, per os; Zhongnuo Pharma). Nicotine CPP and operant nicotine seeking in rats, and preference and craving ratings for newly learned and preexisting real-life nicotine-associated CS among people who smoke. Sixty-nine male smokers completed the experiment and were included for statistical analysis: 24 in the group that received placebo plus 1 hour plus UCS, 23 who received propranolol plus 1 hour plus UCS, and 22 who received UCS plus 6 hours plus propranolol. In rat relapse models, propranolol injections administered immediately after nicotine UCS

  2. Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo.

    PubMed

    Meyerbröker, K; Morina, N; Emmelkamp, P M G

    2018-06-01

    Recent research indicates that pharmacological agents may enhance psychotherapeutic outcome. Yet, empirical results have not been conclusive with respect to two pharmacological agents, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) and propranolol. YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol might help better cope with feared situations by reducing accompanying bodily sensations. In this controlled trial, fifty-six participants with specific phobia were randomly assigned to either 1) virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) plus YOH, 2) VRET plus Propranolol, or 3) VRET plus placebo. Participants in all conditions received three sessions of VRET over a period of two weeks. We conducted 2 × 3 repeated measures MANOVA's. Results showed a significant effect for time, with partial eta squared ranging from ηp2 = 0.647 to ηp2 = 0.692, for specific phobia, yet no significant interaction effects were found. No significant differences were found when VRET with YOH or a beta-blocker was compared to VRET with a non-active placebo. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metformin and propranolol combination prevents cancer progression and metastasis in different breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Maryna; Laluce, Nahuel Cesatti; Rozados, Viviana; Nicolas, André; Carré, Manon; Scharovsky, O. Graciela; Márquez, Mauricio Menacho

    2017-01-01

    Discovery of new drugs for cancer treatment is an expensive and time-consuming process and the percentage of drugs reaching the clinic remains quite low. Drug repositioning refers to the identification and development of new uses for existing drugs and represents an alternative drug development strategy. In this work, we evaluated the antitumor effect of metronomic treatment with a combination of two repositioned drugs, metformin and propranolol, in triple negative breast cancer models. By in vitro studies with five different breast cancer derived cells, we observed that combined treatment decreased proliferation (P < 0.001), mitochondrial activity (P < 0.001), migration (P < 0.001) and invasion (P < 0.001). In vivo studies in immunocompetent mice confirmed the potential of this combination in reducing tumor growth (P < 0.001) and preventing metastasis (P < 0.05). Taken together our results suggest that metformin plus propranolol combined treatment might be beneficial for triple negative breast cancer control, with no symptoms of toxicity. PMID:27926515

  4. Decreased absorption as a possible cause for the lower bioavailability of a sustained-release propranolol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Ogata, H; Warabioka, R; Kashiwada, K; Ohira, M; Someya, K

    1990-03-01

    The influence of sustained absorption on the oral availability of propranolol (P) and the metabolic disposition of P were investigated by obtaining the partial metabolic clearances (CLm) following long-acting P (LA) dosing in comparison with the conventional propranolol tablet (CP). Ten healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of an LA capsule (60 mg) and CP (20 mg x 3) using a crossover design. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24- and 48-h postdose periods, respectively. Concentrations of P, propranolol glucuronide (PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol (4P), 4-hydroxypropranolol glucuronide (4PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol sulfate (4PS), and naphthoxylactic acid (NLA) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection. Significant differences were observed between LA and CP in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) for P, PG, and NLA and in the amounts excreted into urine (Ae) for all measured metabolites (i.e., PG, 4P, 4PG, 4PS, and NLA). The parallel decrease of the AUC for P and the excreted amounts of all measured metabolites following LA dosing resulted in partial metabolic clearances (CLm) and renal clearances (CL) for P and its metabolites that were similar to those observed for CP. Therefore, the hepatic metabolism of P would not be affected by the slower absorption at a single oral dose of 60 mg. These results indicate that the poor absorption of P from the gastrointestinal tract might be one of the factors causing the low bioavailability of P observed after administration of the sustained-release formulation.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release microballoons of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Porwal, A; Swami, G; Saraf, Sa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize, optimize and evaluate microballoons of Propranolol hydrochloride and to increase its boioavailability by increasing the retention time of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Propranolol hydrochloride-loaded microballoons were prepared by the non-aqueous O/O emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation method using Eudragit RSPO as polymer. It was found that preparation temperature determined the formation of cavity inside the microballoon and this in turn determined the buoyancy. Microballoons were subjected to particle size determination, micromeritic properties, buoyancy, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and IR study. The correlation between the buoyancy, bulk density and porosity of microballoons were elucidated. The release rate was determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) of pH 1.2 at 37±0.5°C. The microballoons presented spherical and smooth morphologies (SEM) and were porous due to presence of hollow cavity. Microballoons remained buoyant for >12 hrs for the optimized formulation. The formulation demonstrated favorable in vitro floating and release characteristics. The encapsulation efficiency was high. In vitro dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model. The drug release from microballoons was mainly controlled by diffusion and showed a biphasic pattern with an initial burst release, followed by sustained release for 12 hrs. The amount of the drug which released up to 12 hrs was 82.05±0.64%. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the cumulative amount of drug released after 30 min, and up to 12 hrs from optimized formulations. The designed system for propanolol would possibly be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability and patient compliance.

  6. Opposing acute and chronic behavioural effects of a beta-blocker, propranolol, in the rat.

    PubMed

    Salmon, P; Gray, J A

    1985-01-01

    Rats were trained over 40 days to lever-press for food reward under a schedule of differential reinforcement of low rates of response with a 20-s criterion (DRL 20), following seven sessions of continuous reinforcement. The effect of injecting a beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol (5 mg/kg IP), before and at two different delays after each daily session of DRL were investigated. In Experiment I, rats drugged 5-8 min before every session earned fewer reinforcements compared to controls, and showed impaired temporal discrimination. In Experiment II, this result was not replicated, but similar effects were clear in animals drugged pre-session from the 15th day of acquisition. By contrast, an improved temporal discrimination, and increased number of reinforcements were seen in rats drugged 5-8 min after every session. In Experiment III, the post-session effects were replicated and found also in rats drugged 4-5.5 h after each session. These results suggest that propranolol has an acute effect on DRL responding which resembles that of anxiolytics, and a chronic effect which opposes the acute one.

  7. Combining sorption experiments and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to study the adsorption of propranolol onto environmental solid matrices - Influence of copper(II).

    PubMed

    Smith, Rose-Michelle; Sayen, Stéphanie; Nuns, Nicolas; Berrier, Elise; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2018-05-23

    The bioavailability of pharmaceuticals is governed by their sorption in soils/sediments, as the retention processes determine their concentration in surface- and ground-water. The adsorption of these contaminants can involve various solid components such as organic matter, clays and metallic oxides, and their distribution among these solid components depends on contaminant and solid properties. In this paper we studied the adsorption of the pharmaceutical propranolol - a beta-blocker - on eight different solids (six soils, one sediment and one kaolinite-based sample) by batch experiments. The influence of contact time, propranolol concentration and pH was considered, as well as the presence of copper(II). The investigated solids displayed a wide variability in terms of CEC (cationic exchange capacity) and organic carbon and carbonates contents. The influence of pH was negligible in the pH range from 5.5 to 8.6. The adsorbed amounts were greatly dependent on the solid and two groups of solids were evidenced: three soils of high CEC and organic carbon contents which retained high amounts of propranolol, and three soils, the sediment and the kaolinite-based sample (low CEC and organic carbon content) displaying a low adsorption capacity for the beta-blocker. A linear model enabling the determination of the sorption parameters K d and K oc was pertinent to describe the adsorption isotherms but the K oc values showed a great variability. It was shown that organic carbon content alone could not explain propranolol adsorption. The CEC value was identified as influent parameter and a simple empirical model was proposed to describe propranolol adsorption. At microscopic and molecular scales, ToF-SIMS experiments indicated (i) a decrease of potassium on the surface upon propranolol adsorption with a distribution of the beta-blocker similarly to alumino-silicates, iron and organic carbon on the surface confirming a cation exchange mechanism and (ii) the absence of degradation

  8. Blood pressure reactivity in the evaluation of resting blood pressure and mood responses to pindolol and propranolol in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Potempa, K M; Fogg, L F; Fish, A F; Kravitz, H M

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship of blood pressure reactivity during exercise to treatment responsiveness to two commonly used beta-adrenergic blocking agents, propranolol and pindolol. Prospective, placebo-controlled, balanced, cross-over clinical trial. University-affiliated medical center. A convenience sample of 19 white male subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension were studied. The mean age was 63.4 years (SD = 5.2). The mean resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 158.6 mm Hg (SD = 12.3) and mean resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 96.4 mm Hg (SD = 8.6). They had no clinical evidence of secondary hypertension, diabetes, heart, liver, pulmonary, or renal disease. Resting blood pressure; blood pressure reactivity to exercise; self-report measures of depressive symptoms, and mood disturbances. Antihypertensive medication was tapered off and subjects were free of all prescription drugs for 2 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to propranolol-pindolol or pindolol-propranolol group. Each 4- to 6-week treatment phase was preceded by a 2-week placebo phase. At the end of the initial placebo phase and each active drug treatment phase, subjects were assessed for depression and mood disturbances by use of standardized measures and were given a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Resting blood pressure was assessed weekly and before each exercise test. Significant relationships between DBP reactivity to exercise during the placebo phase and the degree of blood pressure and mood responsiveness to pindolol and propranolol treatment were observed. Subjects demonstrating high DBP reactivity required high doses of beta-blocker for resting DBP reduction, and these subjects showed the least change in mood at high doses. Similar patterns were found for the relationship of SBP reactivity and blood pressure and mood responsiveness to drug treatment, but these relationships were not statistically significant

  9. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release microballoons of propranolol

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, A; Swami, G; Saraf, SA

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize, optimize and evaluate microballoons of Propranolol hydrochloride and to increase its boioavailability by increasing the retention time of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Methods Propranolol hydrochloride-loaded microballoons were prepared by the non-aqueous O/O emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation method using Eudragit RSPO as polymer. It was found that preparation temperature determined the formation of cavity inside the microballoon and this in turn determined the buoyancy. Microballoons were subjected to particle size determination, micromeritic properties, buoyancy, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and IR study. The correlation between the buoyancy, bulk density and porosity of microballoons were elucidated. The release rate was determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) of pH 1.2 at 37±0.5°C. Results The microballoons presented spherical and smooth morphologies (SEM) and were porous due to presence of hollow cavity. Microballoons remained buoyant for >12 hrs for the optimized formulation. The formulation demonstrated favorable in vitro floating and release characteristics. The encapsulation efficiency was high. In vitro dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model. The drug release from microballoons was mainly controlled by diffusion and showed a biphasic pattern with an initial burst release, followed by sustained release for 12 hrs. The amount of the drug which released up to 12 hrs was 82.05±0.64%. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the cumulative amount of drug released after 30 min, and up to 12 hrs from optimized formulations. Conclusion The designed system for propanolol would possibly be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability and patient compliance. PMID:22615657

  10. Potential for biodegradation and sorption of acetaminophen, caffeine, propranolol and acebutolol in lab-scale aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Lin, Chih-Ann; Tung, Hsin-Hsin; Chary, N Sridhara

    2010-11-15

    Sorption and combined sorption-biodegradation experiments were conducted in laboratory batch studies with 100 g soil/sediments and 500 mL water to investigate the fates in aqueous environments of acetaminophen, caffeine, propranolol, and acebutolol, four frequently used and often-detected pharmaceuticals. All four compounds have demonstrated significant potential for degradation and sorption in natural aqueous systems. For acetaminophen, biodegradation was found to be a primary mechanism for degradation, with a half-life (t(1/2)) for combined sorption-biodegradation of 2.1 days; in contrast, sorption alone was responsible only for a 30% loss of aqueous-phase acetaminophen after 15 days. For caffeine, both biodegradation and sorption were important (t(1/2) for combined sorption-biodegradation was 1.5 days). However, for propranolol and acebutolol, sorption was found to be the most significant removal mechanism and was not affected by biodegradation. Desorption experiments revealed that the sorption process was mostly irreversible. High values were found for K(d) for caffeine, propranolol, and acebutolol, ranging from 250 to 1900 L kg(-1), which explained their greater tendency for sorption onto sediments, compared to the more hydrophilic acetaminophen. Experimentally derived values for logK(oc) differed markedly from values calculated from correlation equations. This discrepancy was attributed to the fact that these equations are well suited for hydrophobic interactions but may fail to predict the sorption of polar and ionic compounds. These results suggest that mechanisms other than hydrophobic interactions played an important role in the sorption process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-dose prazosin alone and in combination with propranolol or naltrexone: effects on ethanol and sucrose seeking and self-administration in the P rat.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Terril L; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n = 20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1 % sucrose (n = 10) or 10 % ethanol (n = 10) for 20 min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)), or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp. 1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously (SC); Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose seeking more than ethanol seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol seeking more than sucrose seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp. 2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose seeking. Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone and also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers.

  12. Low-Dose Prazosin Alone and in Combination with Propranolol or Naltrexone: Effects on Ethanol- and Sucrose-Seeking and Self-Administration in the P Rat

    PubMed Central

    Verplaetse, Terril L.; Czachowski, Cristine L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol-reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. Methods This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer-seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n=20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1% sucrose (n=10) or 10% ethanol (n=10) for 20min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneally (IP)) or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg (subcutaneously (SC); Exp2). Results For Exp1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose-seeking more than ethanol-seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol-seeking more than sucrose-seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol-seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol-seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose-seeking. Conclusions Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone, but also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers. PMID:25743758

  13. Novel use of propranolol for management of pain in children with vertebral hemangioma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Uzunaslan, Didem; Saygin, Caner; Gungor, Semih; Hasiloglu, Zehra; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celkan, Tiraje

    2013-05-01

    Vertebral hemangioma (VH) is an exceedingly rare neoplasm in pediatric population with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. It is usually asymptomatic in adults and diagnosed incidentally at radiographic investigations of other medical conditions. In this report, we describe two children who presented to our institution with severe back pain and were diagnosed with VH. Case 1 was an 8-year-old male with a pain score of 10 out of 10 at presentation. Clinical investigations eliminated the possibility of a neoplasm or infectious process and MRI findings were highly suggestive of an aggressive vertebral hemangioma. Case 2 was a 17-year-old female who presented with back pain radiating to shoulders. Her pain score was 4 out of 10 and she was diagnosed with vertebral hemangioma due to the specific findings on MRI studies. Both patients received propranolol with a dose of 20 and 40 mg per day, respectively. They were free of pain at 2 months follow-up. There are different invasive treatment modalities for the management of VH, including vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, radiotherapy, alcohol injection, embolization, and surgery. These methods have been used in adult patients for several years, but each of them has potential risks which make these options unsuitable for children. Propranolol is a beta blocker which is safely used in the management of infantile hemangiomas. This is the first report demonstrating its efficacy in symptomatic treatment of childhood VH. The lesions did not show any regression, but the pain relief obtained was very significant under propranolol therapy.

  14. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of post-retrieval propranolol on reconsolidation of memory for craving and cue reactivity in cocaine dependent humans

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale/Objectives This study examined the effects of propranolol vs. placebo, administered immediately after a 'retrieval' session of cocaine cue exposure (CCE), on craving and physiological responses occurring 24 hr. later during a subsequent 'test' session of CCE. It was hypothesized that compared to placebo-treated cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals, propranolol-treated CD individuals would evidence attenuated craving and physiological reactivity during the test session. Secondarily, it was expected that group differences identified in the test session would be evident at a 1-week follow-up CCE session. Exploratory analyses of treatment effects on cocaine use were also performed at follow-up. Methods CD participants received either 40 mg propranolol or placebo immediately following a 'retrieval' CCE session. The next day, participants received a 'test' session of CCE that was identical to the 'retrieval' session except no medication was administered. Participants underwent a ‘follow-up’ CCE session 1-week later. Craving and other reactivity measures were obtained at multiple time points during the CCE sessions. Results Propranolol- vs. placebo-treated participants evidenced significantly greater attenuation of craving and cardiovascular reactivity during the test session. Analysis of the follow-up CCE session data did not reveal any group differences. Although there was no evidence of treatment effects on cocaine use during follow-up, this study was insufficiently powered to rigorously evaluate differential cocaine use. Conclusions This double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study provides the first evidence that propranolol administration following CCE may modulate memories for learning processes that subserve cocaine craving/cue reactivity in CD humans. Alternative interpretations of the findings were considered and implications of the results for treatment were noted. PMID:23460266

  15. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of post-retrieval propranolol on reconsolidation of memory for craving and cue reactivity in cocaine dependent humans.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Larowe, Steven D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Baker, Nathaniel L; Hartwell, Karen J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of propranolol vs. placebo, administered immediately after a "retrieval" session of cocaine cue exposure (CCE), on craving and physiological responses occurring 24 h later during a subsequent "test" session of CCE. It was hypothesized that compared to placebo-treated cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals, propranolol-treated CD individuals would evidence attenuated craving and physiological reactivity during the test session. Secondarily, it was expected that group differences identified in the test session would be evident at a 1-week follow-up CCE session. Exploratory analyses of treatment effects on cocaine use were also performed at follow-up. CD participants received either 40 mg propranolol or placebo immediately following a "retrieval" CCE session. The next day, participants received a "test" session of CCE that was identical to the "retrieval" session except no medication was administered. Participants underwent a "follow-up" CCE session 1 week later. Craving and other reactivity measures were obtained at multiple time points during the CCE sessions. Propranolol- vs. placebo-treated participants evidenced significantly greater attenuation of craving and cardiovascular reactivity during the test session. Analysis of the follow-up CCE session data did not reveal any group differences. Although there was no evidence of treatment effects on cocaine use during follow-up, this study was insufficiently powered to rigorously evaluate differential cocaine use. This double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study provides the first evidence that propranolol administration following CCE may modulate memories for learning processes that subserve cocaine craving/cue reactivity in CD humans. Alternative interpretations of the findings were considered, and implications of the results for treatment were noted.

  16. Identification of formulation and manufacturing variables that influence in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of propranolol hydrochloride tablets.

    PubMed

    Eddington, N D; Ashraf, M; Augsburger, L L; Leslie, J L; Fossler, M J; Lesko, L J; Shah, V P; Rekhi, G S

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of formulation and processing changes on the dissolution and bioavailability of propranolol hydrochloride tablets. Directly compressed blends of 6 kg (20,000 units) were prepared by mixing in a 16-qt V blender and tablets were compressed on an instrumented Manesty D3B tablet press. A half-factorial (2(5-1), Resolution V) design was used to study the following variables: filler ratio (lactose/dicalcium phosphate), sodium starch glycolate level, magnesium stearate level, lubricant blend time, and compression force. The levels and ranges of the excipients and processing changes studied represented level 2 or greater changes as indicated by the Scale-up and Post Approval Changes (SUPAC-IR) Guidance. Changes in filler ratio, disintegrant level, and compression force were significant in affecting percent drug released (Q) in 5 min (Q5) and Q10. However, changes in magnesium stearate level and lubricant blend time did not influence Q5 and Q10. Hardness was found to be affected by changes in all of the variables studied. Some interaction effects between the variables studied were also found to be significant. To examine the impact of formulation and processing variables on in vivo absorption, three batches were selected for a bioavailability study based on their dissolution profiles. Thirteen subjects received four propranolol treatments (slow-, medium-, and fast-dissolving formulations and Inderal 80 mg) separated by 1 week washout according to a randomized crossover design. The formulations were found to be bioequivalent with respect to the log Cmax and log AUC0-infinity. The results of this study suggest that (i) bioavailability/bioequivalency studies may not be necessary for propranolol and perhaps other class 1 drugs after level 2 type changes, and (ii) in vitro dissolution tests may be used to show bioequivalence of propranolol formulations with processing or formulation changes within the specified level 2 ranges

  17. Pediatric oral solutions with propranolol hydrochloride for extemporaneous compounding: the formulation and stability study.

    PubMed

    Klovrzová, Sylva; Zahálka, Lukáš; Matysová, Ludmila; Horák, Petr; Sklubalová, Zdenka

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to formulate an extemporaneous pediatric oral solution of propranolol hydrochloride (PRO) 2 mg/ml for the therapy of infantile haemangioma or hypertension in a target age group of 1 month to school children and to evaluate its stability. A citric acid solution and/or a citrate-phosphate buffer solution, respectively, were used as the vehicles to achieve pH value of about 3, optimal for the stability of PRO. In order to mask the bitter taste of PRO, simple syrup was used as the sweetener. All solutions were stored in tightly closed brown glass bottles at 5 ± 3 °C and/or 25 ± 3 °C, respectively. The validated HPLC method was used to evaluate the concentration of PRO and a preservative, sodium benzoate, at time intervals of 0-180 days. All preparations were stable at both storage temperatures with pH values in the range of 2.8-3.2. According to pharmacopoeial requirements, the efficacy of sodium benzoate 0.05 % w/v was proved (Ph.Eur., 5.1.3). The preparation formulated with the citrate-phosphate buffer, in our experience, had better palatability than that formulated with the citric acid solution. propranolol hydrochloride pediatric preparation extemporaneous preparation solution stability testing HPLC.

  18. Repeated Alcohol Extinction Sessions in Conjunction with MK-801, but not Yohimbine or Propranolol, Reduces Subsequent Alcohol Cue-Induced Responding in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keith L.; Harding, Kaitlyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cues associated with alcohol can stimulate subjective states that increase relapse. Alcohol-cue associations may be strengthened by enhancing adrenergic activity with yohimbine or weakened by blocking adrenergic activity with propranolol. Alcohol-cue associations may also be weakened by long cue exposure sessions or strengthened by short cue exposure sessions. A useful treatment approach for alcoholism may combine adrenergic manipulation with cue exposure sessions of a specific duration. The present study sought to determine if cue exposure during long- or short-duration extinction sessions with post-session yohimbine or propranolol would alter alcohol cue-induced responding and self-administration. Rats were trained to respond for alcohol during sessions that included an olfactory cue given at the beginning of the session and a visual/auditory cue complex delivered concurrently with alcohol. Cue-induced responding was assessed before and after the repeated extinction sessions. Repeated alcohol extinction sessions of long duration (45 min) or short duration (5 min) were followed immediately by injections of saline, yohimbine, or propranolol. After the second set of cue-induced responding tests, reacquisition of operant alcohol self-administration was examined. To determine if the experimental procedures were sensitive to memory manipulation through other pharmacological mechanisms, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 was given 20 min prior to long-duration extinction sessions. Both the long- and short-duration extinction sessions decreased cue-induced responding. Neither yohimbine nor propranolol, given post-session, had subsequent effects on cue-induced responding or alcohol self-administration. MK-801 blocked the effect of extinction sessions on cue-induced responding but had no effect on self-administration. The present study shows that manipulation of the NMDA system in combination with alcohol cue exposure therapy during extinction-like sessions may be more

  19. Use of propranolol in a remote region of rural Guatemala to treat a large facial infantile haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Vera; Martinez, Boris; Cnop, Katia; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-05-16

    We present a female infant with a right-sided facial and neck haemangioma, from a remote, resource-poor community in rural Guatemala. She received first-line treatment, propranolol, with marked reduction in tumour size and erythema. Treatment was stopped after 35 weeks due to recurrent diarrhoea and sustained weight loss. Propranolol can be used to safely treat infants with haemangiomas in remote, rural communities if there is adequate follow-up, education and communication. Periocular haemangiomas should be treated promptly to avoid visual impairment. Infants with large facial haemangiomas should be screened for P osterior fossa anomalies, H emangioma, A rterial anomalies, C ardiac anomalies, and E ye anomalies (PHACE) syndrome, and specialists should be involved. The case also highlights the difficulty of providing treatment for a complex illness when basic health needs, such as food security and water sanitation, are limited. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Reactivating fear memory under propranolol resets pre-trauma levels of dendritic spines in basolateral amygdala but not dorsal hippocampus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vetere, Gisella; Piserchia, Valentina; Borreca, Antonella; Novembre, Giovanni; Aceti, Massimiliano; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Fear memory enhances connectivity in cortical and limbic circuits but whether treatments disrupting fear reset connectivity to pre-trauma level is unknown. Here we report that C56BL/6J mice exposed to a tone-shock association in context A (conditioning), and briefly re-exposed to the same tone-shock association in context B (reactivation), exhibit strong freezing to the tone alone delivered 48 h later in context B (long term fear memory). This intense fear response is associated with a massive increase in dendritic spines and phospho-Erk (p-ERK) signaling in basolateral amygdala (BLA) but neurons. We then show that propranolol (a central/peripheral β-adrenergic receptor blocker) administered before, but not after, the reactivation trial attenuates long term fear memory assessed drug free 48 h later, and completely prevents the increase in spines and p-ERK signaling in BLA neurons. An increase in spines, but not of p-ERK, was also detected in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of the conditioned mice. DH spines, however, were unaffected by propranolol suggesting their independence from the ERK/β-ARs cascade. We conclude that propranolol selectively blocks dendritic spines and p-ERK signaling enhancement in the BLA; its effect on fear memory is, however, less pronounced suggesting that the persistence of spines at other brain sites decreases the sensitivity of the fear memory trace to treatments selectively targeting β ARs in the BLA. PMID:24391566

  1. Study protocol: safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye drops in newborns with a precocious stage of retinopathy of prematurity (DROP-ROP-0.2%): a multicenter, open-label, single arm, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Berti, Elettra; Padrini, Letizia; Araimo, Gabriella; Regiroli, Giulia; Bozzetti, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Tagliabue, Paolo; Tomasini, Barbara; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Agosti, Massimo; Bossi, Angela; Chirico, Gaetano; Aversa, Salvatore; Pasqualetti, Roberta; Fortunato, Pina; Osnaghi, Silvia; Cavallotti, Barbara; Vanni, Maurizio; Borsari, Giulia; Donati, Simone; Nascimbeni, Giuseppe; la Marca, Giancarlo; Forni, Giulia; Milani, Silvano; Cortinovis, Ivan; Bagnoli, Paola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Calvani, Anna Maria; Pugi, Alessandra; Villamor, Eduardo; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Mosca, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) still represents one of the leading causes of visual impairment in childhood. Systemic propranolol has proven to be effective in reducing ROP progression in preterm newborns, although safety was not sufficiently guaranteed. On the contrary, topical treatment with propranolol eye micro-drops at a concentration of 0.1% had an optimal safety profile in preterm newborns with ROP, but was not sufficiently effective in reducing the disease progression if administered at an advanced stage (during stage 2). The aim of the present protocol is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops in preterm newborns at a more precocious stage of ROP (stage 1). A multicenter, open-label, phase II, clinical trial, planned according to the Simon optimal two-stage design, will be performed to analyze the safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops in preterm newborns with stage 1 ROP. Preterm newborns with a gestational age of 23-32 weeks, with a stage 1 ROP will receive propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops treatment until retinal vascularization has been completed, but for no longer than 90 days. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings checking metabolic, renal and liver functions, as well as electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, will be periodically performed to investigate treatment safety. Additionally, propranolol plasma levels will be measured at the steady state, on the 10th day of treatment. To assess the efficacy of topical treatment, the ROP progression from stage 1 ROP to stage 2 or 3 with plus will be evaluated by serial ophthalmologic examinations. Propranolol eye micro-drops could represent an ideal strategy in counteracting ROP, because it is definitely safer than oral administration, inexpensive and an easily affordable treatment. Establishing the optimal dosage and treatment schedule is to date a crucial issue. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02504944

  2. Propranolol and atropine do not alter choroidal blood flow regulation during isometric exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Polska, Elzbieta; Luksch, Alexandra; Schering, Joanne; Frank, Barbara; Imhof, Andrea; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the human choroid has a considerable capacity to keep blood flow constant despite exercise-induced increases in perfusion pressure. The mechanisms underlying this vasoconstrictor response remain unclear. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of the autonomic nervous system may alter the choroidal pressure/flow relationship during squatting. To test this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study in 15 healthy male volunteers. Subjects received, on different study days, intravenous infusions of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, or placebo. During these infusions, subjects performed squatting for 6 min. Choroidal blood flow was assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was calculated from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure. As expected, propranolol reduced basal pulse rate, whereas atropine increased pulse rate, indicating that the drugs were administered at systemically effective doses. None of the drugs altered the choroidal pressure/flow relationship during isometric exercise. These data indicate that the regulatory vasoconstrictor capacity of the choroid during exercise is not affected by systemic blockade of beta-adrenoceptors or muscarinic receptors.

  3. Interactions of beta-blockers with model lipid membranes: molecular view of the interaction of acebutolol, oxprenolol, and propranolol with phosphatidylcholine vesicles by time-dependent fluorescence shift and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Först, Gesche; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Schubert, Rolf; Hof, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Since pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities of drugs are often related to their interactions with biomembranes, it is of high interest to establish an approach for the characterization of these interactions at the molecular level. For the present study, beta-blockers (oxprenolol, propranolol, and acebutolol) were selected due to their well described nonspecific membrane effects (NME). Their interactions with model lipid membranes composed of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) were studied using Time-Dependent Fluorescence Shift (TDFS) and Generalized Polarization (GP) as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Liposomal vesicles were labeled with fluorescent membrane polarity probes (Laurdan, Prodan, and Dtmac). Increasing beta-blocker concentrations (0-10 mM for acebutolol and oxprenolol, and 0-1.5 mM for propranolol) significantly rigidifies the lipid bilayer at the glycerol and headgroup level, which was detected in the steady-state and in the time-resolved fluorescence data. The effects of propranolol were considerably stronger than those of the two other beta-blockers. The addition of fluorescent probes precisely located at different levels within the lipid bilayer revealed the insertion of the beta-blockers into the POPC bilayer at the glycerol backbone level, which was further confirmed by MD simulations in the case of propranolol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  5. Interactions between cilazapril and propranolol in man; plasma drug concentrations, hormone and enzyme responses, haemodynamics, agonist dose-effect curves and baroreceptor reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Belz, G G; Essig, J; Kleinbloesem, C H; Hoogkamer, J F; Wiegand, U W; Wellstein, A

    1988-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics, hormonal and haemodynamic responses at rest and during challenges with angiotensin I (blood pressure), isoprenaline (heart rate), and noradrenaline (blood pressure) were investigated in six healthy male volunteers following a 1 week treatment with placebo, propranolol (120 mg day-1), cilazapril (2, 5 mg day-1), and a combination of both in a double-blind cross-over design. 2. Both drugs reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by about 7 mm Hg as compared with placebo. After coadministration, this drop in blood pressure was doubled and lasted longer than after the administration of the individual components. 3. Following cilazapril, a pronounced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA) was found (factor approximately 10 at drug peak concentrations). Coadministration of both drugs resulted only in a moderate increase in the PRA (factor approximately 3). Significant changes in plasma catecholamines were not observed. 4. Propranolol shifted the isoprenaline dose-effect curve to the right, and cilazapril that of angiotensin I, irrespective of the presence of the other drug. Cilazapril tended to shift the noradrenaline dose-effect curve somewhat to the right. 5. The gain of the baroreceptor reflex (angiotensin-stimulation) was not influenced by cilazapril but was lowered by propranolol, irrespective of the presence of the ACE inhibitor. 6. Except for a statistically not significant decrease in the peak concentrations of each drug during the combined therapy, a pharmacokinetic interaction between the two drugs was not found. PMID:2974715

  6. HPLC column-switching technique for sample preparation and fluorescence determination of propranolol in urine using fused-core columns in both dimensions.

    PubMed

    Satínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2013-08-01

    A new and fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column-switching method using fused-core columns in both dimensions for sample preconcentration and determination of propranolol in human urine has been developed. On-line sample pretreatment and propranolol preconcentration were performed on an Ascentis Express RP-C-18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size, 2.7 μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water (5:95, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) and at a temperature of 50 °C. Valve switch from pretreatment column to analytical column was set at 4.0 min in a back-flush mode. Separation of propranolol from other endogenous urine compounds was achieved on the fused-core column Ascentis Express RP-Amide (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size, 2.7 μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water solution of 0.5% triethylamine, pH adjusted to 4.5 by means of glacial acetic acid (25:75, v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and at a temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 229/338 nm. A volume of 1,500 μL of filtered urine sample solution was injected directly into the column-switching HPLC system. The total analysis time including on-line sample pretreatment was less than 8 min. The experimentally determined limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.015 ng mL(-1).

  7. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of bisoprolol, ramiprilat, propranolol and midazolam in rat dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Cvan Trobec, Katja; Trontelj, Jurij; Springer, Jochen; Lainscak, Mitja; Kerec Kos, Mojca

    2014-05-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling represents a suitable method for pharmacokinetic studies in rats, particularly if serial sampling is needed. To study the pharmacokinetics of drugs in a rat heart failure (HF) model, we developed and validated a method for the simultaneous determination of bisoprolol, ramiprilat, propranolol and midazolam in DBS samples. Bisoprolol and ramipril are widely used in the treatment of HF, and midazolam and propranolol are markers of hepatic metabolism, which can be altered in HF. A 20μL sample of rat blood was pipetted onto Whatman 903 Protein Saver Card and allowed to dry. The whole spot was excised and 300μL of solvent (methanol with 10% ultrapure water and 0.1% formic acid) was added. After mixing and incubating the sample in an ultrasonic bath, a mixture of isotopically labeled internal standards was added. After centrifugation, the extracts were cleaned on an Ostro™ plate and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. The method was successfully validated. No significant interference was observed in the retention times of analytes or internal standards. The intraday and interday accuracy and precision were within a ±15% interval. The method was linear in the range 5-250μg/L and the lower limit of quantification was 5μg/L for all four analytes. The absolute matrix effect ranged from 98.7% for midazolam to 121% for ramiprilat. The recovery was lowest for ramiprilat and highest for propranolol. Samples were stable at all tested temperatures. The method has been used successfully in a real-time pharmacokinetic study in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations using near infrared spectrometry with fiber optic probe and multivariate calibration methods.

    PubMed

    Marques Junior, Jucelino Medeiros; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Foletto, Edson Luiz; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Irineu Muller, Edson

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation using near infrared spectrometry with fiber optic probe (FTNIR/PROBE) and combined with chemometric methods was developed. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). The treatments based on the mean centered data and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were selected for models construction. A root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 8.2 mg g(-1) was achieved using siPLS (s2i20PLS) algorithm with spectra divided into 20 intervals and combination of 2 intervals (8501 to 8801 and 5201 to 5501 cm(-1)). Results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those using the pharmacopoeia reference method and significant difference was not observed. Therefore, proposed method allowed a fast, precise, and accurate determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out on-line analysis of this active principle in pharmaceutical formulations with use of fiber optic probe.

  9. [Operational mechanism modification of bone mechanostat in an animal model of nutritional stress: effect of propranolol].

    PubMed

    Pintos, Patricia Mabel; Lezón, Christian Esteban; Bozzini, Clarisa; Friedman, Silvia María; Boyer, Patricia Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Propranolol (P) treatment exerts a preventive effect against the detrimental consequences to bone status in mildly chronically food-restricted growing rats (NGR) by an increment in cortical bone and by improving its spatial distribution. To study the effect of beta-blocker on operational mechanism of bone mechanostat in an animal model of nutritional stress. Weanling male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), C + P (CP), NGR and NGR + P (NGRP). C and CP rats were fed freely with the standard diet. NGR and NGRP rats received, for 4 weeks, 80% of the amount of food consumed by C and CP respectively, the previous day, corrected by body weight. Propranolol (7 mg/kg/day) was injected ip 5 days per week, for four weeks in CP and NGRP rats. C and NGR received saline injections at an identical dosage regimen. Body weight and length were determined during the experimental period. Dietary intake was registered daily. Animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks of food restriction. Immediately, cuadriceps, femur and tibiae from each animal were dissected and weighed, and histomorphometric and mechanical studies were performed. Serum a-CTX, osteocalcin, intact PTH, calcium and phosphorous were determined. Body protein (% prot) was measured in all groups. Food restriction induced detrimental effects on body and femoral growth, load-bearing capacity (Wf), % prot and cuadriceps weight in NGR us. C (p < 0.01). beta-blocker did not modify anthropometric and bone morphometric parameters in NGRP and CP us. NGR and C, respectively (p > 0.05). However, Wf NGRP vs. NGR was significantly higher (p < 0.01). alpha-CTX was significantly higher in NGR vs. C (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in alpha-CTX levels between CP, NGRP and C (p > 0.05). Serum osteocalcin, intact PTH, calcium and phospho- rous showed no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). These results suggest that modeling increase in bone mass and strength in NGRP rats could be

  10. Extraction efficiency and implications for absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, liver and kidney thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC ESI-MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Weiskittel, Taylor M.; Vavek, Marissa

    Currently, absolute quantitation aspects of droplet-based surface sampling for thin tissue analysis using a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system are not fully evaluated. Knowledge of extraction efficiency and its reproducibility is required to judge the potential of the method for absolute quantitation of analytes from thin tissue sections. Methods: Adjacent thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed mouse brain (10- μm-thick), kidney (10- μm-thick) and liver (8-, 10-, 16- and 24- μm-thick) were obtained. Absolute concentration of propranolol was determined in tissue punches from serial sections using standard bulk tissue extraction protocols and subsequent HPLC separations and tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Thesemore » values were used to determine propranolol extraction efficiency from the tissues with the droplet-based surface sampling approach. Results: Extraction efficiency of propranolol using 10- μm-thick brain, kidney and liver thin tissues using droplet-based surface sampling varied between ~45-63%. Extraction efficiency decreased from ~65% to ~36% with liver thickness increasing from 8 μm to 24 μm. Randomly selecting half of the samples as standards, precision and accuracy of propranolol concentrations obtained for the other half of samples as quality control metrics were determined. Resulting precision ( ±15%) and accuracy ( ±3%) values, respectively, were within acceptable limits. In conclusion, comparative quantitation of adjacent mouse thin tissue sections of different organs and of various thicknesses by droplet-based surface sampling and by bulk extraction of tissue punches showed that extraction efficiency was incomplete using the former method, and that it depended on the organ and tissue thickness. However, once extraction efficiency was determined and applied, the droplet-based approach provided the required quantitation accuracy and precision for assay validations. Furthermore, this means that once the extraction

  11. Extraction efficiency and implications for absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, liver and kidney thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC ESI-MS/MS

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Weiskittel, Taylor M.; Vavek, Marissa; ...

    2016-06-22

    Currently, absolute quantitation aspects of droplet-based surface sampling for thin tissue analysis using a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system are not fully evaluated. Knowledge of extraction efficiency and its reproducibility is required to judge the potential of the method for absolute quantitation of analytes from thin tissue sections. Methods: Adjacent thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed mouse brain (10- μm-thick), kidney (10- μm-thick) and liver (8-, 10-, 16- and 24- μm-thick) were obtained. Absolute concentration of propranolol was determined in tissue punches from serial sections using standard bulk tissue extraction protocols and subsequent HPLC separations and tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Thesemore » values were used to determine propranolol extraction efficiency from the tissues with the droplet-based surface sampling approach. Results: Extraction efficiency of propranolol using 10- μm-thick brain, kidney and liver thin tissues using droplet-based surface sampling varied between ~45-63%. Extraction efficiency decreased from ~65% to ~36% with liver thickness increasing from 8 μm to 24 μm. Randomly selecting half of the samples as standards, precision and accuracy of propranolol concentrations obtained for the other half of samples as quality control metrics were determined. Resulting precision ( ±15%) and accuracy ( ±3%) values, respectively, were within acceptable limits. In conclusion, comparative quantitation of adjacent mouse thin tissue sections of different organs and of various thicknesses by droplet-based surface sampling and by bulk extraction of tissue punches showed that extraction efficiency was incomplete using the former method, and that it depended on the organ and tissue thickness. However, once extraction efficiency was determined and applied, the droplet-based approach provided the required quantitation accuracy and precision for assay validations. Furthermore, this means that once the extraction

  12. Infantile hemangioma: treatment with short course systemic corticosteroid therapy as an alternative for propranolol.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Klaske; de Laat, Peter C J; Janmohamed, Sherief R; Madern, Gerard C; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are increasingly being treated with propranolol or other beta-blockers, but before this therapeutic option was available, oral glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) were the criterion standard treatment and are still the alternative modality in problematic cases. Nevertheless, there is no standard treatment protocol for the dose and duration of GCSs. Long-term treatment with GCSs is associated with unwanted side effects such as growth suppression, behavioral changes, and reflux. Twenty-one children with troublesome IHs were treated according to an algorithm with 3 mg/kg/day of oral prednisolone divided three times per day with varying duration and number of GCS courses. Two blinded investigators independently interpreted therapy results using the Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS). Side effects were determined according to reports in patient charts and parental questionnaires. The median duration of a short course of GCSs was 2 weeks (range 1-6 weeks). The number of courses was 2 (range 1-5). The median cumulative dose was 91 mg/kg. Growth stabilized in all patients, with a good response (>50% reduction in HAS) in 62% and a favorable response (30-50% reduction is HAS) in 23%. Twelve of the 21 children (57%) had minor side effects. Persistent side effects did not occur. Intermittent short course, systemic, high-dose GCS therapy is an effective and safe treatment modality for IH, with a substantially lower cumulative dose of GCSs compared to prolonged therapy and no major side effects. This treatment is an alternative in cases in which propranolol fails or is contraindicated. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of (acrylic acid/ polyethylene glycol)-zinc oxide mucoadhesive nanocomposites for buccal administration of propranolol HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ghada A.; Ali, Amr El-Hag; Raafat, Amany I.; Badawy, Nagwa A.; Elshahawy, Mai. F.

    2018-06-01

    A series of mucoadhesive nanocomposites with self disinfection properties composed of acrylic acid, polyethylene glycol and ZnO nanoparticles (AAc/PEG)-ZnO were developed for localized buccal Propranolol HCl delivery. γ-irradiation as a clean tool for graft copolymerization process was used for the preparation of (AAc/PEG) hydrogels. In suite precipitation technique was used for ZnO nanoparticles immobilization within (AAc/PEG) hydrogels. The developed (AAc/PEG)-ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm the success of ZnO nanoparticles formation within the (AAc/PEG) matrices. The presence of ZnO nanoparticles improves the thermal stability as indicated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mucoadhesion characteristics such as hydration degree, surface pH, and mucoadhesive strength were evaluated in artificial saliva solution. The self disinfection property of the developed (AAc/PEG)-ZnO nanocomposites was investigated by examining their resistance to pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli using disc diffusion method. The release of Propranolol -HCl drug in artificial saliva was found to obey a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The obtained results suggests that (AAc/PEG)-ZnO nanocomposites could be used as mucoadhesive carrier for buccal drug delivery with efficient antibacterial properties.

  14. Assessing the environmental hazard of individual and combined pharmaceuticals: acute and chronic toxicity of fluoxetine and propranolol in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Varano, Valentina; Fabbri, Elena; Pasteris, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are widespread emerging contaminants and, like all pollutants, are present in combination with others in the ecosystems. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the toxic response of the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to individual and combined pharmaceuticals. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor widely prescribed as antidepressant, and propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent used to treat hypertension, were tested. Several experimental trials of an acute immobilization test and a chronic reproduction test were performed. Single chemicals were first tested separately. Toxicity of binary mixtures was then assessed using a fixed ratio experimental design. Five concentrations and 5 percentages of each substance in the mixture (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) were tested. The MIXTOX model was applied to analyze the experimental results. This tool is a stepwise statistical procedure that evaluates if and how observed data deviate from a reference model, either concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA), and provides significance testing for synergism, antagonism, or more complex interactions. Acute EC50 values ranged from 6.4 to 7.8 mg/L for propranolol and from 6.4 to 9.1 mg/L for fluoxetine. Chronic EC50 values ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 mg/L for propranolol and from 0.23 to 0.24 mg/L for fluoxetine. Results showed a significant antagonism between chemicals in both the acute and the chronic mixture tests when CA was adopted as the reference model, while absence of interactive effects when IA was used.

  15. Effects of hexamethonium, phenothiazines, propranolol and ephedrine on acetylcholinesterase carbamylation by physostigmine, aldicarb and carbaryl: interaction between the active site and the functionally distinct peripheral sites in acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Spassova, D

    1998-01-01

    Physostigmine, aldicarb and carbaryl were potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The physostigmine-inhibited AChE fluoresced at 300 nm excitation and 500 nm emission wavelengths, but the aldicarb and carbaryl inhibited enzyme did not. This suggests that the carbamylated active center is not the fluorescing site in AChE. The fluorescence intensity of physostigmine-inhibited AChE decreased with increasing the substrate (acetylthiocholine) concentration, thus indicating that physostigmine binding to the active site is essential for the development of fluorescence. Thus, the physostigmine-inhibited AChE fluoresces due to the binding of trimethylpyrrolo[2,3-b]indol (TMPI) moiety, formed by the hydrolysis of physostigmine, to a peripheral site in AChE. The fluorescence intensity of the physostigmine-inhibited enzyme decreased when the inhibited-enzyme was dialyzed for either 30 min that poorly reactivated the enzyme or 180 min that fully reactivated the enzyme. This suggests that dialysis dissociates the AChE-TMPI complex much faster than it reactivates the carbamylated AChE. Ephedrine, propranolol and phenothiazines including trifluoparazine (TPZ) caused non-competitive inhibition, while hexamethonium caused an uncompetitive inhibition of AChE activity. TPZ, upon binding with AChE, formed a fluorescent TPZ-enzyme complex. The fluorescence intensity of TPZ-AChE complex was effectively decreased by ephedrine, but not by propranolol or hexamethonium. This indicates that TPZ and ephedrine bind to the same site in AChE which is different from the site/or sites to which propranolol or hexamethonium bind. Hexamethonium protected AChE from inhibition by carbamates and decreased the fluorescence intensity of the physostigmine-inhibited AChE. Phenothiazines and ephedrine did not modulate the enzyme inhibition or the fluorescence intensity of the physostigmine-inhibited AChE. Propranolol and TPZ potentiated the enzyme inhibition and increased the fluorescence intensity

  16. PROPRANOLOL AND D-CYCLOSERINE AS ADJUNCTIVE MEDICATIONS IN REDUCING DENTAL FEAR IN SEDATION PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Lisa J.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Milgrom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research and clinical experience have demonstrated the usefulness of sedation in helping fearful patients receive dental treatment, particularly when they have urgent treatment needs. In addition, the efficacy of behavioural programmes for managing dental fears is well established. While often these two approaches are seen as oppositional, our work in Seattle, Morgantown and at King’s College London Dental Institute demonstrates the complementarity of the two approaches. Using the example of two compounds, one very familiar, propranolol, and one that has recently become of interest, D-cycloserine, we wish to illustrate the manner in which these medications can be used to enhance behavioural approaches to managing dental anxiety. PMID:20151608

  17. The effects of methylphenidate and propranolol on the interplay between induced-anxiety and working memory

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Research documents a reciprocal impact of anxiety on working memory (WM), although its strength and direction depend on factors like task difficulty. A better understanding of these factors may generate insights into cognitive mechanisms of action involved in anxiety, culminating into treatment implications. By blocking the physiological effects of anxiety, propranolol might also block anxiety interference on WM. Conversely, by improving task-directed attention, methylphenidate might reduce anxiety, or, alternatively, by improving cognitive efficiency and free up processing resources to compute anxiety. Objectives To investigate the interplay between induced anxiety and WM, we pharmacologically manipulated either anxiety or cognition, using single doses of 40 mg propranolol (PRO), 20 mg methylphenidate (MPH), or placebo (PLA). In this double-blind parallel-group design study, 60 healthy volunteers (20/drug group) performed a verbal WM task under three loads, 1-, 2- and 3-back, and in two conditions, threat of shock and safety. Startle electromyography (EMG) was used to measure anxiety. Results Findings were twofold: (1) MPH blocked anxiety interference only on the 3-back WM performance, while PRO or PLA had no effects on anxiety-WM interference, and (2) drugs had no effects on anxiety, but, after controlling for baseline anxiety, MPH enhanced anxiety-potentiated startle during the 3-back task. Conclusions These findings support that MPH-related improvement of cognitive efficiency permits anxiety to be processed and expressed. In conclusion, MPH may be a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms of interaction between anxiety and WM, particularly those under catecholaminergic control. PMID:27492789

  18. The effects of methylphenidate and propranolol on the interplay between induced-anxiety and working memory.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Monique; Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Research documents a reciprocal impact of anxiety on working memory (WM), although its strength and direction depend on factors like task difficulty. A better understanding of these factors may generate insights into cognitive mechanisms of action involved in anxiety, culminating into treatment implications. By blocking the physiological effects of anxiety, propranolol might also block anxiety interference on WM. Conversely, by improving task-directed attention, methylphenidate might reduce anxiety, or, alternatively, by improving cognitive efficiency and free up processing resources to compute anxiety. To investigate the interplay between induced anxiety and WM, we pharmacologically manipulated either anxiety or cognition, using single doses of 40 mg propranolol (PRO), 20 mg methylphenidate (MPH), or placebo (PLA). In this double-blind parallel-group design study, 60 healthy volunteers (20/drug group) performed a verbal WM task under three loads, 1-, 2- and 3-back, and in two conditions, threat of shock and safety. Startle electromyography (EMG) was used to measure anxiety. Findings were twofold: (1) MPH blocked anxiety interference only on the 3-back WM performance, while PRO or PLA had no effects on anxiety-WM interference, and (2) drugs had no effects on anxiety, but, after controlling for baseline anxiety, MPH enhanced anxiety-potentiated startle during the 3-back task. These findings support that MPH-related improvement of cognitive efficiency permits anxiety to be processed and expressed. In conclusion, MPH may be a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms of interaction between anxiety and WM, particularly those under catecholaminergic control.

  19. Changes in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve and time of useful function at hypobaric pressures in rats after chronic oral administration of propranolol.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-05-01

    Twenty rats were given propranolol, 1.8 mg/kg body weight, by mouth for 12 days. On day 13, these and 20 control rats were tested for time of useful function (TUF) after rapid decompression in a hypobaric chamber. The criterion for TUF was the animal...

  20. Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium and atropine but not propranolol diminishes apolipoprotein A-IV gene expression in rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, K; Tajima, K; Fujiwara, R; Kasai, T

    2000-03-01

    To clarify the role of neural factors in the regulation of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV expression in the small intestine, we investigated the effect of neural blockers on mRNA levels of apo A-IV in rat small intestine. Either ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium), cholinergic blocker (atropine) or beta-adrenergic blocker (propranolol) was infused intravenously to unrestrained conscious rats for 8 h, and then total RNA was isolated from the small intestine and analyzed using Northern hybridization. Apo A-IV mRNA levels in the ileum were significantly lower in hexamethonium- or atropine-infused rats than in saline- (control) or propranolol-infused rats. Immunoblot analysis showed no difference in plasma apo A-IV concentrations between hexamethonium- and saline-infused groups. The lower mRNA levels of apo A-IV in the ileum of hexamethonium-infused rats were observed even in bile-drained rats, indicating that the lower expression was not due to any changes in bile availability. The ileal apo A-IV mRNA levels were significantly higher in rats infused with lipid emulsion into the ileum than in rats infused with glucose-saline, and the concomitant infusion of intravenous hexamethonium did not affect the higher levels of apo A-IV mRNA. These results suggest that the basal expression of the ileal A-IV gene is at least partially regulated in a site-specific manner by cholinergic neurons.

  1. Enantiomers Recognition of Propranolol Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Open-Tubular MIPs-CEC Column Using 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)Propyl Methacrylate as a Cross-Linking Monomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Ning; Li, Ning; Luo, Tian; Dong, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS), a bifunctional group compound, was used as a single cross-linking agent to prepare molecular imprinted inorganic-organic hybrid polymers by in situ polymerization for open-tubular capillary electro chromatography (CEC) column. The optimal preparation conditions were: the ratio between template molecule and functional monomer was 1:4; the volume proportion of porogen toluene and methanol was 1:1 and the volume of cross-linking agent γ-MPS was 69 μL. The optimal separation conditions were separation voltage of 15 kV; detection wavelength at 215 nm and background electrolyte composed of 70% acetonitrile/20 mmol/L boric acid salt (pH 6.9). Under the optimized conditions, the propranolol enantiomers can be separated well by CEC. The method is simple and fast, it can be a potentially useful approach for propranolol enantiomers separation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.

  3. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d 7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d 7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  4. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d 7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d 7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  5. Re-Designing of Existing Pharmaceuticals for Environmental Biodegradability: A Tiered Approach with β-Blocker Propranolol as an Example.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Tushar; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-10-06

    Worldwide, contamination of aquatic systems with micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, is one of the challenges for sustainable management of water resources. Although micropollutants are present at low concentrations, many of them raise considerable toxicological concerns, particularly when present as components of complex mixtures. Recent research has shown that this problem cannot be sustainably solved with advanced effluent treatment. Therefore, an alternative that might overcome these environmental problems is the design of new pharmaceutical molecules or the redesign of existing pharmaceutical molecules that present the functionality needed for their application and have improved environmental biodegradability. Such redesigning can be performed by small molecular changes in the drug molecule with intact drug moiety which could incorporate the additional attribute such as biodegradability while retaining its pharmacological potency. This proof of concept study provides an approach for the rational redesign of a given pharmaceutical (Propranolol as an example). New derivatives with small molecular changes as compared to propranolol molecule were generated by a nontargeted photolysis process. Generated derivatives with intact drug moieties (an aromatic ring and a β-ethanolamine moiety) were further screened for aerobic biodegradability and pharmacological potency. The feasibility of the approach of redesigning an existing pharmaceutical through nontargeted generation of new derivatives with intact drug moiety and through subsequent screening was demonstrated in this study. Application of such approaches in turn might contribute to the protection of water resources in a truly sustainable manner.

  6. Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)—Propranolol as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Sukhatme, Vidula; Meheus, Lydie; Rooman, Ilse; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2016-01-01

    Propranolol (PRO) is a well-known and widely used non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (beta-blocker), with a range of actions which are of interest in an oncological context. PRO displays effects on cellular proliferation and invasion, on the immune system, on the angiogenic cascade, and on tumour cell sensitivity to existing treatments. Both pre-clinical and clinical evidence of these effects, in multiple cancer types, is assessed and summarised and relevant mechanisms of action outlined. In particular there is evidence that PRO is effective at multiple points in the metastatic cascade, particularly in the context of the post-surgical wound response. Based on this evidence the case is made for further clinical investigation of the anticancer effects of PRO, particularly in combination with other agents. A number of trials are on-going, in different treatment settings for various cancers. PMID:27899953

  7. The change in muscarinic receptor subtypes in different brain regions of rats treated with fluoxetine or propranolol in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Aykaç, Aslı; Aydın, Banu; Cabadak, Hülya; Gören, M Zafer

    2012-06-15

    This study shows the possible contribution of muscarinic receptors in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were exposed to dirty cat litter (trauma) for 10 min and the protocol was repeated 1 week later with a trauma reminder (clean litter). The rats also received intraperitoneal fluoxetine (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day), propranolol (10 mg/kg/day) or saline for 7 days between two exposure sessions. Functional behavioral experiments were performed using elevated plus maze, following exposure to trauma reminder. Western blot analyses for M(1), M(2), M(3), M(4) and M(5) receptor proteins were employed in the homogenates of the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the amygdaloid complex. The anxiety indices increased from 0.63±0.02 to 0.89±0.04 in rats exposed to the trauma reminder. The freezing times were also recorded as 47±6 and 133±12 s, in control and test animals respectively. Fluoxetine or propranolol treatments restored the increases in the anxiety indices and the freezing times. Female rats had higher anxiety indices compared to males. Western blot data showed increases in M(2) and M(5) expression in the frontal cortex. Expression of M(1) receptors increased and M(4) subtype decreased in the hippocampus. In the amygdaloid complex of rats, we also detected a down-regulation of M(4) receptors. Fluoxetine and propranolol only corrected the changes occurred in the frontal cortex. These results may imply that muscarinic receptors are involved in this experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

  9. Study on the inclusion behavior of p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene with propranolol by spectrofluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Song, Jin-Ping; Chao, Jian-Bin; Shuang, Shao-Min; Dong, Chuan

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion interaction between propranolol (PPL) and p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene (SCX6) was investigated by fluorescence and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Influences of pH, temperature, ionic strength and the concentration of SCX6 were examined in detail. In phosphate buffer solution with pH 7.5, the fluorescence of PPL dramatically quenched upon addition of SCX6 revealing the formation of inclusion complexes between PPL and SCX6. The stoichiometric ratio was verified to be 1:1 by the continuous variation method. The inclusion constant of PPL-SCX6 complexes was calculated as 2.2 × 104 L/mol by the nonlinear curve fitting method. 1H NMR titration spectra testified that the aliphatic chain of PPL may be partially penetrated into the hydrophobic cavity of SCX6. This was confirmed by molecular dynamics calculations.

  10. Effect of dietary composition and cold exposure on non-shivering thermogenesis in young pigs and its alteration by the beta-blocker propranolol.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J; Ingram, D L

    1979-03-01

    1. Young pigs were fed on three diets consecutively, each diet being given for 1 week. The diets were given in random order as (g pig feed/kg body-weight): (a) 20, (b) 60, (c) 20 plus a supplement with the energy equivalent of 40 g pig feed/kg. The supplements included desiccated coconut, fish meal and glucose. 2. At the end of each week resting metabolic rate, beginning 12--14 h after feeding, was measured overnight using an open-circuit respiration chamber at thermoneutrality. 3. The oxygen consumption of pigs on the 60 g/kg diet was always higher than on the 20 g/kg diet. The addition of desiccated coconut, or fish meal also increased metabolic rate; whereas with added glucose, O2 consumption tended to be even lower than on 20 g/kg alone. 4. The administration of the beta-blocker propranolol to pigs on ad lib, food intake reduced the rate of overnight resting O2 consumption, measured from 10 until 20 h after feeding, by 12%, but it had no effect on O2 consumption when the intake was 20 g feed/kg. Exposure to mild cold (15 degrees) caused an increase in O2 consumption and this was reduced by 14% after injection of propranolol.

  11. Optimization of propranolol HCl release kinetics from press coated sustained release tablets.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ahmed; Ali, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Press-coated sustained release tablets offer a valuable, cheap and easy manufacture alternative to the highly expensive, multi-step manufacture and filling of coated beads. In this study, propranolol HCl press-coated tablets were prepared using hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as tablet coating material together with carbopol 971P and compressol as release modifiers. The prepared formulations were optimized for zero-order release using artificial neural network program (INForm, Intelligensys Ltd, North Yorkshire, UK). Typical zero-order release kinetics with extended release profile for more than 12 h was obtained. The most important variables considered by the program in optimizing formulations were type and proportion of polymer mixture in the coat layer and distribution ratio of drug between core and coat. The key elements found were; incorporation of 31-38 % of the drug in the coat, fixing the amount of polymer in coat to be not less than 50 % of coat layer. Optimum zero-order release kinetics (linear regression r2 = 0.997 and Peppas model n value > 0.80) were obtained when 2.5-10 % carbopol and 25-42.5% compressol were incorporated into the 50 % HPMC coat layer.

  12. Simultaneous determination of isoproterenol, acetaminophen, folic acid, propranolol and caffeine using a sensor platform based on carbon black, graphene oxide, copper nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ademar; Santos, Anderson Martin; Silva, Tiago Almeida; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2018-06-01

    We explored the use of carbon black (CB), graphene oxide (GO), copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as electrode materials for the simultaneous determination of isoproterenol, acetaminophen, folic acid, propranolol and caffeine. The designed nanostructured surface was widely characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle measurements and electrochemistry. From electrochemical characterization assays carried out towards the potassium ferricyanide redox probe, fast electron transfer kinetics and a considerably higher electroactive surface area were observed for the modified electrodic surface based on CB, GO, CuNPs and PEDOT:PSS film. Using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), well defined and resolved anodic peaks were detected for isoproterenol, acetaminophen, folic acid, propranolol and caffeine, with peak-to-peak potential separation not less than 170 mV. Then, the SWV technique was explored for the simultaneous determination of quinary mixtures of these analytes, resulting in analytical curves with linear ranges and limits of detection at micromolar concentration levels. The practical viability of the proposed voltammetric sensor was illustrated in the analysis of human body fluid samples. The proposed sensor showed good repeatability and a successful application using urine and serum matrices, with recoveries close to 100%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. mRNA of cytokines in bone marrow and bone biomarkers in response to propranolol in a nutritional growth retardation model.

    PubMed

    Tasat, Deborah R; Lezón, Christian E; Astort, Francisco; Pintos, Patricia M; Macri, Elisa V; Friedman, Silvia M; Boyer, Patricia M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mRNA of IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 cytokines in bone marrow, possible mediators involved in altered bone remodeling with detrimental consequences on bone quality in NGR (Nutritional growth retardation) rats. Weanling male Wistar rats were assigned either to control (C) or experimental group (NGR) (n=20 each). C and NGR groups were assigned to 2 groups according to receiving saline solution (SS) or propranolol hydrochloride (P): C, C+P (CP), NGR or NGR+P (NGRP). For 4 weeks, NGR and NGRP rats received 80% of the amount of food consumed by C and CP, respectively, the previous day, corrected by body weight. P (7 mg/kg/day) was injected ip 5 days/week, for 4 weeks in CP and NGRP rats. Body weight and length were recorded. After 4 weeks, blood was drawn. Femurs were dissected for RNA isolation from bone marrow and mRNA of cytokines assays. Food restriction induced a significant negative effect on body growth in NGR and NGRP rats (p<0.001). P had no effects on zoometric parameters (p>0.05). CTX-I increased in NGR rats vs. C (p<0.001), but diminished in NGRP (p<0.01). Serum osteocalcin, PTH, calcium and phosphate levels remained unchanged between groups (p>0.05). In NGR, bone marrow IL-6 mRNA and IL-10 mRNA levels were low as compared to other groups (p<0.05). In contrast, bone marrow TNF-α mRNA levels were significantly high (p<0.05). This study provides evidences that NGR outcomes in a bone marrow proinflammatory microenvironment leading to unbalanced bone remodeling by enhancement of bone resorption reverted by propranolol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  14. Propranolol and Oxandrolone Therapy Accelerated Muscle Recovery in Burned Children.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tony; Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Siopi, Aikaterina; Ideker, Henry; Mlcak, Ronald P; Sidossis, Labros S; Suman, Oscar E

    2018-03-01

    Severe burns result in prolonged hypermetabolism and skeletal muscle catabolism. Rehabilitative exercise training (RET) programs improved muscle mass and strength in severely burned children. The combination of RET with β-blockade or testosterone analogs showed improved exercise-induced benefits on body composition and muscle function. However, the effect of RET combined with multiple drug therapy on muscle mass, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and protein turnover are unknown. In this placebo-controlled randomized trial, we hypothesize that RET combined with oxandrolone and propranolol (Oxprop) will improve muscle mass and function and protein turnover in severely burned children compared with burned children undergoing the same RET with a placebo. We studied 42 severely burned children (7-17 yr) with severe burns over 30% of the total body surface area. Patients were randomized to placebo (22 control) or to Oxprop (20) and began drug administration within 96 h of admission. All patients began RET at hospital discharge as part of their standardized care. Muscle strength (N·m), power (W), V˙O2peak, body composition, and protein fractional synthetic rate and fractional breakdown rate were measured pre-RET (PRE) and post-RET (POST). Muscle strength and power, lean body mass, and V˙O2peak increased with RET in both groups (P < 0.01). The increase in strength and power was significantly greater in Oxprop versus control (P < 0.01), and strength and power was greater in Oxprop over control POST (P < 0.05). Fractional synthetic rate was significantly higher in Oxprop than control POST (P < 0.01), resulting in improved protein net balance POST (P < 0.05). Rehabilitative exercise training improves body composition, muscle function, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children recovering from severe burns. Oxprop therapy augments RET-mediated improvements in muscle strength, power, and protein turnover.

  15. Effect of Propranolol on Thyroxine-Induced Changes in Body Temperature and Metabolism During Exercise in Dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Brzezinska, Zofia; Greenleaf, John E.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thyroxine on temperature and metabolism during exercise were studied in dogs after beta-adrenergic blockade. Dogs performed 60 min treadmill exercise of moderate intensity 5 and 72 h following thyroxine injected s. c. in a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. Thyroxine increased significantly the lipolytic response to exercise as well as blood lactate (LA) concentrations and rectal temperature (T(sub re)) during exercise as early as 5 h following the hormone administration. The changes became more pronounced 72 h after the injection. At rest T(sub re), blood FFA (free fatty acid) and LA levels in the thyroxine-treated dogs did not differ from the control values, and blood glucose was slightly, but significantly higher. Propranolol given intravenously in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg at 30 min of the exercise performed 72 h following thyroxine injection abolished the plasma FFA rise, and inhibited to a certain extent increases in T(sub re) and blood LA concentrations during the next 30 min of exercise.

  16. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of propranolol hydrochloride and piroxicam in pure and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Babu G; Seetharamappa, Jaldappa; Melwanki, Mahaveer B

    2002-06-01

    Two simple and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric methods for the assay of propranolol hydrochloride (PPH) and piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations have been proposed. The methods are based on the oxidation of PPH by a known excess of standard N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and PX by ceric ammonium sulfate (CAS) in an acidic medium followed by the reaction of excess oxidant with promethazine hydrochloride (PMH) and methdilazine hydrochloride (MDH) to yield red-colored products. The absorbance values decreased linearly with increasing concentration of the drugs. The systems obeyed Beer's law over the concentration ranges of 0.5 - 12.5 and 0.3 - 16.0 microg/ml for PPH, and 0.4 - 7.5 and 0.2 - 10 microg/ml for PX with PMH and MDH, respectively. Molar absorptivity values, as calculated from Beer's law data, were found to be 1.36 x 10(4) and 2.55 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) for PPH, and 2.08 x 10(4) and 2.05 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) for PX with PMH and MDH, respectively. The common excipients and additives did not interfere with their determinations. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the determinations of PPH and PX in various dosage forms. The results obtained by the proposed methods compare favorably with those of official methods.

  17. Behavioral and biochemical adjustments of the zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to the β-blocker propranolol.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly M; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Propranolol (PROP) is a β-blocker prescribed mainly to treat human cardiovascular diseases and as a result of its wide usage and persistence, it is reported in aquatic environments. This study examined whether PROP alters developmental patterns and catecholamine (CA)-regulated processes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and if exposure during early life alters the stress response and behaviors of adults. The calculated 48h larva LC50 was 21.6mg/L, well above reported environmental levels (0.01-0.59μg/L). Stressed and PROP-exposed adult zebrafish had reduced testosterone and estradiol levels and exhibited behaviors indicating less anxiety than control fish. Furthermore, adults previously PROP-exposed as embryos/larvae had decreased growth in terms of body length and mass. Finally, these adults showed increased cholesterol and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels compared with unexposed zebrafish. Thus PROP-exposure of zebrafish embryos/larvae alters developmental patterns and CA-regulated processes that may affect normal behaviors and responses to stressors, and at least some of these changes persist in the adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced down regulation of cortical +-propranolol sensitive ( sup 3 H)-DHA binding sites by co-administration of DMI and 5-HT sub 1A partial agonist gepirone

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, M.A.; Yocca, F.D.

    1990-02-26

    The putative interrelationship between the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems has been supported by numerous studies. Recently, Dudley et al. (1989) demonstrated significant down regulation of cortical {beta}-adrenergic receptors by co-administration of desipramine (DMI), a norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, and the full 5-HT{sub 1A} agonist 8-OH-DPAT. To this end, the effects of acute and chronic (4 and 14 day) administration of DMI, gepirone, a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} post-synaptic partial agonist, as well as a combination of the two, on cortical ({plus minus})-propranolol sensitive ({sup 3}H)-DHA binding sites were examined in rats. Down regulation was apparent after 4 and 14 day treatment withmore » DMI. However, this was not the case with gepirone. Of particular importance is the demonstration of a greater magnitude of down regulation with co-administration of a greater magnitude of down regulation with co-administration of DMI and gepirone. These results suggests that alteration in rat cortical ({plus minus})-propranolol sensitive ({sup 3}H)-DHA binding sites by noradrenergic uptake inhibitors can be further modulated by selective partial agonist activity at central 5-HT{sub 1A} postsynaptic receptors. Further data on the co-administration of DMI and BMY 7378 (7,9-dioxo-8-(2-(4-{und o}-methoxyphenylpiperazinyl)ethyl)-8-azaspiro(4,5)decane dihydrochloride), a weak partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, are also presented.« less

  19. Pre-training administration of tianeptine, but not propranolol, protects hippocampus-dependent memory from being impaired by predator stress.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Zoladz, Phillip R; Muñoz, Carmen; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-02-01

    Extensive research has shown that the antidepressant tianeptine blocks the adverse effects of chronic stress on hippocampal functioning. The current series of experiments extended this area of investigation by examining the influence of tianeptine on acute stress-induced impairments of spatial (hippocampus-dependent) memory. Tianeptine (10 mg/kg, ip) administered to adult male rats before, but not after, water maze training blocked the amnestic effects of predator stress (occurring between training and retrieval) on memory. The protective effects of tianeptine on memory occurred in rats which had extensive pre-stress training, as well as in rats which had only a single day of training. Tianeptine blocked stress effects on memory without altering the stress-induced increase in corticosterone levels. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip), in contrast, did not block stress-induced amnesia. These findings indicate that treatment with tianeptine, unlike propanolol, provides an effective means with which to block the adverse effects of stress on cognitive functions of the hippocampus.

  20. Stability of extemporaneous pediatric oral liquids compounded from tablets and drug substance: case of propranolol and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Muśko, Monika; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The stability of theophylline (T) and propranolol hydrochloride (P) in extemporaneously compounded oral suspensions (25 mg/mL or 50 mg/mL for T and 2 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL for P) were studied. Suspension with P and T were prepared with bulk substance or tablets using three different suspending vehicles: Ora-Sweet (M1), modified Ora-Sweet (M2) and simple syrup with glycerol and sorbitol (M3). Each suspension was stored for 35 days in a dark place at 25 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The results demonstrated that the prepared suspensions with P either from tablets or from a substance were stable in all three studied vehicles (more than 95% of initial concentration remaining). However, it is recommended that storage at 4 degrees C of suspensions prepared with M2 should be avoided because of crystallization of the buffer substances. Extemporaneous suspensions with T in an appropriate pediatric concentrations of the drug were not obtained because the problem of fast crystallization of T was not eliminated.

  1. Portal hypertension and liver lesions in chronically alcohol drinking rats prevented and reversed by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116), and propranolol, but not ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Aralicia, G; Perovic, D; Gjurasin, M; Lovric-Bencic, M; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Staresinic, M; Anic, T; Mikus, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Jagic, V; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Marovic, A; Sebecic, B; Boban-Blagaic, A; Kokic, N

    2001-01-01

    Liver lesions and portal hypertension in rats, following chronic alcohol administration, are a particular target for therapy. Portal hypertension (mm Hg) assessed directly into the portal vein, and liver lesions induced by 7.28 g/kg b.w. of alcohol given in drinking water for 3 months, were counteracted by a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal or liver lesions (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. i.p. or i.g.) and propranolol (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.), but not ranitidine (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) or saline (5 ml/kg b.w. i.p./i.g.; control). The medication (once daily) was throughout either the whole 3 months period (1) or the last month only (2) (last application 24 h before sacrifice). In the background of 7.28 g/kg/daily alcohol regimen similar lesions values were assessed in control rats following alcohol consumption, after 2 or 3 months of drinking. Both prophylactic and therapeutic effects were shown. After a period of 2 or 3 months, in all control saline [intragastrically (i.g.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.)] treated rats, the applied alcohol regimen consistently induced a significant rise of portal blood pressure values over values noted in healthy rats. In rats that received gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 or propranolol the otherwise raised portal pressure was reduced to the values noted in healthy rats. Besides, a raised surface area (microm(2)) and increased circumference (microm) of hepatocyte or hepatocyte nucleus [HE staining, measured using PC-compatible program ISSA (VAMS, Zagreb, Croatia)] and an advanced steatosis [scored (0-4), Oil Red staining] (on 100 randomly assigned hepatocytes per each liver), an increased liver weight, all together parallel a raised portal pressure in controls. Some of them were completely eliminated (not different from healthy rats, i.e. portal pressure, the circumference and area of hepatocytes, liver weight), while others were

  2. How Administration of the Beta-Blocker Propranolol Before Extinction can Prevent the Return of Fear

    PubMed Central

    Kroes, Marijn C W; Tona, Klodiana-Daphne; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Vogel, Susanne; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Combining beta-blockers with exposure therapy has been advocated to reduce fear, yet experimental studies combining beta-blockers with memory reactivation have had contradictory results. We explored how beta-blockade might affect the course of safety learning and the subsequent return of fear in a double-blind placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans (N=46). A single dose of propranolol before extinction learning caused a loss of conditioned fear responses, and prevented the subsequent return of fear and decreased explicit memory for the fearful events in the absence of drug. Fear-related neural responses were persistently attenuated in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), increased in the hippocampus 24 h later, and correlated with individual behavioral indices of fear. Prediction error-related responses in the ventral striatum persisted during beta-blockade. We suggest that this pattern of results is most consistent with a model where beta-blockade can prevent the return of fear by (i) reducing retrieval of fear memory, via the dmPFC and (ii) increasing contextual safety learning, via the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that retrieval of fear memory and contextual safety learning form potential mnemonic target mechanisms to optimize exposure-based therapy with beta-blockers. PMID:26462618

  3. Phase behavior and crystal structure of 3-(1-naphthyloxy)- and 3-(4-indolyloxy)-propane-1,2-diol, synthetic precursors of chiral drugs propranolol and pindolol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Fayzullin, Robert R.; Samigullina, Aida I.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.

    2013-08-01

    Valuable precursors of popular chiral drugs propranolol and pindolol, 3-(1-naphthyloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 3 and 3-(4-indolyloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 4 were investigated by IR spectroscopy, DSC, and X-ray diffraction methods. Both compounds, crystallizing from enantiopure feed material, form "guaifenesin-like" crystal packing in which the classic H-bonded bilayers, framed in both sides by hydrophobic fragments of the molecules, acts as the basic crystal-forming motif. Diol 4 prone to spontaneous resolution and conserves its packing pattern crystallizing from racemate. Under the same conditions, diol 3 forms weakly stable solid racemic compound. Some reasons for such a behavior are identified and discussed.

  4. Facile preparation and characterization of pH sensitive Mt/CMC nanocomposite hydrogel beads for propranolol controlled release.

    PubMed

    Farhadnejad, Hassan; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Erfan, Mohammad; Darbasizadeh, Behzad; Motasadizadeh, Hamidreza; Fatahi, Yousef

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of the present study was to design pH-sensitive nanocomposite hydrogel beads, based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and montmorillonite (Mt)-propranolol (PPN) nanohybrid, and evaluate whether the prepared nanocomposite beads could potentially be used as oral drug delivery systems. PPN-as a model drug-was intercalated into the interlayer space of Mt clay mineral via the ion exchange procedure. The resultant nanohybrid (Mt-PPN) was applied to fabricate nanocomposite hydrogel beads by association with carboxymethyl cellulose. The characterization of test samples was performed using different techniques: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drug encapsulation efficiency was evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy, and was found to be high for Mt/CMC beads. In vitro drug release test was performed in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions to evaluate the efficiency of Mt-PPN/CMC nanocomposite beads as a controlled-release drug carrier. The drug release profiles indicated that the Mt-PPN/CMC nanocomposite beads had high stability against stomach acid and a sustained- and controlled-release profile for PPN under the simulated intestinal conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of propranolol on acquisition and retrieval of morphine- induced conditioned place preference memories in ICR mice].

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Liu, Chang; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2011-12-01

    To interfere with the drug-cue memory processes of addicts such as reconsolidation by the administration of the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) of norepinephrine (NE) antagonist propranolol (PRO) has become a potential therapy in the future to decrease or inhibit relapse. However, the relationship between PRO and the acquisition or retrieval of morphine-cue memory is not clear. This study examined the effects of PRO on the acquisition and retrieval of memories in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) mice model. We found that during memory acquisition period, PRO had no effects on the expression and extinction of morphine-CPP, which suggests that the β-AR was irrelevant to the CPP memory acquisition. However, during memory retrieval period, although PRO did not affect the expression of CPP, but it delayed the occurrence of CPP extinction, which indicates that PRO has an inhibit effect on CPP memory extinction, and β-AR plays an important role in modulating the extinction of morphine-CPP. Our study further improved the relationship between drug addiction and β-AR, and proposed a new theory to help developing potential therapy to cure addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of hydralazine on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered d-propranolol and lidocaine in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Heinzow, B G; Somogyi, A; McLean, A J

    1987-03-01

    A study was conducted on the influence of oral coadministration of hydralazine (H) on the pharmacokinetics of d-propranolol (P) and lidocaine (L) in 6 conscious dogs. They were given an oral solution containing P (2 mg/kg) and L (15 mg/kg) alone or together with 25 mg H. Plasma concentrations of P and L and the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX) were measured by specific HPLC methods. Concomitant administration of H caused a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in P peak concentrations (Cmax, 34 +/- 5: 73 +/- 10 ng/ml) and the area under plasma concentration time curve (AUC, 142 +/- 18: 254 +/- 56 ng/ml X hr) of P with significant (p less than 0.05) 24% reduction of the apparent oral clearance. The time to reach peak concentrations (Tmax) and the terminal half life (t1/2 beta) were not altered. In contrast to the pattern seen with P the disposition of L was not affected by H. The change in presystemic clearance of P by H cannot be explained by a general underlying mechanism such as an alteration in liver blood flow alone or portal-systemic shunting, since then the pharmacokinetics of L should parallel those of P. It is speculated that other mechanisms, most likely alteration of P metabolism, are primarily responsible for the observed interaction between P and H.

  8. Electrically assisted liquid-phase microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis for quantification of propranolol enantiomers in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Tabani, Hadi; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Shahsavani, Abolfath; Gharari Alibabaou, Hossein

    2014-05-01

    In this study, electromembrane extraction (EME) combined with cyclodextrin (CD)-modified capillary electrophoresis (CE) was applied for the extraction, separation, and quantification of propranolol (PRO) enantiomers from biological samples. The PRO enantiomers were extracted from aqueous donor solutions, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) consisting of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) impregnated on the wall of the hollow fiber, and into a 20-μL acidic aqueous acceptor solution into the lumen of hollow fiber. Important parameters affecting EME efficiency such as extraction voltage, extraction time, pH of the donor and acceptor solutions were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Then, under these optimized conditions, the acceptor solution was analyzed using an optimized CD-modified CE. Several types of CD were evaluated and best results were obtained using a fused-silica capillary with ammonium acetate (80 mM, pH 2.5) containing 8 mM hydroxypropyl-β-CD as a chiral selector, applied voltage of 18 kV, and temperature of 20°C. The relative recoveries were obtained in the range of 78-95%. Finally, the performance of the present method was evaluated for the extraction and determination of PRO enantiomers in real biological samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. POST-RETRIEVAL PROPRANOLOL TREATMENT DOES NOT MODULATE RECONSOLIDATION OR EXTINCTION OF ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Cunningham, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis posits that established emotional memories, when reactivated, become labile and susceptible to disruption. Post-retrieval injection of propranolol (PRO), a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, impairs subsequent retention performance of a cocaine- and a morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), implicating the noradrenergic system in the reconsolidation processes of drug-seeking behavior. An important question is whether post-retrieval PRO disrupts memory for the drug-cue associations, or instead interferes with extinction. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the β-adrenergic system on the reconsolidation and extinction of ethanol-induced CPP. Male DBA/2J mice were trained using a weak or a strong conditioning procedure, achieved by varying the ethanol conditioning dose (1 or 2 g/kg) and the number of ethanol trials (2 or 4). After acquisition of ethanol CPP, animals were given a single post-retrieval injection of PRO (0, 10 or 30 mg/kg) and tested for memory reconsolidation 24 h later. Also, after the first reconsolidation test, mice received 18 additional 15-min choice extinction tests in which PRO was injected immediately after every test. Contrary to the prediction of the reconsolidation hypothesis, a single PRO injection after the retrieval test did not modify subsequent memory retention. In addition, repeated post-retrieval administration of PRO did not interfere with extinction of CPP in mice. Overall, our data suggest that the β-adrenergic receptor does not modulate the associative processes underlying ethanol CPP. PMID:22285323

  10. Oxidation of atenolol, propranolol, carbamazepine and clofibric acid by a biological Fenton-like system mediated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Radjenović, Jelena; Caminal, Gloria; Petrović, Mira; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    Biological advanced oxidation of the pharmaceuticals clofibric acid (CA), carbamazepine (CBZP), atenolol (ATL) and propranolol (PPL) is reported for the first time. Extracellular oxidizing species were produced through a quinone redox cycling mechanism catalyzed by an intracellular quinone reductase and any of the ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor after addition of the lignin-derived quinone 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe(3+)-oxalate in the medium. Time-course experiments with approximately 10mg L(-1) of initial pharmaceutical concentration resulted in percent degradations above 80% after 6h of incubation. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals was only observed under DBQ redox cycling conditions. A similar degradation pattern was observed when CBZP was added at the environmentally relevant concentration of 50 microg L(-1). Depletion of DBQ due to the attack of oxidizing agents was assumed to be the main limiting factor of pharmaceutical degradation. The main degradation products, that resulted to be pharmaceutical hydroxylated derivatives, were structurally elucidated. The detected 4- and 7-hydroxycarbamazepine intermediates of CBZP degradation were not reported to date. Total disappearance of intermediates was observed in all the experiments at the end of the incubation period. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The in vitro effect of nonylphenol, propranolol, and diethylstilbestrol on quality parameters and oxidative stress in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shaliutina, Olena; Shaliutina-Kolešová, Anna; Lebeda, Ievgen; Rodina, Marek; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2017-09-01

    The sturgeon is a highly endangered fish mostly due to over-fishing, habitat destruction, and water pollution. Nonylphenol (NP), propranolol (PN), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) are multifunctional xenobiotic compounds used in a variety of commercial and industrial products. The mechanism by which these xenobiotic compounds interfere with fish reproduction is not fully elucidated. This study assessed the effect of NP, PN, and DES on motility parameters, membrane integrity, and oxidative/antioxidant status in sterlet Acispenser ruthenus spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were incubated with several concentrations of target substances for 1h. Motility rate and velocity of spermatozoa decreased in the presence of xenobiotics in a dose-dependent manner compared with controls. A significant decrease in membrane integrity was recorded with exposure to 5μM of NP, 25μM of PN, and 50μM of DES. After 1h exposure at higher tested concentrations NP (5-25μM), PN (25-100μM), and DES (50-200μM), oxidative stress was apparent, as reflected by significantly higher levels of protein and lipid oxidation and significantly greater superoxide dismutase activity. The results demonstrated that NP, PN, and DES can induce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa, which could impair sperm quality and the antioxidant defence system and decrease the percentage of intact sperm cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beta-adrenoceptive responses in the unanaesthetized ovine foetus.

    PubMed

    Van Petten, G R; Willes, R F

    1970-05-01

    1. Isoprenaline injection into either the unanaesthetized ovine foetus or the pregnant ewe produced a transient tachycardia and hypotension in either the ewe or the foetus. No evidence was obtained for placental transfer, in either direction, of pharmacologically active isoprenaline.2. Propranolol, when given to the ewe intravenously, produced bradycardia and increased pulse pressure and inhibited the response of both the ewe and her foetus to isoprenaline. Propranolol, when given to the foetus intravenously, produced bradycardia and increased pulse pressure in both the foetus and the ewe, but only the foetal response to isoprenaline was inhibited. These data demonstrated that propranolol crossed the ovine placenta in both directions in a pharmacologically active form.3. Dose-heart rate curves of the foetus and pregnant ewe to isoprenaline and the shift to the right of the isoprenaline dose-response curves by propranolol were similar in both the ewe and the foetus.4. Notwithstanding the similarities between the ewe and foetus in their responses to isoprenaline or propranolol and in the antagonism of isoprenaline by propranolol, the duration of blockade following propranolol administration to the ewe was 2 to 3 times longer in the foetus compared with the ewe.5. Measurement of blood levels of propranolol showed that the maximum concentration of propranolol in foetal plasma was only 5% of that in the pregnant ewe when propranolol was infused into the ewe; the rate of clearance of propranolol was similar from the foetal and maternal plasma.6. From these data the long duration of beta-adrenoceptor blockade in the ovine foetus by propranolol cannot be fully explained. However, these data serve as examples of the dangers involved when extrapolating pharmacological actions of drugs on the foetus purely from data on foetal plasma levels of the drug.7. The data suggest that multiple doses of propranolol, given to maintain a beta-adrenoceptor blockade in the mother, could

  13. Combined administration of propranolol + AG490 offers better effects on portal hypertensive rats with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Qin; Yin, Jikai; Dong, Rui; Wang, Qing; Du, Xilin; Lu, Jianguo

    2016-05-01

    AG490, the specific inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3 signaling, has been shown to decrease portal pressure, splanchnic hyperdynamic circulation and liver fibrosis in cirrhotic rats. Nonselective betablockers such as propranolol are the only drugs recommended in the treatment of portal hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore the combinative effect of treatment with propranolol and AG490 on portal hypertension. Rats induced by common bile duct ligation were treated with vehicle, AG490, propranolol, or AG490 + propranolol for 2 weeks. Hemodynamics parameters were assessed. Expressions of phospho-STAT3 protein and its down-regulated cytokines in splanchnic organs were detected by ELISA or western blot. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and IL-6 were assessed by ELISA or western blot. Characterization of liver and mesentery was performed by histological analyses. Highly expressed phospho-STAT3 protein in cirrhotic rats could successfully be inhibited by AG490 or AG490 + propranolol treatments but not by propranolol alone. Both AG490 and propranolol significantly reduced portal pressure and hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation, and combination of AG490 and propranolol achieved an additive effect than with either drug alone. AG490, alone or in combination with propranolol, inhibited liver fibrosis, splenomegaly and splanchnic angiogenesis. Increased markers of bacterial translocation (LBP and IL6) were greatly reduced by propranolol but not by AG490. The combination of propranolol and AG490 caused a greater improvement of portal hypertension and might therefore offer a potentially promising therapy in the portal hypertension treatment. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Uptake, depuration, and bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals, roxithromycin and propranolol, in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Yang, Haohan; Li, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the uptake, depuration, and bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals, roxithromycin (ROX) and propranolol (PRP), in Daphnia magna via aqueous exposure. Additionally, dietary and pH effects on the bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals in daphnia were studied. During the 24-h uptake phase followed by the 24-h depuration phase, the uptake rate constants (k(u)) of ROX for daphnia were 9.21 and 2.77 L kg(-1) h(-1), corresponding to the exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), respectively; For PRP at the nominal concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), k(u) were 2.29 and 0.99 L kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constants (k(d)) of ROX in daphnia, at the exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), were 0.0985 and 0.207 h(-1), respectively; while those of PRP were 0.0276 and 0.0539 h(-1) for the nominal concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), respectively. With the decreasing exposure concentrations, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in daphnia ranged from 13.4 to 93.5 L kg(-1) for ROX, and 18.4 to 83.0 L kg(-1) for PRP, revealing the considerable accumulation potential of these two pharmaceuticals. Moreover, after 6h exposure, the body burdens of ROX and PRP in dead daphnia were 4.98-6.14 and 7.42-12.9 times higher than those in living daphnia, respectively, implying that body surface sorption dominates the bioconcentration of the two pharmaceuticals in daphnia. In addition, the presence of algal food in the media could significantly elevate the kd values for both ROX and PRP, thereby restraining their bioconcentration in daphnia. A pH-dependent bioconcentration study revealed that the bioconcentration of the two pharmaceuticals in daphnia increased with increasing pH levels, which ranged from 7 to 9. Finally, a model was developed to estimate the relationships between pH and the BCFs of the two pharmaceuticals in zooplankton. The predicted values based on this model were highly consistent

  15. The Effect of Midazolam and Propranolol on Fear Memory Reconsolidation in Ethanol-Withdrawn Rats: Influence of D-Cycloserine

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Vanesa; Giachero, Marcelo; Espejo, Pablo Javier; Molina, Víctor Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Withdrawal from chronic ethanol facilitates the formation of contextual fear memory and delays the onset to extinction, with its retrieval promoting an increase in ethanol consumption. Consequently, manipulations aimed to reduce these aversive memories, may be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol discontinuation symptoms. Related to this, pharmacological memory reconsolidation blockade has received greater attention due to its therapeutic potential. Methods: Here, we examined the effect of post-reactivation amnestic treatments such as Midazolam (MDZ, 3 mg/kg i.p) and Propranolol (PROP, 5 mg/kg i.p) on contextual fear memory reconsolidation in ethanol- withdrawn (ETOH) rats. Next, we examined whether the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors induced by d-cycloserine (DCS, 5 mg/kg i.p., a NMDA partial agonist) before memory reactivation can facilitate the disruptive effect of PROP and MDZ on fear memory in ETOH rats. Results: We observed a resistance to the disruptive effect of both MDZ and PROP following memory reactivation. Although intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA; 1.25 ug/side) and systemic PROP administration attenuated fear memory in DCS pre-treated ETOH rats, DCS/MDZ treatment did not affect memory in these animals. Finally, a decrease of both total and surface protein expression of the α1 GABAA receptor (GABAA-R) subunit in BLA was found in the ETOH rats. Conclusions: Ethanol withdrawal facilitated the formation of fear memory resistant to labilization post-reactivation. DCS administration promoted the disruptive effect of PROP on memory reconsolidation in ETOH rats. The resistance to MDZ’s disruptive effect on fear memory reconsolidation may be, at least in part, associated with changes in the GABAA-R composition induced by chronic ethanol administration/withdrawal. PMID:25617327

  16. Rapid chiral separation of atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and the zwitterionic metoprolol acid using supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Application to wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Svan, Alfred; Hedeland, Mikael; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L; Pettersson, Curt E

    2015-08-28

    A method for enantiomeric separation of the three β-blocking agents atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and the zwitterionic metoprolol acid, a major metabolite of both metoprolol and in environmental matrices also atenolol, has been developed. By use of supercritical fluid chromatography and the polysaccharide-based Chiralpak(®) IB-3, all four compounds were simultaneously enantiomerically separated (Rs>1.5) within 8min. Detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry, and to avoid isobaric interference between the co-eluting metoprolol and metoprolol acid, the achiral column Acquity(®) UPC(2) BEH 2-EP was attached ahead of to the chiral column. Carbon dioxide with 18% methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) of the additives trifluoroacetic acid and ammonia in a 2:1 molar ratio were used as mobile phase. A post column make-up flow (0.3mL/min) of methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid was used to enhance the positive electrospray ionization. Detection was carried out using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode, using one transition per analyte and internal standard. The method was successfully applied for monitoring the enantiomeric fraction change over time in a laboratory scale wetland degradation study. It showed good precision, recovery, sensitivity and low effect of the sample matrix. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. PLS and first derivative of ratio spectra methods for determination of hydrochlorothiazide and propranolol hydrochloride in tablets.

    PubMed

    Vignaduzzo, Silvana E; Maggio, Rubén M; Castellano, Patricia M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2006-12-01

    Two new analytical methods have been developed as convenient and useful alternatives for simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and propranolol hydrochloride (PRO) in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the first derivative of ratio spectra (DRS) and on partial least squares (PLS) analysis of the ultraviolet absorption spectra of the samples in the 250-350-nm region. The methods were calibrated between 8.7 and 16.0 mg L(-1) for HCT and between 14.0 and 51.5 mg L(-1) for PRO. An asymmetric full-factorial design and wavelength selection (277-294 nm for HCT and 297-319 for PRO) were used for the PLS method and signal intensities at 276 and 322 nm were used in the DRS method for HCT and PRO, respectively. Performance characteristics of the analytical methods were evaluated by use of validation samples and both methods showed to be accurate and precise, furnishing near quantitative analyte recoveries (100.4 and 99.3% for HCT and PRO by use of PLS) and relative standard deviations below 2%. For PLS the lower limits of quantification were 0.37 and 0.66 mg L(-1) for HCT and PRO, respectively, whereas for DRS they were 1.15 and 3.05 mg L(-1) for HCT and PRO, respectively. The methods were used for quantification of HCT and PRO in synthetic mixtures and in two commercial tablet preparations containing different proportions of the analytes. The results of the drug content assay and the tablet dissolution test were in statistical agreement (p < 0.05) with those furnished by the official procedures of the USP 29. Preparation of dissolution profiles of the combined tablet formulations was also performed with the aid of the proposed methods. The methods are easy to apply, use relatively simple equipment, require minimum sample pre-treatment, enable high sample throughput, and generate less solvent waste than other procedures.

  18. Comparative study of the oxidation of propranolol enantiomers in hepatic and small intestinal microsomes from cynomolgus and marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimizudani, Takeshi; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Yamano, Shigeru; Narimatsu, Shizuo

    2010-01-05

    Oxidative metabolism of propranolol (PL) enantiomers (R-PL and S-PL) to 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-PL), 5-OH-PL and N-deisopropylpropranolol (NDP) was examined in hepatic microsomes from cynomolgus and marmoset monkeys and in small intestinal microsomes from monkeys and humans. In hepatic microsomes, levels of oxidation activities were similar between the two monkey species, and substrate enantioselectivity (R-PLS-PL) was seen in the formation of NDP in cynomolgus monkeys and humans and in the formation of 5-OH-PL in marmosets. The formation of the three metabolites in cynomolgus monkeys and the formation of NDP in marmosets were biphasic, while the formation of 4-OH-PL in humans was monophasic. From the inhibition experiments using CYP antibodies, CYP2C9 and 2C19 were thought to be involved as N-deisopropylases and CYP2D6 and 3A4 as 4-hydroxylases in human small intestine. Furthermore, CYP1A, 2C and 3A enzymes could be involved in cynomolgus monkeys and CYP2C and 3A enzymes in marmosets. These results indicate that the oxidative profile of PL in hepatic and small intestinal microsomes differ considerably among cynomolgus monkeys, marmosets and humans.

  19. Beta 1 versus nonselective blockade in therapy of essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T A; Teräväinen, H

    1983-01-01

    The beta 1-selective blocker metoprolol was compared to propranolol and a placebo in a double-blind crossover trial in 24 patients with essential tremor. Both beta blockers suppressed the essential tremor, but metoprolol, which caused a mean reduction of 32.0% in tremor intensity from the base-line value, was less effective than propranolol, which reduced mean tremor intensity by 41.3%. Subjective benefit for their tremor was found by 15 of the patients taking propranolol and by one taking metoprolol. The tremor frequency was not affected. No serious side effects were observed. Metoprolol may offer an alternative for those essential tremor patients who cannot tolerate propranolol.

  20. Propranolol (Cardiovascular)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also used to prevent angina (chest pain), migraine headaches, and to improve survival after a heart ... paroxetine (Brisdelle, Paxil, Pexeva); fluconazole (Diflucan); medications for migraine headaches such as rizatriptan (Maxalt) and zolmitriptan (Zomig); ...

  1. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the “city-like” test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans. PMID:29352277

  2. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  3. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  4. Propranolol–induced Impairment of Contextual Fear Memory Reconsolidation in Rats: A similar Effect on Weak and Strong Recent and Remote Memories

    PubMed Central

    Taherian, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Vaezi, Gholam Hassan; Eskandarian, Sharaf; Kashef, Adel; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impairs fear memory reconsolidation in experimental animals. There are experimental parameters such as the age and the strength of memory that can interact with pharmacological manipulations of memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the ability of the age and the strength of memory to influence the disrupting effects of propranolol on fear memory reconsolidation in rats. Methods The rats were trained in a contextual fear conditioning using two (weak training) or five (strong training) footshocks (1mA). Propranolol (10mg/kg) injection was immediately followed retrieval of either a one-day recent (weak or strong) or 36-day remote (weak or strong) contextual fear memories. Results We found that propranolol induced a long-lasting impairment of subsequent expression of recent and remote memories with either weak or strong strength. We also found no memory recovery after a weak reminder shock. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on the amount of memory deficit induced by propranolol among memories with different age and strength. Discussion Our data suggest that the efficacy of propranolol in impairing fear memory reconsolidation is not limited to the age or strength of the memory. PMID:25337385

  5. Chronic cytoprotection: pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranolol prevent, attenuate and reverse the gastric lesions appearance in chronic alcohol drinking rats.

    PubMed

    Prkacin, I; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Separovic, J; Gjurasin, M; Lovric-Bencic, M; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Staresinic, M; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Jagic, V; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Marovic, A; Sjekavica, I; Sebecic, B; Boban-Blagaic, A; Ivasovic, Z

    2001-01-01

    Unlike severe gastric damage acutely induced by ethanol administration in rat, the ulcerogenic effect of chronic alcohol administration (3.03 g/kg b.w. or 7.28 g/kg b.w.) given in drinking water, producing liver lesions and portal hypertension, is far less investigated. Therefore, focus was on the antiulcer effect of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, known to have a beneficial effect in variety of gastrointestinal lesions models (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. i.p. or i.g.), ranitidine (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) and propranol (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) or saline (5 ml/kg b.w. i.p./i.g.; control). They were given once daily (1) throughout 10 days preceding alcohol consumption, (2) since beginning of alcohol drinking till the end of the study, (3) throughout the last month of alcohol consumption, 2 months after alcohol drinking had been initiated. Gastric lesions were assessed, at the end of 3 months drinking [(1), (2)] or with respect to therapeutic effect of medication before medication or at the end of therapy. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranolol may prevent gastric lesion development if given prophylactically, before alcohol drinking. Likewise, they attenuate the lesion appearance given once daily throughout the drinking period. Importantly, when given therapeutically, they may antagonize otherwise pertinent lesion presence in stomach mucosa of the drinking rats. Thus, these results demonstrate that pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranol may prevent, attenuate or reverse the gastric lesions appearance in chronically alcohol drinking rats, and may be used for further therapy, while the other studies showed that their effect (except to ranitidine) is parallel with their beneficial effect on liver lesion and portal hypertension.

  6. Central beta-adrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Beversdorf, David Q; White, Dawn M; Chever, Daquesha C; Hughes, John D; Bornstein, Robert A

    2002-12-20

    Situational stressors and anxiety impede performance on creativity tests requiring cognitive flexibility. Preliminary research revealed better performance on a task requiring cognitive flexibility, the anagram task, after propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) than after ephedrine (beta-adrenergic agonist). However, propranolol and ephedrine have both peripheral and central beta-adrenergic effects. In order to determine whether noradrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility is a centrally or peripherally mediated phenomenon, we compared the effects of propranolol (peripheral and central beta-blocker), nadolol (peripheral beta-blocker), and placebo on anagram task performance. Solution latency scores for each subject were compared across the drug conditions. Anagram solution latency scores after propranolol were significantly lower than after nadolol. This suggests a centrally mediated modulatory influence of the noradrenergic system on cognitive flexibility.

  7. Rotifer neuropharmacology--III. Adrenergic drug effects on Brachionus plicatilis.

    PubMed

    Keshmirian, J; Nogrady, T

    1987-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) induces three pharmacological effects in Brachionus plicatilis. As a result of excitation the rate of ciliary motion and swimming increases, and the animals flip their foot constantly at a rapid rate. This rapid foot flipping was used as a specific model to measure adrenergic effects in B. plicatilis. Phenylephrine induces the same effect at identical efficacy, while isoproterenol and salbutamol, two beta-agonists, show one-half and one-tenth NE efficacy. The beta blocker propranolol and the alpha blocker tolazoline both antagonize foot flipping induced by NE. However, propranolol shows antagonism because it causes foot paralysis by itself. Timolol, another beta blocker but without the membrane effect of propranolol, does not antagonize the alpha receptor mediated NE effect, nor does it cause foot paralysis. Propranolol, timolol and tolazoline also show agonist activity, inducing foot flipping. NE does not antagonize the foot paralysis induced by propranolol, only its anesthetic effect by delaying its onset. These results indicate that the foot flipping induced by NE is a receptor-mediated alpha adrenergic effect, while the foot paralysis is caused by membrane phenomena.

  8. Interference effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the right frontal cortex and adrenergic system on conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Soltanpour, Reyhaneh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrabian, Shahram; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-11-01

    The effects of pharmacological interventions on fear memory have widely been studied, but there are very few studies about the effects of brain electrical stimulation on fear memory function. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether anodal/cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right frontal cortex would modify propranolol-induced contextual and auditory fear memory deficits, before or after training. The adult NMRI male mice were randomly assigned into three groups: the sham group, the anodal tDCS group, and the cathodal tDCS group. Fear memories were evaluated using a classical fear conditioning apparatus. While the anodal stimulation did not affect fear retrieval, post-training cathodal stimulation improved fear memory retrieval. Regardless of when propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) was administered, it impaired fear memory retrieval. However, when anodal stimulation and propranolol were applied prior to the training, contextual fear memory retrieval was increased and auditory fear memory was reversed. An enhanced contextual retrieval was also observed when propranolol was administered prior to the training and stimulation occurred after the training. Only when the stimulation occurred prior to the training and propranolol was administered after the training was there a selective improvement in contextual fear memory retrieval, leaving the auditory fear memory retrieval impaired. Interestingly, cathodal stimulation improved the effects of propranolol on auditory fear memory only when it occurred prior to the training. The results highlight possible improving effects for anodal/cathodal tDCS on propranolol-induced deficits on fear memories. The timing of the interventions related to the specific phases of memory formation is important in modulating fear behaviors.

  9. Effects of acute beta-adrenergic antagonism on verbal problem solving in autism spectrum disorder and exploration of treatment response markers.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Ferguson, Bradley J; Ragsdale, Alexandra S; Lewis, Morgan L; Beversdorf, David Q

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication as well as restricted, repetitive behaviors. Evidence suggests that some individuals with ASD have cognitive impairments related to weak central coherence and hyperrestricted processing. Reducing noradrenergic activity may improve aspects of network processing and thus improve cognitive abilities, such as verbal problem solving, in individuals with ASD. The present pilot study explores the effects of acute administration of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol on verbal problem solving in adults and adolescents with ASD. In a within-subject crossover-design, 20 participants with ASD received a single dose of propranolol or placebo on one of two sessions in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Verbal problem solving was assessed via an anagram task. Baseline measurements of autonomic nervous system functioning were obtained, and anxiety was assessed at baseline and following drug administration. Participants solved the anagrams more quickly in the propranolol condition, as compared to the placebo condition, suggesting a potential cognitive benefit of this agent. Additionally, we observed a negative linear relationship between response to propranolol on the anagram task and two measures of baseline autonomic activity, as well as a positive linear relationship between drug response and baseline anxiety. These relationships propose potential markers for treatment response, as propranolol influences both autonomic functioning and anxiety. Further investigation is needed to expand on the present single-dose psychopharmacological challenge and explore the observed effects of propranolol in a serial-dose setting.

  10. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-09-01

    To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. Compared to placebo, resting "tension", "depression", and "total mood disturbance" were significantly higher on propranolol 80 mg, but all were reduced with exercise. "Fatigue" and "confusion" were also higher on propranolol, and were unaffected by exercise. "Fatigue" was also higher than placebo after exercise on metoprolol 100 mg. "Anxiety" was unaffected by drug treatment or exercise. The evidence that beta blockers, and particularly propranolol, have adverse effects on mood was confirmed. It would be preferable to prescribe a beta blocker which does not adversely alter mood states. However, exercise significantly reduced the measures of "tension" and "depression" which were adversely increased by propranolol. Exercise prescription may therefore not only be compatible with beta blockade, but a highly desirable adjuvant therapy.

  11. Opioid Facilitation of β-Adrenergic Blockade: A New Pharmacological Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Leclerc, Francis; Dobbelaere, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Recently, propranolol was suggested to prevent hyperlactatemia in a child with hypovolemic shock through β-adrenergic blockade. Though it is a known inhibitor of glycolysis, propranolol, outside this observation, has never been reported to fully protect against lactate overproduction. On the other hand, literature evidence exists for a cross-talk between β-adrenergic receptors (protein targets of propranolol) and δ-opioid receptor. In this literature context, it is hypothesized here that anti-diarrheic racecadotril (a pro-drug of thiorphan, an inhibitor of enkephalinases), which, in the cited observation, was co-administered with propranolol, might have facilitated the β-blocker-driven inhibition of glycolysis and resulting lactate production. The opioid-facilitated β-adrenergic blockade would be essentially additivity or even synergism putatively existing between antagonism of β-adrenergic receptors and agonism of δ-opioid receptor in lowering cellular cAMP and dependent functions. PMID:26426025

  12. Propranolol (Infantile Hemangioma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or has had asthma or other breathing problems, pheochromocytoma (a tumor on a small gland near the ... color sweating irritability decreased appetite low body temperature unusual sleepiness breathing stops for short periods of time ...

  13. Effects of serotonin antagonists on motion sickness and its suppression by 8-OH-DPAT in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    The antagonist properties of (-)propranolol, (+)propranolol, metergoline and BMY 7378 on the known effect of 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT) to decrease motion sickness in cats has been evaluated. (-)Propranolol produced a greater decrease in the antiemetic effect of DPAT than did (+)propranolol. Although metergoline produced a decrease in the antiemetic effect of DPAT, the decrease could not be clearly attributed to interactions with 5-HT(1A) receptors because metergoline alone slightly enhanced motion sickness. Depletion of 5-HT with PCPA produced a weaker, nonsignificant enhancement of motion sickness, while mesulergine had no effect. As neither nonspecific 5-HT receptor blockade with metergoline nor depletion of 5-HT mimicked the antiemetic effect of DPAT, it was concluded that DPAT acts on postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors to prevent emesis. BMY 7378 alone decreased the incidence of motion sickness. A dose just below this agonist range did not decrease the effects of DPAT.

  14. Pharmacological modifications of the stretch-induced effects on ventricular fibrillation in perfused rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Chorro, Francisco J; Trapero, Isabel; Such-Miquel, Luis; Pelechano, Francisca; Mainar, Luis; Cánoves, Joaquín; Tormos, Alvaro; Alberola, Antonio; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Cinca, Juan; Such, Luis

    2009-11-01

    Stretch induces modifications in myocardial electrical and mechanical activity. Besides the effects of substances that block the stretch-activated channels, other substances could modulate the effects of stretch through different mechanisms that affect Ca(2+) handling by myocytes. Thirty-six Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were used to analyze the effects of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker KB-R7943, propranolol, and the adenosine A(2) receptor antagonist SCH-58261 on the acceleration of ventricular fibrillation (VF) produced by acute myocardial stretching. VF recordings were obtained with two epicardial multiple electrodes before, during, and after local stretching in four experimental series: control (n = 9), KB-R7943 (1 microM, n = 9), propranolol (1 microM, n = 9), and SCH-58261 (1 microM, n = 9). Both the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker KB-R7943 and propranolol induced a significant reduction (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) in the dominant frequency increments produced by stretching with respect to the control and SCH-58261 series (control = 49.9%, SCH-58261 = 52.1%, KB-R7943 = 9.5%, and propranolol = 12.5%). The median of the activation intervals, the functional refractory period, and the wavelength of the activation process during VF decreased significantly under stretch in the control and SCH-58261 series, whereas no significant variations were observed in the propranolol and KB-R7943 series, with the exception of a slight but significant decrease in the median of the fibrillation intervals in the KB-R7943 series. KB-R7943 and propranolol induced a significant reduction in the activation maps complexity increment produced by stretch with respect to the control and SCH-58261 series. In conclusion, the electrophysiological effects responsible for stretch-induced VF acceleration in the rabbit heart are reduced by the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker KB-R7943 and by propranolol but not by the adenosine A(2) receptor antagonist SCH-58261.

  15. β-adrenergic receptor inhibition affects cerebral glucose metabolism, motor performance, and inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ley, Eric J; Clond, Morgan A; Bukur, Marko; Park, Ryan; Chervonski, Michael; Dagliyan, Grant; Margulies, Dan R; Lyden, Patrick D; Conti, Peter S; Salim, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how β-adrenergic receptor inhibition after traumatic brain injury (TBI) alters changes in early cerebral glucose metabolism and motor performance, as well as cerebral cytokine and heat shock protein (HSP) expression. Mouse cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by microPET fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and converted into standardized uptake values (SUV). Four groups of C57/Bl6 mice (wild type [WT]) were initially evaluated: sham or TBI, followed by tail vein injection of either saline or a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor inhibitor (propranolol, 4 mg/kg). Then motor performance, cerebral cytokine, and HSP70 expression were studied at 12 hours and 24 hours after sham injury or TBI in WT mice treated with saline or propranolol and in β1-adrenergic/β2-adrenergic receptor knockout (BARKO) mice treated with saline. Cerebral glucose metabolism was significantly reduced after TBI (mean SUV TBI, 1.63 vs. sham 1.97, p < 0.01) and propranolol attenuated this reduction (mean SUV propranolol, 1.89 vs. saline 1.63, p < 0.01). Both propranolol and BARKO reduced motor deficits at 24 hours after injury, but only BARKO had an effect at 12 hours after injury. TBI WT mice treated with saline performed worse than propranolol mice at 24 hours after injury on rotarod (23 vs. 44 seconds, p < 0.01) and rearing (130 vs. 338 events, p = 0.01) results. At 24 hours after injury, sham BARKO and TBI BARKO mice were similar on rotarod (21 vs. 19 seconds, p = 0.53), ambulatory testing (2,891 vs. 2,274 events, p = 0.14), and rearing (129 vs. 64 events, p = 0.09) results. Interleukin 1β expression was affected by BARKO and propranolol after TBI; attenuation of interleukin 6 and increased HSP70 expression were noted only with BARKO. β-adrenergic receptor inhibition affects cerebral glucose metabolism, motor performance, as well as cerebral cytokine and HSP expression after TBI.

  16. Physiologic implications of inter-hormonal interference in fish: lessons from the interaction of adrenaline with cortisol and thyroid hormones in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    PubMed

    George, Nimta; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2013-01-15

    Adrenaline and cortisol, the major stress hormones, are known for its direct control on stress response in fish. Likewise, as an important stress modifier hormone, thyroid hormone has also been implicated in stress response of fish. We tested whether the hypothesis on the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference, a process that explains the hormonal interactions, operates in fish particularly between adrenaline, cortisol and thyroid hormones. To achieve this goal, indices of acid-base, osmotic and metabolic regulations were quantified after adrenaline challenge in propranolol pre-treated air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus). Short-term adrenaline (10 ng g(-1)) injection for 30 min produced a rise in plasma cortisol without affecting plasma T(3) and T(4). On the contrary, blocking of adrenaline action with a non-selective blocker, propranolol (25 ng g(-1)) for 90 min reduced plasma cortisol along with plasma T(4) and that indicate a possible interference of these hormones in the absence of adrenaline challenge. Similarly, a reduction in plasma T(3) was found after adrenaline challenge in propranolol pre-treated fish and that suggests a functional synergistic interference of adrenaline with T(3). Adrenaline challenge in these fish, however, failed to abolish this propranolol effect. The remarkable systemic hypercapnia and acidosis by propranolol pre-treatment were reversed by adrenaline challenge, pointing to a direct action of adrenaline on acid-base indices probably by a mechanism which may not require β-adrenergic receptor systems. Interestingly, the prominent adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia, hyperlactemia and hyperuremea were not altered by propranolol treatment. Similarly, adrenaline challenge promoted and propranolol reduced the osmotic competencies of the gills, kidneys and liver of this fish as evident in the sodium and proton pump activities. The modified physiologic actions of adrenaline and its modified interaction with THs and cortisol in blocked

  17. β-Adrenoceptor Blockade in the Basolateral Amygdala, But Not the Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Rescues the Immediate Extinction Deficit.

    PubMed

    Giustino, Thomas F; Seemann, Jocelyn R; Acca, Gillian M; Goode, Travis D; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Maren, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    Early psychological interventions, such as exposure therapy, rely on extinction learning to reduce the development of stress- and trauma-related disorders. However, recent research suggests that extinction often fails to reduce fear when administered soon after trauma. This immediate extinction deficit (IED) may be due to stress-induced dysregulation of neural circuits involved in extinction learning. We have shown that systemic β-adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol rescues the IED, but impairs delayed extinction. Here we sought to determine the neural locus of these effects. Rats underwent auditory fear conditioning and then received either immediate (30 min) or delayed (24 h) extinction training. We used bilateral intracranial infusions of propranolol into either the infralimbic division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to examine the effects of β-adrenoceptor blockade on immediate and delayed extinction learning. Interestingly, intra-BLA, but not intra-mPFC, propranolol rescued the IED; animals receiving intra-BLA propranolol prior to immediate extinction showed less spontaneous recovery of fear during extinction retrieval. Importantly, this was not due to impaired consolidation of the conditioning memory. In contrast, neither intra-BLA nor intra-mPFC propranolol affected delayed extinction learning. Overall, these data contribute to a growing literature suggesting dissociable roles for key nodes in the fear extinction circuit depending on the timing of extinction relative to conditioning. These data also suggest that heightened noradrenergic activity in the BLA underlies stress-induced extinction deficits. Propranolol may be a useful adjunct to behavioral therapeutic interventions in recently traumatized individuals who are at risk for developing trauma-related disorders.

  18. A high-risk patient with long-QT syndrome with no response to cardioselective beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoki; Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Shimizu, Wataru; Ohuchi, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of a high-risk 19-year-old female with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) with compound mutations. She had a history of aborted cardiac arrest and syncope and had received treatment with propranolol for 15 years. However, because she developed adult-onset asthma we tried to switch propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, to beta-1-cardioselective agents, bisoprolol and metoprolol. These resulted in both a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval and the development of LQTS-associated arrhythmias. Eventually, propranolol was reinitiated at a higher dose with the addition of verapamil, and she has had no further cardiac or asthmatic events for 5 years.

  19. A primary fish gill cell culture model to assess pharmaceutical uptake and efflux: Evidence for passive and facilitated transport

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Lucy C.; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer; Owen, Stewart F.; Bury, Nic R.

    2015-01-01

    The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L−1), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport. PMID:25544062

  20. Propranolol’s effects on the consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term emotional memory in healthy participants: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lonergan, Michelle H.; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Pitman, Roger K.; Brunet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Considering the pivotal role of negative emotional experiences in the development and persistence of mental disorders, interfering with the consolidation/reconsolidation of such experiences would open the door to a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. We conducted a meta-analysis on the experimental evidence regarding the capacity of the β-blocker propranolol to block the consolidation/reconsolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Methods Selected studies consisted of randomized, double-blind experiments assessing long-term memory for emotional material in healthy adults and involved at least 1 propranolol and 1 placebo condition. We searched PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, PILOTS, Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.org for eligible studies from the period 1995–2012. Ten consolidation (n = 259) and 8 reconsolidation (n = 308) experiments met the inclusion criteria. We calculated effect sizes (Hedges g) using a random effects model. Results Compared with placebo, propranolol given before memory consolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced stories, pictures and word lists (Hedges g = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14–0.74). Propranolol before reconsolidation also reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced emotional words and the expression of cue-elicited fear responses (Hedges g = 0.56, 95% CI 0.13–1.00). Limitations Limitations include the moderate number of studies examining the influence of propranolol on emotional memory consolidation and reconsolidation in healthy adults and the fact that most samples consisted entirely of young adults, which may limit the ecological validity of results. Conclusion Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy adults. However, future studies will need to investigate whether more powerful idiosyncratic emotional memories can also be weakened and whether this weakening can bring about long

  1. beta. -Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, B.R.; Bryan, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that {beta}-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-(N-methyl-{sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied frommore » {approximately}60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that {beta}-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia.« less

  2. Illustration of a simple and versatile scheme for reversing enantiomeric elution order and facilitating enantiomeric impurity determination in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Jeanette; Wan, Hong; Blomberg, Lars G

    2002-09-01

    Determination of enantiomeric purity is most often done under overload conditions, which leads to deformed peaks. In general, the best resolutions are obtained when the small peak appears before the large peak in the electropherogram. To be able to determine the R(+)-impurity in the S(-)-form as well as the S(-)-impurity in the R(+)-form the elution orders have to be reversed. The present paper describes reversal of enantiomeric elution order for the basic analyte propranolol and the acidic analyte ibuprofen. For propranolol, a charged heptakis-(6-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) is used in the background electrolyte. For ibuprofen, a mix of the charged heptakis-(6-sulfo)-beta-CD and the uncharged heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-CD is used in the background electrolyte. The use of a coated capillary and reversal of the polarity shift the elution order, buffer composition is unchanged in both cases. The enantiomers of propranolol and ibuprofen are well separated on both the coated and uncoated capillaries. Detection limits of enantiomer impurities are investigated using spiked samples of both propranolol and ibuprofen.

  3. A Combination of Dexmedetomidine and Lidocaine Is a Cardiovascularly Safe Dental Local Anesthetic for Hypertensive Rats Treated With a Nonselective β-Adrenergic Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Yukako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive patients receiving nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists are vulnerable to hypertension and bradycardia when injected with dental local anesthetic formulations containing epinephrine. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), an α 2 -adrenergic agonist, has been reported to prolong and enhance the local anesthetic effects of lidocaine. The cardiovascular effects of the DEX-lidocaine combination have not yet been investigated in the presence of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists. Therefore, we assessed the cardiovascular effects of the DEX-lidocaine combination in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with a nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol). We injected propranolol-treated rats with various concentrations of DEX alone, 100 μg/kg epinephrine alone, or 5 μg/kg DEX combined with 2% lidocaine and measured their blood pressure (BP) and heart rates (HR) to assess the cardiovascular effects. The BP of propranolol-treated SHR was significantly increased by treatment with 100 μg/kg epinephrine alone. The BP and HR of propranolol-treated SHR were not significantly changed by treatment with low concentrations of DEX, but they were significantly decreased by treatment with a high concentration of DEX (50 μg/kg). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the BP and HR of propranolol-treated SHR after the injection of a combination of 5 μg/kg DEX and 2% lidocaine. Thus, the DEX-lidocaine combination may be an acceptable addition to dental local anesthetic solutions from a cardiovascular standpoint for hypertensive patients receiving nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists.

  4. A primary fish gill cell culture model to assess pharmaceutical uptake and efflux: evidence for passive and facilitated transport.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lucy C; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer; Owen, Stewart F; Bury, Nic R

    2015-02-01

    The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of Operative Mortality for Coronary Bypass Grafting in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Langou, Rene A.; Wiles, John C.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Hammond, Graeme; Cohen, Lawrence S.

    1978-01-01

    Predictors for operative mortality (OM) were studied in 172 consecutive patients (pts) undergoing coronary artery grafts (CAG) for angina pectoris. Seventy eight pts had Class IV angina; of the 147 patients given propranolol, 41 were gradually withdrawn from propranolol and finally discontinued 24 hours before surgery, and 106 were abruptly withdrawn from propranolol 24 hours before CAG; 20 pts had left main coronary disease; 156 pts had cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time shorter than 20 minutes, and 16 pts had a CPB longer than 120 minutes. The operative mortality was 5.2% (9/172) for the entire group. Class IV angina (OM 7%), abrupt propranolol withdrawal (OM 6.6%), left main coronary artery disease (OM 25%), and CPB longer than 120 minutes (OM 50%), all significantly increased OM. These variables were interdependent, however, as many pts belonged to several predictor categories, combinations of predictors were examined, in order to more accurately predict the risk of individual pts. The combination of left main coronary artery disease and CPB longer than 120 minutes; and Class IV angina and CPB longer than 120 minutes were significantly associated with higher operative mortality. We conclude that Class IV angina, abrupt propranolol withdrawal, left main coronary artery disease and prolonged CPB are potent, interdependent predictors of OM in pts undergoing CAG. Consideration of these predictors, alone and in combination, allows effective prediction of OM for CAG in patients with stable angina pectoris. PMID:307873

  6. beta-Adrenoceptor blockers protect against staurosporine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Maya; Goubaeva, Farida; Song, Joseph H; Lee, H T; Yang, Jay

    2008-07-28

    The beta-adrenoceptor blockers exhibit a well-characterized anti-apoptotic property in the heart and kidney while less is known about the effect of this class of drugs on neuronal apoptosis. We studied the effects of three beta-adrenoceptor blockers propranolol (1-(isoproplyamino)-3-(naphthalene-1-yloxy)propan-2-ol), atenolol (2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethylamino)propoxyl]phenyl]ehanamide), and ICI 118551 (1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-iden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol), against staurosporine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Staurosporine increased caspase 3-like activity, DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, and the number of TUNEL positive cells consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Propranolol and ICI 118551, but not atenolol, demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of caspase 3-like activity. Propranolol and ICI 118551 directly inhibited the enzymatic activity of recombinant caspase 9 while atenolol did not; however, none of the beta-adrenoceptor blockers that were examined directly blocked caspases 2 or 3 activity. In isolated mitochondria, propranolol and ICI 118551 inhibited staurosporine-induced cytochrome c release while atenolol did not. We conclude that propranolol and ICI 118551 protect SH-SY5Y cells against staurosporine-induced apoptosis through a dual action on the mitochondria and on caspase 9 in a cell type and an apoptotic paradigm where the conventional inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition such as cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid demonstrate no protection.

  7. Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in a mouse model of Rett syndrome with Na+-channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, José A.; Ward, Christopher S.; Pitcher, Meagan R.; Percy, Alan K.; Skinner, Steven; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    One quarter of deaths associated with Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, are sudden and unexpected. RTT is associated with prolonged QTc interval (LQT), and LQT-associated cardiac arrhythmias are a potential cause of unexpected death. The standard of care for LQT in RTT is treatment with β-adrenergic antagonists; however, recent work indicates that acute treatment of mice with RTT with a β-antagonist, propranolol, does not prevent lethal arrhythmias. In contrast, acute treatment with the Na+ channel blocker phenytoin prevented arrhythmias. Chronic dosing of propranolol may be required for efficacy; therefore, we tested the efficacy of chronic treatment with either propranolol or phenytoin on RTT mice. Phenytoin completely abolished arrhythmias, whereas propranolol showed no benefit. Surprisingly, phenytoin also normalized weight and activity, but worsened breathing patterns. To explore the role of Na+ channel blockers on QT in people with RTT, we performed a retrospective analysis of QT status before and after Na+ channel blocker antiepileptic therapies. Individuals with RTT and LQT significantly improved their QT interval status after being started on Na+ channel blocker antiepileptic therapies. Thus, Na+ channel blockers should be considered for the clinical management of LQT in individuals with RTT. PMID:25713300

  8. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  9. Interaction between morphine and noradrenergic system of basolateral amygdala on anxiety and memory in the elevated plus-maze test based on a test-retest paradigm.

    PubMed

    Valizadegan, Farhad; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2013-05-01

    The amygdala is the key brain structure for anxiety and emotional memory storage. We examined the involvement of β-adrenoreceptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interaction with morphine in modulating these behaviors. The elevated plus-maze has been employed for investigating anxiety and memory. Male Wistar rats were used for this test. We injected morphine (4, 5, and 6 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, while salbutamol (albuterol) (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) and propranolol (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) were injected into the BLA. Open- arms time percentage (%OAT), open- arms entry percentage (%OAE), and locomotor activity were determined by this behavioral test. Retention was tested 24 hours later. Intraperitoneal injection of morphine (6 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like effect and improvement of memory. The highest dose of salbutamol decreased the anxiety parameters in test session and improved the memory in retest session. Coadministration of salbutamol and ineffective dose of morphine presenting anxiolytic response. In this case, the memory was improved. Intra-BLA administration of propranolol (4 μg/rat) decreased %OAT in the test session, while had no effect on memory formation. Coadministration of propranolol and morphine (6 mg/kg) showed an increase in %OAT. There was not any significant change in the above- mentioned parameter in the retest session. Coadministration of morphine and propranolol with the effective dose of salbutamol showed that propranolol could reverse anxiolytic-like effect. We found that opioidergic and β-adrenergic systems have the same effects on anxiety and memory in the BLA; but these effects are independent of each other.

  10. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress☆

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, M.L.; Powell, N.D.; Stiner, L.M.; Bailey, M.T.; Sheridan, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on the immune modulation of social defeat has not been examined. The following studies were designed to determine whether SNS activation during social disruption stress (SDR) influences anxiety-like behavior as well as the activation, priming, and glucocorticoid resistance of splenocytes after social stress. CD-1 mice were exposed to one, three, or six cycles of SDR and HPLC analysis of the plasma and spleen revealed an increase in catecholamines. After six cycles of SDR the open field test was used to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety and indicated that the social defeat induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was blocked by pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. Pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol did not significantly alter corticosterone levels indicating no difference in activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. In addition to anxiety-like behavior the SDR induced splenomegaly and increase in plasma IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1 were each reversed by pre-treatment with propranolol. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of cells from propranolol pretreated mice reduced the SDR-induced increase in the percentage of CD11b+ splenic macrophages and significantly decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 on the surface of these cells. In addition, supernatants from 18 h LPS-stimulated ex vivo cultures of splenocytes from propranolol-treated SDR mice contained less IL-6. Likewise propranolol pre-treatment abrogated the glucocorticoid insensitivity of CD11b+ cells ex vivo when compared to splenocytes from SDR vehicle-treated mice

  11. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress.

    PubMed

    Hanke, M L; Powell, N D; Stiner, L M; Bailey, M T; Sheridan, J F

    2012-10-01

    During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on the immune modulation of social defeat has not been examined. The following studies were designed to determine whether SNS activation during social disruption stress (SDR) influences anxiety-like behavior as well as the activation, priming, and glucocorticoid resistance of splenocytes after social stress. CD-1 mice were exposed to one, three, or six cycles of SDR and HPLC analysis of the plasma and spleen revealed an increase in catecholamines. After six cycles of SDR the open field test was used to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety and indicated that the social defeat induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was blocked by pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. Pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol did not significantly alter corticosterone levels indicating no difference in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition to anxiety-like behavior the SDR induced splenomegaly and increase in plasma IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1 were each reversed by pre-treatment with propranolol. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of cells from propranolol pretreated mice reduced the SDR-induced increase in the percentage of CD11b(+) splenic macrophages and significantly decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 on the surface of these cells. In addition, supernatants from 18h LPS-stimulated ex vivo cultures of splenocytes from propranolol-treated SDR mice contained less IL-6. Likewise propranolol pre-treatment abrogated the glucocorticoid insensitivity of CD11b(+) cells ex vivo when compared to splenocytes from SDR vehicle-treated mice

  12. Phosphatidic acid as a second messenger in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Effects on activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, D E; McPhail, L C; Sozzani, S; Bass, D A; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Receptor-mediated agonists, such as FMLP, induce an early, phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) which may play a role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN. We have determined the effect of changes in PA production on O2 consumption in intact PMN and the level of NADPH oxidase activity measured in a cell-free assay. Pretreatment of cells with various concentrations of propranolol enhanced (less than or equal to 200 microM) or inhibited (greater than 300 microM) PLD-induced production of PA (mass and radiolabel) in a manner that correlated with enhancement or inhibition of O2 consumption in PMN stimulated with 1 microM FMLP in the absence of cytochalasin B. The concentration-dependent effects of propranolol on FMLP-induced NADPH oxidase activation was confirmed by direct assay of the enzyme in subcellular fractions. In PA extracted from cells pretreated with 200 microM propranolol before stimulation with 1 microM FMLP, phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-digestion for 90 min, followed by quantitation of residual PA, showed that a minimum of 44% of PA in control (undigested) sample was diacyl-PA; alkylacyl-PA remained undigested by PLA1. Propranolol was also observed to have a concentration-dependent enhancement of mass of 1,2-DG formed in PMN stimulated with FMLP. DG levels reached a maximum at 300 microM propranolol and remained unchanged up to 500 microM propranolol. However, in contrast to PA levels, the level of DG produced did not correlate with NADPH oxidase activation. Exogenously added didecanoyl-PA activated NADPH oxidase in a concentration-dependent manner (1-300 microM) in a reconstitution assay using membrane and cytosolic fractions from unstimulated PMN. In addition, PA synergized with SDS for oxidase activation. Taken together, these results indicate that PA plays a second messenger role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN and that regulation of phospholipase D is a key step in the activation pathway. Images

  13. Water-compatible graphene oxide/molecularly imprinted polymer coated stir bar sorptive extraction of propranolol from urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenying; He, Man; You, Linna; Zhu, Xuewei; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-22

    Due to the high selectivity and stability, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been successfully applied in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) as a special coating to improve the selective extraction capability for target analytes. However, traditional MIPs usually suffer from incompatibility in aqueous media and low adsorption capacity, which limit the application of MIP coated stir bar in aqueous samples. To solve these problems, a water-compatible graphene oxides (GO)/MIP composite coated stir bar was prepared in this work by in situ polymerization. The prepared water-compatible GO/MIP coated stir bar presented good mechanical strength and chemical stability, and its recognition ability in aqueous samples was improved due to the polymerization of MIP in water environment, the adsorption capacity for target analytes was also increased by the addition of GO in MIP pre-polymer solution. Based on it, a method of water-compatible GO/MIP coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLV-UV) was proposed for the analysis of propranolol (PRO) in aqueous solution. The influencing factors of SBSE, such as sample pH, salt effect, stirring rate, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time, were optimized, and the analytical performance of the developed SBSE-HPLC-UV method was evaluated under the optimized conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed method for PRO was about 0.37 μg L(-1), and the enrichment factor (EF) was 59.7-fold (theoretical EF was 100-fold). The reproducibility was also investigated at concentrations of 5 μg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 7.3% (n=7). The proposed method of GO/MIP coating-SBSE-HPLC-UV was successfully applied for the assay of the interested PRO drug in urine samples, and further extended to the investigation of the excretion of the drugs by monitoring the variation of the concentration of PRO in urine

  14. Effects of Beta-blockers on Punished Responding and on Heart Rate in Pigeons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-17

    in pigeons. The present study attempted to confirm that fmding, to compare the effects of propranolol, metoprolol , and atenolol with that of...occurred at approximately 15% iii of the high unpunished response rates. Propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol doses from 1.0 to 10.0 mg!kg, i.m. and...and, to a somewhat lesser extent, metoprolol produced large dose-related decreases. Atenolol’s effect was small. Chlordiazepoxide increased heart rate

  15. Beta-Adrenergic Modulation of Tremor and Corticomuscular Coherence in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mark R.; Baker, Stuart N.

    2012-01-01

    Coherence between the bioelectric activity of sensorimotor cortex and contralateral muscles can be observed around 20 Hz. By contrast, physiological tremor has a dominant frequency around 10 Hz. Although tremor has multiple sources, it is partly central in origin, reflecting a component of motoneuron discharge at this frequency. The motoneuron response to ∼20 Hz descending input could be altered by non-linear interactions with ∼10 Hz motoneuron firing. We investigated this further in eight healthy human subjects by testing the effects of the beta-adrenergic agents propranolol (non-selective β-antagonist) and salbutamol (β2-agonist), which are known to alter the size of physiological tremor. Corticomuscular coherence was assessed during an auxotonic precision grip task; tremor was quantified using accelerometry during index finger extension. Experiments with propranolol used a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. A single oral dose of propranolol (40 mg) significantly increased beta band (15.3–32.2 Hz) corticomuscular coherence compared with placebo, but reduced tremor in the 6.2–11.9 Hz range. Salbutamol (2.5 mg) was administered by inhalation. Whilst salbutamol significantly increased tremor amplitude as expected, it did not change corticomuscular coherence. The opposite direction of the effects of propranolol on corticomuscular coherence and tremor, and the fact that salbutamol enhances tremor but does not affect coherence, implies that the magnitude of corticomuscular coherence is little influenced by non-linear interactions with 10 Hz oscillations in motoneurons or the periphery. Instead, we suggest that propranolol and salbutamol may affect both tremor and corticomuscular coherence partly via a central site of action. PMID:23185297

  16. Effect of a traditional syrup from Citrus medica L. fruit juice on migraine headache: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Salehi, Alireza; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2016-02-17

    In Persian ethnomedicine several herbal remedies and functional foods have been used to treat migraine headache which are mostly summarized in Qarabadin-e-kabir (Aghili-Shirazi MH, 1773). One of them is Citron syrup (Sharbat-e-Balang) containing edible Citrus medica L. fruit juice and sugar. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Citron syrup on patients with migraine headache. Citron syrup was prepared as described in Qarabadin-e-kabir. In this double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, ninety patients with migraine headache were allocated to three parallel groups (Citron syrup, propranolol or placebo). Patients received 15ml of Citron syrup, placebo syrup or 20mg of propranolol tablet three times daily after a meal for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were obtained from three measures: the frequency (per month), mean duration (hour) and mean intensity (visual analogue scale "VAS" 0-10 score) of headache attacks evaluated prior to and following 4 weeks of the intervention. Citron syrup was superior to placebo in reduction of headache attacks intensity (P<0.01) and duration (p<0.0001) and as effective as propranolol in patients with migraine headache (P>0.05). However, unlike propranolol, Citron syrup could not significantly reduce the frequency of attacks compared to placebo. No indication of any serious side effects from Citron syrup was observed. According to obtained results, Citron syrup as a traditional Persian remedy can be suggested as an effective treatment for decreasing pain intensity and duration of attacks in migraine headache and the effectiveness is comparable to propranolol. However, the syrup did not show significant effect on frequency of attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beta-adrenergic and atrial natriuretic peptide interactions on human cardiovascular and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Boschmann, Michael; Moro, Cedric; Adams, Frauke; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Diedrich, André; Schroeder, Christoph; Franke, Gabi; Berlan, Michel; Luft, Friedrich C.; Lafontan, Max; Jordan, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Context Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has well known cardiovascular effects and modifies lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in humans. Objective To determine the metabolic and cardiovascular interaction of beta-adrenergic receptors and ANP. Design Cross over study, conducted 2004–2005 Setting Academic clinical research center Patients Ten healthy, young, male subjects (BMI 24±1 kg/m2) Intervention We infused intravenously incremental ANP doses (6.25, 12.5, and 25 ng/kg/min) with and without propranolol (0.20 mg/kg in divided doses followed by 0.033 mg/kg/h infusion). Metabolism was monitored through venous blood sampling, intramuscular and subcutaneous microdialysis and indirect calorimetry. Cardiovascular changes where monitored by continuous ECG and beat-by-beat blood pressure recordings. Main outcome measures Venous NEFA, glycerol, glucose, insulin; microdialysate glucose, glycerol, lactate, pyruvate. Results ANP increased heart rate dose dependently. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade abolished the response. ANP elicited a dose-dependent increase in serum non-esterified fatty acid and glycerol concentrations. The response was not suppressed with propranolol. Venous glucose and insulin concentrations increased with ANP, both, without or with propranolol. ANP induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In skeletal muscle, microdialysate lactate increased while the lactate to pyruvate ratio decreased, both, with and without propranolol. Higher ANP doses increased lipid oxidation while energy expenditure remained unchanged. Propranolol tended to attenuate the increase in lipid oxidation. Conclusions Selected cardiovascular ANP effects are at least partly mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. ANP induced changes in lipid mobilization and glycolysis are mediated by another mechanism, presumably stimulation of natriuretic peptide receptors whereas substrate oxidation might be modulated through adrenergic mechanisms. PMID:16984990

  18. Beta-adrenergic stimulation contributes to maintenance of endothelial barrier functions under baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Volker; Waschke, Jens

    2011-02-01

    cAMP signaling within the endothelium is known to reduce paracellular permeability and to protect against loss of barrier functions under various pathological conditions. Because activation of β-adrenergic receptors elevates cellular cAMP, we tested whether β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes to the maintenance of baseline endothelial barrier properties. We compared hydraulic conductivity of rat postcapillary venules in vivo with resistance measurements and with reorganization of endothelial adherens junctions in cultured microvascular endothelial cells downstream of β-adrenergic receptor-mediated changes of cAMP levels. Inhibition of β-adrenergic receptors by propranolol increased hydraulic conductivity, reduced both cAMP levels and TER of microvascular endothelial cell monolayers and induced fragmentation of VE-cadherin staining. In contrast, activation by epinephrine both increased cAMP levels and TER and resulted in linearized VE-cadherin distribution, however this was not sufficient to block barrier-destabilization by propranolol. Similarly, PDE inhibition did not prevent propranolol-induced TER reduction and VE-cadherin reorganization whereas increased cAMP formation by AC activation enhanced endothelial barrier functions under baseline conditions and under conditions of propranolol treatment. Our results indicate that generation of cAMP mediated by activation of β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes to the maintenance of endothelial barrier properties under baseline conditions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Effect of Beta Adrenergic Blockade on Ratings of Perceived Exertion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    exrcis is uvo Hughson, et al. (47) investigated the effect of beta blockade using a single, 100-mg oral dose of metoprolol or matched placebo on 12...administered either placebo, propranolol (80 mug) or metoprolol (100 mug) in a double- blind, randomised manner. Before the muscle-strength tests were...The non-selective BABA propranolol and the selective agent metoprolol were compared with a placebo in a double blind cross-over design. Measurements

  20. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    PubMed

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them.

  1. Noradrenergic blockade stabilizes prefrontal activity and enables fear extinction under stress

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Giustino, Thomas F.; Seemann, Jocelyn R.; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced impairments in extinction learning are believed to sustain posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Noradrenergic signaling may contribute to extinction impairments by modulating medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuits involved in fear regulation. Here we demonstrate that aversive fear conditioning rapidly and persistently alters spontaneous single-unit activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions of the mPFC in behaving rats. These conditioning-induced changes in mPFC firing were mitigated by systemic administration of propranolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist. Moreover, propranolol administration dampened the stress-induced impairment in extinction observed when extinction training is delivered shortly after fear conditioning. These findings suggest that β-adrenoceptors mediate stress-induced changes in mPFC spike firing that contribute to extinction impairments. Propranolol may be a helpful adjunct to behavioral therapy for PTSD, particularly in patients who have recently experienced trauma. PMID:26124100

  2. Not all Beta-Blockers are Equal in the Management of Long QT Syndrome Types 1 and 2: Higher Recurrence of Events under Metoprolol

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Priya; Crotti, Lia; Girardengo, Giulia; Johnson, Jonathan N.; Harris, Katy M.; van der Heijden, Jeroen F.; Hauer, Richard N.W.; Beckmann, Britt M.; Spazzolini, Carla; Rordorf, Roberto; Rydberg, Annika; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Fischer, Markus; van den Heuvel, Freek; Kääb, Stefan; Blom, Nico A.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Schwartz, Peter J.; Wilde, Arthur A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of beta-blockers (BB) in congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). Background BB are the mainstay in managing LQTS. Studies comparing the efficacy of commonly-used BB are lacking and clinicians generally assume they are equally effective. Methods ECG and clinical parameters of 382 LQT1/LQT2 patients initiated on propranolol (n=134), metoprolol (n=147), and nadolol (n=101) were analyzed, excluding patients aged <1 year at BB initiation. Symptoms prior to therapy and the first breakthrough cardiac events (BCEs) were documented. Results Patients (56% females, 27% symptomatic, HR 76±16 bpm, QTc 472±46 ms) were started on BB therapy at a median age of 14 years (IQR 8–32 years). QTc-shortening with propranolol was significantly greater than with other BB in the total cohort and in the subset with QTc >480 ms. None of the asymptomatic patients had BCEs. Among symptomatic patients (n=101), 15 had BCEs (all syncopes). QTc-shortening was significantly less-pronounced among patients with BCEs. There was a greater risk of BCEs for symptomatic patients initiated on metoprolol compared to users of other two BB combined, after adjustment for genotype (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.2–13.1, p=0.025). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly lower event-free survival for symptomatic patients on metoprolol compared to propranolol/nadolol. Conclusions Propranolol has a significantly better QTc-shortening effect compared to metoprolol and nadolol, especially in patients with prolonged QTc. Propranolol and nadolol are equally effective whereas symptomatic patients started on metoprolol are at a significantly higher risk for BCEs. Metoprolol should not be used in symptomatic LQT1 and LQT2 patients. PMID:23083782

  3. Effects of cholinergic and beta-adrenergic blockade on orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Sather, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses during a graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) protocol were compared before and after atropine and propranolol administration to test the hypothesis that both sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cardio-acceleration are associated with syncopal predisposition to orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. Eleven men were categorized into two groups having high (HT, N = 6) or low (LT, N = 5) tolerance based on their total time before the onset of presyncopal symptoms. HT and LT groups were similar in physical characteristics, fitness, and baseline cardiovascular measurements. Atropine treatment had no effect on LBNP tolerance or mean arterial pressure at presyncope, despite an atropine-induced increase in heart rate. Propranolol treatment reduced (p<0.05) LBNP tolerance in both groups. Diminished LBNP tolerance after propranolol administration was associated with reductions in cardiac output, whereas increase in systemic peripheral resistance from baseline to presyncope was unaffected by propranolol. Reduction in cardiac output and LBNP tolerance after beta blockade reflected a chronotropic effect because lower LBNP tolerance for the HT (-50%) and LT (-39%) groups was associated with dramatic reductions (p <0.05) in the magnitude of LBNP-induced tachycardia without significant effects on stroke volume at presyncope. Absence of an atropine-induced difference in cardiac output and systemic peripheral resistance between HT and LT groups failed to support the notion that cardiac vagal withdrawal represents a predominant mechanism that could account for differences in orthostatic tolerance. Because a reduction in LBNP tolerance in both HT and LT groups after propranolol treatment was most closely associated with reduced tachycardia, the data suggest that a primary autonomically mediated mechanism for maintenance of mean arterial pressure and orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects is beta adrenergic-induced tachycardia.

  4. Endothelial and circulating C19MC microRNAs are biomarkers of infantile hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Strub, Graham M.; Kirsh, Andrew L.; Whipple, Mark E.; Kuo, Winston P.; Keller, Rachel B.; Kapur, Raj P.; Majesky, Mark W.; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common vascular tumor of infancy, and it uniquely regresses in response to oral propranolol. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of vascular development and are dysregulated in many disease processes, but the role of miRNAs in IH growth has not been investigated. We report expression of C19MC, a primate-specific megacluster of miRNAs expressed in placenta with rare expression in postnatal tissues, in glucose transporter 1–expressing (GLUT-1–expressing) IH endothelial cells and in the plasma of children with IH. Tissue or circulating C19MC miRNAs were not detectable in patients having 9 other types of vascular anomalies or unaffected children, identifying C19MC miRNAs as the first circulating biomarkers of IH. Levels of circulating C19MC miRNAs correlated with IH tumor size and propranolol treatment response, and IH tissue from children treated with propranolol or from children with partially involuted tumors contained lower levels of C19MC miRNAs than untreated, proliferative tumors, implicating C19MC miRNAs as potential drivers of IH pathogenesis. Detection of C19MC miRNAs in the circulation of infants with IH may provide a specific and noninvasive means of IH diagnosis and identification of candidates for propranolol therapy as well as a means to monitor treatment response. PMID:27660822

  5. Disruption of Long-Term Alcohol-Related Memory Reconsolidation: Role of β-Adrenoceptors and NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Jelte A.; Diergaarde, Leontien; Riga, Danai; van Mourik, Yvar; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; De Vries, Taco J.

    2010-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation of drug-related memories may be effective in reducing the incidence of relapse. In the current study we examine whether alcohol-related memories are prone to disruption by the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg) and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) following their reactivation. In operant chambers, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 12% alcohol solution. After 3 weeks of abstinence, the animals were placed in the self-administration cages and were re-exposed to the alcohol-associated cues for a 20-min retrieval period, immediately followed by a systemic injection of either propranolol, MK801 or saline. Rats were tested for cue-induced alcohol seeking on the following day. Retrieval session, injection and test were repeated on two further occasions at weekly intervals. Both propranolol and MK801 administration upon reactivation did not reduce alcohol seeking after the first reactivation test. However, a significant reduction of alcohol seeking was observed over three post-training tests in propranolol treated animals, and MK801 treated animals showed a strong tendency toward reduced alcohol seeking (p = 0.06). Our data indicate that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories can be disrupted after a long post-training interval and that particularly β-adrenergic receptors may represent novel targets for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, in combination with cue-exposure therapies. PMID:21152256

  6. Effects of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on drug-related memory reconsolidation in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Li-Li; Shi, Jie; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin

    2011-11-01

    The reactivation of a consolidated memory can return it to a labile state, a process referred to as reconsolidation. A previous study showed that oral administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol before memory reactivation in humans erased the behavioral expression of the fear memory 24h later. In this study, we investigated whether propranolol impairs the drug-related memory by disrupting the reconsolidation process in heroin addicts. Seventy abstinent heroin addicts learned a word list (including 10 heroin-related positive words, 10 heroin-related negative words, and 10 neutral words) on day 1. Participants orally administered the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol or placebo before retrieval of the word list on day 2. Free recall of the word list and other psychological and physical responses were assessed on day 3. Oral administration of propranolol before reactivation of the word list impaired reconsolidation of drug-related positive and negative but not neutral words in abstinent heroin addicts, and these impairments critically depended on reactivation of the word list. This study extends earlier reports that a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist affects the drug-related memory reconsolidation process. Our findings may have important implications for the understanding and treatment of persistent and abnormal drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluvial biofilms: A pertinent tool to assess beta-blockers toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Guasch, Helena; Proia, Lorenzo; Ricart, Marta; Geiszinger, Anita; Romaní, Anna M; Sabater, Sergi

    2010-02-18

    Among increasingly used pharmaceutical products, beta-blockers have been commonly reported at low concentrations in rivers and littoral waters of Europe and North America. Little is known about the toxicity of these chemicals in freshwater ecosystems while their presence may lead to chronic pollution. Hence, in this study the acute toxicity of 3 beta-blockers: metoprolol, propranolol and atenolol on fluvial biofilms was assessed by using several biomarkers. Some were indicative of potential alterations in biofilm algae (photosynthetic efficiency), and others in biofilm bacteria (peptidase activity, bacterial mortality). Propranolol was the most toxic beta-blocker, mostly affecting the algal photosynthetic process. The exposure to 531microg/L of propranolol caused 85% of inhibition of photosynthesis after 24h. Metoprolol was particularly toxic for bacteria. Though estimated No-Effect Concentrations (NEC) were similar to environmental concentrations, higher concentrations of the toxic (503microg/L metoprolol) caused an increase of 50% in bacterial mortality. Atenolol was the least toxic of the three tested beta-blockers. Effects superior to 50% were only observed at very high concentration (707mg/L). Higher toxicity of metoprolol and propranolol might be due to better absorption within biofilms of these two chemicals. Since beta-blockers are mainly found in mixtures in rivers, their differential toxicity could have potential relevant consequences on the interactions between algae and bacteria within river biofilms. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on [32P]orthophosphate incorporation into phospholipids of cat iris and ciliary process.

    PubMed

    Yorio, T; DeLoach, G; Satumtira, N

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antiglaucoma drugs on [32P]-orthophosphate incorporation into phospholipids of iris and ciliary process were investigated. Both iris and ciliary process rapidly incorporated 32Pi into the major phospholipids, with the acidic phosphoinositides demonstrating a greater labelling than phosphatidylcholine, indicating a greater turnover. The muscarinic agonists, carbachol and pilocarpine, stimulated 32Pi-labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in both iris and ciliary process. These effects were blocked by atropine, suggesting that the response was mediated through muscarinic receptors. The beta blocking ocular hypotensive drugs, propranolol, timolol and atenolol, produced varying effects on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of iris and ciliary process. Propranolol stimulated 32Pi-labelling into phosphatidylinositol 4', 5' bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4' phosphate (PIP), PI and PA. Timolol decreased 32Pi-incorporation into PIP2 and PI, whereas atenolol, a selective beta 1 antagonist, had no significant effect on 32Pi-labelling of phospholipids. The above findings on propranolol agree with previous observations which demonstrated that propranolol redirects glycerolipid metabolism through multiple effects on the enzymes in phospholipid biosynthesis, particularly in stimulating phosphatidylinositol kinases. The results with timolol suggest that this drug may decrease phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The effects of these ocular hypotensive, non-selective beta blocking drugs on phospholipid turnover may ultimately limit the accumulation of breakdown products which could serve as cellular messengers.

  9. Nadolol for lithium tremor in the presence of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Dave, M; Langbart, M M

    1994-03-01

    Lithium-induced tremor classically responds to treatment with propranolol. Since it is metabolized in the liver, propranolol may not be the drug of choice in those patients who have compromised liver function or who are recovering from prior liver diseases. Another nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker, nadolol, has no hepatic biotransformation. We present here the first case report of successful treatment of lithium-induced tremor with nadolol, which was selected because the patient had compromised liver function. The patient's liver function tests remained stable with the therapy.

  10. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors enhances cAMP signal transduction in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the blockade of beta-adrenoceptors would enhance cAMP-mediated signal transduction processes in vivo. The administration of the membrane permeable cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP, 10 micromol/kg, i.v.) produced an increase in heart rate (+27 +/- 2%, P < 0.05), a fall in mean arterial blood pressure (-21 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and falls in hindquarter (-12 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and mesenteric (-32 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) vascular resistances in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) lowered heart rate (-12 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) but did not affect mean arterial blood pressure or vascular resistances. The tachycardia, hypotension and vasodilation produced by 8-CPT-cAMP were exaggerated after administration of propranolol (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). The nitric oxide-donor, sodium nitroprusside (2 microg/kg, i.v.), produced falls in mean arterial blood pressure and vascular resistances of similar magnitude to those produced by 8-CPT-cAMP. These sodium nitroprusside-induced responses were unaffected by propranolol (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Sodium nitroprusside also produced a minor increase in heart rate (+5 +/- 1%, P < 0.05) which was abolished by propranolol. These findings suggest that 8-CPT-cAMP directly increases heart rate and that blockade of beta-adrenoceptors enhances the potency of cAMP within the heart and vasculature.

  11. The treatment of anxiety with beta-blocking drugs.

    PubMed

    Peet, M

    1988-01-01

    Evidence supporting the efficacy of beta blockers in anxiety is reviewed. Propranolol and oxprenolol are the most clearly established in efficacy. A placebo-controlled trial is described, in which propranolol and atenolol were both effective in the symptomatic treatment of generalized anxiety in patients who had been referred by their family doctors for specialist treatment. If initial psychological treatment for chronic anxiety is ineffective, and a drug is considered necessary, then a beta blocker or an antidepressant should be considered as first choice in preference to a benzodiazepine.

  12. Effect of Stimulation of Neurotransmitter Systems on Heart Rate Variability and β-Adrenergic Responsiveness of Erythrocytes in Outbred Rats.

    PubMed

    Kur'yanova, E V; Tryasuchev, A V; Stupin, V O; Teplyi, D L

    2017-05-01

    We studied heart rate variability and β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes and changes in these parameters in response to single administration of β-adrenoblocker propranolol (2 mg/kg) in outbred male rats against the background of activation of the noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems achieved by 4-fold injections maprotiline (10 mg/kg), 5-hydroxytryptophan (50 mg/kg) combined with fluoxetine (3 mg/kg), and L-DOPA (20 mg/kg) with amantadine (20 mg/kg), respectively. Stimulation of the noradrenergic system moderately enhanced the heart rhythm rigidity and β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes. In addition, it markedly augmented the moderating effect of subsequently administered propranolol on LF and VLF components in the heart rate variability and reversed the effect of propranolol on β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes. Stimulation of the serotonergic system dramatically decreased all components in the heart rate variability and pronouncedly enhanced β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes. Subsequent injection of propranolol slightly restored all components in the heart rate variability and decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes to the control level. Stimulation of the dopaminergic system made the heart rate more rigid due to decrease of all components in the heart rate variability; in addition, it slightly but significantly enhanced β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes. Subsequent injection of propranolol produced no significant effects on all components in the heart rate variability and on β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes. Stimulation of noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems produced unidirectional and consorted effects on heart rate variability and β-adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes, although the magnitudes of these effects were different. Probably, the changes in the heart rate variability in rats with stimulated

  13. Beta-1 vs. beta-2 adrenergic control of coronary blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Maman, Stephan R; Vargas, Alvaro F; Ahmad, Tariq Ali; Miller, Amanda J; Gao, Zhaohui; Leuenberger, Urs A; Proctor, David N; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    During exercise, β-adrenergic receptors are activated throughout the body. In healthy humans, the net effect of β-adrenergic stimulation is an increase in coronary blood flow. However, the role of vascular β1 vs. β2 receptors in coronary exercise hyperemia is not clear. In this study, we simultaneously measured noninvasive indexes of myocardial oxygen supply (i.e., blood velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery; Doppler echocardiography) and demand [i.e., rate pressure product (RPP) = heart rate × systolic blood pressure) and tested the hypothesis that β1 blockade with esmolol improves coronary exercise hyperemia compared with nonselective β-blockade with propranolol. Eight healthy young men received intravenous infusions of esmolol, propranolol, and saline on three separate days in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. During each infusion, subjects performed isometric handgrip exercise until fatigue. Blood pressure, heart rate, and coronary blood velocity (CBV) were measured continuously, and RPP was calculated. Changes in parameters from baseline were compared with paired t -tests. Esmolol (Δ = 3296 ± 1204) and propranolol (Δ = 2997 ± 699) caused similar reductions in peak RPP compared with saline (Δ = 5384 ± 1865). In support of our hypothesis, ΔCBV with esmolol was significantly greater than with propranolol (7.3 ± 2.4 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 cm/s; P = 0.002). This effect was also evident when normalizing ΔCBV to ΔRPP. In summary, not only does selective β1 blockade reduce myocardial oxygen demand during exercise, but it also unveils β2-receptor-mediated coronary exercise hyperemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we evaluated the role of vascular β1 vs. β2 receptors in coronary exercise hyperemia in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy men. In response to isometric handgrip exercise, blood flow velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery was significantly greater with esmolol compared with

  14. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation becomes independent of β-adrenergic receptor activation with increased intensity of hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Timothy B.; Wilkins, Brad W.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxic vasodilation in skeletal muscle at rest is known to include β-adrenergic receptor-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release. We previously reported that the augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during mild hypoxic forearm exercise includes β-adrenergic mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether a β-adrenergic receptor-stimulated NO component exists during hypoxic exercise. We hypothesized that NO-mediated vasodilation becomes independent of β-adrenergic receptor activation with increased exercise intensity during hypoxic exercise. Ten subjects (7 men, 3 women; 23 ± 1 yr) breathed hypoxic gas to titrate arterial O2 saturation to 80% while remaining normocapnic. Subjects performed two consecutive bouts of incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) with local administration (via a brachial artery catheter) of propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor inhibition) alone and with the combination of propranolol and nitric oxide synthase inhibition [NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA)] under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Forearm blood flow (FBF, ml/min; Doppler ultrasound) and blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP), mmHg; brachial artery catheter] were assessed, and forearm vascular conductance (FVC, ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1) was calculated (FBF/MAP). During propranolol alone, the rise in FVC (Δ from normoxic baseline) due to hypoxic exercise was 217 ± 29 and 415 ± 41 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20% of maximum, respectively). Combined propranolol-l-NMMA infusion during hypoxic exercise attenuated ΔFVC at 20% (352 ± 44 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1; P < 0.001) but not at 10% (202 ± 28 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1; P = 0.08) of maximum compared with propranolol alone. These data, when integrated with earlier findings, demonstrate that NO contributes to the compensatory vasodilation during mild and moderate hypoxic exercise; a β-adrenergic receptor-stimulated NO component exists during low-intensity hypoxic exercise. However, the source

  15. Retrieval per se is not sufficient to trigger reconsolidation of human fear memory.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, Dieuwke; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2012-03-01

    Ample evidence suggests that consolidated memories, upon their retrieval, enter a labile state, in which they might be susceptible to change. It has been proposed that memory labilization allows for the integration of relevant information in the established memory trace (memory updating). Memory labilization and reconsolidation do not necessarily occur when a memory is being reactivated, but only when there is something to be learned during memory retrieval (prediction error). Thus, updating of a fear memory trace should not occur under retrieval conditions in which the outcome is fully predictable (no prediction error). Here, we addressed this issue, using a human differential fear conditioning procedure, by eliminating the very possibility of reinforcement of the reminder cue. A previously established fear memory (picture-shock pairings) was reactivated with shock-electrodes attached (Propranolol group, n=18) or unattached (Propranolol No-Shock Expectation group, n=19). We additionally tested a placebo-control group with the shock-electrodes attached (Placebo group, n=18). Reconsolidation was not triggered when nothing could be learned during the reminder trial, as noradrenergic blockade did not affect expression of the fear memory 24h later in the Propranolol No-Shock Expectation group. Only when the outcome of the retrieval cue was not fully predictable, propranolol, contrary to placebo, reduced the startle fear response and prevented the return of fear (reinstatement) the following day. In line with previous studies, skin conductance response and shock expectancies were not affected by propranolol. Remarkably, a double dissociation emerged between the emotional (startle response) and more cognitive expression (expectancies, SCR) of the fear memory. Our findings have important implications for reconsolidation blockade as treatment strategy for emotional disorders. First, fear reducing procedures that target the emotional component of fear memory do not

  16. No role of beta receptors in cognitive flexibility: Evidence from a task-switching paradigm in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, L; Sellaro, R; de Rover, M; Hommel, B; Colzato, L S

    2015-06-04

    There is evidence that noradrenergic coeruleo-cortical projections are involved in different forms of cognitive flexibility. So far, no studies in humans have investigated the involvement of beta receptors on task-switching performance, a well-established measure of cognitive flexibility. The present study investigated whether the administration of propranolol (a central and peripheral beta-adrenergic antagonist) affected switching costs (i.e., the increase of reaction time in task-switching trials relative to task-repetition trials). Sixteen healthy adult human subjects performed a global-local task-switching paradigm in a double-blind, within-subjects design study investigating the effects of 80mg of propranolol hydrochloride (a β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) vs. an oral dose of microcrystalline cellulose (placebo pill). The acute administration of propranolol did not affect the size of switching costs compared to the intake of the neutral placebo. Our results, corroborated by Bayesian inference, suggest that beta receptors do not modulate cognitive flexibility as measured by task-switching performance. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The tremorolytic action of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor is mediated by beta-adrenoceptors located in a deep peripheral compartment.

    PubMed

    Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A

    1985-10-01

    The effects of intravenous propranolol 100 micrograms kg-1, sotalol 500 micrograms kg-1, timolol 7.8 micrograms kg-1, atenolol 125 micrograms kg-1 and placebo on essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor were studied. These beta-adrenoceptor blocker doses produced equal reduction of standing-induced tachycardia in essential tremor patients. Atenolol produced significantly less reduction of essential and isoprenaline-induced tremor than the non-selective drugs, confirming the importance of beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade in these effects. Propranolol and sotalol produced equal maximal inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tremor but propranolol was significantly more effective in reducing essential tremor. The rate of development of the tremorolytic effect was similar in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremors but all tremor responses developed significantly more slowly than the heart rate responses. It is proposed that these results indicate that the tremorolytic activity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor is exerted via the same beta 2-adrenoceptors located in a deep peripheral compartment which is thought to be in the muscle spindles.

  18. The tremorolytic action of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor is mediated by beta-adrenoceptors located in a deep peripheral compartment.

    PubMed Central

    Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of intravenous propranolol 100 micrograms kg-1, sotalol 500 micrograms kg-1, timolol 7.8 micrograms kg-1, atenolol 125 micrograms kg-1 and placebo on essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor were studied. These beta-adrenoceptor blocker doses produced equal reduction of standing-induced tachycardia in essential tremor patients. Atenolol produced significantly less reduction of essential and isoprenaline-induced tremor than the non-selective drugs, confirming the importance of beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade in these effects. Propranolol and sotalol produced equal maximal inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tremor but propranolol was significantly more effective in reducing essential tremor. The rate of development of the tremorolytic effect was similar in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremors but all tremor responses developed significantly more slowly than the heart rate responses. It is proposed that these results indicate that the tremorolytic activity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor is exerted via the same beta 2-adrenoceptors located in a deep peripheral compartment which is thought to be in the muscle spindles. PMID:2866785

  19. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peperidou, Aikaterini; Pontiki, Eleni; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Voulgari, Efstathia; Avgoustakis, Konstantinos

    2017-07-25

    Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino) ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition (IC 50 = 6 μΜ) and antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.425 μΜ). The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.315 μΜ) and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 66 μΜ). Compounds 3a and 3b , derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro . Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  20. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cecilia; Raytis, John L; Smith, David D; Duenas, Matthew; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul; Lew, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases.

  1. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade

    PubMed Central

    CHOY, CECILIA; RAYTIS, JOHN L.; SMITH, DAVID D.; DUENAS, MATTHEW; NEMAN, JOSH; JANDIAL, RAHUL; LEW, MICHAEL W.

    2016-01-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23–0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases. PMID:27035124

  2. AT1-receptor blockade, but not renin inhibition, reduces aneurysm growth and cardiac failure in fibulin-4 mice.

    PubMed

    Te Riet, Luuk; van Deel, Elza D; van Thiel, Bibi S; Moltzer, Els; van Vliet, Nicole; Ridwan, Yanto; van Veghel, Richard; van Heijningen, Paula M; Robertus, Jan Lukas; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Vermeij, Marcel; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Danser, A H Jan; Essers, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for the angiotensin II-AT1-receptor axis in aneurysm development. Here, we studied whether counteracting this axis via stimulation of AT2 receptors is beneficial. Such stimulation occurs naturally during AT1-receptor blockade with losartan, but not during renin inhibition with aliskiren. Aneurysmal homozygous fibulin-4 mice, displaying a four-fold reduced fibulin-4 expression, were treated with placebo, losartan, aliskiren, or the β-blocker propranolol from day 35 to 100. Their phenotype includes cystic media degeneration, aortic regurgitation, left ventricular dilation, reduced ejection fraction, and fractional shortening. Although losartan and aliskiren reduced hemodynamic stress and increased renin similarly, only losartan increased survival. Propranolol had no effect. No drug rescued elastic fiber fragmentation in established aneurysms, although losartan did reduce aneurysm size. Losartan also increased ejection fraction, decreased LV diameter, and reduced cardiac pSmad2 signaling. None of these effects were seen with aliskiren or propranolol. Longitudinal micro-CT measurements, a novel method in which each mouse serves as its own control, revealed that losartan reduced LV growth more than aneurysm growth, presumably because the heart profits both from the local (cardiac) effects of losartan and its effects on aortic root remodeling. Losartan, but not aliskiren or propranolol, improved survival in fibulin-4 mice. This most likely relates to its capacity to improve structure and function of both aorta and heart. The absence of this effect during aliskiren treatment, despite a similar degree of blood pressure reduction and renin-angiotensin system blockade, suggests that it might be because of AT2-receptor stimulation.

  3. Psychiatric side effects of antihypertensive drugs other than reserpine.

    PubMed

    Paykel, E S; Fleminger, R; Watson, J P

    1982-02-01

    The psychiatric side effects of the major antihypertensive drugs other than reserpine are reviewed, including centrally acting drugs such as methyldopa and clonidine, peripheral adrenergic drugs such as guanethidine, beta-adrenoceptor blockers such as propranolol, and diuretics. Problems with differential diagnosis and with the interpretation of case reports make assessment of psychiatric side effects difficult. Sedation and sleep disturbances are the most common side effects, occurring with methyldopa, clonidine, and propranolol. Only methyldopa is clearly associated with depression. Other reported effects are toxic confusional states and psychotic reactions. These are rare, however, and no clear patterns of development have been recognized.

  4. Visual acuity and astigmatism in periocular infantile hemangiomas treated with oral beta-blocker versus intralesional corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Erin P; Kelly, John P; Sidbury, Robert; Perkins, Jonathan A; Weiss, Avery H

    2016-02-01

    Periocular infantile hemangiomas (PIH) can induce anisometropic astigmatism, a risk factor for amblyopia. Oral beta-blocker therapy has largely supplanted systemic or intralesional corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and time course of these treatment modalities on visual acuity and induced astigmatism. The medical records of patients with PIH treated with oral propanolol between November 2008 and July 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for data on visual acuity and astigmatism. Patients with incomplete pre- and post-treatment ophthalmic examinations were excluded. Results were compared to those of a similar cohort treated with intralesional corticosteroid injection. Mean astigmatism in affected eyes was 1.90 D before propranolol and 1.00 D after; patients showed a monophasic reduction in astigmatism over 12 months. By comparison, patients treated with corticosteroid injection showed a biphasic response, with an immediate steep decrease followed by a slow monophasic decline, paralleling propranolol-treated patients. Oral propranolol treatment caused a 47% reduction in mean induced astigmatism, less than the 63% reduction reported for the cohort treated with corticosteroid. No patient had visual acuity in the affected eye more than 1 standard devation below the age-matched norm, and none experienced significant side effects when treated with oral propranolol. In this patient cohort oral beta-blocker was well-tolerated. Treatment was therefore often initiated prior to the induction of significant astigmatism, with treatment effects comparable to steroid treatment. Visual outcomes were good. Early treatment may minimize the potential effect of astigmatism on postnatal visual development. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perioperative use of beta-blockers and COX-2 inhibitors may improve immune competence and reduce the risk of tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Benish, Marganit; Bartal, Inbal; Goldfarb, Yael; Levi, Ben; Avraham, Roi; Raz, Amiram; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2008-07-01

    COX inhibitors and beta-blockers were recently suggested to reduce cancer progression through inhibition of tumor proliferation and growth factor secretion, induction of tumor apoptosis, and prevention of cellular immune suppression during the critical perioperative period. Here we evaluated the perioperative impact of clinically applicable drugs from these categories in the context of surgery, studying natural killer (NK) cell activity and resistance to experimental metastases. F344 rats were treated with COX-1 inhibitors (SC560), COX-2 inhibitors (indomethacin, etodolac, or celecoxib), a beta-blocker (propranolol), or a combination of a COX-2 inhibitor and a beta-blocker (etodolac and propranolol). Rats underwent laparotomy, and were inoculated intravenously with syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells for the assessment of lung tumor retention (LTR). Additionally, the impact of these drug regimens on postoperative levels of NK cytotoxicity was studied in peripheral blood and marginating-pulmonary leukocytes. Surgery increased MADB106 LTR. COX-2 inhibition, but not COX-1 inhibition, reduced postoperative LTR. Etodolac and propranolol both attenuated the deleterious impact of surgery, and their combined use abolished it. Surgery decreased NK cytotoxicity per NK cell in both immune compartments, and only the combination of etodolac and propranolol significantly attenuated these effects. Lastly, the initiation of drug treatment three days prior to surgery yielded the same beneficial effects as a single pre-operative administration, but, as discussed, prolonged treatment may be more advantageous clinically. Excess prostaglandin and catecholamine release contributes to postoperative immune-suppression. Treatment combining perioperative COX-2 inhibition and beta-blockade is practical in operated cancer patients, and our study suggests potential immunological and clinical benefits.

  6. Stimulation of the noradrenergic system during memory formation impairs extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2012-04-01

    The noradrenergic system plays a critical role in the 'consolidation' of emotional memory. If we are to target 'reconsolidation' in patients with anxiety disorders, the noradrenergic strengthening of fear memory should not impair the disruption of reconsolidation. In Experiment I, we addressed this issue using a differential fear conditioning procedure allowing selective reactivation of one of two fear associations. First, we strengthened fear memory by administering an α(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist (ie, yohimbine HCl; double-blind placebo-controlled study) 30 min before acquisition (time for peak value yohimbine HCl <1 h). Next, the reconsolidation of one of the fear associations was manipulated by administering a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (ie, propranolol HCl) 90 min before its selective reactivation (time for peak value propranolol HCl <2 h). In Experiment II, we administered propranolol HCl after reactivation of the memory to rule out a possible effect of the pharmacological manipulation on the memory retrieval itself. The excessive release of noradrenaline during memory formation not only delayed the process of extinction 48 h later, but also triggered broader fear generalization. Yet, the β-adrenergic receptor blocker during reconsolidation selectively 'neutralized' the fear-arousing aspects of the noradrenergic-strengthened memory and undermined the generalization of fear. We observed a similar reduction in fear responding when propranolol HCl was administered after reactivation of the memory. The present findings demonstrate the involvement of noradrenergic modulation in the formation as well as generalization of human fear memory. Given that the noradrenergic strengthening of fear memory impaired extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation, our findings may have implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  7. Mechanical mandible competence in rats with nutritional growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Lezón, Christian Esteban; Pintos, Patricia Mabel; Bozzini, Clarisa; Romero, Alan Agüero; Casavalle, Patricia; Friedman, Silvia María; Boyer, Patricia Mónica

    2017-08-01

    In order to provide a better understanding of the sympathetic nervous system as a negative regulator of bone status, the aim of the study was to establish the biomechanical mandible response to different doses of a β-adrenergic antagonist such as propranolol (P) in a stress-induced food restriction model of growth retardation. Rats were assigned to eight groups: Control (C), C+P3.5 (CP3.5), C+P7 (CP7), C+P14 (CP14), NGR, NGR+P3.5 (NGRP3.5), NGR+P7 (NGRP7) and NGR+P14 (NGRP14). C, CP3.5, CP7 and CP14 rats were freely fed with the standard diet. NGR, NGRP3.5, NGRP7 and NGRP14 rats received, for 4 weeks (W4), 80% of the amount of controls food consumed. Propranolol 3.5, 7 and 14mg/kg/day was injected ip 5days per week in CP3.5 and NGRP3.5, CP7 and NGRP7, CP14 and NGRP14, respectively. At W4, zoometry, mandible morphometry, static histomorphometric and biomechanical competence were performed. A dose of Propranolol 7mg/kg/day induced interradicular bone volume accretion reaching a mandible stiffness according to chronological age. These findings evidenced that sympathetic nervous system activity is a negative regulator of mandible mechanical competence in the nutritional growth retardation model. Propranolol 7mg/kg/day, under the regimen usage, seems to be appropriate to blockade SNS activity on mandible mechanical performance in NGR rats, probably associated to an effect on bone mechanostat system ability to detect disuse mode as an error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative effects of traditional Chinese and Western migraine medicines in an animal model of nociceptive trigeminovascular activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonglie; Martins-Oliveira, Margarida; Akerman, Simon; Goadsby, Peter J

    2018-06-01

    Background Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder of the brain with limited therapeutic options, particularly for preventive treatment. There is a need to identify novel targets and test their potential efficacy in relevant preclinical migraine models. Traditional Chinese medicines have been used for millennia and may offer avenues for exploration. Methods We evaluated two traditional Chinese medicines, gastrodin and ligustrazine, and compared them to two Western approaches with propranolol and levetiracetam, one effective and one ineffective, in an established in vivo rodent model of nociceptive durovascular trigeminal activation. Results Intravenous gastrodin (30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the trigeminocervical complex. Ligustrazine (10 mg/kg) and propranolol (3 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited dural-evoked trigeminocervical complex responses, although the timing of responses of ligustrazine does not match its pharmacokinetic profile. Levetiracetam had no effects on trigeminovascular responses. Conclusion Our data suggest gastrodin has potential as an anti-migraine treatment, whereas ligustrazine seems less promising. Interestingly, in line with clinical trial data, propranolol was effective and levetiracetam not. Exploration of the mechanisms and modelling effects of Chinese traditional therapies offers novel route for drug discovery in migraine.

  9. Inhibition of protein synthesis but not β-adrenergic receptors blocks reconsolidation of a cocaine-associated cue memory

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Amber B.

    2016-01-01

    Previously consolidated memories have the potential to enter a state of lability upon memory recall, during which time the memory can be altered before undergoing an additional consolidation-like process and being stored again as a long-term memory. Blocking reconsolidation of aberrant memories has been proposed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders including addiction. Here we investigated of the effect of systemically administering the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol on reconsolidation. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, during which each lever press resulted in the presentation of a cue paired with an intravenous infusion of cocaine. After undergoing lever press extinction to reduce operant responding, the cue memory was reactivated and rats were administered systemic injections of propranolol, cycloheximide, or vehicle. Post-reactivation cycloheximide, but not propranolol, resulted in a reactivation-dependent decrease in cue-induced reinstatement, indicative of reconsolidation blockade by protein synthesis inhibition. The present data indicate that systemically targeting protein synthesis as opposed to the β-adrenergic system may more effectively attenuate the reconsolidation of a drug-related memory and decrease drug-seeking behavior. PMID:27421890

  10. Inhibition of protein synthesis but not β-adrenergic receptors blocks reconsolidation of a cocaine-associated cue memory.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Amber B; Taylor, Jane R

    2016-08-01

    Previously consolidated memories have the potential to enter a state of lability upon memory recall, during which time the memory can be altered before undergoing an additional consolidation-like process and being stored again as a long-term memory. Blocking reconsolidation of aberrant memories has been proposed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders including addiction. Here we investigated of the effect of systemically administering the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol on reconsolidation. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, during which each lever press resulted in the presentation of a cue paired with an intravenous infusion of cocaine. After undergoing lever press extinction to reduce operant responding, the cue memory was reactivated and rats were administered systemic injections of propranolol, cycloheximide, or vehicle. Post-reactivation cycloheximide, but not propranolol, resulted in a reactivation-dependent decrease in cue-induced reinstatement, indicative of reconsolidation blockade by protein synthesis inhibition. The present data indicate that systemically targeting protein synthesis as opposed to the β-adrenergic system may more effectively attenuate the reconsolidation of a drug-related memory and decrease drug-seeking behavior. © 2016 Dunbar and Taylor; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system. PMID:26175672

  12. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    PubMed

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  13. Feasibility of atmospheric pressure desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry in analysis of drugs.

    PubMed

    Huikko, K; Ostman, P; Sauber, C; Mandel, F; Grigoras, K; Franssila, S; Kotiaho, T; Kostiainen, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of atmospheric pressure desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (AP-DIOS-MS) for drug analysis was investigated. It was observed that only compounds with relative high proton affinity are efficiently ionized under AP-DIOS conditions. The limits of detection (LODs) achieved in MS mode with midazolam, propranolol, and angiotensin II were 80 fmol, 20 pmol, and 1 pmol, respectively. In MS/MS mode the LODs for midazolam and propranolol were 10 fmol and 5 pmol, respectively. The good linearity (r(2) > 0.991), linear dynamic range of 3 orders of magnitude, and reasonable repeatability showed that the method is suitable for quantitative analysis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Role of the Frank-Starling mechanism in maintaining cardiac output during increasing levels of treadmill exercise in beta-blocked normal men.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, M; Savonitto, S; Bosisio, E; Chebat, E; Bertora, P L; Sardina, M; Norbiato, G

    1989-04-01

    To determine the effects of beta blockade on hemodynamics during increasing levels of treadmill exercise, 10 healthy volunteers were studied after 1 week of placebo, and then after 1 week of treatment with oral propranolol, 80 mg twice daily, or dilevalol, 400 mg once daily. The study was randomized and double-blind, with a crossover sequence. Hemodynamics were measured by CO2 rebreathing at rest and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of VO2 max. After placebo, cardiac output increased from 5.8 +/- 2.1 (rest), to 19.4 +/- 6.4 liters/min (100% VO2 max), mainly due to an increase in heart rate from 84 +/- 6 to 169 +/- 15 beats/min. Stroke volume increased from 70 +/- 27 (rest), to 137 +/- 65 ml (25% VO2 max), and then leveled off to 116 +/- 41 at 100% VO2 max. After both beta blockers, exercise cardiac output was maintained at 100% VO2 max: 20.1 +/- 9.3 liters/min with propranolol and 19.1 +/- 8.6 with dilevalol. However, a significant reduction versus placebo values was observed for cardiac output at 25% VO2 max, from 13.7 +/- 5.9 during placebo, to 9.4 +/- 2.5 during propranolol, and to 9.6 +/- 2.3 during dilevalol (both p less than 0.01 vs placebo). Maintenance of cardiac output with both beta blockers at higher levels of exercise came from an increased stroke volume (p less than 0.05 vs placebo), while heart rate (in beats/min) was greatly reduced (propranolol 61.6 +/- 9.4 rest, 90.1 +/- 10.7 at 100% VO2 max; dilevalol 70.8 +/- 6.4 rest, 99.2 +/- 11.8 at 100% VO2 max, p less than 0.01 vs placebo for each).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Medical Treatment of Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor characterized by upper limb action—postural tremor (PT)/kinetic tremor (KT). There are no specific neuropathological or biochemical abnormalities in ET. The disability is consequent to amplitude of KT, which may remain mild without handicap or may become disabling. The most effective drugs for sustained tremor control are propranolol and primidone. Symptomatic drug treatment must be individualized depending on the circumstances that provoke the tremor-related disability. Broad guidelines for treatment are discussed in this review. Patients may be treated intermittently only on stressful occasions with propranolol, clonazepam, or primidone monotherapy, or an alcoholic drink. Those with persistently disabling tremor need continued treatment. PMID:24812533

  16. Selective adrenergic beta-2-receptor blocking drug, ICI-118.551, is effective in essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J; Larsen, T A

    1986-07-01

    Eighteen patients with essential tremor were treated for 2 days with a non-selective adrenergic beta-blocking drug (dl-propranolol, 80 mg X 3), a beta-2-selective blocker (ICI-118.551, 50 mg X 3) and placebo (X 3) in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Postural hand tremor was recorded with an accelerometer before administration of the drugs and at the end of each treatment period. Compared with placebo, both the beta-blocking drugs caused a statistically significant decrease in tremor intensity and they possessed approximately similar antitremor potency. Subjective benefit was reported by 12 of the 18 patients receiving ICI-118.551, 13 when on propranolol and 3 when on placebo.

  17. Enantio-selective optrode for optical isomers of biologically active amines using a new lipophilic aromatic carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huarui; Uray, Georg; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents a method for optically sensing enantiomers (optical isomers) of biological amines such as norephedrine, and drugs such as the (Beta) -blocker propranolol. It is based on the use of a new lipophilic aromatic ammonium ion carrier (DODD) and a highly fluorescent lipophilic proton carrier (DZ 49) dissolved in a pvc membrane. Recognition of one of the enantiomers is accomplished by specific interaction of the amine with the optically active lipophilic substrate in a pvc membrane. The amine, which is present as an ammonium ion at physiological pH, is carried into the pvc membranes. Simultaneously, a proton is released from the proton carrier (a lipophilic xanthene dye) that thereby undergoes a change in both color and fluorescence intensity. The sensors respond to three analytes in the concentration range from 0.01 to 10 mM for propranolol, 0.3 to 100 mM for norephedrine, and 1 to 100 mM for 1-phenylethylamine. The selectivity coefficients (Kopt) are 0.8, 0.7, and 0.8 for propranolol, norephedrine,a nd 1-phenylethylamine, respectively. It is of potential utility for specifically recognizing one out of several isomers, in particular bioactive amines, where one form usually is active only. The carrier showed stronger affinity for compounds which contain naphthyl rather than phenyl substituents.

  18. Occurrence of betablockers in effluents of wastewater treatment plants from the Lyon area (France) and risk assessment for the downstream rivers.

    PubMed

    Miège, Cécile; Favier, Maxime; Brosse, Corinne; Canler, Jean-Pierre; Coquery, Marina

    2006-11-15

    Five betablockers (oxprenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, bisoprolol, betaxolol) were analysed in effluents collected over a 3-month period from wastewater treatment plants (WTP) from the Lyon area in France. The analytical protocol consisted of solid phase extraction of the dissolved aqueous phase on HLB cartridges and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS) after derivatization. Concentrations of metoprolol, propranolol and bisoprolol varied from 45 to 2838ng/L whereas oxprenolol and betaxolol were never detected in these effluent samples. A high variability of betablockers concentrations and fluxes was observed between WTP effluents and within each WTP over the time period studied. Considering a flux per person for a dry weather period, Fontaine plant was pointed out as the less efficient WTP, which might be explained by its type of treatment (biological aerated filters). But we need additional analysis of effluent and influent waters to confirm this hypothesis. A tentative approach of local environmental risk assessment of propranolol based on the calculation of PEC/PNEC (predicted environmental concentration/predicted non effect concentration) ratio approach lead us to conclude on a negligible risk for the downstream rivers (Rhône river at Ternay and Saône river at Couzon Mt d'Or).

  19. Trifluoperazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... anxiety, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, ulcers, or urinary problems; medications for seizures such as phenytoin (Dilantin); narcotic medications for pain; propranolol (Inderal); sedatives; ...

  20. Immediate drop on demand technology (I-DOT) coupled with mass spectrometry via an open port sampling interface.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Boeltz, Harry

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate and evaluate the analytical performance of coupling the immediate drop on demand technology to a mass spectrometer via the recently introduced open port sampling interface and ESI. Methodology & results: A maximum sample analysis throughput of 5 s per sample was demonstrated. Signal reproducibility was 10% or better as demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of propranolol and its stable isotope-labeled internal standard propranolol-d7. The ability of the system to multiply charge and analyze macromolecules was demonstrated using the protein cytochrome c. This immediate drop on demand technology/open port sampling interface/ESI-MS combination allowed for the quantitative analysis of relatively small mass analytes and was used for the identification of macromolecules like proteins.

  1. Lanthanide-cyclodextrin complexes as probes for elucidating optical purity by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.J.; Bogyo, M.S.; Lebeau, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    A multidentate ligand is bonded to cyclodextrins by the reaction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride with 6-mono- and 2-mono(ethylenediamine) derivatives of cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives enhances the enantiomeric resolution in the [sup 1]H NMR spectra of carbionoxamine maleate, doxylamine succinate, pheniramine maleate, propranolol hydrochloride, and tryptophan. The enhancement is more pronounced with the secondary derivative. The Dy(III)-induced shifts can be used to elucidate the geometry of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for complexes of aspartame, tryptophan, propranolol, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate with cyclodextrins, and the relative magnitudes of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. 37more » refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  2. Do imipramine and dihydroergosine possess two components - one stimulating 5-HT sub 1 and the other inhibiting 5-HT sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pericic, D.; Mueck-Seler, D.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms by which imipramine and dihydroergosine stimulate the 5-HT syndrome in rats and inhibit the head-twitch response in rats and mice were studied. Imipramine- and dihydroergosine-included stimulation of the 5-HT syndrome was inhibited stereoselectively by propranolol, a high affinity ligand for 5-HT{sub 1} receptor sites, but not by ritanserin, a specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist. (-) -Propranolol potentiated the inhibitory effect of imipramine, but not of dihydroergosine on the head-twitch response, while ritanserin was without effect. As expected, 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist, stimulated, and 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists CGS 12066B and 1-(trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) failed to stimulatemore » the 5-HT syndrome induced in rats by pargyline and 5-HTP administration. A higher dose of ritanserin inhibited the syndrome. While 8-OH-DPAT alone produced all behavioral components of the 5-HT syndrome, dihydroergosine or imipramine alone even at very high doses never produced tremor or a more intensive forepaw padding as seen when these drugs were given in combination with pargyline and 5-HTP. A single administration of (-)-propranolol also inhibited the head-twitch response. This effect lasted in mice longer that after ritanserin administration. In in vitro experiments dihydroergosine expressed approximately twenty-fold higher affinity for {sup 3}H-ketanserin binding sites than imipramine.« less

  3. Concurrent hyperthyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer: a fortuitous and ambiguous case report from a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Benjamin Momo; Dimala, Christian Akem; Bechem, Ndemazie Nkafu; Aroke, Desmond

    2016-07-26

    Concurrent thyroid cancer (TC) and hyperthyroidism (HT) is rare though increasingly being reported. HT due to TC is much rarer and more challenging especially in Africa where TC and HT have significant case fatality rates. We present a 37-year-old Cameroonian female who had been on irregular regimens of propranolol and digoxin as treatment for worsening palpitations for 12 months. She came to our district hospital for her propranolol medication refill. We fortuitously identified features of HT and found a left uninodular goiter with no cervical lymphadenopathy. She was referred for thyroid assessment which suggested primary HT and an enlarged heterogeneous left lobe with a well-defined homogenous solid mass. We restarted her on propranolol and referred her for a course of methimazole. At the referral hospital, she also underwent a left thyroid lobectomy. The resected lobe was sent for histopathology which revealed a neoplastic nodule with features suggestive of a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) causing HT. The patient's clinical progress postoperatively was good and there was regression of hyperthyroid symptoms. The historical, clinical, and laboratory findings were suggestive of HT due to PTC. A high index of suspicion, prompt referral and counter-referral lead to a positive outcome of such a rare case in a resource poor setting. We advocate for systematic and careful evaluation of all thyroid nodules.

  4. The effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline on inhibitory α- and β-adrenoceptors in the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Kosterlitz, H. W.; Lydon, R. J.; Watt, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    1. Two preparations, a segment of the ileum and the myenteric plexuslongitudinal muscle preparation, have been used for an analysis of the inhibitory effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline on the contractor responses of the longitudinal muscle to acetylcholine or to electrical, coaxial or field, stimulation. 2. Since the inhibitory effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline on the acetylcholine-induced contractions were not affected by phenoxybenzamine but were antagonized by propranolol, it is concluded that β-adrenoceptors are present on the muscle cells. 3. The responses to electrical stimulation were suppressed by adrenaline or noradrenaline but only partly inhibited by isoprenaline. Propranolol antagonized the effect of isoprenaline and, to some extent, that of noradrenaline, but scarcely affected the action of adrenaline. Phenoxybenzamine, on the other hand, antagonized most of the effect of adrenaline and, to some extent, that of noradrenaline; it usually potentiated the effect of isoprenaline. 4. The output of acetylcholine evoked by electrical stimulation was diminished by adrenaline or noradrenaline but was not affected by isoprenaline. The depressant effect on acetylcholine release was antagonized by phenoxybenzamine but not affected by propranolol; therefore these effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline are mediated by α-adrenoceptors. 5. It may be assumed that α-adrenoceptors in situ are stimulated mainly by circulating adrenaline and possibly noradrenaline and thus cause a prejunctional inhibition at the nerve-smooth muscle junction. PMID:5425280

  5. Adrenergic beta 2-selective blocker in isoprenaline-enhanced essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J

    1987-01-01

    A beta 2-selective adrenergic-receptor-blocking drug, ICI 118.551, 150 mg/day, prevented almost as effectively as the nonselective antagonist propranolol, 240 mg/day, the isoprenaline enhancement of essential tremor amplitude.

  6. Aerobic glycolysis during brain activation: adrenergic regulation and influence of norepinephrine on astrocytic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic glycolysis occurs during brain activation and is characterized by preferential up-regulation of glucose utilization compared with oxygen consumption even though oxygen level and delivery are adequate. Aerobic glycolysis is a widespread phenomenon that underlies energetics of diverse brain activities, such as alerting, sensory processing, cognition, memory, and pathophysiological conditions, but specific cellular functions fulfilled by aerobic glycolysis are poorly understood. Evaluation of evidence derived from different disciplines reveals that aerobic glycolysis is a complex, regulated phenomenon that is prevented by propranolol, a non-specific β-adrenoceptor antagonist. The metabolic pathways that contribute to excess utilization of glucose compared with oxygen include glycolysis, the pentose phosphate shunt pathway, the malate-aspartate shuttle, and astrocytic glycogen turnover. Increased lactate production by unidentified cells, and lactate dispersal from activated cells and lactate release from the brain, both facilitated by astrocytes, are major factors underlying aerobic glycolysis in subjects with low blood lactate levels. Astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling with local oxidation is minor. Blockade of aerobic glycolysis by propranolol implicates adrenergic regulatory processes including adrenal release of epinephrine, signaling to brain via the vagus nerve, and increased norepinephrine release from the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine has a powerful influence on astrocytic metabolism and glycogen turnover that can stimulate carbohydrate utilization more than oxygen consumption, whereas β-receptor blockade 're-balances' the stoichiometry of oxygen-glucose or -carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing glucose and glycogen utilization more than oxygen consumption. This conceptual framework may be helpful for design of future studies to elucidate functional roles of preferential non-oxidative glucose utilization and glycogen turnover during brain

  7. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20 W/min). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or saline (Control). The sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities. The sweat rate at the Propranolol site was lower than the control during exercise at 80 (0.57 ± 0.21 and 0.45 ± 0.19 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for Control and Propranolol, respectively) and 90% (0.74 ± 0.22 and 0.65 ± 0.17 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) of maximum workload in trained males (all P < 0.05). By contrast, no between-site differences in sweat rates were observed in untrained counterparts (all P > 0.05). At the same absolute intensity, higher sweat rates on the control site were observed in trained males relative to the untrained during exercise at 160 (0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.04 ± 0.05 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for trained and untrained, respectively) and 180 W (0.40 ± 0.20 and 0.13 ± 0.13 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) (all P < 0.05), whereas this between-group difference was not observed at the Propranolol site (all P > 0.05). We show that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity in habitually trained males. The β-adrenergic mechanism may in part contribute to the greater sweat production in habitually trained males than in untrained counterparts during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated for the first time that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating (i.e., β-adrenergic sweating) during exercise using a localized

  8. Involvement of noradrenergic and corticoid receptors in the consolidation of the lasting anxiogenic effects of predator stress.

    PubMed

    Adamec, R; Muir, C; Grimes, M; Pearcey, K

    2007-05-16

    The roles of beta-NER (beta-noradrenergic receptor), GR (glucocorticoid) and mineral corticoid receptors (MR) in the consolidation of anxiogenic effects of predator stress were studied. One minute after predator stress, different groups of rats were injected (ip) with vehicle, propranolol (beta-NER blocker, 5 and 10 mg/kg), mifepristone (RU486, GR blocker, 20 mg/kg), spironolactone (MR blocker, 50 mg/kg), propranolol (5 mg/kg) plus RU486 (20 mg/kg) or the anxiolytic, chloradiazepoxide (CPZ, 10 mg/kg). One week later, rodent anxiety was assessed in elevated plus maze, hole board, light/dark box, social interaction and acoustic startle. Considering all tests except startle, propranolol dose dependently blocked consolidation of lasting anxiogenic effects of predator stress in all tests. GR receptor block alone was ineffective. However, GR block in combination with an ineffective dose of propranolol did blocked consolidation of predator stress effects in all tests, suggesting a synergism between beta-NER and GR. Surprisingly, MR block prevented consolidation of anxiogenic effects in all tests except the light/dark box. CPZ post stress was ineffective against the anxiogenic impact of predator stress. Study of startle was complicated by the fact that anxiogenic effects of stress on startle amplitude manifested as both an increase and a decrease in startle amplitude. Suppression of startle occurred in stressed plus vehicle injected groups handled three times prior to predator stress. In contrast, stressed plus vehicle rats handled five times prior to predator stress showed increases in startle, as did all predator stressed only groups. Mechanisms of consolidation of the different startle responses appear to differ. CPZ post stress blocked startle suppression but not enhancement of startle. Propranolol post stress had no effect on either suppression or enhancement of startle. GR block alone post stress prevented suppression of startle, but not enhancement. In contrast

  9. Influence of central venous pressure upon sinus node responses to arterial baroreflex stimulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, A. L.; Takeshita, A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Abboud, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were made of sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation with phenylephrine injection or neck suction, before and during changes of central venous pressure provoked by lower body negative pressure or leg and lower truck elevation. Variations of central venous pressure between 1.1 and 9.0 mm Hg did not influence arterial baroreflex mediated bradycardia. Baroreflex sinus node responses were augmented by intravenous propranolol, but the level of responses after propranolol was comparable during the control state, lower body negative pressure, and leg and trunk elevation. Sinus node responses to very brief baroreceptor stimuli applied during the transitions of central venous pressure also were comparable in the three states. The authors conclude that physiological variations of central venous pressure do not influence sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation in man.

  10. Aldesleukin

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that has spread to other parts of your ... Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal); certain cancer ... and internal organs), thyroid disease, arthritis, diabetes, myasthenia ...

  11. Using chiral liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface and wastewater at the enantiomeric level.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, J P; Evans, S E; Wort, M T; Lubben, A T; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B

    2012-08-03

    This paper presents and compares for the first time two chiral LC-QTOF-MS methodologies (utilising CBH and Chirobiotic V columns with cellobiohydrolase and vancomycin as chiral selectors) for the quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine), MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, fluoxetine and venlafaxine in river water and sewage effluent. The lowest MDLs (0.3-5.0 ng L(-1) and 1.3-15.1 ng L(-1) for river water and sewage effluent respectively) were observed using the chiral column Chirobiotic V. This is with the exception of methamphetamine and MDMA which had lower MDLs using the CBH column. However, the CBH column resulted in better resolution of enantiomers (R(s)=2.5 for amphetamine compared with R(s)=1.2 with Chirobiotic V). Method recovery rates were typically >80% for both methodologies. Pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs detected and quantified in environmental samples were successfully identified using MS/MS confirmation. In sewage effluent, the total beta-blocker concentrations of propranolol, atenolol and metoprolol were on average 77.0, 1091.0 and 3.6 ng L(-1) thus having EFs (Enantiomeric Fractions) of 0.43, 0.55 and 0.54 respectively. In river water, total propranolol and atenolol was quantified on average at <10.0 ng L(-1). Differences in EF between sewage and river water matrices were evident: venlafaxine was observed with respective EF of 0.43 ± 0.02 and 0.58 ± 0.02. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in the medial prefrontal cortex during aversive and incidental taste memory formation.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, J; Nuñez-Jaramillo, L; Morán-Guel, E; Miranda, M I

    2010-08-11

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain area crucial for memory, attention, and decision making. Specifically, the noradrenergic system in this cortex is involved in aversive learning, as well as in the retrieval of these memories. Some evidence suggests that this area has an important role during taste memory, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a model of aversive memory. Despite some previous evidence, there is scarce information about the role of adrenergic receptors in the mPFC during formation of aversive taste memory and appetitive/incidental taste memory. The goal of this research was to evaluate the role of mPFC beta-adrenergic receptors during CTA acquisition/consolidation or CTA retrieval, as well as during incidental taste memory formation using the model of latent inhibition of CTA. The results showed that infusions in the mPFC of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol before CTA acquisition impaired both short- and long-term aversive taste memory formation, and also that propranolol infusions before the memory test impaired CTA retrieval. However, propranolol infusions before pre-exposure to the taste during the latent inhibition procedure had no effect on incidental taste memory acquisition or consolidation. These data indicate that beta-adrenergic receptors in the mPFC have different functions during taste memory formation: they have an important role during aversive taste association as well as during aversive retrieval but not during incidental taste memory formation. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unconditioned- and Conditioned- Stimuli Induce Differential Memory Reconsolidation and β-AR-Dependent CREB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bing; Zhu, Huiwen; Zhou, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Ma, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated long-term fear memories become labile and reconsolidated upon retrieval by the presentation of conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US). Whether CS-retrieval or US-retrieval will trigger different memory reconsolidation processes is unknown. In this study, we introduced a sequential fear conditioning paradigm in which footshock (FS) was paired with two distinct sounds (CS-A and CS-B). The treatment with propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist, after US (FS)-retrieval impaired freezing behavior evoked by either CS-A or CS-B. Betaxolol, a selective β1-AR antagonist, showed similar effects. However, propranolol treatment after retrieval by one CS (e.g., CS-A) only inhibited freezing behavior evoked by the same CS (i.e., CS-A), not the other CS (CS-B). These data suggest that β-AR is critically involved in reconsolidation of fear memory triggered by US- and CS-retrieval, whereas β-AR blockade after US-retrieval disrupts more CS-US associations than CS-retrieval does. Furthermore, significant CREB activation in almost the whole amygdala and hippocampus was observed after US-retrieval, but CS-retrieval only stimulated CREB activation in the lateral amygdala and the CA3 of hippocampus. In addition, propranolol treatment suppressed memory retrieval-induced CREB activation. These data indicate that US-retrieval activates more memory traces than CS-retrieval does, leading to memory reconsolidation of more CS-US associations. PMID:28848401

  14. Persistence and partitioning of eight selected pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: laboratory photolysis, biodegradation, and sorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yudai; Moriguchi, Shigemi; Nakamura, Yuki; Honda, Yuta; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Akihide; Sekizawa, Jun

    2009-02-01

    We selected eight pharmaceuticals with relatively high potential ecological risk and high consumption-namely, acetaminophen, atenolol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, ifenprodil, indomethacin, mefenamic acid, and propranolol-and conducted laboratory experiments to examine the persistence and partitioning of these compounds in the aquatic environment. In the results of batch sunlight photolysis experiments, three out of eight pharmaceuticals-propranolol, indomethacin, and ifenprodil-were relatively easily photodegraded (i.e., half-life<24h), whereas the other five pharmaceuticals were relatively stable against sunlight. The results of batch biodegradation experiments using river water suggested relatively slow biodegradation (i.e., half-life>24h) for all eight pharmaceuticals, but the rate constant was dependent on sampling site and time. Batch sorption experiments were also conducted to determine the sorption coefficients to river sediments and a model soil sample. The determined coefficients (K(d) values) were much higher for three amines (atenolol, ifenprodil, and propranolol) than for neutral compounds or carboxylic acids; the K(d) values of the amines were comparable to those of a four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene. The coefficients were also higher for sediment/soil with higher organic content, and the organic carbon-based sorption coefficient (logK(oc)) showed a poor linear correlation with the octanol-water distribution coefficient (logD(ow)) at neutral pH. These results suggest other sorption mechanisms-such as electrochemical affinity, in addition to hydrophobic interaction-play an important role in sorption to sediment/soil at neutral pH.

  15. Regulation of pumping function of the heart in developing body under changing regimens of motor activity.

    PubMed

    Vafina, E Z; Abzalov, R A; Abzalov, N I; Nikitin, A S; Gulyakov, A A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed parameters of the pumping function of the heart in rats subjected to enhanced motor activity after a preliminary 70-day hypokinesia under conditions of α- and β-adrenergic receptor stimulation with norepinephrine followed by blockade of β-adrenergic receptor with propranolol (obsidian) and α1-adrenergic receptors with doxazosin. After norepinephrine administration, the HR and cardiac output were higher in rats with enhanced physical activity after preliminary hypokinesia than in rats with low physical activity. After propranolol administration, stroke volume and cardiac output in 100-day-old rats with limited activity were lower, and HR higher was than in rats with enhanced physical activity after preliminary 70-day hypokinesia. After administration of doxazosin, rats with limited motor activity demonstrated more pronounced changes in HR than rats with enhanced physical activity after preliminary 70-day hypokinesia.

  16. Hemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin, and aldosterone in man after 5 to 14 days of bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melada, G. A.; Goldman, R. H.; Luetscher, J. A.; Zager, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous bedrest for 5 to 14 days had no significant effect on resting heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac output in six normal men. Head-up tilt induced greater tachycardia in 5 of 6 patients after bed rest than in the control period. Propranolol diminished both tachycardia and the incidence of hypotension and faintness in upright posture. Plasma volume fell, extracellular fluid volume increased, and plasma renin activity was significantly elevated following bedrest. Unusually large increases in plasma renin followed head-up tilt or administration of isoproterenol during bedrest and after resuming normal activity. During bedrest, plasma aldosterone was often increased in the early morning. It is concluded that after bedrest, upright posture evokes strong beta-adrenergic activity as well as exaggerated metabolic and circulatory responses which can be reduced or abolished by the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol.

  17. Unreported Medications Used in Incapacitating Medical Conditions Found in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Carbamazepine 62 = Verapamil 21 = Diazepam 13 = Lidocaine 96 = Fluoxetine 72 = Propranolol 113 = Trazodone 30 = Metoprolol 116 = Sertraline 41 = Procainamid...examined by an aviation medi- Lopressor ( Metoprolol ) for the treatment of high cal examiner, the majority of the cardiovascular drugs blood pressure. In

  18. AGONIST-MEDIATED AIRWAY CHALLENGE: CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTIONS MODULATE GAS EXCHANGE AND RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    To better understand the early phase response (0-60 minutes) to airway challenge, we examined cardiopulmonary reactions during ovalbumin (OVA), histamine, and methacholine aerosol challenge tests in guinea pigs. Propranolol and 100% O2 were used to modify the reacti...

  19. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of poly(vinyl acetate) based floating matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Strübing, Sandra; Metz, Hendrik; Mäder, Karsten

    2008-03-03

    Floating Kollidon SR matrix tablets containing Propranolol HCl were developed and characterized with respect to drug release characteristics and floating strength. Kollidon SR was able to delay Propranolol HCl release efficiently. Drug release kinetics was evaluated using the Korsmeyer-Peppas model and found to be governed by Fickian diffusion. Tablet floating started immediately and continued for 24 h. It was possible to monitor the floating strength of the matrix devices using a simple experimental setup. Floating strength was related to Kollidon SR level with improved floating characteristics for samples with a high polymer/drug ratio. Swelling characteristics of the tablets were analyzed by applying the equation according to Therien-Aubin et al. The influence of the polymer content on swelling characteristics was found to be only marginal. Furthermore, the new method of benchtop MRI was introduced to study the water diffusion and swelling behaviour non-invasively and continuously.

  1. Peripheral nervous control of cold-induced reduction in the respiratory quotient of the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    1990-03-01

    Cold-exposed rats show a reduction in the respiratory quotient which is indicative of a relative shift from carbohydrates to lipids as substrates for oxidative metabolism. In the present study, the effects of food deprivation and cold exposure on the respiratory quotient were observed. In addition, the involvement of the three main branches of the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic) was investigated by means of synaptic blockade with propranolol, atropine, and quinine, respectively. Both propranolol and quinine blocked the cold-induced decrease in respiratory quotient and increase in heat production, whereas atropine had only minor and very brief effects. It is concluded that both the sympathetic and somatic branches are involved in the metabolic changes associated with cold-induced thermogenesis and that the increase in metabolic heat production involves a shift from carbohydrate to lipid utilization irrespective of which of the two branches is activated.

  2. The influence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and beta-1 receptor selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling in normotensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Lenders, J W; Salemans, J; de Boo, T; Lemmens, W A; Thien, T; van't Laar, A

    1986-03-01

    A double-blind randomized study was designed to investigate differences in the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling during dosing with placebo or one of four beta-blockers: propranolol, atenolol, pindolol, and acebutolol. In 11 normotensive nonsmoking subjects, finger skin temperature was measured with a thermocouple before and 20 minutes after immersion of one hand in a water bath at 16 degrees C. This finger cooling test caused no significant changes in systemic hemodynamics such as arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow. The recovery of finger skin temperature during propranolol dosing was better than that during pindolol and atenolol dosing. There were no differences between the recoveries of skin temperature during pindolol, atenolol, and acebutolol dosing. Thus we could demonstrate no favorable effect of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity or beta 1-selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling.

  3. Optimizing catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia therapy in calsequestrin-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Guy; Khoury, Assad; Kurtzwald, Efrat; Hochhauser, Edith; Porat, Eyal; Shainberg, Asher; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Lorber, Abraham; Eldar, Michael; Arad, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal arrhythmia provoked by physical or emotional stress and mediated by spontaneous Ca2+ release and delayed after-depolarizations. Beta-adrenergic blockers are the therapy of choice but fail to control arrhythmia in up to 50% of patients. OBJECTIVE To optimize antiarrhythmic therapy in recessively inherited CPVT caused by calsequestrin (CASQ2) mutations. METHODS Murine heart rhythm telemetry was obtained at rest, during treadmill exercise, and after injection of epinephrine. The protocol was repeated after injection of different antiarrhythmic drugs. Results were then validated in human patients. RESULTS Adult CASQ2 mutant mice had complex ventricular arrhythmia at rest and developed bidirectional and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia on exertion. Class I antiarrhythmic agents (procainamide, lidocaine, flecainide) were ineffective in controlling arrhythmia. Propranolol and sotalol attenuated arrhythmia at rest but failed to prevent VT during sympathetic stimulation. The calcium channel blocker verapamil showed a dose-dependent protection against CPVT. Verapamil was more effective than the dihydropyridine L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and its activity was markedly enhanced when combined with propranolol. Human patients homozygous for CASQ2D307H mutation, remaining symptomatic despite chronic β-blocker therapy, underwent exercise testing according to the Bruce protocol with continuous electrocardiogram recording. Verapamil was combined with propranolol at maximum tolerated doses. Adding verapamil attenuated ventricular arrhythmia and prolonged exercise duration in five of 11 patients. CONCLUSION Verapamil is highly effective against catecholamine-induced arrhythmia in mice with CASQ2 mutations and may potentiate the antiarrhythmic activity of β-blockers in humans with CPVT2. PMID:20620233

  4. β-adrenergic blockade does not impair the skin blood flow sensitivity to local heating in burned and non-burned skin under neutral and hot environments in children

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Eric; McEntire, Serina J.; Herndon, David N.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. Methods In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to 8 burned children while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean ± SD: 11.9±3y, 147±20cm, 45±23kg, 56±12% TBSA). Non-burned children (n=13, 11.4±3y, 152±15cm, 52±13kg) served as healthy controls. A progressive local heating protocol characterized SkBF responses in burned and unburned skin and non-burned control skin under the two environmental conditions (23°C and 34°C) via laser-Doppler flowmetry. Results Resting SkBF was greater in burned and unburned skin compared to the non-burned control (main effect: skin, P<0.0001; 57±32 burned; 38±36 unburned vs 9±8 control %SkBFmax). No difference was found for maximal SkBF capacity to local heating between groups. Additionally, dose response curves for the sensitivity of SkBF to local heating were not different among burned or unburned skin, and non-burned control skin (EC50, P>0.05) under either condition. Conclusion Therapeutic propranolol does not negatively affect SkBF under neutral or hot environmental conditions and further compromise temperature regulation in burned children. PMID:28071840

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed

    2014-03-01

    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  6. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the resting tachycardia of human hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Maciel, B C; Gallo, L; Marin Neto, J A; Maciel, L M; Alves, M L; Paccola, G M; Iazigi, N

    1987-02-01

    The mechanisms that control resting heart rate in hyperthyroidism were evaluated in six patients before and after treatment with propylthiouracil. The patients were subjected to pharmacological blockade under resting conditions in two experimental sessions: first session, propranolol (0.2 mg/kg body weight); second session, atropine (0.04 mg/kg body weight) followed by propranolol (0.2 mg/kg body weight). All drugs were administered intravenously. Resting heart rate was significantly reduced from 100 +/- 6.5 beats/min to 72 +/- 2.5 beats/min (P less than 0.005) after clinical and laboratory control of the disease. After double blockade, intrinsic heart rate was reduced from 105 +/- 6.8 beats/min before treatment to 98 +/- 6.0 beats/min after treatment (P less than 0.025). The reduction in heart rate caused by propranolol was not significantly different before (-13 +/- 1.4 beats/min) and after (-9 +/- 1.0 beats/min) propylthiouracil. In contrast, atropine induced a higher elevation of heart rate after treatment (45 +/- 8.6 beats/min) than before treatment (26 +/- 4.0 beats/min). The present results suggest no appreciable participation of the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system in the tachycardia of hyperthyroidism, at least under the conditions of the present study. The small change observed in intrinsic heart rate, although significant, seems to indicate that this is not the most important mechanism involved in this tachycardia. Our results suggest that an important reduction in the efferent activity of the parasympathetic component participates in the mechanisms that modify resting heart rte in hyperthyroidism.

  7. β-Adrenergic blockade does not impair the skin blood flow sensitivity to local heating in burned and nonburned skin under neutral and hot environments in children.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Eric; McEntire, Serina J; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to eight burned children, while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean±SD: 11.9±3 years, 147±20 cm, 45±23 kg, 56±12% Total body surface area burned). Nonburned children (n=13, 11.4±3 years, 152±15 cm, 52±13 kg) served as healthy controls. A progressive local heating protocol characterized SkBF responses in burned and unburned skin and nonburned control skin under the two environmental conditions (23 and 34°C) via laser Doppler flowmetry. Resting SkBF was greater in burned and unburned skin compared to the nonburned control (main effect: skin, P<.0001; 57±32 burned; 38±36 unburned vs 9±8 control %SkBF max ). No difference was found for maximal SkBF capacity to local heating between groups. Additionally, dose-response curves for the sensitivity of SkBF to local heating were not different among burned or unburned skin, and nonburned control skin (EC 50 , P>.05) under either condition. Therapeutic propranolol does not negatively affect SkBF under neutral or hot environmental conditions and further compromise temperature regulation in burned children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Use of liothyronine without levothyroxine in the treatment of mild consumptive hypothyroidism caused by hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Shinji; Takagi, Masaki; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-06-29

    There have been reports of the use of levothyroxine or levothyroxine plus liothyronine for consumptive hypothyroidism caused by hepatic hemangiomas. Administration of levothyroxine without liothyronine can be inadequate to maintain normal levels of both free T3 and free T4 in some patients. However, there is no report of treatment with liothyronine plus propranolol. We herein present a case in which we used liothyronine therapy for multifocal hepatic hemangiomas in a Japanese patient with low free T3 and normal free T4 levels. A 2-month-old Japanese male was referred to our hospital because of jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography showed multifocal hemangiomas in both lobes of the liver. TSH level was elevated, free T3 level was low, free T4 level was normal, and hypothyroidism due to hepatic hemangiomas was diagnosed. In addition to propranolol, liothyronine was started. We used liothyronine without levothyroxine for hypothyroidism because only free T3 level had decreased, whereas free T4 level remained in the normal range. The TSH and free T3 levels normalized in this patient in less than 1 month. The liothyronine dose was gradually reduced with regression of the hemangiomas, and liothyronine administration was discontinued at the age of 5 months. At the age of 11 months, growth and neurological development of the patient met age-specific norms, and he was euthyroid at that time. This is the first report demonstrating the use of liothyronine with propranolol for treatment of this type of consumptive hypothyroidism.

  9. Adrenergic Dysregulation and Pain With and Without Acute Beta-blockade in Women with Fibromyalgia and Temporomandibular Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Light, Kathleen C.; Bragdon, Edith E.; Grewen, Karen M.; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Girdler, Susan S.; Maixner, William

    2009-01-01

    In patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), stress and pain may chronically enhance sympathetic activity, altering cardiovascular responses and worsening pain. This study examined cardiovascular, epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol and clinical pain responses in 54 female patients with these disorders and 34 controls. In a subsample of 10 FMS, 10 TMD patients and 16 controls, using a counterbalanced, double-blind, cross-over design, the same responses were assessed after intravenous administration of low dose propranolol vs. placebo. Testing included baseline, postural, speech and ischemic pain stressors. FMS patients showed lesser heart rate (HR) increases to posture challenge but greater blood pressure (BP) increases to postural and speech tasks than Controls, as well as higher overall BP and greater total vascular resistance (TVR) than TMDs or Controls. TMDs showed higher overall cardiac output and lower TVR than Controls. Both FMS and TMD groups showed lower baseline NE than Controls, and TMDs showed lower overall EPI and NE levels. Group differences in HR, EPI and NE were abolished after propranolol although BP, CO and TVR differences persisted. In both FMS and TMD, number of painful body sites and ratings of total clinical pain obtained 4 times during each session were significantly lower after beta-blockade vs. placebo. Perspective These findings support the hypothesis that both FMS and TMD may frequently involve dysregulation of beta-adrenergic activity that contributes to altered cardiovascular and catecholamine responses and to severity of clinical pain. Acute treatment with low dose propranolol led to short-term improvement in all these domains. PMID:19411061

  10. Reconsolidation of Appetitive Memories for Both Natural and Drug Reinforcement Is Dependent on [beta]-Adrenergic Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Amy L.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the neurochemical mechanisms of memory reconsolidation and, in particular, the functional requirement for intracellular mechanisms initiated by [beta]-adrenergic signaling. We show that propranolol, given in conjunction with a memory reactivation session, can specifically disrupt the conditioned reinforcing properties of a…

  11. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  12. Non-covalent interactions of a drug molecule encapsulated in a hybrid silica gel.

    PubMed

    Paul, Geo; Steuernagel, Stefan; Koller, Hubert

    2007-12-28

    The drug molecule Propranolol has been encapsulated by a sol-gel process in an organic-inorganic hybrid matrix by in-situ self-assembly; the 2D HETCOR solid state NMR spectroscopy provides direct proof of the intimate spatial relationship between the host matrix and guest drug molecules.

  13. In Search for Boundary Conditions of Reconsolidation: A Failure of Fear Memory Interference

    PubMed Central

    Schroyens, Natalie; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2017-01-01

    The presentation of a fear memory cue can result in mere memory retrieval, destabilization of the reactivated memory trace, or the formation of an extinction memory. The interaction between the degree of novelty during reactivation and previous learning conditions is thought to determine the outcome of a reactivation session. This study aimed to evaluate whether contextual novelty can prevent cue-induced destabilization and disruption of a fear memory acquired by non-asymptotic learning. To this end, fear memory was reactivated in a novel context or in the original context of learning, and fear memory reactivation was followed by the administration of propranolol, an amnestic drug. Remarkably, fear memory was not impaired by post-reactivation propranolol administration or extinction training under the usual conditions used in our lab, irrespective of the reactivation context. These unexpected findings are discussed in the light of our current experimental parameters and alleged boundary conditions on memory destabilization. PMID:28469565

  14. Interaction of mianserin and some hypotensive drugs in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Górska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Mianserin is thought to exert little effect on the cardiovascular system. In fact its safety in comparison with tricyclic drugs is high. Various experiments gave varying results as for the influence of the drug on arterial blood pressure in people and animals. Therefore, a study was undertaken in Wistar rats to evaluate interactions of mianserin administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, and for 21 days with 3 hypotensive drugs showing different mechanism of action (propranolol, enalapril, prazosine). The systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure was measured with a LETICA apparatus. The results of the study revealed that administration of mianserin in normotensive rats leads to a short-term decrease in blood pressure and significantly enhanced the hypotensive effect of prazosine. Repeated doses of mianserin lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure after 2 weeks of administration. Single and repeated administration of mianserin did not change the hypotensive effect of propranolol and enalapril. Three-week therapy with mianserin significantly enhanced the hypotensive effect of prazosine.

  15. Pharmacological Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment by a Mechanism Dependent on Nicotinic Receptor and the Spleen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rangel L; Castanheira, Fernanda V; Figueiredo, Jozi G; Bassi, Gabriel S; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of beta-adrenergic receptor activation on neutrophil migration in experimental peritonitis elucidating the neuroimmune components involved such as nicotinic receptors and the spleen. Mice pre-treated with mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist) and propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) or splenectomized animals were treated with isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) prior to intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan. After 4 h, the infiltrating neutrophils and the local cytokine/chemokine levels were evaluated in the peritoneal lavage. The effect of isoproterenol on neutrophil chemotaxis was investigated in a Boyden chamber. Isoproterenol inhibited neutrophil trafficking, reducing the cytokine/chemokine release and neutrophil chemotaxis. Surprisingly, the isoproterenol effect on neutrophil migration was totally reverted by splenectomy and mecamylamine pre-treatment. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of nicotine on neutrophil migration was abrogated only by splenectomy but not by propranolol pre-treatment. Collectively, our data show that beta-adrenergic receptor activation regulates the acute neutrophil recruitment via splenic nicotinic receptor.

  16. Thin Layer Chromatographic Resolution of Some β-adrenolytics and a β2-Agonist Using Bovine Serum Albumin as Chiral Additive in Stationary Phase.

    PubMed

    Malik, Poonam; Bhushan, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Direct enantiomeric resolution of commonly used five racemic β-adrenolytics, namely, bisoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, salbutamol and carvedilol has been achieved by thin layer chromatography using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as chiral additive in stationary phase. Successful resolution of the enantiomers of all racemic β-adrenolytics was achieved by use of different composition of simple organic solvents having no buffer or inorganic ions. The effect of variation in pH, temperature, amount of BSA as the additive, and composition of mobile phase on resolution was systematically studied. Spots were visualized in iodine vapors. Native enantiomers for each of the five analytes were isolated and identified and their elution order was determined. The limit of detection was found to be 0.7, 1.2, 0.84, 1.6 and 0.9 μg (per spot) for each enantiomer of bisoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, salbutamol and carvedilol, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  18. The beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation induced by fenoterol in guinea pig taenia caecum.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yurie; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yoshio; Koike, Katsuo

    2002-10-01

    Fenoterol, a beta2-adrenoceptor selective agonist, belongs to the arylethanolamine class. To understand the receptor subtypes responsible for beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of guinea pig taenia caecum, we investigated the effect of fenoterol. Fenoterol caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the guinea pig taenia caecum. Propranolol, bupranolol and butoxamine produced shifts of the concentration-response curve for fenoterol. Schild regression analyses carried out for propranolol, butoxamine and bupranolol against fenoterol gave pA2 values of 8.41, 6.33 and 8.44, respectively. However, in the presence of 3 x 10(-4) M atenolol, 10(-4) M butoxamine and 10(-6) M phentolamine to block the beta1-, beta2- and a-adrenoceptor effects, respectively, Schild regression analysis carried out for bupranolol against fenoterol gave pA2 values of 5.80. These results suggest that the relaxant response to fenoterol in the guinea pig taenia caecum is mediated by both the beta2- and the beta3-adrenoceptors.

  19. Refractory case of adrenergic urticaria successfully treated with clotiazepam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yukari; Gokita, Mari; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nishigori, Chikako

    2015-06-01

    Adrenergic urticaria (AU) is a rare type of stress-induced physical urticaria characterized by widespread pruritic urticarial papules. Diagnosis can be made by i.d. injection of adrenaline or noradrenaline, which produces the characteristic rash. Although the lesions of AU typically respond to beta-blockers such as propranolol, the therapeutic options for AU are limited. Here, we report a case of AU that was resistant to beta-blockers and successfully treated with clotiazepam. The clinical picture of AU resembles that of cholinergic urticaria (CU), however, positive noradrenaline test and negative acetylcholine skin test were useful for the differential diagnosis of AU and CU. Although his symptoms were resistant to several therapeutic methods including olopatadine (H1 antagonist), lafutidine (H2 antagonist) and propranolol, the severity and frequency of his attacks and his subjective symptoms were reduced by oral clotiazepam, an anxiolytic benzodiazepine. Dermatologists should be aware that anxiolytic benzodiazepines may be a therapeutic option in AU. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Therapeutic effects of arotinolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, on tremor in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kuno, S; Mizuta, E; Nishida, J; Takechi, M

    1992-10-01

    The effect of arotinolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, on postural or kinetic tremor was studied in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated with three injections of MPTP hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) at an interval of 3-4 days, followed by several injections of the same dose every 7 days. Four monkeys with persistent parkinsonian symptoms manifested for greater than 1 year were used. The animals developed mild to moderate degrees of postural or kinetic tremor, and their motor activity was reduced. Arotinolol (20-30 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly suppressed postural tremor in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (20-30 mg/kg) was also effective in suppressing the tremor. However, the application of propranolol induced emesis, whereas arotinolol had no adverse effects. These results suggest that arotinolol is a useful adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  1. Beta-blockers in the environment: part II. Ecotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Stolte, Stefan; Kumirska, Jolanta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Mioduszewska, Katarzyna; Puckowski, Alan; Caban, Magda; Wagil, Marta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The increasing consumption of beta-blockers (BB) has caused their presence in the environment to become more noticeable. Even though BB are safe for human and veterinary usage, ecosystems may be exposed to these substances. In this study, three selected BB: propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol were subjected to ecotoxicity study. Ecotoxicity evaluation was based on a flexible ecotoxicological test battery including organisms, representing different trophic levels and complexity: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil/sediment bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). All the ecotoxicological studies were supported by instrumental analysis to measure deviation between nominal and real test concentrations. Based on toxicological data from the green algae test (S. vacuolatus) propranolol and metoprolol can be considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms. However, sorption explicitly inhibits the hazardous effects of BB, therefore the risks posed by these compounds for the environment are of minor importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryogelation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles: a macroporous structure as affinity chromatography column for removal of β-blockers from complex samples.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Solmaz; Xu, Changgang; Kirsebom, Harald; Ye, Lei; Mattiasson, Bo

    2013-01-25

    In this work, a new macroporous molecularly imprinted cryogel (MIP composite cryogel) was synthesized by glutaraldehyde cross-linking reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles and amino-modified molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles. The MIP core-shell nanoparticles were prepared using propranolol as a template by one-pot precipitation polymerization with sequential monomer addition. The characteristics of the MIP composite cryogel were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and texture analyzer. The macroporous structure of the composite (with the pore size varying from a few micrometers to 100 μm) enabled high mass transfer of particulate-containing fluids. In a solid phase extraction (SPE) process, the efficiency and selectivity of the MIP composite cryogel were investigated, where the cryogel was used as an affinity matrix to remove propranolol from aqueous solution as well as from complex plasma sample without prior protein precipitation. The MIP composite cryogel maintained high selectivity and stability and could be used repeatedly after regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of propranolol’s selective effect on loss aversion

    PubMed Central

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F.; Tobe, Russell H.; Camerer, Colin F.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on emotion and decision-making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions (e.g., Bechara et al., 1997), but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. Here, we used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk sensitivity and choice consistency to risky decision-making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention’s pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision-making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e. as a function of initial loss aversion and body-mass index), and did not affect risk sensitivity or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of both emotion and risky decision-making. PMID:26063441

  4. Measurement and Regulation of Central Noradrenergic Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    reduction in swimming ( Armario et al., 1991). Propranolol and betaxolol when given alone both produced a similar reduction in acitivity and when given with...19:74, 1993. Literature cited in report Armario , A., Gil, %., Marti, J., Pol, 0. and Balasch, J. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 39:373-377, 1991. Blanchard

  5. Myelo-erythroid commitment after burn injury is under β-adrenergic control via MafB regulation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shirin; Johnson, Nicholas B; Mosier, Michael J; Shankar, Ravi; Conrad, Peggie; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Muthumalaiappan, Kuzhali

    2017-03-01

    Severely injured burn patients receive multiple blood transfusions for anemia of critical illness despite the adverse consequences. One limiting factor to consider alternate treatment strategies is the lack of a reliable test platform to study molecular mechanisms of impaired erythropoiesis. This study illustrates how conditions resulting in a high catecholamine microenvironment such as burns can instigate myelo-erythroid reprioritization influenced by β-adrenergic stimulation leading to anemia. In a mouse model of scald burn injury, we observed, along with a threefold increase in bone marrow LSK cells (lin neg Sca1 + cKit + ), that the myeloid shift is accompanied with a significant reduction in megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs). β-Blocker administration (propranolol) for 6 days after burn, not only reduced the number of LSKs and MafB + cells in multipotent progenitors, but also influenced myelo-erythroid bifurcation by increasing the MEPs and reducing the granulocyte monocyte progenitors in the bone marrow of burn mice. Furthermore, similar results were observed in burn patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived ex vivo culture system, demonstrating that commitment stage of erythropoiesis is impaired in burn patients and intervention with propranolol (nonselective β1,2-adrenergic blocker) increases MEPs. Also, MafB + cells that were significantly increased following standard burn care could be mitigated when propranolol was administered to burn patients, establishing the mechanistic regulation of erythroid commitment by myeloid regulatory transcription factor MafB. Overall, results demonstrate that β-adrenergic blockers following burn injury can redirect the hematopoietic commitment toward erythroid lineage by lowering MafB expression in multipotent progenitors and be of potential therapeutic value to increase erythropoietin responsiveness in burn patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Norepinephrine and Learning-Induced Plasticity in Infant Rat Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Regina M.; Wilson, Donald A.; Leon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Postnatal olfactory learning produces both a conditioned behavioral response and a modified olfactory bulb neural response to the learned odor. The present report describes the role of norepinephrine (NE) on both of these learned responses in neonatal rat pups. Pups received olfactory classical conditioning training from postnatal days (PN) 1-18. Training consisted of 18 trials with an intertrial interval of 24 hr. For the experimental group, a trial consisted of a pairing of unconditioned stimulus (UCS, stroking/tactile stimulation) and the conditioned stimulus (CS, odor). Control groups received either only the CS (Odor only) or only the UCS (Stroke only). Within each training condition, pups were injected with either the NE β-receptor agonist isoproterenol (1, 20, or 4 mg/kg), the NE β-receptor antagonist propranolol (10, 20, 40 mg/kg), or saline 30 min prior to training. On day 20, pups received one of the following tests: (1) behavioral conditioned responding, (2) injection with 14C-2-deoxyglucase (2-DG) and exposed to the CS odor, or (3) tested for olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell single-unit responses to the CS odor. The results indicated that training with either: (1) Odor-Stroke-Saline, (2) Odor-Stroke-lsoproterenol-Propranolol, or (3) Odor only-lsoproterenol (2 mg/kg) was sufficient to produce a learned behavioral odor preference, enhanced uptake of 14C-2-DG in the odor-specific foci within the bulb, and a modified output signal from the bulb as measured by single-cell recordings of mitral/tufted cells. Moreover, propranolol injected prior to Odor-Stroke training blocked the acquisition of both the learned behavior and olfactory bulb responses. PMID:2585063

  7. Incorporation of the Time-Varying Postprandial Increase in Splanchnic Blood Flow into a PBPK Model to Predict the Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered High-Extraction Drugs.

    PubMed

    Rose, Rachel H; Turner, David B; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Jamei, Masoud

    2017-07-01

    Following a meal, a transient increase in splanchnic blood flow occurs that can result in increased exposure to orally administered high-extraction drugs. Typically, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have incorporated this increase in blood flow as a time-invariant fed/fasted ratio, but this approach is unable to explain the extent of increased drug exposure. A model for the time-varying increase in splanchnic blood flow following a moderate- to high-calorie meal (TV-Q Splanch ) was developed to describe the observed data for healthy individuals. This was integrated within a PBPK model and used to predict the contribution of increased splanchnic blood flow to the observed food effect for two orally administered high-extraction drugs, propranolol and ibrutinib. The model predicted geometric mean fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios of 1.24 and 1.29 for propranolol, which were within the range of published values (within 1.0-1.8-fold of values from eight clinical studies). For ibrutinib, the predicted geometric mean fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios were 2.0 and 1.84, respectively, which was within 1.1-fold of the reported fed/fasted AUC ratio but underestimated the reported C max ratio by up to 1.9-fold. For both drugs, the interindividual variability in fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios was underpredicted. This suggests that the postprandial change in splanchnic blood flow is a major mechanism of the food effect for propranolol and ibrutinib but is insufficient to fully explain the observations. The proposed model is anticipated to improve the prediction of food effect for high-extraction drugs, but should be considered with other mechanisms.

  8. Combination of endovascular graft exclusion and drug therapy in AAA with hypertension or hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dile; Qu, Bihui; He, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of combination of endovascular graft exclusion and drugs for hypertension/hyperglycemia for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We analyzed 156 patients with AAA. Eighty-four patients were hypertensive and 72 were hyperglycemic. After endovascular graft exclusion, hypertensive patients were divided into four groups and treated with cyclopenthiazide, reserpine, propranolol, and placebo respectively. Hyperglycemic patients were divided into three groups and treated with metformin, insulin, and placebo respectively. Body temperature and peripheral blood leukocytes were measured at day 1, 2, 7, and 14 after endovascular graft exclusion. Size of AAAs, blood pressure, and blood sugar were measured again after 1 year. In hypertensive patients, the size of AAAs reduced after endovascular graft exclusion, while the combined treatments with cyclopenthiazide, reserpine, or propranolol helped to reduce blood pressure (blood pressure decrease <10 mmHg (18/21), <10 mmHg (12/21), <10 mmHg (8/21), and <10 mmHg (10/21) in the control group, cyclopenthiazide group, reserpine group, and propranolol group, respectively. AAA size decreased in the control group (P<0.001) and in the other three groups (P<0.0001). Similar results were obtained in hyperglycemic patients. The size of AAAs reduced after endovascular graft exclusion. Combined treatment with Metformin and Insulin reduced blood sugar (control, blood sugar >7.8 mmol/L (22/24), AAA size (P<0.001); metformin, blood sugar >7.8 mmol/L (14/24), AAA size (P<0.0001); insulin, blood sugar >7.8 mmol/L (11/24), AAA size (P<0.0001). Combination of endovascular graft exclusion with medicine is more effective than the former treatment alone for AAA therapy.

  9. Hemodynamic and symptomatic effects of acute interventions on tilt in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, V. M.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Novak, V.; Low, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to alleviate symptoms in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Drugs reported to be of benefit include midodrine, propranolol, clonidine, and phenobarbital. Other measures used include volume expansion and physical countermaneuvers. These treatments may influence pathophysiologic mechanisms of POTS such as alpha-receptor dysfunction, beta-receptor supersensitivity, venous pooling, and brainstem center dysfunction. The authors prospectively studied hemodynamic indices and symptom scores in patients with POTS who were acutely treated with a variety of interventions. Twenty-one subjects who met the criteria for POTS were studied (20 women, 1 man; mean age, 28.7 +/- 6.8 y; age range, 14-39 y). Patients were studied with a 5-minute head-up tilt protocol, ECG monitoring, and noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring, all before and after the administration of an intervention (intravenous saline, midodrine, propranolol, clonidine, or phenobarbital). The hemodynamic indices studied were heart rate (ECG) and systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressure. Patients used a balanced verbal scale to record any change in their symptoms between the tilts. Symptom scores improved significantly after the patients received midodrine and saline. Midodrine and propranolol reduced the resting heart rate response to tilt (p <0.005) and the immediate and 5-minute heart rate responses to tilt (p <0.002). Clonidine accentuated the immediate decrease in blood pressure on tilt up (p <0.05). It was concluded that midodrine and intravenous saline are effective in decreasing symptoms on tilt in patients with POTS when given acutely. Effects of treatments on heart rate and blood pressure responses generally reflected the known pharmacologic mechanisms of the agents.

  10. Myelo-erythroid commitment after burn injury is under β-adrenergic control via MafB regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Shirin; Johnson, Nicholas B.; Mosier, Michael J.; Shankar, Ravi; Conrad, Peggie; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Severely injured burn patients receive multiple blood transfusions for anemia of critical illness despite the adverse consequences. One limiting factor to consider alternate treatment strategies is the lack of a reliable test platform to study molecular mechanisms of impaired erythropoiesis. This study illustrates how conditions resulting in a high catecholamine microenvironment such as burns can instigate myelo-erythroid reprioritization influenced by β-adrenergic stimulation leading to anemia. In a mouse model of scald burn injury, we observed, along with a threefold increase in bone marrow LSK cells (linneg Sca1+cKit+), that the myeloid shift is accompanied with a significant reduction in megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs). β-Blocker administration (propranolol) for 6 days after burn, not only reduced the number of LSKs and MafB+ cells in multipotent progenitors, but also influenced myelo-erythroid bifurcation by increasing the MEPs and reducing the granulocyte monocyte progenitors in the bone marrow of burn mice. Furthermore, similar results were observed in burn patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived ex vivo culture system, demonstrating that commitment stage of erythropoiesis is impaired in burn patients and intervention with propranolol (nonselective β1,2-adrenergic blocker) increases MEPs. Also, MafB+ cells that were significantly increased following standard burn care could be mitigated when propranolol was administered to burn patients, establishing the mechanistic regulation of erythroid commitment by myeloid regulatory transcription factor MafB. Overall, results demonstrate that β-adrenergic blockers following burn injury can redirect the hematopoietic commitment toward erythroid lineage by lowering MafB expression in multipotent progenitors and be of potential therapeutic value to increase erythropoietin responsiveness in burn patients. PMID:28031160

  11. β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca2+ release by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2017-07-25

    Intracellular Ca 2+ overload induced by extracellular Ca 2+ entry has previously been confirmed to be an important mechanism for the cardiotoxicity as well as the acute heart dysfunction induced by jellyfish venom, while the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Under extracellular Ca 2+ -free or Ca 2+ -containing conditions, the Ca 2+ fluorescence in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes pre-incubated with tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and β blockers was scanned by laser scanning confocal microscope. Then, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were determined by ELISA assay. Furthermore, the effect of propranolol against the cardiotoxicity of TE was evaluated in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. The increase of intracellular Ca 2+ fluorescence signal by TE was significantly attenuated and delayed when the extracellular Ca 2+ was removed. The β adrenergic blockers, including propranolol, atenolol and esmolol, partially inhibited the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ in the presence of 1.8 mM extracellular Ca 2+ and completely abolished the Ca 2+ increase under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition. Both cAMP concentration and PKA activity were stimulated by TE, and were inhibited by the β adrenergic blockers. Cardiomyocyte toxicity of TE was antagonized by β adrenergic blockers and the PKA inhibitor H89. Finally, the acute heart dysfuction by TE was antagonized by propranolol in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. Our findings indicate that β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca 2+ overload through intracellular Ca 2+ release by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata.

  12. Enhancement of extinction memory consolidation: the role of the noradrenergic and GABAergic systems within the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Berlau, Daniel J; McGaugh, James L

    2006-09-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that the noradrenergic and GABAergic influences within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate the consolidation of memory for fear conditioning. The present experiments investigated whether the same modulatory influences are involved in regulating the extinction of fear-based learning. To investigate this issue, male Sprague Dawley rats implanted with unilateral or bilateral cannula aimed at the BLA were trained on a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task and 24 and 48 h later were given extinction training. Immediately following each extinction session they received intra-BLA infusions of the GABAergic antagonist bicuculline (50 ng), the beta-adrenocepter antagonist propranolol (500 ng), bicuculline with propranolol, norepinephrine (NE) (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 microg), the GABAergic agonist muscimol (125 ng), NE with muscimol or a control solution. To investigate the involvement of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) as a possible target of BLA activation during extinction, other animals were given infusions of muscimol (500 ng) via an ipsilateral cannula implanted in the DH. Bilateral BLA infusions of bicuculline significantly enhanced extinction, as did infusions into the right, but not left BLA. Propranolol infused into the right BLA together with bicuculline blocked the bicuculline-induced memory enhancement. Norepinephrine infused into the right BLA also enhanced extinction, and this effect was not blocked by co-infusions of muscimol. Additionally, muscimol infused into the DH did not attenuate the memory enhancing effects of norepinephrine infused into the BLA. These findings provide evidence that, as with original CFC learning, noradrenergic activation within the BLA modulates the consolidation of CFC extinction. The findings also suggest that the BLA influence on extinction is not mediated by an interaction with the dorsal hippocampus.

  13. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in lymphocytes (having only beta 2-adrenoceptors) was studied. 2. beta-Adrenoceptor density in right atrial membranes and in intact lymphocytes was assessed by (-)-[125I]-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding; the relative amount of right atrial beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was determined by inhibition of ICYP binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 and analysis of the resulting competition curves by the iterative curve fitting programme LIGAND. 3. With the exception of pindolol, all beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta-adrenoceptor density compared to that observed in atria from patients not treated with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. 4. All beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta 1-adrenoceptor density; on the other hand, only sotalol and propranolol also increased right atrial beta 2-adrenoceptor density, whereas metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 5. Similarly, in corresponding lymphocytes, only sotalol or propranolol increased beta 2-adrenoceptor density, while metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 6. It is concluded that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists subtype-selectively regulate cardiac and lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. The selective increase in cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptor density evoked by metoprolol and atenolol may be one of the reasons for the beneficial effects observed in patients with end-stage congestive cardiomyopathy following intermittent treatment with low doses of selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:2902891

  14. Use of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Feely, J; Peden, N

    1984-05-01

    There is an increasing use and variety of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents (beta-blockers) available for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Recent comparative studies suggest that atenolol (200mg daily), metoprolol (200mg daily); acebutolol (400mg daily), oxprenolol ( 160mg daily), nadolol ( 80mg daily) and timolol (20mg daily) produce a beneficial clinical response equal to that seen with propranolol ( 160mg daily). Most beta-blockers reduce resting heart rate by approximately 25 to 30 beats/min, although a lesser reduction is seen with those possessing intrinsic sympathomimetic activity such as oxprenolol and pindolol. While earlier studies employing large doses of intravenous propranolol concluded that beta-blockade reduced myocardial contractility, more recent non-invasive studies suggest that the predominant cardiac effect is on heart rate. In patients with cardiac failure, beta-blockers may, however, produce a profound fall in cardiac output. Nevertheless, in combination with digoxin they may be useful in controlling the atrial fibrillation of thyrocardiac disease. beta-Blockers improve nervousness and tremor (although to a lesser extent with cardioselective agents) and severe myopathy, and they also reduce the frequency of paralysis in patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. There is often subjective improvement in sweating but usually no major effect on eye signs. Recent studies show a 10% reduction in oxygen consumption/basal metabolic rate with long term oral use of selective or nonselective beta-blockers. In addition, many agents (propranolol, metoprolol, nadolol and sotalol but not acebutolol, atenolol or oxprenolol) reduce circulating tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration by between 10 and 40%, although the clinical significance of this effect (if any) is not established. beta-Blockers may also have endocrinological effects on gastrin, cyclic AMP, catecholamines and other hormone levels. Given in adequate dosage, propranolol has been shown to

  15. Different antihypertensive effect of beta-blocking drugs in low and normal-high renin hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kralberg, B E; Tolagen, K

    1976-05-31

    The treatment response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was compared in two groups of patients with primary (essential) hypertension and different renin levels. Each group consisted of 25 patients and was equally distributed regarding age, severity and stage of hypertension. In the first group (group 1), the mean upright plasma renin activity was 0.8 ng ml-1h-1 (range 0.3 to 1.5) and the patients were considered to have low renin hypertension. In the other group (group 2) the patients had a mean plasma renin activity of 2.1 ng ml-1h-1 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and were considered to have normal to high renin hypertension. In both groups the patients were initially treated with beta-blocking drugs; in group 1 with a beta-blocker corresponding to an average dose of 311 mg propranolol a day for at least eight weeks and in group 2 with propranolol 320 mg a day in a fixed dose for eight weeks. The hypotensive response differed significantly between the two groups (p less than 0.001). In group 1 the pretreatment blood pressure was 197/117 mm Hg supine and 198/120 mm Hg standing. During treatment blood pressure decreased only 5/3 mm Hg supine and 9/5 mm Hg standing. The pretreatment blood pressure in group 2 was 187/114 mm Hg supine and 186/117 mm Hg standing. Beta-blocking therapy reduced blood pressure 36/23 and 34/18 mm Hg, respectively (both p less than 0.001). Pulse rates fell significantly in the two groups, both in the lying and standing positions. In 17 patients with low renin hypertension (group 1), a volume-depleting drug was added (spironolactone, 14 patients; thiazides, 3 patients) and this achieved a marked fall in blood pressure levels of 38/16 mm Hg supine and 37/19 mm Hg standing (both p less than 0.001). These results suggest the following: (1) Most patients with normal to high plasma renin activity respond well to moderate doses of propranolol. (2) Propranolol given in the same doses is almost without antihypertensive effect in patients with low renin

  16. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptors in the Insular Cortex are Differentially Involved in Aversive vs. Incidental Context Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Sabath, Elizabeth; Nunez-Jaramillo, Luis; Puron-Sierra, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the effects of [beta]-adrenergic antagonism in the IC before or after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training or context pre-exposure in a latent inhibition protocol. Pretraining intra-IC infusion of the [beta]-adrenergic antagonist propranolol disrupted subsequent IA retention and impaired latent inhibition…

  17. SLE syndrome, probably induced by labetalol

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. C.; Cooke, J.; Losowsky, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman developed polyarthralgia and muscle tenderness after 6 months' therapy with labetalol 1800 mg daily. A raised ANF titre but normal DNA binding levels suggested a drug-induced SLE syndrome. Both symptoms and ANF titre improved when therapy was changed from labetalol to propranolol. PMID:6977135

  18. Regioselective preparation of 5-hydroxypropranolol and 4´-hydroxydiclofenac with a fungal peroxygenase

    Treesearch

    Matthias Kinne; Marzena Poraj-Kobielska; Elisabet Aranda; Rene Ullrich; Kenneth E. Hammel; Katrin Scheibner; Martin Hofrichter

    2009-01-01

    An extracellular peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita catalyzed the H2O2-dependent hydroxylation of the multi-function beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol (1-naphthalen-1-yloxy-3-(propan-2-ylamino)-propan-2-ol) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (2-[2-[(2,6-dichloro-phenyl)amino]phenyl]acetic acid) to give...

  19. Portal hypertension associated with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Joshi, R; Jain, A P

    2007-01-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl with sickle cell disease who presented with pain in abdomen, fever, joint pain and hematemesis. On examination she had mild jaundice and splenomegaly. Upper GI endoscopy showed esophageal varices. She was treated with variceal band ligation and is well on folic acid supplements and propranolol.

  20. Modification of Fear Memory by Pharmacological and Behavioural Interventions during Reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Thome, Janine; Koppe, Georgia; Hauschild, Sophie; Liebke, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional fear responses play a central role in many mental disorders. New insights in learning and memory suggest that pharmacological and behavioural interventions during the reconsolidation of reactivated fear memories may increase the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. It has been proposed that interventions applied during reconsolidation may modify the original fear memory, and thus prevent the spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of the fear response. We investigated whether pharmacological (propranolol) and behavioural (reappraisal, multisensory stimulation) interventions reduce fear memory, and prevent reinstatement of fear in comparison to a placebo control group. Eighty healthy female subjects underwent a differential fear conditioning procedure with three stimuli (CS). Two of these (CS+) were paired with an electric shock on day 1. On day 2, 20 subjects were pseudo-randomly assigned to either the propranolol or placebo condition, or underwent one of the two behavioural interventions after one of the two CS+ was reactivated. On day 3, all subjects underwent an extinction phase, followed by a reinstatement test. Dependent variables were US expectancy ratings, fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance response. Differential fear responses to the reactivated and non-reactivated CS+ were observed only in the propranolol condition. Here, the non-reactivated CS+ evoked stronger fear-potentiated startle-responses compared to the placebo group. None of the interventions prevented the return of the extinguished fear response after re-exposure to the unconditioned stimulus. Our data are in line with an increasing body of research stating that the occurrence of reconsolidation may be constrained by boundary conditions such as subtle differences in experimental manipulations and instructions. In conclusion, our findings do not support a beneficial effect in using reconsolidation processes to enhance effects of psychotherapeutic interventions. This

  1. Biological regeneration of manganese (IV) and iron (III) for anaerobic metal oxide-mediated removal of pharmaceuticals from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Sutton, Nora B; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2018-05-18

    Applying manganese(IV)- or iron(III)-(hydr)oxides to remove pharmaceuticals from water could be attractive, due to the capacity of these metal oxides to remove pharmaceuticals and be regenerated. As pharmaceutical removal under anaerobic conditions is foreseen, Mn(IV) or Fe(III) regeneration under anaerobic conditions, or with minimum oxygen dosage, is preferred. In this study, batch experiments are performed to investigate (1) Mn(IV) and Fe(III) regeneration from Mn(II) and Fe(II); (2) the pharmaceutical removal during biological Mn(IV) and Fe(III) regeneration; and (3) anaerobic abiotic pharmaceutical removal with different Mn(IV) or Fe(III) species. Results show that biological re-oxidation of reduced Mn(II) to Mn(IV) occurs under oxygen-limiting conditions. Biological re-oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) is obtained with nitrate under anaerobic conditions. Both bio-regenerated Mn(IV)-oxides and Fe(III)-hydroxides are amorphous. The pharmaceutical removal is insignificant by Mn(II)- or Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria during regeneration. Finally, pharmaceutical removal is investigated with various Mn(IV) and Fe(III) sources. Anaerobic abiotic removal using Mn(IV) produced from drinking water treatment plants results in 23% metoprolol and 44% propranolol removal, similar to chemically synthesized Mn(IV). In contrast, Fe(III) from drinking water treatment plants outperformed chemically or biologically synthesized Fe(III); Fe (III) from drinking water treatment can remove 31-43% of propranolol via anaerobic abiotic process. In addition, one of the Fe(III)-based sorbents tested, FerroSorp ® RW, can also remove propranolol (20-25%). Biological regeneration of Mn(IV) and Fe(III) from the reduced species Mn(II) and Fe(II) could be more effective in terms of cost and treatment efficiency. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The β-adrenergic system as a possible new target for pharmacologic treatment of neovascular retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Casini, Giovanni; Dal Monte, Massimo; Fornaciari, Irene; Filippi, Luca; Bagnoli, Paola

    2014-09-01

    Retinal neovascular pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and age-related macular degeneration, may be treated with intravitreal injections of drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main inducer of neoangiogenesis; however further improvements and alternative strategies are needed. In the last few years, an intense research activity has focused on the β-adrenergic system. The results indicate that, in different experimental models, a decrease of the β-adrenergic function may result either in reduction or in exacerbation of the vascular changes, thus suggesting possible dual effects of β-adrenoreceptor (β-AR) modulation depending on the experimental setting. In in vivo models of proliferative retinopathies, most of the data point to a strong inhibitory role against vascular changes exerted by the blockade of specific β-ARs. In particular, the β2-AR seems to be the mostly involved in these responses, and the β1-/β2-AR blocker propranolol results highly effective in inhibiting both the increase of VEGF expression caused by a hypoxic insult and the consequent neovascular response. These observations have prompted clinical trials in preterm infants with ROP, where oral administrations of propranolol produced positive results in terms of efficacy, although safety problems were also reported. In addition, the possibility of using topical propranolol administrations in the form of eye drops opens new potential routes of drug administration in humans. A further point that should be considered is that there are data demonstrating significant antiapoptotic effects exerted by β-ARs, therefore if β-AR blockers were used to inhibit aberrant neovascularization, there may be a burden to pay in terms of impaired neuronal viability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Modification of Fear Memory by Pharmacological and Behavioural Interventions during Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Janine; Koppe, Georgia; Hauschild, Sophie; Liebke, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional fear responses play a central role in many mental disorders. New insights in learning and memory suggest that pharmacological and behavioural interventions during the reconsolidation of reactivated fear memories may increase the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. It has been proposed that interventions applied during reconsolidation may modify the original fear memory, and thus prevent the spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of the fear response. Methods We investigated whether pharmacological (propranolol) and behavioural (reappraisal, multisensory stimulation) interventions reduce fear memory, and prevent reinstatement of fear in comparison to a placebo control group. Eighty healthy female subjects underwent a differential fear conditioning procedure with three stimuli (CS). Two of these (CS+) were paired with an electric shock on day 1. On day 2, 20 subjects were pseudo-randomly assigned to either the propranolol or placebo condition, or underwent one of the two behavioural interventions after one of the two CS+ was reactivated. On day 3, all subjects underwent an extinction phase, followed by a reinstatement test. Dependent variables were US expectancy ratings, fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance response. Results Differential fear responses to the reactivated and non-reactivated CS+ were observed only in the propranolol condition. Here, the non-reactivated CS+ evoked stronger fear-potentiated startle-responses compared to the placebo group. None of the interventions prevented the return of the extinguished fear response after re-exposure to the unconditioned stimulus. Conclusions Our data are in line with an increasing body of research stating that the occurrence of reconsolidation may be constrained by boundary conditions such as subtle differences in experimental manipulations and instructions. In conclusion, our findings do not support a beneficial effect in using reconsolidation processes to enhance effects of

  4. Delayed Noradrenergic Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus Promotes the Long-Term Persistence of Extinguished Fear

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ning; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Yang, Chang; Yan, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Wang, Ji-Shi; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wang, Xue-Yi; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after extinction. Intra-CA1 infusion of NE during the late phase (12 h) after extinction selectively promoted extinction LTM at 14 days after extinction that was blocked by the β-receptor antagonist propranolol, protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, and protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and emetine. The phosphorylation levels of PKA, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level were increased by NE during the late phase after extinction that was also blocked by propranolol and Rp-cAMPS. These results suggest that the enhancement of extinction LTM persistence induced by NE requires the activation of the β-receptor/PKA/CREB signaling pathway and membrane GluR1 trafficking. Moreover, extinction increased the phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2, CREB, and GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level during the late phase, and anisomycin/emetine alone disrupted the persistence of extinction LTM, indicating that the persistence of extinction LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the CA1. Propranolol and Rp-cAMPS did not completely disrupt the persistence of extinction LTM, suggesting that another β-receptor/PKA-independent mechanism underlies the persistence of extinction LTM. Altogether, our results showed that enhancing hippocampal noradrenergic activity during the late phase after extinction selectively promotes the persistence of extinction LTM. PMID:24553734

  5. Role of hippocampal β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors in the novelty-induced enhancement of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Chang; Deng, Jia-Hui; Yan, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Chai, Bai-Sheng; Fang, Qin; Chai, Ning; Xue, Yan-Xue; Sun, Jia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xue-Yi; Wang, Ji-Shi; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-27

    Fear extinction forms a new memory but does not erase the original fear memory. Exposure to novelty facilitates transfer of short-term extinction memory to long-lasting memory. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Using a classical contextual fear-conditioning model, we investigated the effect of novelty on long-lasting extinction memory in rats. We found that exposure to a novel environment but not familiar environment 1 h before or after extinction enhanced extinction long-term memory (LTM) and reduced fear reinstatement. However, exploring novelty 6 h before or after extinction had no such effect. Infusion of the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) inhibitor propranolol and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inhibitor RU486 into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus before novelty exposure blocked the effect of novelty on extinction memory. Propranolol prevented activation of the hippocampal PKA-CREB pathway, and RU486 prevented activation of the hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2)-CREB pathway induced by novelty exposure. These results indicate that the hippocampal βAR-PKA-CREB and GR-Erk1/2-CREB pathways mediate the extinction-enhancing effect of novelty exposure. Infusion of RU486 or the Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not propranolol or the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, into the CA1 before extinction disrupted the formation of extinction LTM, suggesting that hippocampal GR and Erk1/2 but not βAR or PKA play critical roles in this process. These results indicate that novelty promotes extinction memory via hippocampal βAR- and GR-dependent pathways, and Erk1/2 may serve as a behavioral tag of extinction. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358308-14$15.00/0.

  6. Mechanism of ipamorelin-evoked insulin release from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adeghate, Ernest; Ponery, Abdul Samad

    2004-12-01

    To examine the effect of ipamorelin (IPA), a novel pentapeptide with a strong growth hormone releasing potency, on insulin secretion from pancreatic tissue fragments of normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1)). Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, pancreatic tissue fragments of normal and diabetic rats were removed and incubated with different concentrations (10(-12) - 10(-6) M) of IPA. Insulin release from the pancreas was measured by radioimmunoassay. Ipamorelin evoked significant (p<0.04) increases in insulin secretion from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. Either diltiazem or yohimbine or propranolol or a combination of atropine, propranolol and yohimbine inhibited IPA-evoked insulin secretion significantly (p<0.03) from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. Atropine caused a significant (p<0.007) reduction in the IPA-induced insulin secretion in diabetic but not in normal rats. IPA stimulates insulin release through the calcium channel and the adrenergic receptor pathways. This is the first study to examine the effect of ipamorelin on insulin secretion in the pancreas.

  7. Effect of anxiolytics on cognitive flexibility in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Silver, Jennifer A; Hughes, John D; Bornstein, Robert A; Beversdorf, David Q

    2004-06-01

    Our purpose is to examine the effect of different classes of anxiolytics on cognitive flexibility. Situational stressors and anxiety impede performance on "creativity" tests requiring cognitive flexibility. Noradrenergic agents have been shown to modulate cognitive flexibility as assessed by performance on anagrams. To determine whether these findings on noradrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility are specific to the noradrenergic system or are a nonspecific anxiety effect, we compared the effects of propranolol, lorazepam, and placebo on the anagram task. Subjects attended 3 test sessions. Prior to each session, subjects were given 1 of the 3 drugs. As in previous research, the natural log of the solution latency of each test item was summed for each test session and compared across drug conditions. For subjects able to solve the anagrams, solution times after propranolol, but not lorazepam, were significantly lower than after placebo. Therefore, this suggests that the phenomenon of noradrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility does not result from a nonspecific anxiolytic effect, but rather is specific to the noradrenergic system.

  8. Development and evaluation of spherical molecularly imprinted polymer beads.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Henrik; Kempe, Maria

    2006-06-01

    The majority of studies on molecularly imprinted polymers has until now been carried out on irregularly shaped particles prepared by grinding of polymer monoliths. The preparation procedures are time- and labor-consuming and produce particles of wide size distributions. To answer the need for fast and straightforward routes to spherical molecularly imprinted polymer beads, we have developed a method comprising the formation of droplets of pre-polymerization solution directly in mineral oil by vigorous mixing followed by transformation of the droplets into solid spherical beads by photoinduced free-radical polymerization. No detergents or stabilizers were required for the droplet formation. Factors influencing the bead synthesis have been investigated and are detailed here. The beads were evaluated in parallel with corresponding irregularly shaped particles prepared from polymer monoliths. Conditions for the synthesis of propranolol-imprinted poly(methacrylic acid-co-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) beads in the size range of 1-100 microm in almost quantitative yield are described. The beads were applied as the recognition element in a 96-well plate format radioligand assay of propranolol in human serum.

  9. Patterns of fast synaptic cholinergic activation of neurons in the celiac ganglia of cats.

    PubMed

    Niel, J P; Clerc, N; Jule, Y

    1988-12-01

    Fast nicotinic transmission was studied in vitro in neurons of isolated cat celiac ganglia. In the absence of nerve stimulation, neurons could be classified into three types: silent neurons, synaptically activated neurons, and spontaneously discharging neurons. In all three types, fast synaptic activation could be obtained in single neurons by stimulating with a single pulse both the splanchnic nerves or one of the peripheral nerves connected to the ganglia. During repetitive nerve stimulation, a gradual depression of the central and peripheral fast nicotinic activation occurred, which was not affected by phentolamine plus propranolol, domperidone, atropine, or naloxone. Repetitive nerve stimulation was followed by a long lasting discharge of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and action potentials that decreased gradually with time. This discharge, which was probably due to presynaptic or prejunctional facilitation of acetylcholine release from cholinergic terminals, was reduced by the application of phentolamine plus propranolol, domperidone, or atropine and increased with naloxone. The existence of the mechanisms described in this study reflects the complexity of the integrative processes at work in neurons of the cat celiac ganglia that involve fast synaptic cholinergic activation.

  10. Complicated lichenoid drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Armour, Katherine; Lowe, Patricia

    2005-02-01

    We report a case of severe lichenoid drug eruption with multiple possible causative agents. A hepatitis C-positive male presented with a short history of painful erosions of the vermilion, lichenoid lesions on the buccal mucosa and glans penis, and erosions and lichenification of the scrotum. In addition, he had a pruritic polymorphic eruption over the scalp, trunk and limbs, comprising psoriasiform and eczematous lesions. He had received combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin, along with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for interferon-induced leucopenia, and propranolol for portal hypertension. The former three agents were ceased 3 weeks prior to presentation, but he remained on propranolol at the initial dermatology consultation. The polymorphous clinical picture was consistent with lichenoid drug eruption, which was confirmed on histology. The papulosquamous eruption responded quickly to 2 weeks of oral prednisone 25 mg daily, which was tapered to 1 mg over 3 months and then ceased. The mucosal lesions were slow to improve and required the addition of tacrolimus 0.03% solution t.d.s. for complete resolution.

  11. Protein degradation in skeletal muscle during experimental hyperthyroidism in rats and the effect of beta-blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Angerås, U; Hasselgren, P O

    1987-04-01

    beta-Blocking agents are increasingly used in the management of hyperthyroid patients. The effect of this treatment on increased muscle protein breakdown in the hyperthyroid state is not known. In the present study, experimental hyperthyroidism was induced in rats by daily ip injections of T3 (100 micrograms/100 g BW) during a 10-day period. Control animals received corresponding volumes of solvent. In groups of rats the selective beta-1-blocking agent metoprolol or the nonselective beta-blocker propranolol was infused by miniosmotic pumps implanted sc on the backs of the animals. Protein degradation was measured in incubated intact soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles by determining tyrosine release into the incubation medium. The protein degradation rate in incubated extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles was increased by 50-60% during T3 treatment. Metoprolol or propranolol did not influence muscle protein breakdown in either T3-treated or control animals. The results suggest that T3-induced increased muscle proteolysis is not mediated by beta-receptors, and muscle weakness and wasting in hyperthyroidism might not be affected by beta-blockers.

  12. Review: pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lebrec, D

    1997-02-01

    Certain vasoactive substances reduce portal pressure in patients or animals with portal hypertension by either inducing splanchnic vasoconstriction or reducing hepatic vascular resistance. Studies have shown that propranolol or nadolol significantly reduce the risk of a first episode of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and increase the survival rate in patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices. Isosorbide-5-mononitrate is also effective in the prevention of bleeding. The combination of beta-blockers and nitrates may be more effective than one drug alone. These results show that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists must be used to prevent the first episode of GI bleeding. Beta-blocker administration also significantly reduces the risk of recurrent GI bleeding and increases the survival rate in patients with cirrhosis. Studies have shown that propranolol is as effective as endoscopic sclerotherapy. The combination of a beta-blocker with endoscopic sclerotherapy may be more effective than pharmacological or endoscopic treatment alone for the prevention of rebleeding. Finally, new experimental and clinical studies are needed to improve the pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension.

  13. Effect of propranolol on heart rate variability in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Nganou, Chris-Nadège; Ngassam, Eliane; Kuate-Mfeukeu, Liliane; Mba, Camille; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2018-02-22

    We aimed to determine the effect of propanolol on heart rate variability (HRV) in hyperthyroidism before antithyroid treatment. This was a before and after study, on ten patients presenting overt hyperthyroidism naïve to treatment. In each patient, a resting electrocardiogram was done followed by estimation of cardiac autonomic dysfunction during five maneuvers (Ewing battery tests). Long term HRV measurement was done using 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic recording. This automatically provided estimation of HRV using SDNN and RMSSD index, LF, HF, and HF/LF ratio. After baseline investigations, 40 mg of propanolol was given twice a day for 3 days and same parameters were measured after 72 h of treatment. Our patients were aged 40 ± 10 years. Propanolol significantly reduced RR and HR interval (669 ms vs 763 ms and 91 vs 79 bpm; p < 0.01). QT and PR space were significantly extended (360 vs 384 ms and 133 vs 172 ms; p = 0.01). It increases QRS complex and blood pressure response to sustained handgrip but failed to modify previously decreased heart response to deep breathing. HRV parameters such as SDNN, RMSSD, LF, HF and sympathovagal balance estimate by HF/LF ratio remained unchanged. Although a significant reduction in heart excitability, propanolol failed to restore a good sympathovagal balance in hyperthyroidism. Trial registration NCT03393728 "Retrospectively registered".

  14. Neurohumoral Mechanisms Associated with Orthostasis: Reaffirmation of the Significant Contribution of the Heart Rate Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    baroreceptor stimu- lation (i.e., lower arterial blood pressure ) suggests an association between a depressed baroreflex response and development of...orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure regulation, lower body negative pressure , parasympathetic activity, sympathetic activity, propranolol, atropine...body negative pressure (LBNP) so that comparisons of physiology in individuals with high and low tolerance to central hypovolemia could be studied at

  15. A pharmacological analysis of the hyperactivity syndrome induced by β-phenylethylamine in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dourish, Colin T.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of the putative 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists, methysergide, mianserin and methergoline, the dopamine receptor antagonists, haloperidol, thioridazine and clozapine, and the noradrenaline (NA) receptor antagonists, phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine and propranolol on the behavioural responses of mice to β-phenylethylamine (PEA, 75 mg/kg) have been examined. 2 PEA produced a syndrome consisting of three distinct phases. The brief initial phase (0-5 min after injection) which consisted of forward walking, sniffing and headweaving, was succeeded by a locomotor depressant phase (5-20 min after injection) which consisted of abortive grooming, headweaving, splayed hindlimbs, forepaw padding, sniffing and hyperreactivity, and a late locomotor stimulant phase (20-35 min after injection), which was characterized by forward walking, sniffing, hyperreactivity, rearing and licking. 3 Methysergide, mianserin, methergoline, clozapine and propranolol inhibited headweaving and splayed hindlimbs, whereas haloperidol, thioridazine, phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine had no effect on these responses. Forepaw padding was strongly inhibited by methergoline and a high dose of mianserin, and weakly antagonized by methysergide, clozapine, haloperidol and thioridazine. In contrast, padding was mildly potentiated by phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine but strongly potentiated by propranolol. It is proposed that headweaving and splayed hindlimbs are 5-HT-mediated responses whereas forepaw padding also involves 5-HT mechanisms but may be partially due to release of tryptamine. 4 Rearing and licking were inhibited by haloperidol (most strongly), thioridazine and clozapine but potentiated by mianserin, methysergide, propranolol, phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine. Methergoline inhibited licking without affecting rearing. It is suggested that PEA-induced rearing and licking are produced by activation of dopaminergic neurones and inhibited by 5-HT or NA stimulation. 5

  16. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 2, Edition 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    propranolol, methyldopa, guanethidine Thyroid hormones--thyroxine Hallucinogens--LSD Salicylates, barbiturates General anesthetics --halothane...Alcohol LSD, lysergic acid diethylamide. Volume 2, Edition 3 / Summer 02 21 must be available and palatable , and water intake must be monitored. Water... palatability are controversial. High sugar solutions may impede water absorption. Salt losses should be made up (during the first 2 weeks in a hot

  17. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 7. Armstrong Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    formulation, absorption, plasma binding affinity, biomembrane barriers, and relative extraction by the specific organ of the body concerned with...simultaneously administered or a drug may "interact" with itself. The concomitant administration of phenobarbital and warfarin results in lower plasma ... plasma protein which binds to basic lipophilic drugs including propranolol, meperidine, quinidine, and chlorpromazine. If a variation in the plasma

  18. Psychophysiology of Delayed Extinction and Reconsolidation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    M., & Soeter, M. (2013). Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: a test of extinction as updating mechanism. Biological Psychology , 92(1...relative strengths of various pharmacological and behavioral, reconsolidation-blocking interventions can be tested . Thus far, we have completed data... test the relative strengths of various reconsolidation-blocking (or memory updating) interventions. In other words, if propranolol or delayed

  19. Role of Sida cordifolia L. leaves on biochemical and antioxidant profile during myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Kubavat, J B; Asdaq, S M B

    2009-07-06

    The Sida cordifolia L. (Family: Malvaceae) is a widely allocated herb by folk tribes of Gujarat state of India for the treatment of coronary manifestations. However, no published data relevant to use of the plant is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and biochemical profile of hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. (HESC) leaves against myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Albino rats were administered HESC (100 and 500 mg/kg) and propranolol (10 mg/kg) once daily orally for 30 days. At the end of treatment period, MI was induced by administering isoproterenol (ISO) or by subjecting heart to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Endogenous biomarkers (LDH and CK-MB) and antioxidants (SOD and catalase) were estimated in serum/perfusate and heart tissue homogenate (HTH). The LDH and CK-MB activities were elevated in HTH and depleted in serum/perfusate of HESC and propranolol groups when compared to ISO/IRI control. Further, it was found that both doses significantly increased endogenous antioxidants in HTH. Moreover, biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations. The result confirm, at least in part, for the use of Sida cordifolia in folk medicine to treat MI.

  20. Influence of mianserin on the activity of some hypotensive drugs in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Górska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2003-01-01

    Mianserin might be an alternative drug in patients with depression accompanied by hypertension because of its effectiveness and lack of side effects in the circulatory system. However, a few studies reported in literature show influence of the drug on blood pressure. We investigate interactions between mianserin and commonly used hypotensive drugs (propranolol, enalapril and prazosin) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The experiments were performed in two experimental designs: a single administration of both mianserin and a hypotensive drug, and repeated administration of mianserin with a single administration of a hypotensive drug. Arterial blood pressure was measured by bloodless method with manometer made by LETICA. A single administration of mianserin caused a statistically significant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in the 60th minute of observation and intensified hypotensive effect of prazosin. However, long-term administration of mianserin in SHR rats had no significant influence on arterial blood pressure. Chronic and single administration of mianserin with propranolol or enalapril did not influence the circulatory system. A long-term administration of mianserin intensified the hypotensive effect of prazosin. This interaction might suggest possibility of dangerous complications in the treatment of humans with this drug combination.

  1. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, twomore » isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.« less

  2. Uptake, biotransformation and elimination of selected pharmaceuticals in a freshwater invertebrate measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H; Bury, Nicolas R; Owen, Stewart F; Barron, Leon P

    2017-09-01

    Methods were developed to assess uptake and elimination kinetics in Gammarus pulex of nine pharmaceuticals (sulfamethazine, carbamazepine, diazepam, temazepam, trimethoprim, warfarin, metoprolol, nifedipine and propranolol) using targeted LC-MS/MS to determine bioconcentration factors (BCFs) using a 96 h toxicokinetic exposure and depuration period. The derived BCFs for these pharmaceuticals did not trigger any regulatory thresholds and ranged from 0 to 73 L kg -1 (sulfamethazine showed no bioconcentration). Metabolism of chemicals can affect accurate BCF determination through parameterisation of the kinetic models. The added selectivity of LC-MS/MS allowed us to develop confirmatory methods to monitor the biotransformation of propranolol, carbamazepine and diazepam in G. pulex. Varying concentrations of the biotransformed products; 4-hydroxypropranolol sulphate, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam were measured following exposure of the precursor compounds. For diazepam, the biotransformation product nordiazepam was present at higher concentrations than the parent compound at 94 ng g -1 dw. Overall, the results indicate that pharmaceutical accumulation is low in these freshwater amphipods, which can potentially be explained by the rapid biotransformation and excretion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice.

  4. Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates colonic motility via muscarinic receptors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Kim, Ki Bae; Yoon, Soon Man; Han, Joung-Ho; Chae, Hee Bok; Park, Seon Mee; Youn, Sei Jin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To measure exogenous corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced motility of the isolated rat colon and to demonstrate the effect of pharmacologic inhibition on CRF-induced motility. METHODS The isolated vascularly-perfused rat colon was used. Luminal pressure was monitored via microtip catheter pressure transducers in the proximal and distal colon. At first, exogenous CRF was administered in a stepwise manner and the concentration of CRF yielding maximal colonic motility was selected. After recording basal colonic motility, hexamethonium, phentolamine, propranolol, atropine and tetrodotoxin were infused into the isolated colon. Initially, only the test drug was infused; then, CRF was added. The motility index was expressed as percentage change over basal level. RESULTS Administration of 1.4, 14.4, 144 and 288 pmol/L CRF progressively increased colonic motility in the proximal and distal colon. Infusion of atropine or tetrodotoxin reduced CRF-induced motility of both the proximal and distal colon, whereas hexamethonium, phentolamine and propranolol had no effect. CONCLUSION CRF-induced colonic motility appears to be mediated by local cholinergic signaling via muscarinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors are potential targets for counteracting CRF-induced colonic hypermotility. PMID:28638222

  5. Study of human serum albumin structure by dynamic light scattering: two types of reactions under different pH and interaction with physiologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luik, A. I.; Naboka, Yu. N.; Mogilevich, S. E.; Hushcha, T. O.; Mischenko, N. I.

    1998-09-01

    The effect of pH and binding of ten physiologically active compounds (isoproterenol, yohimbine, propranolol, clonidine, phenylephrine, carbachol, tripeptide fMLP, diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine and atropine) on the molecular structure of human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied using the dynamic light scattering. It was found that albumin globule has the most compact configuration (Stokes diameter 59-62 Å) at physiological pH 7.4. The changes in pH, both increase to 8.0 and decrease to 5.4, result in the growth of globule size to 72-81 Å. At acidic shift of pH an additional peak arises in the correlation spectra caused by the light scattering on the structures with the Stokes diameters of 29-37 Å. Those conform to the sizes of the albumin subdomains. The indicated peak is not displayed at basic shift of pH. The interaction with propranolol, clonidine, phenylephrine, carbachol and tripeptide fMLP which hinder adenylate cyclase (AdC) and activate Ca-polyphosphoinositide (Ca-PPI) signaling system of a cell initiates structural rearrangements similar to acidic transitions. Isoproterenol, yohimbine diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine and atropine, which activate AdC and hinder Ca-PPI, cause conformational changes of HSA similar to basic transitions.

  6. [Chiral separation of five beta-blockers using di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as mobile phase additive by reversed-phase liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Qiaoling; Yang, Gengliang

    2012-03-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using the di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as a chiral mobile phase additive was developed for the enantioseparation of five beta-blockers including propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and sotalol. In order to obtain a better enantioseparation, the influences of concentrations of di-n-butyl L-tartrate and boric acid, the type, concentration and pH of the buffer, methanol content as well as the molecular structure of analytes were extensively investigated. The separation of the analytes was performed on a Venusil MP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate-methanol containing 60 mmol/L boric acid, 70 mmol/L di-n-hexyl L-tartrate (pH 6.00). The volume ratios of 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate to methanol were 20: 80 for propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and 30: 70 for sotalol. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm. Under the optimized conditions, baseline enantioseparation was obtained separately for the five pairs of analytes.

  7. Reaction of β-blockers and β-agonist pharmaceuticals with aqueous chlorine. Investigation of kinetics and by-products by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    The degradation of two β-blockers (atenolol and propranolol) and one β-receptor agonist (salbutamol) during water chlorination was investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight system (QTOF) was used to follow the time course of the pharmaceuticals and also used in the identification of the by-products. The degradation kinetics of these drugs was investigated at different concentrations of chlorine, bromide and sample pH by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design. Depending on these factors, dissipation half-lives varied in the ranges 68-145 h for atenolol, 1.3-33 min for salbutamol and 42-8362 min for propranolol. Normally, an increase in chlorine dosage and pH resulted in faster degradation of these pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the presence of bromide in water samples also resulted in a faster transformation of atenolol at low chlorine doses. The use of an accurate-mass high-resolution LC-QTOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of 14 by-products. The transformation pathway of β-blockers/agonists consisted mainly of halogenations, hydroxylations and dealkylations. Also, many of these by-products are stable, depending on the chlorination operational parameters employed.

  8. Icotinib inhibits EGFR signaling and alleviates psoriasis-like symptoms in animal models.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fenlai; Yang, Guiqun; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Haibo; Yu, Bo; Li, He; Guo, Jing; Huang, Xiaoling; Deng, Yifang; Yu, Pengxia; Ding, Lieming

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of icotinib hydrochloride and a derivative cream on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and within animal psoriasis models, respectively. The effect of icotinib on EGFR signaling was examined in HaCaT cells, while its effect on angiogenesis was tested in chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM). The effectiveness of icotinib in treating psoriasis was tested in three psoriasis models, including diethylstilbestrol-treated mouse vaginal epithelial cells, mouse tail granular cell layer formation, and propranolol-induced psoriasis-like features in guinea pig ear skin. Icotinib treatment blocked EGFR signaling and reduced HaCaT cell viability as well as suppressed CAM angiogenesis. Topical application of icotinib ameliorated psoriasis-like histological characteristics in mouse and guinea pig psoriasis models. Icotinib also significantly inhibited mouse vaginal epithelium mitosis, promoted mouse tail squamous epidermal granular layer formation, and reduced the thickness of the horny layer in propranolol treated auricular dorsal surface of guinea pig. We conclude that icotinib can effectively inhibit psoriasis in animal models. Future clinical studies should be conducted to explore the therapeutic effects of icotinb in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of beta-antagonists on isoprenaline-induced secretion of fluid, amylase and protein by the parotid gland of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus.

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    2000-02-01

    Selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists were used to block the increases in fluid, protein and amylase secretion caused by sympathomimetic stimulation of the parotid gland of red kangaroos during intracarotid infusion of isoprenaline. ICI118551 at antagonist/agonist ratios up to 300:1 caused increasing but incomplete blockade of fluid secretion, and protein/amylase release. Atenolol at antagonist/agonist ratios up to 300:1 was only marginally more potent than ICI118551 at blocking the fluid, protein and amylase responses. Propranolol at antagonist/agonist ratios of 30:1 was as effective at blocking fluid and protein secretion as the highest ratios of either atenolol or ICI118551. Simultaneous administration of atenolol (30:1) with ICI118551 (30:1) was not as potent as propranolol (30:1). Thus, the beta-adrenoceptor/s in the acini of the kangaroo parotid gland appear to have antagonist-binding affinities atypical of those found for eutherian tissues. The data are consistent with the gland possessing either a single anomalous beta-adrenoceptor or functional beta(2)-receptors in addition to the beta(1)-receptors which are characteristic of eutherian salivary glands.

  10. Involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in myometrial responses in the pro-oestral rat.

    PubMed Central

    Acritopoulou-Fourcroy, S.; Marçais-Collado, H.

    1988-01-01

    1. Myometrial responses to different agents acting on adrenoceptors were examined in vivo in the pro-oestrous rat. Changes in spontaneous uterine mechanical activity were recorded isometrically and evaluated in terms of amplitude and duration of uterine contractions. 2. Phenylephrine (10 micrograms kg-1) markedly increased the amplitude and duration of contractions and 40 micrograms kg-1 gave rise to tetanic contractions. 3. Administration of either nicergoline (400 micrograms kg-1) or phentolamine (1000 micrograms kg-1) to phenylephrine-primed rat uterus reduced the strength of contractions and phentolamine abolished the phenylephrine-induced uterine contracture. 4. Following blockade of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by yohimbine (1000 micrograms kg-1) and beta-adrenoceptors by propranolol (2400 micrograms kg-1), a single injection of phenylephrine (100 micrograms kg-1) increased the amplitude of uterine contractions by 30%. 5. Noradrenaline reduced the amplitude of contractions and caused elevation of the baseline level. The response of myometrium to the combination of both propranolol and noradrenaline was the establishment of uterine contracture with subsequent increase of the duration of contractions. 6. These results clearly demonstrate the involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in the myometrial activity of the rat in vivo during pro-oestrus. PMID:2832026

  11. Mechanism of the cardiovascular activity of dibenzoxazepine in cats.

    PubMed

    Lundy, P M

    1978-04-01

    Small i.v. doses of dibenzoxazepine (DBO) (50--400 microgram/kg) given to anesthetized cats resulted in dose related increases in heart rate (up to 70 beats/min) and blood pressure (up to 80 mm Hg). The pressor response was blocked by pretreatment of the animals with phentolamine; pretreatment for 3 days with 6-hydroxdopamine; with mecamylamine and spinal transection between C1 and C2 but not by propranolol or adrenalectomy. The increase in heart rate was blocked by pretreatment with propranolol, 6-hydroxydopamine, mecamylamine and spinal transection whereas adrenalectomy only affected the response slightly. DBO produced only negative effects on the isolated rabbit heart. Bioassay of arterial blood showed an increased level of circulating catecholamines corresponding to the cardiovascular stimulation. DBO had no tyramine-like activity on the isolated rabbit aortic strip but slightly potentiated the contraction induced by noradrenaline. These findings strongly suggest that the cardiovascular effects resulted from central stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. A minor part of the observed sympathomimetic effects may also be the result of the ability of DBO to potentiate the effects of noradrenaline perhaps by blocking catecholamine uptake.

  12. An unusual cause of flash pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul Vijay; Shrivastava, Makardhwaj Sarvadaman; Moulick, Nivedita D

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of young woman who presented with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure. She underwent emergent endotracheal intubation and was transferred to the intensive care unit. She responded to intravenous diuretics and positive pressure ventilation. Subsequent workup revealed that she had Graves’ disease and was in thyrotoxic crisis. Therapy with propranolol and propylthiouracil was instituted to which she showed remarkable improvement. PMID:22707683

  13. The Management of Pemphigus Vulgaris in a Burn Intensive Care Unit: A Case Report and Treatment Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    phenobarbital, interferon, interleukin, propranolol, and nifedipine.5 As a result of the disruption in keratinocyte adhe- sion, afflicted patients develop...by a positive Nikolsky’s sign, mean- ing that lateral pressure applied to normal-appearing Copyright © 2014 by the American Burn Association 1559...severe pemphigus vulgaris who was admitted to the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center, to demonstrate the potential complications

  14. Beta-Blockers: An Abstracted Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-04

    on subjects in the supine position. Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethys- mography. Prugs were administered via indwelling catheter (one...PROCEDURES: Noninvasive measuremert of maximum oxygen intake, invasive measurement of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, arterial and mixed venous ...ratio was approximately 0.1:1. Central nervous system-related effects associated with propranolol and metoprolol appear to be the result of high brain

  15. Psychophysiology of Delayed Extinction and Reconsolidation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    to modify or block it. The aim of this project is to create an experimental assay in the form of an optimal Pavlovian differential fear- conditioning ...group. Data from the pharmacological group demonstrate that participants show differential conditioning learning on Day 1, supporting the validity of...our modified fear- conditioning paradigm. Results suggest that propranolol administration at the time of memory reactivation does not decrease the fear

  16. Evaluation of Gum of Moringa oleifera as a Binder and Release Retardant in Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Panda, D. S.; Choudhury, N. S. K.; Yedukondalu, M.; Si, S.; Gupta, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the potential of gum from Moringa oleifera to act as a binder and release retardant in tablet formulations. The effect of calcium sulphate dihydrate (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble) diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was studied. The DSC thermograms of drug, gum and mixture of gum/drug indicated no chemical interaction. Tablets (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were prepared containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as diluent, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% w/v of gum solution as binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Physical and technological properties of granules and tablets like flow rate, Carr index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, hardness, friability and disintegration time were determined and found to be satisfactory. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as excipient, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 20% and 30% of gum as release retardant, magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Similarly tablets were prepared replacing lactose with calcium sulphate dihydrate. Despite of the widely varying physico-chemical characteristics of the excipients, the drug release profiles were found to be similar. The drug release increased with increasing proportions of the excipient and decreased proportion of the gum irrespective of the solubility characteristics of the excipient. The values of release exponent ‘n’ are between 0.37 and 0.54. This implies that the release mechanism is Fickian. There is no evidence that the dissolution or erosion of the excipient has got any effect on the release of the drug. The t50% values for tablets containing calcium sulphate dihydrate were on an average 10%-15% longer than the tablets containing lactose as excipient. These relatively small differences in t50% values suggest that the nature of excipient used appeared to play a minor role in regulating the release

  17. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates cholecystokinin-induced relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi.

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, J W; O'Dorisio, T M; Owyang, C

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluates the hypothesis that cholecystokinin (CCK) relaxes the sphincter of Oddi via vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Isolated canine sphincter of Oddi were suspended in organ baths under standard conditions. Responses to cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) and VIP were recorded on a pen recorder via an isometric transducer. 10(-11)-10(-7) M CCK-8 and 4 X 10(-11)-5 X 10(-7) M VIP generated dose-related sphincter of Oddi relaxation, which was unaffected by atropine, propranolol, and phentolamine. The effect of CCK-8 was antagonized by dibutyryl cGMP (Bt2 cGMP) (10(-3) M), the VIP-antagonist (N-Ac-Tyr1, D-Phe2)-growth hormone-releasing factor-(1-29)-NH2, and abolished by tetrodotoxin. In contrast, VIP's relaxing action was tetrodotoxin insensitive. 10(-11)-10(-7) M CCK-8 stimulated dose-dependent release of VIP (0.5-2.2 fm/ml.mg tissue), which was not inhibited by atropine, propranolol, and phentolamine, but was antagonized by 10(-3) M Bt2 cGMP and tetrodotoxin. In addition CCK-8 and VIP generated dose-related (10(-10)-10(-7) M) increases in sphincter of Oddi cAMP levels that were not affected by atropine, propranolol, and phentolamine. Furthermore, 10(-5)-10(-2) M 8-bromo-cAMP caused dose-dependent relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi. In separate studies, a 2-h incubation in physiological solution containing 12 parts/1,000 of rabbit VIP antiserum antagonized sphincter relaxation caused by 4 nM CCK-8 and 6 nM VIP. The antiserum also significantly decreased the sphincter of Oddi cAMP level stimulated by 4 nM CCK-8 by 48 +/- 15%. These studies demonstrate that CCK-8 relaxes the canine sphincter of Oddi via a noncholinergic, nonadrenergic neural pathway involving VIP. The intracellular mechanism mediating CCK/VIP relaxation involves generation of cAMP. Images PMID:3384954

  18. Pressure-derived indices of left ventricular isovolumic relaxation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D S; Wilmshurst, P; Juul, S M; Waldron, C B; Jenkins, B S; Coltart, D J; Webb-Peploe, M M

    1983-01-01

    High fidelity measurements of left ventricular pressure were made at increasing pacing rates in 21 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a control group of 11 patients investigated for chest pain who proved to have normal hearts. In both groups the fall in pressure during isovolumic relaxation from the point of min dp/dt approximated closely to a monoexponential, and could be described by a time constant and asymptote. The time constant shortened and the asymptote increased as heart rate rose in both groups. The time constant was longer and min dp/dt less in the cardiomyopathy group than controls at all heart rates. In the cardiomyopathy patients min dp/dt, but not the time constant, was related to systolic pressure. During pacing, eight cardiomyopathy patients developed metabolic evidence of myocardial ischaemia, but indices of relaxation did not differ between these eight and the other 13 either at basal heart rate or the highest pacing rate. In 10 cardiomyopathy patients measurements were repeated at comparable pacing rates after propranolol (0.2 mg/kg). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and indices of contractility decreased after the drug, but the time constant did not change. Eight patients received verapamil (20 mg) after which there were substantial reductions in systolic pressure and contractility. Min dp/dt decreased in proportion to systolic pressure, but the time constant was unchanged. At the highest pacing rate before drug administration three patients had abnormal lactate extraction which was corrected by either propranolol (one patient) or verapamil (two patients). Despite abolition of metabolic evidence of ischaemia, relaxation did not improve. It is concluded that abnormal isovolumic relaxation is common in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but its severity correlates poorly with other features of the disease. Abnormal relaxation is not the result of ischaemia, and pressure derived indices of relaxation do not improve after

  19. Effects of humic acid and heavy metals on the sorption of polar and apolar organic pollutants onto biochars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Sun, Hongwen; Ren, Xinhao; Liu, Yarui; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Chao

    2017-12-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) and heavy metals (Cu 2+ and Ag + ) on the sorption of polar and apolar organic pollutants onto biochars that were produced at temperatures of 200 °C (BC200) and 700 °C (BC700) were studied. Due to the plentiful polar functional groups on BC200, cationic propranolol exhibited higher levels of sorption than naphthalene on BC200 while naphthalene and propranolol showed similar sorption capacities on BC700. HA changed the characteristics of biochars and generally inhibited the sorption of target organic pollutants on biochars; however, enhancement occurred in some cases depending on the pollutants involved and their concentrations, biochars used and the addition sequences and concentrations of HA. On BC200, HA modifications mainly influenced sorption by decreasing its polarity and increasing its aromaticity, while on BC700, the surface area and pore volume greatly decreased due to the pore-blocking effects of HA. Residue dissolved HA in solution may also contribute to sorption inhibition. Complexation between polar functional groups on BC200 and heavy metals slightly enhanced the sorption of neutral naphthalene and significantly enhanced that of anionic 4-nitro-1-naphtol, while limited the sorption of cationic propranolol. Heavy metals together with their associated water molecules decreased the sorption of target chemicals on BC700 via pore-filling or pore-mouth-covering. Inhibition of heavy metals for 4-nitro-1-naphthol was found to be the weakest due to the bridge effects of heavy metals between 4-nitro-1-naphtol and BC700. The higher polarizability of Ag + led to the increase of its sorption on biochars in the presence of organic aromatic pollutants. The results of the present study shed light on the sorption mechanisms of bi-solute systems and enable us to select suitable biochar sorbents when chemicals co-exist. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Blockade of the dopamine depressor response by molindone, a newly introduced neuroleptic.

    PubMed

    Nandal, N V; Mane, V R; Balsara, J J; Chandorkar, A G

    1980-01-01

    Pretreatment with the neuroleptics, haloperidol and molindone, significantly antagonized the dopamine-induced depressor response in the anaesthetized dogs. The depressor response to dopamine was however, not significantly affected by propranolol, atropine or antazoline pretreatment. The results suggest that molindone like haloperidol, is capable of blocking the vascular dopamine receptors responsible for mediating dopamine-induced vasodilatation in the coeliac, mesenteric and renal vascular bed and fall in blood pressure.

  1. Cardiorespiratory Changes During Microwave-Induced Lethal Heat Stress and Beta-adrenergic Blockade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    J. A. Taylor, J. K . Kalls , J. Nit- verse these responses. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 10- 506-516, 1988. tolo, R. W. Hicks, T. G. Lohmnan, and J. H...propanolol groups were significantly lower than in saline controls. Respiratory rate was significantly elevated during most of the exposure period in...lar and respiratory changes) during lethal exposures. Al- propranolol groups were significantly lower than in saline con- though the pathophysiology

  2. Developing Memory Reconsolidation Blockers as Novel PTSD Treatments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    haloperidol , and the protein- synthesis inhibitor rapamycin all reduce reconsolidation of a cue-conditioned fear response in rats, although none of these is...used in this study. 2.1.2.4. Haloperidol . Next we decided to explore another candidate drug, the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol . We...tested the ability of haloperidol (1mg/kg) to block reconsolidation, either alone or in combination with propranolol (10 mg/kg) in male and female

  3. The use of α- or β-blockers to ameliorate the chronic stress of captivity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Clare Parker; Romero, L Michael

    2016-01-01

    When wild animals are brought into captivity for the first time, they frequently develop chronic stress symptoms. Animals can develop glucocorticoid dysregulation or changes in the sympathetic nervous system over the course of the first week in captivity. By blocking the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine using α- or β-blockers, we hoped to reduce the degree of chronic stress symptoms exhibited by newly captured house sparrows. We measured corticosterone, heart rate and heart rate variability in 24 house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) over the first week of captivity. The birds were treated with saline, propranolol (a β-blocker) or phentolamine (an α-blocker) for the first 3 days of captivity. We also compared newly captured animals with animals that had been held in captivity for 1 month. During the first week of captivity, baseline corticosterone increased, but that increase was blocked by propranolol. Heart rate was not different between the treatment groups, but it was higher during the first week than after 1 month in captivity. Sympathetic nervous system activity (as measured by heart rate variability) decreased over the first week of captivity, but was not affected by treatment. β-Blockers, but not α-blockers, might help to improve some symptoms of chronic stress in newly captured animals.

  4. Surface modification of PAMAM dendrimers modulates the mechanism of cellular internalization.

    PubMed

    Saovapakhiran, Angkana; D'Emanuele, Antony; Attwood, David; Penny, Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dendrimer surface properties on cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking in the human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line. Third-generation (G3) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were modified to contain either two lauroyl chains (G3L2), two propranolol molecules (G3P2), or two lauroyl and two propranolol molecules (G3L2P2) at the dendrimer surface. Surface-modified and unmodified dendrimers were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) at an average molar ratio of 1:1. The mechanisms of cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking of dendrimers were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The internalization of G3 and G3P2 dendrimers involved both caveolae-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis pathways; internalization of G3L2P2 dendrimer appeared to involve caveolae-dependent, and possibly clathrin-dependent, endocytosis pathways; and internalization of G3L2 dendrimer occurred via caveolae-dependent, clathrin-dependent, and macropinocytosis pathways. Subcellular colocalization data indicated that unmodified and all surface-modified G3 PAMAM dendrimers were internalized and trafficked to endosomes and lysosomes. It is therefore apparent that the initial mode of dendrimer internalization into HT-29 cells is influenced by the surface properties of G3 PAMAM dendrimer.

  5. Participation of citral in the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil and possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Mangprayool, Thitiya; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-09-01

    The extract of ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to possess anti-hyperactivity and anti-inflammation on airway. The present study described brochodilatory activity of ginger oil and identified its active compound. Ginger oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. The compositions of ginger oil were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. Citral, eucalyptol and camphene were found to be the major components. Ginger oil and citral, but not camphene, suppressed rat tracheal contraction induced by carbachol (CCh). Consistent with previous report, eucalyptol showed a relaxing effect on rat airway. Since the content of eucalyptol in ginger oil was relatively low, the contribution of eucalyptol to the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil was small. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the myorelaxing effect, propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) and L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) were used to block the inhibitory effects of ginger oil and citral. It was found that propranolol, but not indomethacin and L-NAME, reversed bronchodilatory effects of both ginger oil and citral, suggesting that a possible mechanism involved β-adrenergic receptor. This study provides the pharmacological basis supporting the therapeutic potential of Z. officinale rhizomes as a bronchodilator. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of α- or β-blockers to ameliorate the chronic stress of captivity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Clare Parker; Romero, L. Michael

    2016-01-01

    When wild animals are brought into captivity for the first time, they frequently develop chronic stress symptoms. Animals can develop glucocorticoid dysregulation or changes in the sympathetic nervous system over the course of the first week in captivity. By blocking the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine using α- or β-blockers, we hoped to reduce the degree of chronic stress symptoms exhibited by newly captured house sparrows. We measured corticosterone, heart rate and heart rate variability in 24 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) over the first week of captivity. The birds were treated with saline, propranolol (a β-blocker) or phentolamine (an α-blocker) for the first 3 days of captivity. We also compared newly captured animals with animals that had been held in captivity for 1 month. During the first week of captivity, baseline corticosterone increased, but that increase was blocked by propranolol. Heart rate was not different between the treatment groups, but it was higher during the first week than after 1 month in captivity. Sympathetic nervous system activity (as measured by heart rate variability) decreased over the first week of captivity, but was not affected by treatment. β-Blockers, but not α-blockers, might help to improve some symptoms of chronic stress in newly captured animals. PMID:27752321

  7. Pharmacotherapy-Based Problems in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Needs Much More to be Done!

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Shah, Swa; Khan, J; Rehman, S; Imran, M; Hussian, I; Shehbaz, N; Jamshed, H; Khan, S

    2010-07-01

    A total of 856 diabetic patients were evaluated for pharmacotherapy-based problems like for possible drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, and other mismatches, if any. Poor correlation between the advised insulin therapy and patients' fasting blood glucose levels (12%, n=103) was observed. To most of the patients (41.66%, n= 357), insulin therapy was advised in combination with glucocorticoides, thiazides diuretics, and propranolol. Prescribing beta blocker (propranolol) with insulin is contraindicated. The higher incidence of diabetic foot patients was in the mean age of 57±3.4 years that was controlled with combination therapy of insulin and oral antidiabetics (63.0%, n=516). 11.1% of the treated patients could not take the prescribed therapy due to poor acceptance of insulin therapy due to its syringe needle prick. 41.66% risks of potential drug interactions, 7.93% adverse drug reactions, and 6.6% mismatches were recorded, as per the international approved algorithm, for managing a diabetes mellitus that reflects poor health care system. All these events necessitate for coordinating with other health professionals to make the therapy safer in the better interest of the patients. It is concluded that in practice prescribing pattern carries more risks for patients. It is imperative to improve the practice of pharmacotherapeutics rather than to practice in routine.

  8. High Trait Anxiety: A Challenge for Disrupting Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation - n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice. PMID:24260096

  9. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass Spectrometry Imaging proves differential absorption profiles of well-characterised permeability markers along the crypt-villus axis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna; Peric, Alexandra; Strimfors, Marie; Goodwin, Richard J A; Hayes, Martin A; Andrén, Per E; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2017-07-25

    Knowledge about the region-specific absorption profiles from the gastrointestinal tract of orally administered drugs is a critical factor guiding dosage form selection in drug development. We have used a novel approach to study three well-characterized permeability and absorption marker drugs in the intestine. Propranolol and metoprolol (highly permeable compounds) and atenolol (low-moderate permeability compound) were orally co-administered to rats. The site of drug absorption was revealed by high spatial resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and complemented by quantitative measurement of drug concentration in tissue homogenates. MALDI-MSI identified endogenous molecular markers that illustrated the villi structures and confirmed the different absorption sites assigned to histological landmarks for the three drugs. Propranolol and metoprolol showed a rapid absorption and shorter transit distance in contrast to atenolol, which was absorbed more slowly from more distal sites. This study provides novel insights into site specific absorption for each of the compounds along the crypt-villus axis, as well as confirming a proximal-distal absorption gradient along the intestine. The combined analytical approach allowed the quantification and spatial resolution of drug distribution in the intestine and provided experimental evidence for the suggested absorption behaviour of low and highly permeable compounds.

  11. Drug Release and Skin Permeation from Lipid Liquid Crystalline Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Balogh, F. O.; Sparr, E.; Sousa, J. J. S.; Pais, A. A. C. C.

    We have studied drug release and skin permeation from several different liquid crystalline lipid formulations that may be used to control the respective release rates. We have studied the release and permeation through human skin of a water-soluble and amphiphilic drug, propranolol hydrochloride, from several formulations prepared with monoolein and phytantriol as permeation enhancers and controlled release excipients. Diolein and cineol were added to selected formulations. We observed that viscosity decreases with drug load, wich is compatible with the occurrence of phase changes. Diolein stabilizes the bicontinuous cubic phases leading to an increase in viscosity and sustained release of the drug. The slowest release was found for the cubic phases with higher viscosity. Studies on skin permeation showed that these latter formulations also presented lower permeability than the less viscous monoolein lamellar phases. Formulations containing cineol originated higher permeability with higher enhancement ratios. Thus, the various formulations are adapted to different circumstances and delivery routes. While a slow release is usually desired for drug sustained delivery, the transdermal route may require a faster release. Lamellar phases, which are less viscous, are more adapted to transdermal applications. Thus, systems involving lamellar phases of monoolein and cineol are good candidates to be used as skin permeation enhancers for propranolol hydrochloride.

  12. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  13. Effects of adrenergic stimulation on ventilation in man

    PubMed Central

    Heistad, Donald D.; Wheeler, Robert C.; Mark, Allyn L.; Schmid, Phillip G.; Abboud, Francois M.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism by which catecholamines affect ventilation in man is not known. Ventilatory responses to catecholamines were observed in normal subjects before and after adrenergic receptor blockade. Intravenous infusions of norepinephrine and isoproterenol caused significant increases in minute volume and decreases in end-tidal PCo2 which were blocked by the administration of propranolol, a beta adrenergic receptor blocker. The hyperventilatory response to hypoxia was not altered by propranolol. Intravenous infusion of phenylephrine caused a small but significant decrease in minute volume which was antagonized by phentolamine, an alpha adrenergic receptor blocker. Angiotensin, a nonadrenergic pressor agent, also decreased minute volume significantly. 100% oxygen was administered to suppress arterial chemoreceptors. Increases in minute volume and decreases in arterial PCo2 in response to norepinephrine and isoproterenol were blocked by breathing 100% oxygen. The decrease in minute volume during phenylephrine was not altered by 100% oxygen. The results indicate that: (a) beta adrenergic receptors mediate the hyperventilatory response to norepinephrine and isoproterenol but not to hypoxia. (b) the pressor agents phenylephrine and angiotensin decrease ventilation, and (c) suppression of chemoreceptors blocks the ventilatory response to norepinephrine and isoproterenol but not to phenylephrine. Implications concerning the interaction of adrenergic receptors and chemoreceptors with respect to the hyperventilatory response to catecholamines are discussed. PMID:4336940

  14. Aqueous Polymer Dispersion Coating Used for Osmotic Pump Tablets: Membrane Property Investigation and IVIVC Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lizhen; Gai, Xiumei; Wen, Haoyang; Liu, Dandan; Tang, Xin; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Tuanjie; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fundamental properties of propranolol hydrochloride osmotic pump tablets coated by aqueous polymer dispersion, simultaneously exploring the in vitro and in vivo correlation of the tablet. The physicochemical properties and parameters of aqueous polymer dispersion membranes (SEM, water uptake, and water vapor transmission coefficient) were investigated. In addition, the release behavior and the in vitro release and in vivo absorption profiles of the tablets coated by aqueous polymer dispersion were investigated by comparing with propranolol hydrochloride osmotic pump tablets coated by an organic solvent. Results showed that the similarity factor (f 2 ) between cellulose acetate-coated tablet and Eudragit-coated tablet was 78.1, and f 2 between cellulose acetate-coated tablet and Kollicoat-coated tablet was 77.6. The linear IVIVC of Eudragit-coated and Kollicoat-coated osmotic pump tablets was determined, which confirmed excellent correlation between the absorption in vivo and the drug release in vitro. Consequently, the membrane coated by aqueous polymer dispersion or organic solvent has similar in vitro release rates of controlled release. Also, compared with organic solvent coating, aqueous polymer dispersion has numerous advantages, such as reduced toxicity and no environmental damage. Therefore, the aqueous polymer dispersion technology has enormous potential as a replacement of organic solvent coating.

  15. Effect of lipophilicity on microneedle-mediated iontophoretic transdermal delivery across human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kasturi R; Smith, Forrest; Kolli, Chandra Sekhar; Babu, R Jayachandra

    2013-10-01

    The effect of lipophilicity of drug on the microneedle (MN)-mediated iontophoretic delivery across dermatomed human skin was studied. Beta blockers with similar pKa but varied log P values were selected as model drugs in this study. Iontophoresis (ITP) or MNs, when used independently, increased the transdermal flux of beta blockers as compared with passive delivery (PD). ITP across the MN-treated skin (MN + ITP) increased the permeation rate of all beta blockers as compared with PD (p < 0.001). The enhancement ratios (ER) for hydrophilic molecules (atenolol and sotalol) were 71- and 78-fold higher for ITP + MN as compared with PD. However, for lipophilic molecule such as propranolol, there was 10-fold increase in the ER as compared with PD. These observations were further substantiated by the skin retention data; an inverse relationship between the skin retention and the hydrophilicity of the drug was observed. The results in the present study point out that the lipophilicity of the molecule plays a significant role on the electrically assisted transdermal delivery of drugs across the microporated skin. Using the combination of ITP + MN, hydrophilic drugs (atenolol and sotalol) were delivered at a much higher rate as compared with lipophilic molecules (propranolol and acebutolol). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A rapid method for the determination of some antihypertensive and antipyretic drugs by thermometric titrimetry.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, U M; Chand, F; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S A

    1986-02-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the direct thermometric determination of milligram amounts of methyl dopa, propranolol hydrochloride, 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone (MPP) and 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one (phenazone) in the presence of excipients. The compounds are reacted with N'-bromosuccinimide and the heat of reaction is used to determine the end-point of the titration. The time required is approximately 2 min, and the accuracy is analytically acceptable.

  18. Putative β4-adrenoceptors in rat ventricle mediate increases in contractile force and cell Ca2+: comparison with atrial receptors and relationship to (−)-[3H]-CGP 12177 binding

    PubMed Central

    Sarsero, Doreen; Molenaar, Peter; Kaumann, Alberto J; Freestone, Nicholas S

    1999-01-01

    We identified putative β4-adrenoceptors by radioligand binding, measured increases in ventricular contractile force by (−)-CGP 12177 and (±)-cyanopindolol and demonstrated increased Ca2+ transients by (−)-CGP 12177 in rat cardiomyocytes.(−)-[3H]-CGP 12177 labelled 13–22 fmol mg−1 protein ventricular β1, β2-adrenoceptors (pKD ∼9.0) and 50–90 fmol mg−1 protein putative β4-adrenoceptors (pKD ∼7.3). The affinity values (pKi) for (β1,β2-) and putative β4-adrenoceptors, estimated from binding inhibition, were (−)-propranolol 8.4, 5.7; (−)-bupranolol 9.7, 5.8; (±)-cyanopindolol 10.0,7.4.In left ventricular papillary muscle, in the presence of 30 μM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, (−)-CGP 12177 and (±)-cyanopindolol caused positive inotropic effects, (pEC50, (−)-CGP 12177, 7.6; (±)-cyanopindolol, 7.0) which were antagonized by (−)-bupranolol (pKB 6.7–7.0) and (−)-CGP 20712A (pKB 6.3–6.6). The cardiostimulant effects of (−)-CGP 12177 in papillary muscle, left and right atrium were antagonized by (±)-cyanopindolol (pKP 7.0–7.4).(−)-CGP 12177 (1 μM) in the presence of 200 nM (−)-propranolol increased Ca2+ transient amplitude by 56% in atrial myocytes, but only caused a marginal increase in ventricular myocytes. In the presence of 1 μM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and 200 nM (−)-propranolol, 1 μM (−)-CGP 12177 caused a 73% increase in Ca2+ transient amplitude in ventricular myocytes. (−)-CGP 12177 elicited arrhythmic transients in some atrial and ventricular myocytes.Probably by preventing cyclic AMP hydrolysis, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine facilitates the inotropic function of ventricular putative β4-adrenoceptors, suggesting coupling to Gs protein-adenylyl cyclase. The receptor-mediated increases in contractile force are related to increases of Ca2+ in atrial and ventricular myocytes. The agreement of binding affinities of agonists with cardiostimulant potencies is consistent with mediation

  19. Implications of Chirality of Drugs and Excipients in Physical Pharmacy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duddu, Sarma P.

    1993-01-01

    The interactions of enantiomers of a chiral drug with other chemical entities, which may lead to changes and stereoselective differences in the physicochemical properties of the drug, were investigated. The various interactions described below employed ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and some of their salts, and to a minor extent, propranolol hydrochloride. The interaction of ephedrinium or pseudoephedrinium with the achiral anion, salicylate, yielded crystalline salts with the notable exception of homochiral ephedrine. Racemic ephedrinium salicylate exists as a centrosymmetric crystal (P2_1/n) whereas racemic pseudoephedrinium salicylate is a mixture of homochiral crystals (P2 _1). The inability of ephedrinium to exist as a homochiral salicylate salt is attributed to a high energy conformation of the ephedrinium cation, following conformational analysis. Arising from conformationally favorable interactions, the crystallization of racemic ephedrinium salicylate from aqueous solutions was utilized to improve the enantiomeric purity of a partially resolved mixture of ephedrine from 60% to 82% in one crystallization step. Interaction of the opposite enantiomers of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in the solid, liquid, solution and vapor state produced the respective racemic compounds. The formation of racemic ephedrine in the solid state as predominantly second order (k = 392 mol^{-1} hr^{-1}), probably mediated by the vapor phase. The formation of racemic pseudoephedrine was predominantly diffusion-controlled in the solid state via an intermediate non-crystalline phase. The interaction with traces of the opposite enantiomer during crystallization of (RS)-(-)-ephedrinium 2-naphthalenesulfonate and (SS)-(+)-pseudoephedrinium salicylate changed pharmaceutically important solid state properties, including dissolution rate. Uptake of the enantiomeric impurity was measured by a new, sensitive HPLC method. The enantiomeric impurity, at mole fractions <= 0.0027 greatly increased the

  20. Koschei the immortal and anti-aging drugs.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-12-04

    In Slavic folklore, Koschei the Immortal was bony, thin and lean. Was his condition caused by severe calorie restriction (CR)? CR deactivates the target of rapamycin pathway and slows down aging. But the life-extending effect of severe CR is limited by starvation. What if Koschei's anti-aging formula included rapamycin? And was rapamycin (or another rapalog) combined with commonly available drugs such as metformin, aspirin, propranolol, angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  1. [Participation of septum on the increase of plasma cortisol level induced by stimulation of the greater splanchnic nerve of cats].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y Q; Zhu, X M; Zhu, Z T; Guo, J K; Hu, L M; Zhou, W J

    1995-06-01

    Experimens were performed on 36 cats, showing that stimulation of the central end of the left major splanchnic nerve induced an increase of the plasma cortisol level. The centripetal effect was abolished by lesioning the septal nuclei, just as the same as injection of propranolol into the nuclei; but phentolamine had no such preventive action. All the findings show that it is the noradrenergic beta-receptor system of the septal nuclei that exerts a considerable effect on cortisol secretion.

  2. Koschei the immortal and anti-aging drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-01-01

    In Slavic folklore, Koschei the Immortal was bony, thin and lean. Was his condition caused by severe calorie restriction (CR)? CR deactivates the target of rapamycin pathway and slows down aging. But the life-extending effect of severe CR is limited by starvation. What if Koschei's anti-aging formula included rapamycin? And was rapamycin (or another rapalog) combined with commonly available drugs such as metformin, aspirin, propranolol, angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. PMID:25476900

  3. Using Propranolol to Block Memory Reconsolidation in Female Veterans with PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT One of the hallmark features of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a marked increased in physical arousal ... arousal of a traumatic memory to less-impairing levels may do well in allowing an individual with PTSD to return to his or her daily life. However, there...occur in women. Our research investigates a novel method of reducing the hyper- arousal associated with combat memories in Female Operation Iraqi

  4. Effect of Propranolol on Metabolic Responses to Exercise at High Altitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    the low carbohydrate/ hypocaloric diet often assumed by altitude sojourners due to anorexia or ration restrictions. The results of the present...end of the altitude sojourn than at sea level. Although the subjects in this study consumed an ad libitum diet , they 15 were strongly encouraged to...consume a high carbohydrate diet particularly during the last five days at high altitude preceding the biopsy experiment. Dietary records were not kept

  5. Extreme bradycardia after first doses of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in patients receiving amiodarone: 2 cases including a rechallenge.

    PubMed

    Renet, Sophie; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Antonini, Teresa; Zhao, Alexandre; Thomas, Laure; Savoure, Arnaud; Samuel, Didier; Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles; Algalarrondo, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir are direct-acting antiviral drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and European Medical Agency warned that bradycardia could occur when amiodarone was administered in combination with sofosbuvir, but no case reports had been published. We report extreme bradycardia within 2 hrs after intake of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir by 2 patients receiving amiodarone. The first patient had a cardiac asystole 30 min after receiving sofosbuvir and daclatasvir. Amiodarone, sofosbuvir, and daclatasvir treatment were stopped; after 10 days, the cardiac evaluation was normal and patient was discharged. The second patient was taking amiodarone and propranolol; 2 hrs after receiving sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, he had an extreme sinus node dysfunction (heart rate of 27beats/min). Amiodarone and propranolol were stopped, but the patient continued receiving sofosbuvir and daclatasvir for 3 days and sinus bradycardia was recorded each day, 2 hrs after intake of these drugs. When he stopped taking the drugs, no bradycardia was observed. Administration of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir on day 13 induced bradycardia 2 hrs after intake. However, no bradycardia occurred following a rechallenge 8 weeks after the patient stopped taking amiodarone. These observations indicate that patients treated with amiodarone should be continuously monitored within the first 48 hrs following the initiation of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.S.

    Norepinephrine has previously been demonstrated by this laboratory to potentiate the in vitro T-dependent antibody response through the stimulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors. The role of {beta}-adrenergic receptor subtypes in norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody responses was examined with selective {beta}-adrenergic antagonists. The antagonists were metoprolol ({beta}{sub 1}-selective), ICI 118-551 ({beta}{sub 2}-selective), and propranolol ({beta}-non-selective). Both propranolol and ICI 118-551 blocked norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody response, but metoprolol was ineffective. Receptor binding competition of antagonists with the radioligant, ({sup 3}H)CGP-12177 was examined and results were analyzed with the computer program, LIGAND. Competition by ICI 118-551 identified 75% {beta}{sub 2}- andmore » 25% {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors on splenic mononuclear cells. Enriched T lymphocytes exhibited 75% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors, while enriched B lymphocytes contained 90% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors as identified by ICI 118-551. Greater than twice as many total receptors were identified on B lymphocytes than T lymphocytes. A T cell lymphoma contained about 60% {beta}{sub 2}-receptors, while 100% were {beta}{sub 2} receptors on a B cell lymphoma, as assessed by ICI 118-551. Results support a heterogeneous {beta}-adrenergic receptor population on T lymphocytes and a more homogeneous {beta}{sub 2}-population on B lymphocytes.« less

  7. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  9. Pharmacotherapy-Based Problems in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Needs Much More to be Done!

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N; Shah, SWA; Khan, J; Rehman, S; Imran, M; Hussian, I; Shehbaz, N; Jamshed, H; Khan, S

    2010-01-01

    A total of 856 diabetic patients were evaluated for pharmacotherapy-based problems like for possible drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, and other mismatches, if any. Poor correlation between the advised insulin therapy and patients’ fasting blood glucose levels (12%, n=103) was observed. To most of the patients (41.66%, n= 357), insulin therapy was advised in combination with glucocorticoides, thiazides diuretics, and propranolol. Prescribing beta blocker (propranolol) with insulin is contraindicated. The higher incidence of diabetic foot patients was in the mean age of 57±3.4 years that was controlled with combination therapy of insulin and oral antidiabetics (63.0%, n=516). 11.1% of the treated patients could not take the prescribed therapy due to poor acceptance of insulin therapy due to its syringe needle prick. 41.66% risks of potential drug interactions, 7.93% adverse drug reactions, and 6.6% mismatches were recorded, as per the international approved algorithm, for managing a diabetes mellitus that reflects poor health care system. All these events necessitate for coordinating with other health professionals to make the therapy safer in the better interest of the patients. It is concluded that in practice prescribing pattern carries more risks for patients. It is imperative to improve the practice of pharmacotherapeutics rather than to practice in routine. PMID:21042492

  10. Regenerated keratin membrane to match the in vitro drug diffusion through human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Selmin, Francesca; Cilurzo, Francesco; Aluigi, Annalisa; Franzè, Silvia; Minghetti, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to develop membranes made of regenerated keratin and ceramides (CERs) to match the barrier property of the human stratum corneum in in vitro percutaneous absorption studies. The membrane composition was optimized on the basis of the in vitro drug diffusion profiles of ibuprofen, propranolol and testosterone chosen as model drugs on the basis of their different diffusion and solubility properties. The data were compared to those obtained using human epidermis. The ATR-FTIR and SEM analyses revealed that CERs were suspended into the regenerated keratin matrix, even if a partial solubilization occurred. It resulted in the membranes being physically stable after exposure to aqueous buffer and/or mineral oil and the fluxes of ibuprofen and propranolol from these vehicles through membranes and human skin were of the same order of magnitude. The best relationship with human epidermis data was obtained with 180 μm-thick membrane containing 1% ceramide III and 1% ceramide VI. The data on the testosterone diffusion were affected by the exposure of the membrane to a water/ethanol solution over a prolonged period of time, indicating that such an organic solvent was able to modify the supermolecular organization of keratin and CERs. The keratin/CER membranes can represent a simplified model to assay the in vitro skin permeability study of small molecules. PMID:25755997

  11. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), amore » ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.« less

  12. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors with oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III) and sulfate as electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Natalie; Page, Declan; Tiehm, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds was examined in long term batch experiments for a period of two and a half years to obtain more insight into the effects of redox conditions. A mix including lipid lowering agents (e.g. clofibric acid, gemfibrozil), analgesics (e.g. diclofenac, naproxen), beta blockers (e.g. atenolol, propranolol), X-ray contrast media (e.g. diatrizoic acid, iomeprol) as well as the antiepileptic carbamazepine and endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol) was analyzed in batch tests in the presence of oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III), and sulfate. Out of the 23 selected substances, 14 showed a degradation of > 50% of their initial concentrations under aerobic conditions. The beta blockers propranolol and atenolol and the analgesics pentoxifylline and naproxen showed a removal of > 50% under anaerobic conditions. In particular naproxen proved to be degradable with oxygen and under most anaerobic conditions, i.e. with manganese (IV), iron (III), or sulfate. The natural estrogens estriol, estrone and 17β-estradiol showed complete biodegradation under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions, with a temporary increase of estrone during transformation of estriol and 17β-estradiol. Transformation of 17β-estradiol under Fe(III)-reducing conditions resulted in an increase of estriol as well. Concentrations of clofibric acid, carbamazepine, iopamidol and diatrizoic acid, known for their recalcitrance in the environment, remained unchanged.

  13. Liquid microjunction surface sampling coupled with high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for analysis of drugs and metabolites in whole-body thin tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-07-15

    In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent. The ability to directly and efficiently sample from thin tissue sections via a liquid extraction and then perform a subsequent liquid phase separation increases the utility of this liquid extraction surface sampling approach.

  14. Mechanisms of L-Triiodothyronine-Induced Inhibition of Synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Young Adult Rat Brain Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Pradip K.; Biswas, Avijit; Ray, Arun K.; Martin, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the normal functioning of adult mammalian brain is unclear. Our studies have identified synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase as a TH-responsive physiological parameter in adult rat cerebral cortex. L-triiodothyronine (T3) and L-thyroxine (T4) both inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity (but not Mg2+-ATPase activity) in similar dose-dependent fashions, while other metabolites of TH were less effective. Although both T3 and the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in cerebrocortical synaptosomes in similar ways, the β-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol did not counteract the effect of T3. Instead, propranolol further inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was independent of β-adrenergic receptor activation. The effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and by glutamate. Notably, both clonidine and glutamate activate Gi-proteins of the membrane second messenger system, suggesting a potential mechanism for the inhibition of the effects of TH. In this paper, we provide support for a nongenomic mechanism of action of TH in a neuronal membrane-related energy-linked process for signal transduction in the adult condition. PMID:24307963

  15. [Effect of prokinetic agents on the electrical activity of stomach and duodenum in rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Fujun; Zou, Yiyou; Huang, Tianhui

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effect of prokinetic agents such as domperidone, mosapride, clarithromycin, and itopride on the electrical activity of the stomach and duodenum in SD rats,and also to explore the mechanism. The organism functional experiment system BL-420E was used to record the myoelectrical activity in the stomach and duodenum of SD rats in all groups using domperidone, mosapride, itopride, clarithromycin, and physiological saline on the interdigestive phase. The effect of the prokinetic agents on the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal electromyogram in the SD rats was compared. The antagonists such as atropine, phentolamine, and propranolol were added to investigate the mechanism of action with all prokinetic agents. All prokinetic agents increased the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats(P<0.05). The effect of itopride was the most obvious among the 3 groups (P<0.05),and clarithromycin had the weakest effect(P<0.05). The amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats in the groups of clarithromycin,domperidone,mosapride, itopride, and physiological saline were inhibited by atropine(P<0.05),but not by phentolamine and propranolol. Itopride, mosapride, domperidone, and clarithromycin can increase the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats. The mechanism may be related to cholinergic receptors, but not adrenergic receptors.

  16. Single and Dual Drug Release Patterns from Shellac Wax-Lutrol Matrix Tablets Fabricated with Fusion and Molding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, T.; Choncheewa, C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare the shellac wax matrix tablets by fusion and molding technique incorporated with Lutrol in different ratios to modify the hydrophobicity of matrix tablet. The matrix tablets with single drug were loaded either with propranolol hydrochloride or hydrochlorothiazide as hydrophilic and hydrophobic model drugs, and a dual drug formula was also prepared. The single and dual drug release patterns were studied in a dissolution apparatus using distilled water as medium. Propranolol hydrochloride released from matrix was easier than hydrochlorothiazide. Drug release from shellac wax matrix could be enhanced by incorporation of Lutrol. However retardation of drug release from some matrix tablets was evident for the systems that could form dispersion in the dissolution medium. The gel network from high content of Lutrol was hexagonal which was a dense and more compact structure than the other structures found when low amounts of Lutrol were present in the formula. Therefore, the formulae with high content of Lutrol could prolong drug release more efficiently than those containing low content of Lutrol. Hence shellac wax matrix could modulate the drug release with the addition of Lutrol. Sustainable dual drug release was also obtained from these developed matrix tablets. Thus shellac wax-Lutrol component could be used as a potential matrix tablet prepared with fusion and molding technique with excellent controlled drug release. PMID:25767320

  17. Atomoxetine Augmentation in a Case of Treatment Resistant Panic Disorder with Multiple Augments Failure: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Patil, Shwetha; Gowdappa, Basavana; Rajalakshmi, Iyshwarya

    2015-01-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine inhibitor, is effective in comorbid anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, however its role in panic disorder is unknown. We are presenting a case of panic disorder, who initially partially responded to clonazepam. When clonazepam was added with sertraline, escitalopram, desvenlafaxin, she did not improve significantly until paroxetine was added. When clonazepam-paroxetine combination was added with propranolol, etizolam, olanzepine, risperidone and amisulpride the symptom remission did not occur until a trial of Atomoxetine was done. PMID:26598594

  18. Evidence against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a dilator and in favour of substance P as a constrictor in airway neurogenic responses.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, J. A.; Persson, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Propranolol-resistant neurogenic relaxation persisted in (carbachol-contracted) guinea-pig tracheae already relaxed by supramaximal concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Also, VIP relaxed preparations that were under neurogenic inhibition. In hilus bronchi, about 60% of a neurogenic contraction was atropine-resistant. (Arg5, D-Trp7.9) SP 5-11 specifically antagonized this contraction and those produced by exogenous substance P. Substance P, but not VIP, seems to be involved in nerve-mediated effects on guinea-pig airway tone. PMID:6197124

  19. Evidence against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a dilator and in favour of substance P as a constrictor in airway neurogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J A; Persson, C G

    1983-07-01

    Propranolol-resistant neurogenic relaxation persisted in (carbachol-contracted) guinea-pig tracheae already relaxed by supramaximal concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Also, VIP relaxed preparations that were under neurogenic inhibition. In hilus bronchi, about 60% of a neurogenic contraction was atropine-resistant. (Arg5, D-Trp7.9) SP 5-11 specifically antagonized this contraction and those produced by exogenous substance P. Substance P, but not VIP, seems to be involved in nerve-mediated effects on guinea-pig airway tone.

  20. Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Chemical-Disease Relationships using Readily Available Chemical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    C15H13N3O4S Potassium Bromide 0119000100 BrK Potassium Permanganate 0158030400 MnO4K Prazosin 0383410801 C19H21N5O4 Propranolol-HCl 0259350302...chemicals and correctly match it to a single disease category. Potassium permanganate and ethylene glycol can both be correctly linked to disease group...chemical is linked to the same disease, the network is unable to predict the same disease for the multiple chemicals. Potassium permanganate and

  1. EPR investigation of damage centers formed in some drug powders irradiated with gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sütçü, Kerem

    2018-07-01

    The radiation damage centers in levetiracetam, progesterone, ethosuximide, and propranolol hydrochloride were investigated by EPR spectroscopy at 295 K. The paramagnetic species were attributed to the -ĊHCHNH-, -CH2ĊH2CH- and -ĊH-, -ĊHCH2N- and-ĊH-, and -NĊCH2- radicals, respectively. The results were observed as being in good conformity with the literature. The spectra of these compounds were computer simulated. Furthermore, the EPR parameters of the radicals formed by ɣ-irradiation in the samples were determined.

  2. Methodological Issues in Clinical Drug Development for Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Carranza, Michael A.; Snyder, Madeline R.; Elble, Rodger J.; Boutzoukas, Angelique E.; Zesiewicz, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common tremor disorders in the world. Despite this, only two medications have received Level A recommendations from the American Academy of Neurology to treat it (primidone and propranolol). Even though these medications provide relief to a large group of ET patients, up to 50% of patients are non-responders. Additional medications to treat ET are needed. This review discusses some of the methodological issues that should be addressed for quality clinical drug development in ET. PMID:23440401

  3. Effect of intravenous infusion of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent on the haemodynamic changes in human masseter muscle induced by cold-pressor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, K; Kuboki, T; Miyawaki, T; Shimada, M; Yamashita, A; Clark, G T

    1999-06-01

    Eight healthy non-smoking males (mean age: 24.1 +/- 1.1 years) without any history of chronic muscle pain and migraine participated in this study. Haemoglobin (Hb) and oxygen (O2) saturation in the right masseter muscle were continuously recorded with a non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic device. Heart rate and blood pressure were also recorded. The experiment had three phases: a placebo drug (physiological saline) with cold-pressor trial, a 30-sec maximal voluntary clenching (MVC) trial, and a propranolol with cold-pressor trial. The saline and drug trials each involved continuous recording for 1 min before, 2 min during and 5 min after the cold-pressor stimulation (4 degrees C). Physiological saline (20 ml) or propranolol hydrochloride (20 ml) were infused at the rate of 2 ml/min. This infusion was begun 20 min before the baseline recording and participants did not know which solution (saline or propranolol) was being infused. For the MVC trial, each participant was asked to perform a 30-sec clench of their jaw-closing muscles. There was a rest period of 15 min between each trial. The individual Hb and O2 data were normalized so that the baseline at the beginning of the experiment was equal to zero, and the Hb and O2 data were normalized as a percentage of the individual's own highest absolute Hb and O2 after and during the MVC, respectively. The results showed that the mean baseline Hb 1 min before cold-pressor stimulation was significantly lower in the beta-blocker trial than in the placebo trial (p = 0.035). The mean change in Hb from baseline during cold-pressor stimulation in the beta-blocker trial was also significantly less than in the placebo trial (p = 0.035). The mean Hb rebound change after the cold-pressor stimulation in the beta-blocker trial was significantly higher than in the placebo trial, and no significant heart-rate differences were observed in the period after cold-pressor stimulation. Overall, the mean heart rate before and during that

  4. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors with oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III) and sulfate as electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Natalie; Page, Declan; Tiehm, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds was examined in long term batch experiments for a period of two and a half years to obtain more insight into the effects of redox conditions. A mix including lipid lowering agents (e.g. clofibric acid, gemfibrozil), analgesics (e.g. diclofenac, naproxen), beta blockers (e.g. atenolol, propranolol), X-ray contrast media (e.g. diatrizoic acid, iomeprol) as well as the antiepileptic carbamazepine and endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol) was analyzed in batch tests in the presence of oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III), and sulfate. Out of the 23 selected substances, 14 showed a degradation of >50% of their initial concentrations under aerobic conditions. The beta blockers propranolol and atenolol and the analgesics pentoxifylline and naproxen showed a removal of >50% under anaerobic conditions. In particular naproxen proved to be degradable with oxygen and under most anaerobic conditions, i.e. with manganese (IV), iron (III), or sulfate. The natural estrogens estriol, estrone and 17β-estradiol showed complete biodegradation under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions, with a temporary increase of estrone during transformation of estriol and 17β-estradiol. Transformation of 17β-estradiol under Fe(III)-reducing conditions resulted in an increase of estriol as well. Concentrations of clofibric acid, carbamazepine, iopamidol and diatrizoic acid, known for their recalcitrance in the environment, remained unchanged. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SciTech Connect

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilationmore » in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.« less

  6. Pharmacological observations on the hypotensive action of extracts of teleost fish urophyses (urotensin I) in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lederis, K.; Medaković, M.

    1974-01-01

    1 Intravenous injections of urotensin I regularly caused a long-lasting, dose-related, lowering of blood pressure and an increase in heart rate in conscious rats, or a reduction in perfusion pressure in the isolated hind limb of the rat. 2 After subcutaneous administration, the hypotensive effect of urotensin I was greater in extent and in duration (> 24 hours). 3 Anaesthesia with ether, chloralose, pentobarbitone and thiobarbitone caused a decrease in blood pressure and only slightly diminished the hypotensive effect of urotensin. 4 Mecamylamine, hexamethonium, atropine, phenoxybenzamine, propranolol and diphenhydramine did not alter the effect of urotensin in conscious rats or in the isolated hind limb, although the effects of the respective agonists, i.e. nicotine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, isoprenaline and histamine were inhibited. 5 In conscious rats, pressor effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline, nicotine and angiotensin II, and depressor effects of acetylcholine and bradykinin, were decreased or inhibited, whereas the hypotensive effect of phenoxybenzamine was potentiated by previous administration of urotensin I. Carotid occlusion reflex was partially inhibited by lower doses of urotensin and abolished by higher doses in rats lightly anaesthetized with chloralose. Urotensin elicited postural hypotension in rats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. 6 The increase in heart rate produced by urotensin was not affected by phenoxybenzamine, but was abolished by propranolol or ganglion blocking agents (mecamylamine or hexamethonium). 7 It is concluded that urotensin elicits hypotension in the rat by a direct dilatory action on the resistance vessels causing a simultaneous reflex tachycardia. PMID:4375526

  7. Increase in parasympathetic tone by pyridostigmine prevents ventricular dysfunction during the onset of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lataro, Renata M; Silva, Carlos A A; Fazan, Rubens; Rossi, Marcos A; Prado, Cibele M; Godinho, Rosely O; Salgado, Helio C

    2013-10-15

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by elevated sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic control of the heart. Experimental evidence suggests that the increase in parasympathetic function can be a therapeutic alternative to slow HF evolution. The parasympathetic neurotransmission can be improved by acetylcholinesterase inhibition. We investigated the long-term (4 wk) effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine on sympathovagal balance, cardiac remodeling, and cardiac function in the onset of HF following myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was elicited in adult male Wistar rats. After 4 wk of pyridostigmine administration, per os, methylatropine and propranolol were used to evaluate the cardiac sympathovagal balance. The tachycardic response caused by methylatropine was considered to be the vagal tone, whereas the bradycardic response caused by propranolol was considered to be the sympathetic tone. In conscious HF rats, pyridostigmine reduced the basal heart rate, increased vagal, and reduced sympathetic control of heart rate. Pyridostigmine reduced the myocyte diameter and collagen density of the surviving left ventricle. Pyridostigmine also increased vascular endothelial growth factor protein in the left ventricle, suggesting myocardial angiogenesis. Cardiac function was assessed by means of the pressure-volume conductance catheter system. HF rats treated with pyridostigmine exhibited a higher stroke volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and contractility of the left ventricle. It was demonstrated that the long-term administration of pyridostigmine started right after coronary artery ligation augmented cardiac vagal and reduced sympathetic tone, attenuating cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction during the progression of HF in rats.

  8. Adrenaline is a critical mediator of acute exercise-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Hirshman, Michael F.; He, Huamei; Li, Yangfeng; Manabe, Yasuko; Balschi, James A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise increases AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activity in human and rat adipocytes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of this activation are not known. Since adrenaline (epinephrine) concentrations increase with exercise, in the present study we hypothesized that adrenaline activates AMPK in adipocytes. We show that a single bout of exercise increases AMPKα1 and α2 activities and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) Ser79 phosphorylation in rat adipocytes. Similarly to exercise, adrenaline treatment in vivo increased AMPK activities and ACC phosphorylation. Pre-treatment of rats with the β-blocker propranolol fully blocked exercise-induced AMPK activation. Increased AMPK activity with exercise and adrenaline treatment in vivo was accompanied by an increased AMP/ATP ratio. Adrenaline incubation of isolated adipocytes also increased the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activities, an effect blocked by propranolol. Adrenaline incubation increased lipolysis in isolated adipocytes, and Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, attenuated this effect. Finally, a potential role for AMPK in the decreased adiposity associated with chronic exercise was suggested by marked increases in AMPKα1 and α2 activities in adipocytes from rats trained for 6 weeks. In conclusion, both acute and chronic exercise are significant regulators of AMPK activity in rat adipocytes. Our findings suggest that adrenaline plays a critical role in exercise-stimulated AMPKα1 and α2 activities in adipocytes, and that AMPK can function in the regulation of lipolysis. PMID:17253964

  9. Re-engineering of CYP2C9 to probe acid-base substrate selectivity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Guoying; Dickmann, Leslie J; Matovic, Nicholas; DeVoss, James J; Gillam, Elizabeth M J; Rettie, Allan E

    2008-10-01

    A common feature of many CYP2C9 ligands is their weak acidity. As revealed by crystallography, the structural basis for this behavior involves a charge-pairing interaction between an anionic moiety on the substrate and an active site R108 residue. In the present study we attempted to re-engineer CYP2C9 to better accept basic ligands by charge reversal at this key residue. We expressed and purified the R108E and R108E/D293N mutants and compared their ability with that of native CYP2C9 to interact with (S)-warfarin, diclofenac, pyrene, propranolol, and ibuprofen amine. As expected, the R108E mutant maintained all the native enzyme's pyrene 1-hydroxylation activity, but catalytic activity toward diclofenac and (S)-warfarin was abrogated. In contrast, the double mutant displayed much less selectivity in its behavior toward these control ligands. Neither of the mutants displayed significant enhancement of propranolol metabolism, and all three preparations exhibited a type II (inhibitor) rather than type I (substrate) spectrum with ibuprofen amine, although binding became progressively weaker with the single and double mutants. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of the amino acid at position 108 in the acid substrate selectivity of CYP2C9, highlight the accommodating nature of the CYP2C9 active site, and provide a cautionary note regarding facile re-engineering of these complex cytochrome P450 active sites.

  10. Re-engineering of CYP2C9 to Probe Acid-Base Substrate Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Guoying; Dickmann, Leslie J.; Matovic, Nicholas; DeVoss, James J.; Gillam, Elizabeth M. J.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2009-01-01

    A common feature of many CYP2C9 ligands is their weak acidity. As revealed by crystallography, the structural basis for this behavior involves a charge-pairing interaction between an anionic moiety on the substrate and an active site R108 residue. In the present study we attempted to re-engineer CYP2C9 to better accept basic ligands by charge reversal at this key residue. We expressed and purified the R108E and R108E/D293N mutants and compared their ability with that of native CYP2C9 to interact with (S)-warfarin, diclofenac, pyrene, propranolol, and ibuprofen amine. As expected, the R108E mutant maintained all the native enzyme's pyrene 1-hydroxylation activity, but catalytic activity toward diclofenac and (S)-warfarin was abrogated. In contrast, the double mutant displayed much less selectivity in its behavior toward these control ligands. Neither of the mutants displayed significant enhancement of propranolol metabolism, and all three preparations exhibited a type II (inhibitor) rather than type I (substrate) spectrum with ibuprofen amine, although binding became progressively weaker with the single and double mutants. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of the amino acid at position 108 in the acid substrate selectivity of CYP2C9, highlight the accommodating nature of the CYP2C9 active site, and provide a cautionary note regarding facile re-engineering of these complex cytochrome P450 active sites. PMID:18606741

  11. Orexin A-induced anxiety-like behavior is mediated through GABA-ergic, α- and β-adrenergic neurotransmissions in mice.

    PubMed

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-07-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides, which are involved in several physiological functions of the central nervous system, including anxiety and stress. Several studies provide biochemical and behavioral evidence about the anxiogenic action of orexin A. However, we have little evidence about the underlying neuromodulation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of neurotransmitters in the orexin A-induced anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM) test in mice. Accordingly, mice were pretreated with a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine; a γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABA-A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline; a D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol; a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine; a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine and a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol 30min prior to the intracerebroventricular administration of orexin A. The EPM test started 30min after the i.c.v. injection of the neuropeptide. Our results show that orexin A decreases significantly the time spent in the arms (open/open+closed) and this action is reversed by bicuculline, phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, but not by atropine, haloperidol or nitro-l-arginine. Our results provide evidence for the first time that the orexin A-induced anxiety-like behavior is mediated through GABA-A-ergic, α- and β-adrenergic neurotransmissions, whereas muscarinic cholinergic, dopaminergic and nitrergic neurotransmissions may not be implicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsen, R; Barry, D I; Hertz, M M; Klinken, L

    1979-09-14

    The ethanol withdrawal syndrome in man and animals is characterized by signs of CNS hyperactivity although a direct measurement of a physiological variable reflecting this CNS hyperactivity has never been performed in untreated man or in animals. We induced ethanol dependence in the rat by means of intragastric intubation with a 20% w/v ethanol solution, thus keeping the animals in a state of continuous severe intoxication for 3--4 days; during the subsequent state of withdrawal characterized by tremor, rigidity, stereotyped movements and general seizures a 25% increase in cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) could be measured; this increase was not due to catecholamines originating from adrenal medulla as adrenomedullectomized animals showed a similar increase in CMRO2 (28%); the withdrawing animals showed a corresponding cerebral blood flow (CBF) increase. The elevated CMRO2 and CBF could be reduced to normal by administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol 2 mg/kg i.v.), and hence the increased CMRO2 during ethanol withdrawal could be related to catecholaminergic systems in the brain, e.g. the noradrenergic locus coeruleus system which is anatomically well suited as a general activating system. This interpretation is supported by the earlier neurochemical finding of an increased cerebral noradrenaline turnover during ethanol withdrawal. The exact mechanism underlying the increased cerebral oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal and the effect of propranolol on cerebral function during this condition remains to be clarified.

  13. Normal flora: living vehicles for non-invasive protein drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jun; Kaushal, Gagan

    2004-11-22

    Feasibility to use probiotic bacteria as a living protein delivery system through oral route was assessed in vitro. Lactococcus lactis transformed with a plasmid to express and secret beta-lactamase was used to deliver beta-lactamase through Caco-2 monolayer, an intestine epithelium. Transport of beta-lactamase through Caco-2 monolayer was carried out in the transwells. The viability and integrity of the cell monolayers co-cultured with L. lactis was examined by trypan blue exclusion method and by measuring the transport of mannitol and propranolol as well as the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Results show that it is feasible to use cell culture technique to evaluate the drug delivery by normal flora. The transport rate of beta-lactamase when delivered by L. lactis was 2.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(-2)h(-1) (n = 9) and through free solution form was 1.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(-2)h-1. When co-cultured with L. lactis, Caco-2 cell viability decreased to 98, 96, and 94% at 6, 8, and 10h, respectively. Transport of mannitol through Caco-2 cell monolayer was significantly increased and the transport of propranolol through Caco-2 cell monolayer was significantly decreased in the presence of L. lactis. Increase in the amount of protein delivered is probably due to the concentrate of the protein by L. lactis on the monolayer (absorption surface) and the opening of the tight junction of Caco-2 monolayer by L. lactis. copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  14. The progressive onset of cholinergic and adrenergic control of heart rate during development in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Leite, Cleo A C; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2015-10-01

    The autonomic control of heart rate was studied throughout development in embryos of the green iguana, Iguana iguana by applying receptor agonists and antagonists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. Acetylcholine (Ach) slowed or stopped the heart and atropine antagonized the response to Ach indicating the presence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on the heart of early embryos. However, atropine injections had no impact on heart rate until immediately before hatching, when it increased heart rate by 15%. This cholinergic tonus increased to 34% in hatchlings and dropped to 24% in adult iguanas. Although epinephrine was without effect, injection of propranolol slowed the heart throughout development, indicating the presence of β-adrenergic receptors on the heart of early embryos, possibly stimulated by high levels of circulating catecholamines. The calculated excitatory tonus varied between 33% and 68% until immediately before hatching when it fell to 25% and 29%, a level retained in hatchlings and adults. Hypoxia caused a bradycardia in early embryos that was unaffected by injection of atropine indicating that hypoxia has a direct effect upon the heart. In later embryos and hatchlings hypoxia caused a tachycardia that was unaffected by injection of atropine. Subsequent injection of propranolol reduced heart rate both uncovering a hypoxic bradycardia in late embryos and abolishing tachycardia in hatchlings. Hypercapnia was without effect on heart rate in late stage embryos and in hatchlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioural changes induced by N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.; Thanki, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in pargyline pretreated rodents induced a dose-dependent behavioural syndrome consisting of hyperactivity, prostration and hindlimb abduction, mild tremor, Straub tail, retropulsion and jerking. 2 In rats pretreated with pargyline, the behavioural syndrome induced by DMT differed from that induced by L-tryptophan or quipazine, in the lack of forepaw treading and head-weaving and in the presence of only mild tremor. 3 The hyperactivity component of the DMT-induced behavioural syndrome in pargyline-pretreated mice was potentiated by cyproheptadine, methergoline, and mianserin, inhibited by cinanserin, haloperidol, pimozide, methiothepin and propranolol, and not affected by 501C67-sulphate and methysergide. 4 The maximal behavioural changes induced by DMT in rats, other than hyperactivity, were unaffected by pretreatment with cyproheptadine, methysergide, and cinanserin. However, propranolol reduced the intensity of all behavioural effects apart from body jerking, and methergoline decreased the duration of prostration. Phenoxybenzamine and haloperidol, in contrast, enhanced prostration. 5 DMT plus pargyline did not induce circling behaviour in mice with a unilateral 6-hydroxy-dopamine lesion of the nigro-striatal pathway. 6 The DMT-induced behavioural syndrome appears to consist of two components, (a) hyperactivity and (b) other behavioural changes. They differ in their response to drugs affecting brain monoamines. The hyperactivity component may be expressed via dopamine mechanisms, but the other behavioural changes are not. The two behaviours do not respond consistently to drugs believed to alter brain 5-hydroxytryptamine function. PMID:6769527

  16. Bethanechol-Induced Water Intake in Rats: Possible Mechanisms of Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Kikta, Dianne C.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1982-01-01

    Acute administration of the parasympathomimetic agent, bethanechol, at 2, 4, 8 and 12 mg/kg body wt, IP, induced drinking and increased urine output of rats in a dose-dependent fashion. The first significant increases in both water intake and urine output above that of controls occurred when 4 mg/kg was administered. The drinking and increased urine output in response to administration of 8 mg bethanechol/kg was inhibited by atropine sulfate (3 and 6 mg/kg, IP). In addition, the 0-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol (6 mg/kg, IP, administered 30 min prior to treatment with bethanechol), inhibited bethanechol (8 mg/kg, IP)-induced drinking. Urine output, however, was unaffected by propranolol. Further, the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, inhibited significantly the drinking response, but not the increased urine output, accompanying administration of bethanechol (8 mg/kg). The effect of bethanechol and the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (25 Ag/kg) separately and in combination, on water intake was also studied. Both compounds increased water intake but they exerted no interactive effect when administered simultaneously. Administration of bethanechol (8 mg/kg) to conscious rats was also accompanied by a significant reduction in both mean blood pressure and heart rate that reached minimal levels within 10 min after treatment. Both responses had returned to control level by one hour after treatment. These results suggest that bethanechol induces drinking in rats by way of the renin-angiotensin system.

  17. Sorption and biodegradation of six pharmaceutically active compounds under four different redox conditions.

    PubMed

    de Wilt, Arnoud; He, Yujie; Sutton, Nora; Langenhoff, Alette; Rijnaarts, Huub

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the removal of six pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in lab-scale experiments with sediments under four redox conditions, namely aerobic, nitrate reducing, sulfate reducing, and methanogenic conditions using batch and column set-ups. Redox conditions were found to influence PhAC removal by sorption and biodegradation. The most optimal PhAC removal was observed at the outer ranges of the redox spectrum, i.e. either aerobic or deep anaerobic (sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions), whereas nitrate reducing conditions were found least effective for PhACs biodegradation and sorption. For instance, sorption coefficient K d values for metoprolol in column experiments were 90, 65, 42 and 11 L/kg for sulfate reducing, methanogenic, aerobic and nitrate reducing conditions, respectively. For the same conditions K d values for propranolol were 101, 94, 55 and 55 L/kg, respectively. As expected, biodegradation efficiencies were highest under aerobic conditions, showing >99% removal of caffeine and naproxen, but no removal for propranolol and carbamazepine. The adaptive capacity of sediment was demonstrated by pre-exposure to PhACs leading to improved PhAC biodegradation. The results of this study indicate the necessity to combine diverse redox conditions, including aerobic conditions, for maximizing PhAC removal by sorption and biodegradation. Furthermore, our findings stress the need for additional treatment measures as recalcitrant PhACs are not effectively removed under any redox condition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Systemic and regional flow distribution in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive young rats subjected to lifetime beta-adrenergic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, K; Nishiyama, A; Pfeffer, M A; Frohlich, E D

    1978-01-01

    To determine quantitatively organ blood flow distribution as the result of lifelong beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, 23 and 24 normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, respectively, were treated from conception with tap water (control; 10 WKY and 8 SHR), propranolol (0.5 mg/ml drinking water; 6 WKY and 8 SHR), or timolol (0.5 mg/ml drinking water; 7 WKY and 8 SHR) via placental circulation, mothers' milk, and drinking water. At 12 weeks of age all six groups were studied hemodynamically under ether anesthesia using an electromagnetic flowmeter and radioactive carbonized (15 micrometer) microspheres. Untreated SHR demonstrated normal cardiac output (CO) and CO distribution to all organs except for myocardium and testes, thereby confirming our previous work. With either propranolol or timolol treatment the course of development and maintenance of arterial pressure was no different than the pure-tap-water-fed WKY and SHR despite an approximate 30% reduction in CO. Further, with both beta-receptor antagonists CO distribution was significantly reduced to skeletal muscle (p less than 0.001), unchanged to the heart, and increased (p less than 0.05) to the remaining organs (including kidneys and brain) in both groups. Thus, as a result of lifelong beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, CO was reduced; and this was associated with a redistribution of blood flow so that flow to the kidney, brain, and splanchnic organs could be maintained at the expense of skeletal muslce perfusion.

  19. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories with Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    administration [5], gene knockout [6], interference by new learning [4;7]; and manipulations of kinase activity [8;9]. The amnesia induced by blocking...reconsolidation can be double- dissociated from extinction [10;11], and it is distinct from extinction in that it can be made to occur even when a... Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Nature 2003 Oct 9;425(6958):616-20. [8] Duvarci S, Nader K, Ledoux JE. Activation of

  20. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-30

    Depression, OCPD 0.32 0.05 2.81 -0.37 -0.48 6 VAMC 24 White, non-Hisp M 60 None 0.87 3.37 14.04 0.72 -0.01 7 MGH 64 White, non-Hisp M 12 None 0.24...Depression, OCPD , Substance Abuse , , , , , 19 MGH 40 White, non-Hisp M 51 None 0.38 0.08 1.33 1.96 1.16 20 MGH 25 White, non-Hisp M 84 Major Depression

  1. Barium-induced skeletal muscle paralysis in the rat, and its relationship to human familial periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G. D.; McArdle, B.

    1974-01-01

    An in vivo study of skeletal muscle paralysis induced by intravenous barium chloride has been made in curarized and non-curarized rats. The influence of potassium and calcium chlorides, propranolol, ouabain, and prior adrenalectomy on the paralysis has also been studied. Paralysis is found to be due to a direct effect on skeletal muscle, and to correlate well with the development of hypokalaemia. Possible mechanisms of action of barium are discussed, and attention is drawn to the similarity between barium poisoning and hypokalaemic familial periodic paralysis. PMID:4813426

  2. Exercise-induced hand tremor: a possible test for beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity in man?

    PubMed Central

    Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of intravenous doses of propranolol, sotalol, timolol, atenolol and placebo on exercise-induced tachycardia and exercise-induced increases in hand tremor were assessed in four healthy volunteers. All active drugs produced significant reductions in exercise-induced tachycardia. Exercise caused consistent significant increases in hand tremor which were blocked by the three non-cardioselective drugs but not by atenolol or placebo. The blockade of exercise-induced hand tremor is suggested as a possible test for the assessment of the selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor blockade in man. PMID:2874824

  3. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor

    PubMed Central

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  4. Colloids as a sink for certain pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Maskaoui, Khalid; Zhou, John L

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry and as a matter of public concern. Existing data tend to focus on the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aqueous phase, with limited studies on their concentrations in particulate phase such as sediments. Furthermore, current water quality monitoring does not differentiate between soluble and colloidal phases in water samples, hindering our understanding of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic organisms. In this study, an investigation was conducted into the concentrations and phase association (soluble, colloidal, suspended particulate matter or SPM) of selected pharmaceuticals (propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, meberverine, thioridazine, carbamazepine, tamoxifen, indomethacine, diclofenac, and meclofenamic acid) in river water, effluents from sewage treatment works (STW), and groundwater in the UK. The occurrence and phase association of selected pharmaceuticals propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, meberverine, thioridazine, carbamazepine, tamoxifen, indomethacine, diclofenac, and meclofenamic acid in contrasting aquatic environments (river, sewage effluent, and groundwater) were studied. Colloids were isolated by cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF). Water samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE), while SPM was extracted by microwave. All sample extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring. Five compounds propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, indomethacine, and diclofenac were detected in all samples, with carbamazepine showing the highest concentrations in all phases. The highest concentrations of these compounds were detected in STW effluents, confirming STW as a key source of these compounds in the aquatic environments. The calculation of partition coefficients of pharmaceuticals between SPM and

  5. Impaired flexibility in decision making in rats after administration of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Andrea L; Haack, Andrew K; Taha, Sharif A

    2014-10-01

    Stress-induced disruption of decision making has been hypothesized to contribute to drug-seeking behaviors and addiction. Noradrenergic signaling plays a central role in mediating stress responses. However, the effects of acute stress on decision making, and the role of noradrenergic signaling in regulating these effects, have not been well characterized. To characterize changes in decision making caused by acute pharmacological stress, the effects of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist) were examined in a delay discounting task. Noradrenergic contributions to decision making were further characterized by examining the effects of propranolol (a β antagonist), prazosin (an α1 antagonist), and guanfacine (an α2 agonist). Sprague-Dawley rats were administered drugs prior to performance on a delay discounting task, in which the delay preceding the large reward increased within each session (ascending delays). To dissociate drug-induced changes in delay sensitivity from behavioral inflexibility, drug effects were subsequently tested in a modified version of the discounting task, in which the delay preceding the large reward decreased within each session (descending delays). Yohimbine increased choice of the large reward when tested with ascending delays but decreased choice of the same large reward when tested with descending delays, suggesting that drug effects could be attributed to perseverative choice of the lever preferred at the beginning of the session. Propranolol increased choice of the large reward when tested with ascending delays. Prazosin and guanfacine had no effect on reward choice. The stress-like effects of yohimbine administration may impair decision making by causing inflexible, perseverative behavior.

  6. A rational approach to selecting and ranking some pharmaceuticals of concern for the aquatic environment and their relative importance compared with other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Donnachie, Rachel L; Johnson, Andrew C; Sumpter, John P

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic organisms can be exposed to thousands of chemicals discharged by the human population. Many of these chemicals are considered disruptive to aquatic wildlife, and the literature on the impacts of these chemicals grows daily. However, because time and resources are not infinite, research must focus on the chemicals that represent the greatest threat. One group of chemicals of increasing concern is pharmaceuticals, for which the primary challenge is to identify which represent the greatest threat. In the present study, a list of 12 pharmaceuticals was compiled based on scoring the prevalence of different compounds from previous prioritization reviews. These included rankings based on prescription data, environmental concentrations, predicted environmental concentration/predicted no-effect concentration (PEC/PNEC) ratios, persistency/bioaccumulation/(eco)toxicity (PBT), and fish plasma model approaches. The most frequently cited were diclofenac, paracetamol, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, naproxen, atenolol, ethinyl estradiol, aspirin, fluoxetine, propranolol, metoprolol, and sulfamethoxazole. For each pharmaceutical, literature on effect concentrations was compiled and compared with river concentrations in the United Kingdom. The pharmaceuticals were ranked by degree of difference between the median effect and median river concentrations. Ethinyl estradiol was ranked as the highest concern, followed by fluoxetine, propranolol, and paracetamol. The relative risk of these pharmaceuticals was compared with those of metals and some persistent organic pollutants. Pharmaceuticals appear to be less of a threat to aquatic organisms than some metals (Cu, Al, Zn) and triclosan, using this ranking approach. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  7. Activation of β-adrenoceptor facilitates active avoidance learning through enhancement of glutamate levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Feng, Hao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Wei-Yao; Yue, Xue-Ling; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2017-10-18

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely accepted as the best studied model for neurophysiological mechanisms that could underlie learning and memory formation. Despite a number of studies indicating that β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is involved in the modulation of learning and memory as well as LTP, few studies have used glutamate release as a visual indicator in awake animals to explore the role of β-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of propranolol (an antagonist of β-adrenoceptor) and isoproterenol (an agonist of β-adrenoceptor) on extracellular concentrations of glutamate and amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during active avoidance learning in freely moving conscious rats. In the control group, the glutamate level in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active avoidance behavior and returned to basal level following extinction training. In propranolol group, antagonism of β-adrenoceptors in the DG significantly reduced the change in glutamate level, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly inhibited. In contrast, the change in glutamate level was significantly enhanced by isoproterenol, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly accelerated. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in glutamate level were accompanied by corresponding changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude and active avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that activation of β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG facilitates active avoidance learning by modulations of glutamate level and synaptic efficiency in rats.

  8. An Abrupt Transformation of Phobic Behavior After a Post-Retrieval Amnesic Agent.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2015-12-15

    Although disrupting the process of memory reconsolidation has a great potential for clinical practice, the fear-amnesic effects are typically demonstrated through Pavlovian conditioning. Given that older and stronger memories are generally more resistant to change, we tested whether disrupting reconsolidation would also diminish fear in individuals who had developed a persistent spider fear outside the laboratory. Spider-fearful participants received a single dose of 40 mg of the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol (n = 15), double-blind and placebo-controlled (n = 15), after a short 2-min exposure to a tarantula. To test whether memory reactivation was necessary to observe a fear-reducing effect, one additional group of spider-fearful participants (n = 15) received a single dose of 40 mg propranolol without memory reactivation. Disrupting reconsolidation of fear memory transformed avoidance behavior into approach behavior in a virtual binary fashion-an effect that persisted at least 1 year after treatment. Interestingly the β-adrenergic drug did initially not affect the self-declared fear of spiders but instead these reports followed the instant behavioral transformation several months later. Our findings are in sharp contrast with the currently pharmacological and cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety and related disorders. The β-adrenergic blocker was only effective when the drug was administered upon memory reactivation, and a modification in cognitive representations was not necessary to observe a change in fear behavior. A new wave of treatments that pharmacologically target the synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory seems to be within reach. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Repeated stressor exposure enhances contextual fear memory in a beta-adrenergic receptor-dependent process and increases impulsivity in a non-beta receptor-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Camp, Robert M; Johnson, John D

    2015-10-15

    Memory formation is promoted by stress via the release of norepinephrine and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Previous data demonstrate that repeated stressor exposure increases norepinephrine turnover and β-AR signaling within the amygdala, which led to the hypothesis that some stress-induced behavioral changes are likely due to facilitated associative learning. To test this, Fischer rats were exposed to chronic mild stress for four days. On day 5, subjects (including non-stressed controls) were injected with the beta-blocker propranolol or vehicle prior to conditioning in an operant box (animals receive two mild foot shocks) or passive avoidance apparatus (animals received a foot shock upon entry into the dark chamber). Twenty-four hours later, subjects were returned to the operant box for measurement of freezing or returned to the passive avoidance apparatus for measurement of latency to enter the dark chamber. Subjects were also tested in an open field to assess context-independent anxiety-like behavior. Animals exposed to chronic stress showed significantly more freezing behavior in the operant box than did controls, and this exaggerated freezing was blocked by propranolol during the conditioning trial. There was no effect of stress on behavior in the open field. Unexpectedly, retention latency was significantly reduced in subjects exposed to chronic stress. These results indicate that chronic exposure to stress results in complex behavioral changes. While repeated stress appears to enhance the formation of fearful memories, it also results in behavioral responses that resemble impulsive behaviors that result in poor decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of midazolam on heart rate arises from cardiac autonomic tones alterations in Burmese pythons, Python molurus.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ivã Guidini; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Braga, Victor Hugo da Silva; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2017-12-01

    The GABA A receptor a