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Sample records for proprioceptive deafferentation slows

  1. The impact of cortical deafferentation on the neocortical slow oscillation.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Maxime; Chen, Jen-Yung; Lonjers, Peter; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2014-04-16

    Slow oscillation is the main brain rhythm observed during deep sleep in mammals. Although several studies have demonstrated its neocortical origin, the extent of the thalamic contribution is still a matter of discussion. Using electrophysiological recordings in vivo on cats and computational modeling, we found that the local thalamic inactivation or the complete isolation of the neocortical slabs maintained within the brain dramatically reduced the expression of slow and fast oscillations in affected cortical areas. The slow oscillation began to recover 12 h after thalamic inactivation. The slow oscillation, but not faster activities, nearly recovered after 30 h and persisted for weeks in the isolated slabs. We also observed an increase of the membrane potential fluctuations recorded in vivo several hours after thalamic inactivation. Mimicking this enhancement in a network computational model with an increased postsynaptic activity of long-range intracortical afferents or scaling K(+) leak current, but not several other Na(+) and K(+) intrinsic currents was sufficient for recovering the slow oscillation. We conclude that, in the intact brain, the thalamus contributes to the generation of cortical active states of the slow oscillation and mediates its large-scale synchronization. Our study also suggests that the deafferentation-induced alterations of the sleep slow oscillation can be counteracted by compensatory intracortical mechanisms and that the sleep slow oscillation is a fundamental and intrinsic state of the neocortex.

  2. The Impact of Cortical Deafferentation on the Neocortical Slow Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Maxime; Chen, Jen-Yung; Lonjers, Peter; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Slow oscillation is the main brain rhythm observed during deep sleep in mammals. Although several studies have demonstrated its neocortical origin, the extent of the thalamic contribution is still a matter of discussion. Using electrophysiological recordings in vivo on cats and computational modeling, we found that the local thalamic inactivation or the complete isolation of the neocortical slabs maintained within the brain dramatically reduced the expression of slow and fast oscillations in affected cortical areas. The slow oscillation began to recover 12 h after thalamic inactivation. The slow oscillation, but not faster activities, nearly recovered after 30 h and persisted for weeks in the isolated slabs. We also observed an increase of the membrane potential fluctuations recorded in vivo several hours after thalamic inactivation. Mimicking this enhancement in a network computational model with an increased postsynaptic activity of long-range intracortical afferents or scaling K+ leak current, but not several other Na+ and K+ intrinsic currents was sufficient for recovering the slow oscillation. We conclude that, in the intact brain, the thalamus contributes to the generation of cortical active states of the slow oscillation and mediates its large-scale synchronization. Our study also suggests that the deafferentation-induced alterations of the sleep slow oscillation can be counteracted by compensatory intracortical mechanisms and that the sleep slow oscillation is a fundamental and intrinsic state of the neocortex. PMID:24741059

  3. Enhanced accuracy in novel mirror drawing after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced proprioceptive deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Balslev, Daniela; Christensen, Lars O D; Lee, Ji-Hang; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B; Miall, R Christopher

    2004-10-27

    When performing visually guided actions under conditions of perturbed visual feedback, e.g., in a mirror or a video camera, there is a spatial conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Recent studies have shown that subjects without proprioception avoid this conflict and show a performance benefit. In this study, we tested whether deafferentation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve mirror tracing skills in normal subjects. Hand trajectory error during novel mirror drawing was compared across two groups of subjects that received either 1 Hz rTMS over the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the hand or sham stimulation. Mirror tracing was more accurate after rTMS than after sham stimulation. Using a position-matching task, we confirmed that rTMS reduced proprioceptive acuity and that this reduction was largest when the coil was placed at an anterior parietal site. It is thus possible, with rTMS, to enhance motor performance in tasks involving a visuoproprioceptive conflict, presumably by reducing the excitability of somatosensory cortical areas that contribute to the sense of hand position.

  4. Development of a robotic evaluation system for the ability of proprioceptive sensation in slow hand motion.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Mizoe, Genki; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple diagnostic methodology for checking the ability of proprioceptive/kinesthetic sensation by using a robotic device. The perception ability of virtual frictional forces is examined in operations of the robotic device by the hand at a uniform slow velocity along the virtual straight/circular path. Experimental results by healthy subjects demonstrate that percentage of correct answers for the designed perceptual tests changes in the motion direction as well as the arm configuration and the HFM (human force manipulability) measure. It can be supposed that the proposed methodology can be applied into the early detection of neuromuscular/neurological disorders.

  5. Increased transneuronal excitation of the cat lateral geniculate nucleus after acute deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Eysel, U T; Grüsser, O J

    1978-12-08

    Single neurons and sum potentials were recorded from the cat optic tract (OT), the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and the optic radiation (OR) before and after visual deafferentation obtained by locally restricted photocoagulation of the retina or by 'total' photocoagulation of the optic disc of 'monocular' cats. Immediately after deafferentation, the spontaneous activity of single LGN-neurons fell to a very low level (is much less than 0.1 impulses/sec). This nearly total depression of neuronal activity was followed by a slow but incomplete recovery of the spontaneous impulse rate which reached about 1-2 impulses/sec, 2-4 days after deafferentation. The 'normal' LGN neuron impulse rate was about 8-30 impulses/sec. After deafferentation the impulse pattern showed an increased occurrence of double discharges separated by very long intermittent intervals. The excitability of LGN principal cells activated by OT electrical stimuli increased immediately after deafferentation. Double and multiple discharges were then elicited by single optic tract stimuli. The deafferentation hyperexcitability was abolished temporarily by OT stimulus trains with a frequency range > 10 stimuli/sec, and returned to the prestimulus level within 0.5-1sec after the stimulus train was terminated. Antidromic conditioning stimuli did not influence the deafferentation hyperexcitability. The time course of the postdeafferentation hyperexcitability was separated into two parts: an immediate rise in excitability after deafferentation was followed by a further slow increase in excitability within the first 2 h after deafferentation. The hyperexcitability measurable at a single unit level was already maximal after locally restricted deafferentation and did not increase with the extension of the retinal lesion beyond 1-2 mm diameter, corresponding to 4-8 degrees in the visual field. Intracellular recordings after deafferentation displayed no significant increase in the amplitude of subthreshold EPSPs

  6. Role of proprioception and vision in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2009-08-14

    The objective of this study is to better understand the role of proprioception in handwriting and test earlier conclusions stating that the automated shaping of letters was not impaired by the removal of visual control in deafferentation. To this aim we compared the performance of the deafferented patient GL, who suffers from a complete loss of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation, with that of eight healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The word "Parallele", written within a short sentence with and without visual control, was quantified using a digital writing tablet. Three of the 13 analyzed parameters were strikingly different in patient GL compared to healthy subjects, both with and without vision: increase of number of pen touches, increase in number of inversions in velocity, and decrease of mean stroke frequency. The changes in these three parameters indicate a strong impairment in automated behaviour in the absence of proprioception and touch. This impairment is also supported by the significantly longer movement duration, which is also significantly increased by the removal of visual control. The present study provides for the first time a quantification of handwriting in a completely deafferented patient and reveals the central role of proprioception for the storage, updating, and maintenance of skilled motor programs. The fact that the deficits are already present with visual feedback suggests that the role of vision in handwriting is only secondary.

  7. Proprioceptive isokinetic exercise test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempster, P. T.; Bernauer, E. M.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Proprioception, the reception of stimuli within the body that indicates position, is an important mechanism for optimal human performance. People exposed to prolonged bed rest, microgravity, or other deconditioning situations usually experience reduced proprioceptor and kinesthetic stimuli that compromise body balance, posture, and equilibrium. A new proprioceptive test is described that utilizes the computer-driven LIDO isokinetic ergometer. An overview of the computer logic, software, and testing procedure for this proprioceptive test, which can be performed with the arms or legs, is described.

  8. Proprioception exercises in medical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Stępień, Justyna

    2013-01-03

    Proprioception, or kinesthesia, is the sense of orientation responsible for perception of body and relative position of its parts. Kinaesthesia is received by receptors located in muscles and tendons. In this study a set of proprioception developing exercises was presented. Proprioception should be restored in case of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Proprioception training can also be used as a prophylaxis before starting various sporting activities. Proprioception developing exercises have significant meaning for the elderly, who are at risk of balance disorders. These exercises help developing motor memory and at the same time protect from falls.

  9. Proprioception Is Necessary for Body Schema Plasticity: Evidence from a Deafferented Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Lucilla; Brozzoli, Claudio; Luauté, Jacques; Roy, Alice C.; Farnè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The ability of using a large variety of tools is important in our daily life. Behind human tool-use abilities lays the brain capacity to incorporate tools into the body representation for action (Body Schema, BS), thought to rely mainly on proprioceptive information. Here, we tested whether tool incorporation is possible in absence of proprioception by studying a patient with right upper-limb deafferentation. We adopted a paradigm sensitive to changes of the BS and analyzed the kinematics of free-hand movements before and after tool-use, in three sessions over a period of 2 years. In the first session, before tool-use, the kinematics of the deafferented hand was disrupted. Similarly, the first movements with the tool (a mechanical grabber elongating the arm by ~40 cm) showed an abnormal profile that tended to normalize at the end of the session. Subsequent free-hand movements were also normalized. At session 2, 6 months later, the patient exhibited normal free-hand kinematic profiles, additionally showing changes in grasping kinematics after tool-use, but no sign of tool incorporation. A follow-up 2 years later, further confirmed the normalized kinematic profile but the absence of tool incorporation. This first description of tool-use in absence of proprioception shows the fundamental role of proprioception in the update of the BS. These results provide an important further step in understanding human motor control and have implications for future development of rehabilitation programs for patients with sensory deficits. PMID:27378879

  10. Proprioception Is Necessary for Body Schema Plasticity: Evidence from a Deafferented Patient.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Lucilla; Brozzoli, Claudio; Luauté, Jacques; Roy, Alice C; Farnè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The ability of using a large variety of tools is important in our daily life. Behind human tool-use abilities lays the brain capacity to incorporate tools into the body representation for action (Body Schema, BS), thought to rely mainly on proprioceptive information. Here, we tested whether tool incorporation is possible in absence of proprioception by studying a patient with right upper-limb deafferentation. We adopted a paradigm sensitive to changes of the BS and analyzed the kinematics of free-hand movements before and after tool-use, in three sessions over a period of 2 years. In the first session, before tool-use, the kinematics of the deafferented hand was disrupted. Similarly, the first movements with the tool (a mechanical grabber elongating the arm by ~40 cm) showed an abnormal profile that tended to normalize at the end of the session. Subsequent free-hand movements were also normalized. At session 2, 6 months later, the patient exhibited normal free-hand kinematic profiles, additionally showing changes in grasping kinematics after tool-use, but no sign of tool incorporation. A follow-up 2 years later, further confirmed the normalized kinematic profile but the absence of tool incorporation. This first description of tool-use in absence of proprioception shows the fundamental role of proprioception in the update of the BS. These results provide an important further step in understanding human motor control and have implications for future development of rehabilitation programs for patients with sensory deficits.

  11. Artificial proprioception for myoelectric control.

    PubMed

    Pistohl, Tobias; Jackson, Andrew; Gowrishankar, Ganesh; Joshi, Deepak; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2013-01-01

    The typical control of myoelectric interfaces, be it in real-life prosthetic applications or laboratory settings, largely relies on visual feedback, while proprioceptive feedback from controlling muscles is not very informative about the task carried out. If proprioceptive feedback were artificially provided to a non-controlling limb, could it be effectively integrated into myoelectric control? In a two-dimensional myoelectric-controlled centre-out task, we aimed to restore proprioception by guiding subjects' right hands along the trajectory of a visual cursor they were controlling with isometric muscle contractions in their left hand. Overall task success was equally high with vision alone as it was with the additional proprioceptive signal, indicating that visual feedback was already sufficient. Still, presence of artificial proprioception did enhance control when visual feedback was not available. Interestingly, sensory integration of the proprioceptive information was established while it appeared to be redundant to existing visual feedback. However, utilization of the artificial proprioceptive signal was severely impaired when it was vertically mirrored with respect to visual feedback, outlining the importance of congruence of sensory modalities for implicit multi-sensory integration.

  12. Increased cortical responses to forepaw stimuli immediately after peripheral deafferentation of hindpaw inputs

    PubMed Central

    Humanes-Valera, D.; Foffani, G.; Aguilar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Both central and peripheral injuries of the nervous system induce dramatic reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex. We recently showed that spinal cord injuries at thoracic level in anesthetized rats can immediately increase the responses evoked in the forepaw cortex by forepaw stimuli (above the level of the lesion), suggesting that the immediate cortical reorganization after deafferentation can extend across cortical representations of different paws. Here we show that a complete deafferentation of inputs from the hindpaw induced by injury or pharmacological block of the peripheral nerves in anesthetized rats also increases the responses evoked in the forepaw cortex by forepaw stimuli. This increase of cortical responses after peripheral deafferentation is not associated with gross alterations in the state of cortical spontaneous activity. The results of the present study, together with our previous works on spinal cord injury, suggest that the forepaw somatosensory cortex is critically involved in the reorganization that starts immediately after central or peripheral deafferentation of hindpaw inputs. PMID:25451619

  13. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation.

  14. Body inversion effect without body sense: insights from deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Bosbach, Simone; Knoblich, Guenther; Reed, Catherine L; Cole, Jonathan; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, human bodies are recognized via the configuration of their parts; their recognition is impaired by inversion. Processing of configural relations has been shown to depend on perceptual expertise with certain classes of objects. Because people see their own body and others' bodies frequently, humans are experts in the visual processing of human body postures. In addition, the observer's own on-line, multimodal body representation which heavily relies on current proprioception may play a crucial role in recognizing human body postures. We investigated whether static body posture recognition relied on current proprioceptive inputs or whether visual familiarity and stored body representations were sufficient. IW, who is deafferented (lost cutaneous touch and proprioception from his body), was tested on the recognition of upright and inverted human body postures, faces, and houses. As controls, IW showed an inversion effect for abstract, common, and rare human body postures as well as faces, but not houses. Results rule out a strong contribution of current afferent inputs to the recognition of human postures. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of the body schema in body posture recognition and how other contributions from one's own body may be involved in the visual processing of human bodies.

  15. Proprioception and Knee Arthroplasty: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Wodowski, Andrew J; Swigler, Colin W; Liu, Hongchao; Nord, Keith M; Toy, Patrick C; Mihalko, William M

    2016-04-01

    Proprioceptive mechanoreceptors provide neural feedback for position in space and are critical for three-dimensional interaction. Proprioception is decreased with osteoarthritis of the knees, which leads to increased risk of falling. As the prevalence of osteoarthritis increases so does the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and knowing the effect of TKA on proprioception is essential. This article reviews the literature regarding proprioception and its relationship to balance, aging, osteoarthritis, and the effect of TKA on proprioception. Knee arthroplasty involving retention of the cruciate ligaments is also reviewed, as well the evidence of proprioception in the posterior cruciate ligament after TKA.

  16. The Changes of c-Fos Expression by Motor Cortex Stimulation in the Deafferentation Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    KUDO, Kanae; TAKAHASHI, Toshio; SUZUKI, Shigeharu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) therapy for deafferentation pain was evaluated based on c-Fos, a known pain marker. Nineteen mature cats weighing 1.5–3.5 kg were used. Cats were divided into three groups: a deafferentation pain group in which the left trigeminal ganglion was destroyed, an MCS group in which MCS was used following destruction of the trigeminal ganglion, and a control group. Sites and levels of c-Fos expression were examined immunohistochemically. The percentage of c-Fos-positive cells in the left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus, the bilateral insula, and the bilateral operculum increased in both the deafferentation pain and the MCS groups. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups. In the cingulate gyrus, the percentage of c-Fos-positive cells increased bilaterally in the deafferentation pain group and the MCS group, but the increase was greater in the MCS group. The increase in c-Fos-positive cells in the left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus in the deafferentation group may reflect reported electrical hyperactivity. The cingulate gyrus, insula, and parietal operculum were activated after deafferentation. This change (increase in c-Fos positive cells) is related to the development of deafferentation pain. Pain relief due to MCS is not dependent on the suppression of the activated left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus or the descending analgesic mechanism of the brain stem. Activation of the cingulate gyrus appears to be a factor in the analgesic mechanism of MCS. PMID:24965534

  17. Proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Arnfred, Sidse M H

    2012-03-01

    This doctoral thesis focuses on brain activity in response to proprioceptive stimulation in schizophrenia. The works encompass methodological developments substantiated by investigations of healthy volunteers and two clinical studies of schizophrenia spectrum patients. American psychiatrist Sandor Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time-series averages or as oscillatory averages transformed into the frequency domain. Gamma activity evoked by electricity or by another type of somatosensory stimulus has not been reported before in schizophrenia. Gamma activity is considered to be a manifestation of perceptual integration. A new load stimulus was constructed that stimulated the proprioceptive dimension of recognition of applied force. This load stimulus was tested both in simple and several types of more complex stimulus paradigms, with and without tasks, in total in 66 healthy volunteers. The evoked potential (EP) resulting from the load stimulus was named the proprioceptive EP. The later components of the proprioceptive EP (> 150 ms) were modulated similarly to previously reported electrical somatosensory EPs by repetition and cognitive task. The earlier activity was further investigated through decomposition of the time-frequency transformed data by a new non-negative matrix analysis, and previous research and visual inspection validated these results. Several time-frequency components emerged in the proprioceptive EP. The contra-lateral parietal gamma component (60-70 ms; 30-41 Hz) had not previously been described in the somatosensory modality without electrical stimulation. The parietal beta component (87-103 ms; 19-22 Hz) was increased when the proprioceptive stimulus appeared in a predictable sequence in

  18. Rapid and persistent impairments of the forelimb motor representations following cervical deafferentation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuqiu; Williams, Preston TJA; Martin, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Skilled motor control is regulated by the convergence of somatic sensory and motor signals in brain and spinal motor circuits. Cervical deafferentation is known to diminish forelimb somatic sensory representations rapidly and to impair forelimb movements. Our focus was to determine what effect deafferentation has on the motor representations in motor cortex, knowledge of which could provide new insights into the locus of impairment following somatic sensory loss, such as after spinal cord injury or stroke. We hypothesized that somatic sensory information is important for cortical motor map topography. To investigate this we unilaterally transected the dorsal rootlets in adult rats from C4 to C8 and mapped the forelimb motor representations using intracortical microstimulation, immediately after rhizotomy and following a 2-week recovery period. Immediately after deafferentation we found that the size of the distal representation was reduced. However, despite this loss of input there were no changes in motor threshold. Two weeks after deafferentation, animals showed a further distal representation reduction, an expansion of the elbow representation, and a small elevation in distal movement threshold. These changes were specific to the forelimb map in the hemisphere contralateral to deafferentation; there were no changes in the hindlimb or intact-side forelimb representations. Degradation of the contralateral distal forelimb representation probably contributes to the motor control deficits after deafferentation. We propose that somatic sensory inputs are essential for the maintenance of the forelimb motor map in motor cortex and should be considered when rehabilitating patients with peripheral or spinal cord injuries or after stroke. PMID:24329730

  19. Homeostatic structural plasticity can account for topology changes following deafferentation and focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Butz, Markus; Steenbuck, Ines D; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2014-01-01

    After brain lesions caused by tumors or stroke, or after lasting loss of input (deafferentation), inter- and intra-regional brain networks respond with complex changes in topology. Not only areas directly affected by the lesion but also regions remote from the lesion may alter their connectivity-a phenomenon known as diaschisis. Changes in network topology after brain lesions can lead to cognitive decline and increasing functional disability. However, the principles governing changes in network topology are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether homeostatic structural plasticity can account for changes in network topology after deafferentation and brain lesions. Homeostatic structural plasticity postulates that neurons aim to maintain a desired level of electrical activity by deleting synapses when neuronal activity is too high and by providing new synaptic contacts when activity is too low. Using our Model of Structural Plasticity, we explored how local changes in connectivity induced by a focal loss of input affected global network topology. In accordance with experimental and clinical data, we found that after partial deafferentation, the network as a whole became more random, although it maintained its small-world topology, while deafferentated neurons increased their betweenness centrality as they rewired and returned to the homeostatic range of activity. Furthermore, deafferentated neurons increased their global but decreased their local efficiency and got longer tailed degree distributions, indicating the emergence of hub neurons. Together, our results suggest that homeostatic structural plasticity may be an important driving force for lesion-induced network reorganization and that the increase in betweenness centrality of deafferentated areas may hold as a biomarker for brain repair.

  20. Proprioception in Aircraft Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-12

    stuurknuppol 17 De passieve stuurknuppel die in het experiment gebruikt werd was een standaard isometrische stuurknuppel van het merk Measurements Systems Inc...flight simulator. Report VTH- 178, Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology. Crossman, E.R.F.W. & Cooke, J.E. (1962). Manual control of slow... manual control. NASr 54(06), Langley, NASA. Hosman, R.J.A.W. & Vaart J.C. van der (1987). Active and passive side stick controllers: tracking task

  1. Motor cortex stimulation for central and peripheral deafferentation pain. Report of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Y; Shibata, M; Hirano, S; Hirata, M; Mashimo, T; Yoshimine, T

    2000-01-01

    The authors tested a modified motor cortex stimulation protocol for treatment of central and peripheral types of deafferentation pain. Four patients with thalamic pain and four with peripheral deafferentation pain were studied. Preoperative pharmacological tests of pain relief were performed using phentolamine, lidocaine, ketamine, thiopental, and placebo. In five patients we placed a 20- or 40-electrode grid in the subdural space to determine the best stimulation point for pain relief for a few weeks before definitive placement of a four-electrode array. In three patients, the four-electrode array was implanted in the interhemispheric fissure as a one-stage procedure to treat lower-extremity pain. In two patients with pain extending from the extremity to the trunk or hip, dual devices were implanted to drive two electrodes. Six of eight patients experienced pain reduction (two each with excellent, good, and fair relief) from motor cortex stimulation. No correlation was apparent between pharmacological test results and the effectiveness of motor cortex stimulation. Patients with peripheral deafferentation pain, including two with phantom-limb pain and two with brachial plexus injury, attained pain relief from motor cortex stimulation, with excellent results in two cases. Testing performed with a subdural multiple-electrode grid was helpful in locating the best stimulation point for pain relief. Motor cortex stimulation may be effective for treating peripheral as well as central deafferentation pain.

  2. Changes in the auditory neuropil after deafferentation in adult grasshoppers (Schistocerca gregaria).

    PubMed

    Krüger, Silke; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Nervous systems are capable of structural adjustments. Such plastic changes also occur in the auditory system of the locust Schistocerca gregaria in which a deafferentation leads to compensatory mechanisms, such as collateral sprouting of interneurons. In this study we further investigated lesion related changes in the major auditory neuropil, the median ventral association center (mVAC) of the metathoracic ganglion. The auditory sensory organ of adult locusts was unilaterally extirpated and the mVAC was histologically and immunocytochemically analyzed until 20 days postoperative. Measurements of the neuropil area in transverse sections showed a decrease in size. The putative transmitter of the afferents, acetylcholine, was investigated by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. Comparisons of staining intensities in the intact and deafferentated mVAC indicated that the amount of acetylcholinesterase in the deafferentated mVAC decreased shortly after the operation. Both, the decreases in size of the mVAC as well as that in acetylcholinesterase histochemistry were only less than 10% compared to the controls. The immunoreactivity against the neurotransmitters gamma-amino butyric acid and serotonin was not influenced by the deafferentation.

  3. Deafferentation Enhances Neurogenesis in the Young and Middle Aged Hippocampus but not in the Aged Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S.; Shuai, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) after brain insults such as excitotoxic lesions, seizures or stroke is a well known phenomenon in the young hippocampus. This plasticity reflects an innate compensatory response of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the young hippocampus to preserve function or minimize damage after injury. However, injuries to the middle-aged and aged hippocampi elicit either no or dampened neurogenesis response, which could be due to an altered plasticity of NSCs and/or the hippocampus with age. We examined whether the plasticity of NSCs to increase neurogenesis in response to a milder injury such as partial deafferentation is preserved during aging. We quantified DG neurogenesis in the hippocampus of young, middle-aged and aged F344 rats after partial deafferentation. A partial deafferentation of the left hippocampus without any apparent cell loss was induced via administration of Kainic acid (0.5 μg in 1.0 μl) into the right lateral ventricle of the brain. In this model, degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate hilar neurons in the right hippocampus results in loss of commissural axons which leads to partial deafferentation of the dendrites of dentate granule cells and CA1-CA3 pyramidal neurons in the left hippocampus. Quantification of newly born cells that are added to the dentate granule cell layer at post-deafferentation days 4-15 using 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling revealed greatly increased addition of newly born cells (~3 fold increase) in the deafferented young and middle-aged hippocampi but not in the deafferented aged hippocampus. Measurement of newly born neurons using doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining also revealed similar findings. Analyses using BrdU-DCX dual immunofluorescence demonstrated no changes in neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells after deafferentation, in comparison to the age-matched naive hippocampus in all age groups. Thus, the plasticity of hippocampal NSCs to increase DG

  4. Mutable and immutable features of paw-shake responses after hindlimb deafferentation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Koshland, G F; Smith, J L

    1989-07-01

    1. Hindlimb paw-shake responses were assessed before and after unilateral deafferentation (L3-S1) in chronic-spinal cats (n = 5), spinalized at the T12 level 1 yr earlier. Selected ankle flexor [tibialis anterior (TA)] and extensor [lateral gastrocnemius (LG)] and knee extensor [vastus lateralis (VL)] muscles were surgically implanted with chronic electromyographic (EMG) electrodes to determine mutable features of cycle characteristics and muscle synergies that are modulated by motion-dependent feedback as opposed to immutable features that are centrally programmed and not modulated by limb afference. 2. Paw-shake responses were difficult to elicit in the extensively deafferented hindlimb; this was true particularly during the first recovery weeks after deafferentation. By the end of the first month, however, brief responses of 1 or 2 cycles were commonly elicited in four of five cats, and responses of 3-7 cycles were common by the end of the second month in three of five cats. Initially, responses in the deafferented limb were elicited by stimuli applied to the dorsolateral thigh, an oval patch of skin innervated by intact S2 afferents. Over the 4-mo recovery period, however, the receptive field of the largely denervated skin expanded, and responses were also elicited by stimuli applied to the lateral aspect of the knee and shank, but usually not the paw. 3. In addition to fewer average cycles per response (5 vs. 10 cycles), paw shaking evoked in the deafferented hindlimb was characterized by longer-than-average cycle periods (124 vs. 98 ms), but the average cycle period varied widely among responses, ranging from 99 to 239 ms. Before deafferentation, the temporal organization of consecutive cycles was stereotypic; cycle periods increased linearly throughout a response. After deafferentation, however, there was no systematic relationship between cycle period and cycle number, and approximately 14% of the records with greater than or equal to 3 cycles were

  5. Cardiac spinal deafferentation reduces the susceptibility to sustained ventricular tachycardia in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Heidi L.; Krishnan, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    The response to myocardial ischemia is complex and involves the cardio-cardiac sympathetic reflex. Specifically, cardiac spinal (sympathetic) afferents are excited by ischemic metabolites and elicit an excitatory sympathetic reflex, which plays a major role in the genesis of ventricular arrhythmias. For example, brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release, which activates cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors. Clinical work with patients and preclinical work with animals document that disruption of this reflex protects against ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias. However, the role of afferent signals in the initiation of sustained ventricular tachycardia has not been investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cardiac spinal deafferentation reduces the susceptibility to sustained ventricular tachycardia in adult (12–15 wk of age), conscious, male Sprague-Dawley rats. To test this hypothesis, the susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias produced by occlusion of the left main coronary artery was determined in two groups of conscious rats: 1) deafferentation (bilateral excision of the T1-T5 dorsal root ganglia) and 2) control (sham deafferentation). The ventricular arrhythmia threshold (VAT) was defined as the time from coronary occlusion to sustained ventricular tachycardia resulting in a reduction in arterial pressure. Results document a significantly higher VAT in the deafferentation group (7.0 ± 0.7 min) relative to control (4.3 ± 0.3 min) rats. The decreased susceptibility to tachyarrhythmias with deafferentation was associated with a reduced cardiac metabolic demand (lower rate-pressure product and ST segment elevation) during ischemia. PMID:21677267

  6. Defining proprioceptive behaviors for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, James L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2002-07-01

    Proprioception is a sense of body position and movement that supports the control of many automatic motor functions such as posture and locomotion. This concept, normally relegated to the fields of neural physiology and kinesiology, is being utilized in the field of unmanned mobile robotics. This paper looks at developing proprioceptive behaviors for use in controlling an unmanned ground vehicle. First, we will discuss the field of behavioral control of mobile robots. Next, a discussion of proprioception and the development of proprioceptive sensors will be presented. We will then focus on the development of a unique neural-fuzzy architecture that will be used to incorporate the control behaviors coming directly from the proprioceptive sensors. Finally we will present a simulation experiment where a simple multi-sensor robot, utilizing both external and proprioceptive sensors, is presented with the task of navigating an unknown terrain to a known target position. Results of the mobile robot utilizing this unique fusion methodology will be discussed.

  7. Assessing Proprioception in Children: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chu, Virginia Way Tong

    2016-12-09

    Proprioception is the subconscious and conscious awareness of the spatial and mechanical status of the musculoskeletal framework. When working with children with motor delays and sensory integrative dysfunction, occupational therapists routinely assess the client's proprioceptive system. However, currently available assessments for occupational therapists are primarily observer-based and concerns have been raised about the reliability of observer-based assessments of sensation. The author's purpose was to review measures of proprioception currently available to occupational therapists and explore direct measures of proprioception from neuroscience and rehabilitation that can be adapted for pediatric clinical use. Observer-based and direct measurements of proprioception assessments complement each other in meeting clinical needs. A better understanding of both types of evaluation will improve proprioceptive evaluation.

  8. Update on proprioception: considerations for dance education.

    PubMed

    Batson, Glenna

    2009-01-01

    Proprioception is a topic of interest within the larger scope of dance pedagogy, science, and rehabilitation. As the science of proprioception changes, approaches to proprioceptive training also change. Thus, proprioceptive training in dance medicine has expanded to include balance protocols. A key concept within these protocols for treatment of lower extremity injuries is perturbation. Perturbation training is designed to evoke focal neuromuscular control at injured joint sites, as well as more global postural responses for overall balance and coordination. This article provides an update on the science of proprioception within the framework of postural control and balance. Specific practices from rehabilitation that integrate balance exercises into proprioceptive training are considered. Further research is needed to test the efficacy and utility of these exercises within the context of the dance studio.

  9. Extending human proprioception to cyber-physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kevin; Robinson, Ethan; Dickstein, Leah; Hahn, Heidi A.; Cattaneo, Alessandro; Mascareñas, David

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in computational cognition, there are many cyber-physical systems where human supervision and control is desirable. One pertinent example is the control of a robot arm, which can be found in both humanoid and commercial ground robots. Current control mechanisms require the user to look at several screens of varying perspective on the robot, then give commands through a joystick-like mechanism. This control paradigm fails to provide the human operator with an intuitive state feedback, resulting in awkward and slow behavior and underutilization of the robot's physical capabilities. To overcome this bottleneck, we introduce a new human-machine interface that extends the operator's proprioception by exploiting sensory substitution. Humans have a proprioceptive sense that provides us information on how our bodies are configured in space without having to directly observe our appendages. We constructed a wearable device with vibrating actuators on the forearm, where frequency of vibration corresponds to the spatial configuration of a robotic arm. The goal of this interface is to provide a means to communicate proprioceptive information to the teleoperator. Ultimately we will measure the change in performance (time taken to complete the task) achieved by the use of this interface.

  10. Evaluation of knee proprioception and effects of proprioception exercise in patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nilay; Baskent, Akin; Cakmak, Aysegul; Salli, Ali; Ugurlu, Hatice; Berker, Ender

    2008-08-01

    The first aim is to show if there is a disorder in proprioception in cases with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) when compared to healthy subjects. The second aim is to evaluate the effect of proprioception exercise in BJHS cases. To evaluate the proprioceptive sensibility of the knee joint with 40 BJHS and 30 healthy subjects enrolled in the study. Then, cases with BJHS were randomized into two groups; proprioceptive exercises were applied to 15 patients for 8 weeks in clinic and 25 patients were taken as controls. Outcome measures included proprioceptive sensation, AIMS2 and VAS. Proprioception is significantly impaired in cases with BJHS. In BJHS group, significant decreases in VAS levels were detected in cases who did exercise compared with cases who did not, and statistically significant improvements were detected in occupational activity. For this reason proprioception exercises cause decrease in pain and improvement of functional status in BJHS group.

  11. Predictive modeling by the cerebellum improves proprioception.

    PubMed

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Okamura, Allison M; Bastian, Amy J

    2013-09-04

    Because sensation is delayed, real-time movement control requires not just sensing, but also predicting limb position, a function hypothesized for the cerebellum. Such cerebellar predictions could contribute to perception of limb position (i.e., proprioception), particularly when a person actively moves the limb. Here we show that human cerebellar patients have proprioceptive deficits compared with controls during active movement, but not when the arm is moved passively. Furthermore, when healthy subjects move in a force field with unpredictable dynamics, they have active proprioceptive deficits similar to cerebellar patients. Therefore, muscle activity alone is likely insufficient to enhance proprioception and predictability (i.e., an internal model of the body and environment) is important for active movement to benefit proprioception. We conclude that cerebellar patients have an active proprioceptive deficit consistent with disrupted movement prediction rather than an inability to generally enhance peripheral proprioceptive signals during action and suggest that active proprioceptive deficits should be considered a fundamental cerebellar impairment of clinical importance.

  12. The effects of cryotherapy on proprioception system.

    PubMed

    Furmanek, Mariusz Paweł; Słomka, Kajetan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception plays an important role in the complex mechanism of joint control. Contemporary sport activities impose extremely high physical demands on athletes. Winter sports are played in areas with excessively low temperatures. Moreover, many athletes are subjected to treatments that involve local lowering of the body temperature before, during, and after physical activity. This work reviews the current knowledge regarding the influence of local cryotherapy on the proprioception system. The reviewed literature identified several tests that evaluate different aspects of proprioception. There is no universally agreed protocol, or clear set of criteria for test conditions. The outcomes of different tests and assessments of cryotherapy procedures using different cold modalities are poorly correlated. In general, the published results on the mechanism of cryotherapy effects on proprioception are not uniquely conclusive and are frequently contradictory. Additional high-quality research is required to explicitly answer the following questions: (1) whether local cryotherapy influences all aspects of proprioception; (2) whether the current methods of evaluation are adequate for the exploration of the relationship between cryotherapy and proprioception; and (3) whether the application of local cryotherapy is safe for athletes regarding proprioception. The review clearly showed that there is no comprehensive model relating cryotherapy and proprioception.

  13. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Proprioception System

    PubMed Central

    Furmanek, Mariusz Paweł; Słomka, Kajetan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception plays an important role in the complex mechanism of joint control. Contemporary sport activities impose extremely high physical demands on athletes. Winter sports are played in areas with excessively low temperatures. Moreover, many athletes are subjected to treatments that involve local lowering of the body temperature before, during, and after physical activity. This work reviews the current knowledge regarding the influence of local cryotherapy on the proprioception system. The reviewed literature identified several tests that evaluate different aspects of proprioception. There is no universally agreed protocol, or clear set of criteria for test conditions. The outcomes of different tests and assessments of cryotherapy procedures using different cold modalities are poorly correlated. In general, the published results on the mechanism of cryotherapy effects on proprioception are not uniquely conclusive and are frequently contradictory. Additional high-quality research is required to explicitly answer the following questions: (1) whether local cryotherapy influences all aspects of proprioception; (2) whether the current methods of evaluation are adequate for the exploration of the relationship between cryotherapy and proprioception; and (3) whether the application of local cryotherapy is safe for athletes regarding proprioception. The review clearly showed that there is no comprehensive model relating cryotherapy and proprioception. PMID:25478573

  14. Perception of stochastically undersampled sound waveforms: a model of auditory deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Barrios, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Auditory deafferentation, or permanent loss of auditory nerve afferent terminals, occurs after noise overexposure and aging and may accompany many forms of hearing loss. It could cause significant auditory impairment but is undetected by regular clinical tests and so its effects on perception are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize and test a neural mechanism by which deafferentation could deteriorate perception. The basic idea is that the spike train produced by each auditory afferent resembles a stochastically digitized version of the sound waveform and that the quality of the waveform representation in the whole nerve depends on the number of aggregated spike trains or auditory afferents. We reason that because spikes occur stochastically in time with a higher probability for high- than for low-intensity sounds, more afferents would be required for the nerve to faithfully encode high-frequency or low-intensity waveform features than low-frequency or high-intensity features. Deafferentation would thus degrade the encoding of these features. We further reason that due to the stochastic nature of nerve firing, the degradation would be greater in noise than in quiet. This hypothesis is tested using a vocoder. Sounds were filtered through ten adjacent frequency bands. For the signal in each band, multiple stochastically subsampled copies were obtained to roughly mimic different stochastic representations of that signal conveyed by different auditory afferents innervating a given cochlear region. These copies were then aggregated to obtain an acoustic stimulus. Tone detection and speech identification tests were performed by young, normal-hearing listeners using different numbers of stochastic samplers per frequency band in the vocoder. Results support the hypothesis that stochastic undersampling of the sound waveform, inspired by deafferentation, impairs speech perception in noise more than in quiet, consistent with auditory aging effects. PMID:23882176

  15. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging.

    PubMed

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be "slower than normal", as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time.

  16. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be “slower than normal”, as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time. PMID:26029098

  17. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid opening stretches mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle to activate the proprioceptive fiber supplied by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. This proprioception induces reflex contractions of the slow-twitch fibers in the levator palpebrae superioris and frontalis muscles to sustain eyelid and eyebrow positions against gravity. The cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalon potentially make gap-junctional connections with the locus coeruleus neurons. The locus coeruleus is implicated in arousal and autonomic function. Due to the relationship between arousal, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and skin conductance, we assessed whether upgaze with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation activates sympathetically innervated sweat glands and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we examined whether 60° upgaze induces palmar sweating and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex in 16 subjects. Sweating was monitored using a thumb-mounted perspiration meter, and prefrontal cortex activity was measured with 45-channel, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and 2-channel NIRS at Fp1 and Fp2. In 16 subjects, palmar sweating was induced by upgaze and decreased in response to downgaze. Upgaze activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with an accumulation of integrated concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin levels in 12 subjects. Upgaze phasically and degree-dependently increased deoxyhemoglobin level at Fp1 and Fp2, whereas downgaze phasically decreased it in 16 subjects. Unilateral anesthetization of mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle used to significantly reduce trigeminal proprioceptive evocation ipsilaterally impaired the increased deoxyhemoglobin level by 60° upgaze at Fp1 or Fp2 in 6 subjects. We concluded that upgaze with strong trigeminal proprioceptive evocation was sufficient to phasically activate sympathetically innervated sweat glands

  18. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Strength training and shoulder proprioception.

    PubMed

    Salles, José Inácio; Velasques, Bruna; Cossich, Victor; Nicoliche, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Pedro; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Motta, Geraldo

    2015-03-01

    Proprioception is essential to motor control and joint stability during daily and sport activities. Recent studies demonstrated that athletes have better joint position sense (JPS) when compared with controls matched for age, suggesting that physical training could have an effect on proprioception. To evaluate the result of an 8-week strength-training program on shoulder JPS and to verify whether using training intensities that are the same or divergent for the shoulder's dynamic-stabilizer muscles promote different effects on JPS. Randomized controlled clinical trial. We evaluated JPS in a research laboratory and conducted training in a gymnasium. A total of 90 men, right handed and asymptomatic, with no history of any type of injury or shoulder instability. For 8 weeks, the participants performed the strength-training program 3 sessions per week. We used 4 exercises (bench press, lat pull down, shoulder press, and seated row), with 2 sets each. We measured shoulder JPS acuity by calculating the absolute error. We found an interaction between group and time. To examine the interaction, we conducted two 1-way analyses of variance comparing groups at each time. The groups did not differ at pretraining; however, a difference among groups was noted posttraining. Strength training using exercises at the same intensity produced an improvement in JPS compared with exercises of varying intensity, suggesting that the former resulted in improvements in the sensitivity of muscle spindles and, hence, better neuromuscular control in the shoulder.

  20. Eye proprioception used for visual localization only if in conflict with the oculomotor plan.

    PubMed

    Balslev, Daniela; Himmelbach, Marc; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Borchers, Svenja; Odoj, Bartholomaeus

    2012-06-20

    Both the corollary discharge of the oculomotor command and eye muscle proprioception provide eye position information to the brain. Two contradictory models have been suggested about how these two sources contribute to visual localization: (1) only the efference copy is used whereas proprioception is a slow recalibrator of the forward model, and (2) both signals are used together as a weighted average. We had the opportunity to test these hypotheses in a patient (R.W.) with a circumscribed lesion of the right postcentral gyrus that overlapped the human eye proprioceptive representation. R.W. was as accurate and precise as the control group (n = 19) in locating a lit LED that she viewed through the eye contralateral to the lesion. However, when the task was preceded by a brief (<1 s), gentle push to the closed eye, which perturbed eye position and stimulated eye proprioceptors in the absence of a motor command, R.W.'s accuracy significantly decreased compared with both her own baseline and the healthy control group. The data suggest that in normal conditions, eye proprioception is not used for visual localization. Eye proprioception is, however, continuously monitored to be incorporated into the eye position estimate when a mismatch with the efference copy of the motor command is detected. Our result thus supports the first model and, furthermore, identifies the limits for its operation.

  1. Neuromechanical models for insect locomotion: Stability, maneuverability, and proprioceptive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukillaya, R.; Proctor, J.; Holmes, P.

    2009-06-01

    We describe a hierarchy of models for legged locomotion, emphasizing relationships among feedforward (preflexive) stability, maneuverability, and reflexive feedback. We focus on a hexapedal geometry representative of insect locomotion in the ground plane that includes a neural central pattern generator circuit, nonlinear muscles, and a representative proprioceptive sensory pathway. Although these components of the model are rather complex, neglect of leg mass yields a neuromechanical system with only three degrees of freedom, and numerical simulations coupled with a Poincaré map analysis shows that the feedforward dynamics is strongly stable, apart from one relatively slow mode and a neutral mode in body yaw angle. These modes moderate high frequency perturbations, producing slow heading changes that can be corrected by a stride-to-stride steering strategy. We show that the model's response to a lateral impulsive perturbation closely matches that of a cockroach subject to a similar impulse. We also describe preliminary studies of proprioceptive leg force feedback, showing how a reflexive pathway can reinforce the preflexive stability inherent in the system.

  2. On the bimanual integration of proprioceptive information.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Esther; De Havas, Jack; Silkoset, Emilie; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Proprioception can be defined as the sense for body movement and position. While most sensory information can be successfully integrated across hemispheres, little is known about the bilateral integration of proprioceptive information. In two behavioural experiments, we investigated whether estimates of the position of one hand are influenced by simultaneous proprioceptive information from the other hand. We further investigated whether such putative bimanual proprioceptive integration would differ between expert dancers and non-dancer controls. Either one hand or both hands were passively moved to novel positions, and participants indicated the perceived location of the index finger tip of the designated target hand, by orienting a visible laser beam mounted on a cap. Synchronized bimanual movements compared to unimanual movements significantly improved proprioceptive position sense. In particular, we found a bias reduction to perceive the target hand's index finger tip as shifted away from the midline in the bimanual condition, compared to the unimanual condition. Expert dancers, in contrast, did not show this change in proprioceptive position sense after bimanual movements. We suggest that bimanual movements may improve proprioception due to interhemispheric integration in controls, but not in expert dancers.

  3. Haptic proprioception in a virtual locomotor task.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Kiran; Abbruzzese, Kevin; Xu, Hao; Ehrenberg, Naphtaly; Foulds, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Normal gait needs both proprioceptive and visual feedback to the nervous system to effectively control the rhythmicity of motor movement. Current preprogrammed exoskeletons provide only visual feedback with no user control over the foot trajectory. We propose an intuitive controller where hand trajectories are mapped to control contralateral foot movement. Our study shows that proprioceptive feedback provided to the users hand in addition to visual feedback result in better control during virtual ambulation than visual feedback alone. Hand trajectories resembled normal foot trajectories when both proprioceptive and visual feedback was present. Our study concludes that haptic feedback is essential for both temporal and spatial aspects of motor control in rhythmic movements.

  4. Osseoperception: sensory function and proprioception.

    PubMed

    Klineberg, I; Murray, G

    1999-06-01

    Tooth loss and its replacement have significant functional and psychosocial consequences. The removal of intra-dental and periodontal mechanoreception accompanying tooth loss changes the fine proprioceptive control of jaw function and influences the precision of magnitude, direction, and rate of occlusal load application. With the loss of all teeth, complete denture restoration is a compromise replacement which only partially restores function. Implant-supported prostheses restore jaw function more appropriately, with improved psychophysiological discriminatory ability and oral stereognosis. Osseoperception is defined as depending on central influences from corollary discharge from cortico-motor commands to jaw muscles, and contributions from peripheral mechanoreceptors in orofacial and temporomandibular tissues. The processing of central influences is considered with the recognition of the plasticity of neuromotor mechanisms that occurs to accommodate the loss of dental and periodontal inputs.

  5. Strength Training and Shoulder Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Salles, José Inácio; Velasques, Bruna; Cossich, Victor; Nicoliche, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Pedro; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Motta, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proprioception is essential to motor control and joint stability during daily and sport activities. Recent studies demonstrated that athletes have better joint position sense (JPS) when compared with controls matched for age, suggesting that physical training could have an effect on proprioception. Objective: To evaluate the result of an 8-week strength-training program on shoulder JPS and to verify whether using training intensities that are the same or divergent for the shoulder's dynamic-stabilizer muscles promote different effects on JPS. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: We evaluated JPS in a research laboratory and conducted training in a gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 90 men, right handed and asymptomatic, with no history of any type of injury or shoulder instability. Intervention(s): For 8 weeks, the participants performed the strength-training program 3 sessions per week. We used 4 exercises (bench press, lat pull down, shoulder press, and seated row), with 2 sets each. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured shoulder JPS acuity by calculating the absolute error. Results: We found an interaction between group and time. To examine the interaction, we conducted two 1-way analyses of variance comparing groups at each time. The groups did not differ at pretraining; however, a difference among groups was noted posttraining. Conclusions: Strength training using exercises at the same intensity produced an improvement in JPS compared with exercises of varying intensity, suggesting that the former resulted in improvements in the sensitivity of muscle spindles and, hence, better neuromuscular control in the shoulder. PMID:25594912

  6. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  7. Minimally assistive robot training for proprioception enhancement.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Morasso, Pietro; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Giannoni, Psiche

    2009-04-01

    In stroke survivors, motor impairment is frequently associated with degraded proprioceptive and/or somatosensory functions. Here we address the question of how to use robots to improve proprioception in these patients. We used an 'assist-as-needed' protocol, in which robot assistance was kept to a minimum and was continuously adjusted during exercise. To specifically train proprioceptive functions, we alternated blocks of trials with and without vision. A total of nine chronic stroke survivors participated in the study, which consisted of a total of ten 1-h exercise sessions. We used a linear mixed-effects statistical model to account for the effects of exercise, vision and the degree of assistance on the overall performance, and to capture both the systematic effects and the individual variations. Although there was not always a complete recovery of autonomous movements, all subjects exhibited an increased amount of voluntary control. Moreover, training with closed eyes appeared to be beneficial for patients with abnormal proprioception. Our results indicate that training by alternating vision and no-vision blocks may improve the ability to use proprioception as well as the ability to integrate it with vision. We suggest that the approach may be useful in the more general case of motor skill acquisition, in which enhancing proprioception may improve the ability to physically interact with the external world.

  8. Can prepared anticipatory postural adjustments be updated by proprioception?

    PubMed

    Ruget, H; Blouin, J; Teasdale, N; Mouchnino, L

    2008-08-26

    Stepping over an obstacle is preceded by a center of pressure (CoP) shift, termed anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). It provides an acceleration of the center of mass forward and laterally prior to step initiation. The APAs are characterized in the lateral direction by a force exerted by the moving leg onto the ground, followed by an unloading of the stepping leg and completed by an adjustment corresponding to a slow CoP shift toward the supporting foot. While the importance of sensory information in the setting of the APAs is undisputed, it is currently unknown whether sensory information can also be used online to modify the feedforward command of the APAs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the CNS modulates the APAs when a modification of proprioceptive information (Ia) occurs before or during the initiation of the stepping movement. We used the vibration of ankle muscles acting in the lateral direction to induce modification of the afferent inflow. Subjects learned to step over an obstacle, eyes closed, in synchrony to a tone signal. When vibration was applied during the initiation of the APAs, no change in the early APAs was observed except in the case of a cutaneous stimulation (low frequency vibration); it is thus possible that the CNS relies less on proprioceptive information during this early phase. Only the final adjustment of the CoP seems to take into account the biased proprioceptive information. When vibration was applied well before the APAs onset, a postural reaction toward the side of the vibration was produced. When subjects voluntarily initiated a step after the postural reaction, the thrust amplitude was set according to the direction of the postural reaction. This suggests that the planned motor command of the APAs can be updated online before they are triggered.

  9. The deafferentation syndrome in genetically blind rats: a model of the painful phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M; Heybach, J P

    1981-02-01

    The hypothesis was tested which states that the somatic deafferentation syndrome is a visually prompted response to sensorimotor loss. The dorsal roots, C5-T2, were bilaterally cut in a strain of rats known to be genetically blind. These complete dorsal rhizotomies left the forelimbs totally anesthetic, analgesic and paretic. Contact and visual placing reactions were absent, and responses to pinprick or pinch were absent. Self-mutilation limited to the distal digits appeared on the first or second postoperative days and then progressed proximally. The forelimbs were symmetrically affected, and no other body parts were mutilated. The spatial precision of this syndrome, in the absence of visual as well as peripheral somatosensory information from the affected limb, indicates that controlled guidance of the behavior arises from an existing central representation of the limb and its relationship with the total body; a phantom limb. Consideration of other reports regarding the deafferentation syndrome leads to the view that it is motivated by disturbing abnormal sensations (pain) of central neural origin.

  10. NORADRENERGIC, BUT NOT CHOLINERGIC, DEAFFERENTATION OF PREFRONTAL CORTEX IMPAIRS ATTENTIONAL SET-SHIFTING

    PubMed Central

    McGAUGHY, J.; ROSS, R. S.; EICHENBAUM, H.

    2008-01-01

    Both norepinephrine and acetylcholine have been shown to be critically involved in mediating attention but there remains debate about whether they serve similar or unique functions. Much of what is known about the role of these neurochemicals in cognition is based on manipulations done at the level of the cell body but these findings are difficult to reconcile with data regarding the unique contribution of cortical subregions, e.g. the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, to attention. In the current study, we directly compared the effects of noradrenergic and cholinergic deafferentation of the rat medial prefrontal cortex, the homologue of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, using an intradimensional/extradimensional attentional set shifting task, a task previously shown to be able to dissociate the function of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from orbitofrontal cortex. We found that noradrenergic, but not cholinergic, deafferentation produces specific impairments in the ability to shift attentional set. We also clarified the nature of the attentional deficits by assessing the ability of rats to disregard irrelevant stimuli. Noradrenergic lesions did not alter the ability of rats to ignore irrelevant stimuli, suggesting that the attentional deficit results from an overly focused attentional state that retards learning that a new stimulus dimension predicts reward. PMID:18355972

  11. Functional MRI Detection of Bilateral Cortical Reorganization in the Rodent Brain Following Peripheral Nerve Deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Pelled, Galit; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Dodd, Stephen J; Koretsky, Alan P

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for significant inter-hemispheric cortical plasticity in humans, opening important questions about the significance and mechanism for this long range plasticity. In this work, peripheral nerve deafferentation was performed on both the rat forepaw and hindpaw and cortical reorganization was assessed using functional MRI (fMRI). Sensory stimulation of the forepaw or the hindpaw in rats that experienced only partial denervation resulted in activation in only the appropriate, contralateral, primary somatosensory cortex (SI). However, 2-3 weeks following complete denervation of the rats' forepaw or hindpaw, stimulation of the intact paw resulted in fMRI activation of ipsilateral as well as contralateral SI. To address whether inter-cortical communication is required for this cortical reorganization, the healthy hindpaw SI representation was stereotaxically lesioned in rats which had the other hindpaw denervated. No fMRI activation was detected in the ipsilateral SI cortex after lesioning of the contralateral cortex. These results indicate that extensive inter-hemispheric cortical-cortical reorganization can occur in the rodent brain after peripheral nerve deafferentation and that cortical–cortical connections play a role in mediating this inter-hemispheric cortical reorganization. PMID:17544301

  12. The effects of acute cortical somatosensory deafferentation on grip force control

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrew G.; Attiah, Mark A.; Berman, Jeffrey I.; Chen, H. Isaac; Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Lucas, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    Grip force control involves mechanisms to adjust to unpredictable and predictable changes in loads during manual manipulation. Somatosensory feedback is critical not just to reactive, feedback control but also to updating the internal representations needed for proactive, feedforward control. The role of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in these control strategies is not well established. Here we investigated grip force control in a rare case of acute central deafferentation following resection of S1. The subject had complete loss of somatosensation in the right arm without any deficit in muscle strength or reflexes. In the first task, the subject was asked to maintain a constant grip force with and without visual feedback. The subject was able to attain the target force with visual feedback but not maintain that force for more than a few seconds after visual feedback was removed. In the second task, the subject was asked to grip and move an instrumented object. The induced acceleration-dependent loads were countered by adjustments in grip force. Both amplitude and timing of the grip force modulation were not affected by deafferentation. The dissociation of these effects demonstrates the differential contribution of S1 to the mechanisms of grip force control. PMID:26587914

  13. Subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation fails to block the anorectic effect of hydroxycitrate.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Monika; Hrupka, Brian J; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2004-09-15

    We investigated the neural mediation of the feeding suppression through orally administered hydroxycitrate (HCA) in male rats that were fed a high-glucose diet (about 48% glucose). Ten-day ad libitum food intake and body weight regain after previous body weight loss (13% of initial body weight) due to restrictive feeding were measured in rats with sham deafferentation (SHAM; n = 6), subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA; n = 7), and SDA plus celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy (SDA/CGX; n = 9). HCA suppressed the 10-day cumulative food intake in all surgical groups and body weight regain in SDA and SDA/CGX groups. Independent of HCA, SDA and SDA/CGX rats consumed less food and gained less weight compared to SHAM rats. These results demonstrate that all vagal afferents from below the diaphragm and vagal efferents of the dorsal trunk as well as splanchnic nerves (afferents and efferents) are not necessary for the feeding-suppressive effect of HCA in this animal model. Vagal afferents, however, appear to play a role in the control of intake when a high-glucose diet is consumed after a period of restrictive feeding.

  14. Impaired vertical postural control and proprioceptive integration deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, M; Viel, S; Assaiante, C; Amblard, B; Azulay, J P

    2007-05-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how the orientation and stabilization components of postural control may be affected as the result of the impaired proprioceptive integration possibly occurring in Parkinson's disease. To determine the proprioceptive contribution to postural control, parkinsonian patients and control subjects were asked to maintain vertical stance while very slow sinusoidal oscillations were being applied in the lateral and antero-posterior planes to the platform on which they were standing. The amplitude and frequency of their movements were kept below the semicircular canal perception threshold. Data were collected with the ELITE automatic motion analyzer and the two postural components (orientation and segmental stabilization) were analyzed at head and trunk levels while the subjects were performing the task with their eyes open and closed. The results show that 1) the parkinsonian groups' performances were affected in terms of both the postural orientation and stabilization components in comparison with the control group, 2) the use of vision improved the parkinsonian patients' postural performances, and 3) both parkinsonian patients and control subjects achieved better postural performances when antero-posterior perturbations rather than lateral perturbations were applied to the foot support. These results suggest that Parkinson's disease is associated with proprioceptive impairment, which may be an important factor contributing to these patients' postural deficits. On the basis of these results, the visual dependence observed in parkinsonian patients is re-defined as an adaptive strategy partly compensating for the impaired proprioception.

  15. Proprioception and person perception: politicians and professors.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-12-01

    Social-categorical knowledge is partially grounded in proprioception. In Study 1, participants describing "hard" and "soft" politicians, and "hard" and "soft" scientists used different "hard" and "soft" traits for the two groups, suggesting that the meaning of these traits is context specific. Studies 2 to 4 showed that both meanings were supported by hard and soft proprioception. Consistent with political stereotypes, perceivers viewing faces while handling a hard ball were more likely to categorize them as Republicans rather than as Democrats, compared to perceivers viewing the same faces while handling a soft ball (Study 2). Similarly, consistent with stereotypes of "hard" and "soft" academic disciplines, perceivers were more likely to categorize photographs of professors as physicists than historians when handling a hard versus soft ball (Study 3). Finally, thinking about Republicans and Democrats led participants to perceive a ball as harder or softer, respectively, suggesting that simulating proprioception might aid social-categorical thinking (Study 4).

  16. Measuring and enhancing proprioception in musicians and dancers.

    PubMed

    Smitt, Myrim Sillevis; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    Proprioception is important to many musicians and all dancers. Methods of measuring proprioception in the hands of musicians and globally in dancers are reviewed. Their uses in defining proprioception in performers and thereby reducing the risk of injury as well as enhancing performance are discussed.

  17. Artificial proprioceptive feedback for myoelectric control.

    PubMed

    Pistohl, Tobias; Joshi, Deepak; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Jackson, Andrew; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2015-05-01

    The typical control of myoelectric interfaces, whether in laboratory settings or real-life prosthetic applications, largely relies on visual feedback because proprioceptive signals from the controlling muscles are either not available or very noisy. We conducted a set of experiments to test whether artificial proprioceptive feedback, delivered noninvasively to another limb, can improve control of a two-dimensional myoelectrically-controlled computer interface. In these experiments, participants were required to reach a target with a visual cursor that was controlled by electromyogram signals recorded from muscles of the left hand, while they were provided with an additional proprioceptive feedback on their right arm by moving it with a robotic manipulandum. Provision of additional artificial proprioceptive feedback improved the angular accuracy of their movements when compared to using visual feedback alone but did not increase the overall accuracy quantified with the average distance between the cursor and the target. The advantages conferred by proprioception were present only when the proprioceptive feedback had similar orientation to the visual feedback in the task space and not when it was mirrored, demonstrating the importance of congruency in feedback modalities for multi-sensory integration. Our results reveal the ability of the human motor system to learn new inter-limb sensory-motor associations; the motor system can utilize task-related sensory feedback, even when it is available on a limb distinct from the one being actuated. In addition, the proposed task structure provides a flexible test paradigm by which the effectiveness of various sensory feedback and multi-sensory integration for myoelectric prosthesis control can be evaluated.

  18. Development of virtual reality proprioceptive rehabilitation system for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sangwoo; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Kang, Youn Joo; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the virtual reality (VR) proprioception rehabilitation system was developed for stroke patients to use proprioception feedback in upper limb rehabilitation by blocking visual feedback. To evaluate its therapeutic effect, 10 stroke patients (onset>3 month) trained proprioception feedback rehabilitation for one week and visual feedback rehabilitation for another week in random order. Proprioception functions were checked before, a week after, and at the end of training. The results show the click count, error distance and total error distance among proprioception evaluation factors were significantly reduced after proprioception feedback training compared to visual feedback training (respectively, p=0.005, p=0.001, and p=0.007). In addition, subjects were significantly improved in conventional behavioral tests after training. In conclusion, we showed the effectiveness and possible use of the VR to recover the proprioception of stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shaping motor cortex plasticity through proprioception.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Bassolino, Michela; Pozzo, Thierry; Bove, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Short-term upper limb disuse induces a hemispheric unbalance between the primary motor cortices (M1s). However, it is still unclear whether these changes are mainly attributable to the absence of voluntary movements or to the reduction of proprioceptive information. The goal of this work was to investigate the role of proprioception in modulating hemispheric balance during a short-term right arm immobilization. We evaluated the 2 M1s excitability and the interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) between M1s in 3 groups of healthy subjects. Two groups received during the immobilization a proprioceptive (P-VIB, 80 Hz) and tactile (T-VIB, 30 Hz) vibration to the right hand, respectively. Another group did not receive any conditioning sensory inputs (No-VIB). We found that in the No-VIB and in the T-VIB groups immobilization induced a decrease of left M1 excitability and IHI from left to right hemisphere and an increase of right M1 excitability and IHI from right to left hemisphere. Differently, only a partial decrease in left M1 excitability, no change in right M1 excitability and in IHI was observed in the P-VIB group. Our findings demonstrate that the maintenance of dynamic proprioceptive inputs in an immobilized arm through muscle vibration can prevent the hemispheric unbalance induced by short-term limb disuse.

  20. Assessing Proprioception: A Systematic Review of Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Susan; Immink, Maarten; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Proprioception is a vital aspect of motor control and when degraded or lost can have a profound impact on function in diverse clinical populations. This systematic review aimed to identify clinically related tools to measure proprioceptive acuity, to classify the construct(s) underpinning the tools, and to report on the clinimetric properties of the tools. We searched key databases with the pertinent search terms, and from an initial list of 935 articles, we identified 57 of relevance. These articles described 32 different tools or methods to quantify proprioception. There was wide variation in methods, the joints able to be tested, and the populations sampled. The predominant construct was active or passive joint position detection, followed by passive motion detection and motion direction discrimination. The clinimetric properties were mostly poorly evaluated or reported. The Rivermead Assessment of Somatosensory Perception was generally considered to be a valid and reliable tool but with low precision; other tools with higher precision are potentially not clinically feasible. Clinicians and clinical researchers can use the summary tables to make more informed decisions about which tool to use to match their predominant requirements. Further discussion and research is needed to produce measures of proprioception that have improved validity and utility.

  1. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  2. Correlation among proprioception, muscle strength, and balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihui; Ji, Zhongqiu; Jiang, Guiping; Liu, Weitong; Jiao, Xibian

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] To study the correlation among proprioception, muscle strength, and balance. [Subjects and Methods] A balance testing system (Biodex Balance System, BBS) and an isokinetic testing system (Biodex System 4, BS4) were used to test related indexes in 24 healthy young females. [Results] With the knee joint at 15 degree flexion, proprioception was significantly correlated with Limits of Stability-Time values, and was highly significantly correlated with Limits of Stability-Overall and Athlete Single Leg Medial/Lateral values. The sense of force was significantly correlated with Limits of Stability-Overall and Athlete Single Leg-Overall values. Quadriceps strength was significantly associated with Limits of Stability-Overall, Athlete Single Leg Medial/Lateral, and Athlete Double Leg-Overall values. The ratio of Quadriceps to Hamstring strength was significantly correlated with Athlete Single Leg Medial/Lateral, and Athlete Single Leg-Overall values. With the knee joint at 45°, proprioception was highly significantly correlated with dynamic balance, and was significantly correlated with double foot support under static balance; force sense had a high correlation with Limits of Stability-Overall, but no correlation with other indexes. Quadriceps strength had a significant correlation with dynamic and static balance; the ratio of Quadriceps/Hamstring had a highly significant correlation with Limits of Stability-Overall, Athlete Single Leg-Anterior/Posterior and Athlete Single Leg-Overall. [Conclusion] At different knee angles, the correlation differs among proprioception, force sense, quadriceps strength, the Quadriceps/Hamstring ratio, and balance.

  3. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  4. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  5. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  6. Proprioceptive information about target location suppresses autokinesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Zabkar, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of autokinesis perceived by subjects who had proprioceptive information about target locations was conducted. When subjects were permitted to grasp the target light mount, their perceptions of autokinesis were found to be fewer and of smaller magnitude than when only visual information about the target location was available. The decrease in autokinesis was correlated with an enhancement of oculomotor control.

  7. Cooling Does Not Affect Knee Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Ozmun, John C.; Thieme, Heather A.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cooling on proprioception of the knee has not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the movement reproduction (timing and accuracy) aspect of proprioception. Subjects were tested under two conditions: a 20-minute application of ice and control. Proprioceptive accuracy and timing were measured by passively moving the knee, then comparing the subject's active reproduction of the passive movement. Subjects were blindfolded, then tested in three sectors of the knee's range of motion: 90° to 60°, 60° to 30°, and 30° to full extension. Ice application had no apparent effect on the subject's ability to perform accurate movement reproductions in the sectors tested. However, accuracy of the subject's final angle reproduction varied between the sectors as did the total time of the movement. One possible explanation for the difference between sectors is that different receptors are active at different points in the knee's range of motion. We conclude that cooling the knee joint for 20 minutes does not have an adverse effect on proprioception. PMID:16558379

  8. Cooling does not affect knee proprioception.

    PubMed

    Ozmun, J C; Thieme, H A; Ingersoll, C D; Knight, K L

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cooling on proprioception of the knee has not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the movement reproduction (timing and accuracy) aspect of proprioception. Subjects were tested under two conditions: a 20-minute application of ice and control. Proprioceptive accuracy and timing were measured by passively moving the knee, then comparing the subject's active reproduction of the passive movement. Subjects were blindfolded, then tested in three sectors of the knee's range of motion: 90 degrees to 60 degrees , 60 degrees to 30 degrees , and 30 degrees to full extension. Ice application had no apparent effect on the subject's ability to perform accurate movement reproductions in the sectors tested. However, accuracy of the subject's final angle reproduction varied between the sectors as did the total time of the movement. One possible explanation for the difference between sectors is that different receptors are active at different points in the knee's range of motion. We conclude that cooling the knee joint for 20 minutes does not have an adverse effect on proprioception.

  9. Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of the rhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Janita; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2005-02-08

    Excitotoxic lesion studies have confirmed that the rhinal cortex is essential for visual recognition ability in monkeys. To evaluate the mnemonic role of cholinergic inputs to this cortical region, we compared the visual recognition performance of monkeys given rhinal cortex infusions of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, ME20.4-SAP, with the performance of monkeys given control infusions into this same tissue. The immunotoxin, which leads to selective cholinergic deafferentation of the infused cortex, yielded recognition deficits of the same magnitude as those produced by excitotoxic lesions of this region, providing the most direct demonstration to date that cholinergic activation of the rhinal cortex is essential for storing the representations of new visual stimuli and thereby enabling their later recognition.

  10. Auditory/Verbal hallucinations, speech perception neurocircuitry, and the social deafferentation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Ralph E

    2008-04-01

    Auditory/verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are comprised of spoken conversational speech seeming to arise from specific, nonself speakers. One hertz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces excitability in the brain region stimulated. Studies utilizing 1-Hz rTMS delivered to the left temporoparietal cortex, a brain area critical to speech perception, have demonstrated statistically significant improvements in AVHs relative to sham simulation. A novel mechanism of AVHs is proposed whereby dramatic pre-psychotic social withdrawal prompts neuroplastic reorganization by the "social brain" to produce spurious social meaning via hallucinations of conversational speech. Preliminary evidence supporting this hypothesis includes a very high rate of social withdrawal emerging prior to the onset of frank psychosis in patients who develop schizophrenia and AVHs. Moreover, reduced AVHs elicited by temporoparietal 1-Hz rTMS are likely to reflect enhanced long-term depression. Some evidence suggests a loss of long-term depression following experimentally-induced deafferentation. Finally, abnormal cortico-cortical coupling is associated with AVHs and also is a common outcome of deafferentation. Auditory/verbal hallucinations (AVHs) of spoken speech or "voices" are reported by 60-80% of persons with schizophrenia at various times during the course of illness. AVHs are associated with high levels of distress, functional disability, and can lead to violent acts. Among patients with AVHs, these symptoms remain poorly or incompletely responsive to currently available treatments in approximately 25% of cases. For patients with AVHs who do respond to antipsychotic drugs, there is a very high likelihood that these experiences will recur in subsequent episodes. A more precise characterization of underlying pathophysiology may lead to more efficacious treatments.

  11. Deafferentation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) exaggerates the sympathoadrenal system activity in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Ondicova, K; Kvetnansky, R; Mravec, B

    2014-07-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is a key structure in the regulation of the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems response to acute and chronic stress challenges. In this study, we examined the effect of a mechanical posterolateral deafferentation of the PVN on the activity of sympathoadrenal system (SAS) and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by measuring plasma concentrations of epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone (CORT) in rats exposed to acute immobilization (IMO) stress. The surgical posterolateral deafferentation of the PVN (PVN-deaf) was performed by Halasz knife, in brain of the adult male Sprague Dawley rats, according to coordinates of a stereotaxic atlas. Sham-operated (SHAM) animals underwent a craniotomy only. The animals were allowed to recover 14 days. Thereafter, the tail artery was cannulated and the animals exposed to acute IMO for 2 h. The blood samples were collected via cannula at the time points of 0, 5, 30, 60, and 120 min of the IMO. Concentrations of plasma EPI, NE, and CORT were determined by radioimmunoassay. The IMO-induced elevation of plasma EPI concentrations in the PVN-deaf rats reached statistical significance at 60 min of the IMO, when compared to SHAM rats. Similarly, the stress-induced elevation of the NE plasma levels in the PVN-deaf rats was significantly exaggerated at all time intervals of IMO in comparison with SHAM rats, whereas plasma CORT levels were significantly reduced. In contrast to the traditional view of excitatory role of the PVN in response to stress, our data indicate that some projections from the PVN to caudally localized hypothalamic structures, the brainstem or the spinal cord, exert inhibitory effect on the SAS system activity during acute IMO stress. The data indicate that stress-induced activation of the HPA axis is partially dependent on inputs from the brainstem to the PVN.

  12. Vestibular function outcomes after vestibular neurectomy in Meniere disease: can vestibular neurectomy provide complete vestibular deafferentation?

    PubMed

    Leveque, M; Seidermann, L; Tran, H; Langagne, T; Ulmer, E; Chays, A

    2010-06-01

    Vestibular neurectomy is considered the reference treatment of incapacitating vertigo accompanying Meniere disease, with an efficiency rate of 85-95% in most literature reports. The aim of this study is to evaluate if vestibular neurectomy can provide a complete vestibular deafferentation by investigating complete vestibular function after surgery. Prospective study. Twenty-four patients suffering from incapacitated Meniere vertigo crisis beneficiated from a vestibular neurectomy by retrosigmoid approach. The average time between surgery and vestibular evaluation was 1 year. We performed (i) kinetic test, (ii) caloric test and (iii) vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) at 30, 60 and 100Hz under videonystagmography recording, (iv) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), (v) video head impulsed test (VHIT) for each semicircular canals and (vi) an evaluation of visual vertical and horizontal subjective (VVS and HVS). On clinical evaluation, all the patients except one had never experienced any recurrence of vertigo crisis after surgery. The 24 patients would definitely undergo the surgery again. On vestibular evaluation, on the operated side, all patients showed a total areflexia at caloric test; 23 patients had no VEMP response; 23 patients had abolished canals response to VHIT. All the patients had VVS and HVS deviated towards the operated side; 23 patients had a high velocity VIN from 30 to 60Hz. This study proves that vestibular neurectomy can provide a complete vestibular deafferentation. We discuss this vestibular evaluation protocol and the main difficulties encounter during surgery, which could lead to partial nerve section and partial relief, and explain residual vestibular function after vestibular neurectomy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental tonic hand pain modulates the corticospinal plasticity induced by a subsequent hand deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Mavromatis, N; Gagné, M; Voisin, J I A V; Reilly, K T; Mercier, C

    2016-08-25

    Sensorimotor reorganization is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of phantom limb pain, but pain itself might modulate sensorimotor plasticity induced by deafferentation. Clinical and basic research support this idea, as pain prior to amputation increases the risk of developing post-amputation pain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experimental tonic cutaneous hand pain on the plasticity induced by temporary ischemic hand deafferentation. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (Pain, No Pain) in which transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal excitability in two forearm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis) before (T0, T10, T20, and T40) and after (T60 and T75) inflation of a cuff around the wrist. The cuff was inflated at T45 in both sessions and in the Pain session capsaicin cream was applied on the dorsum of the hand at T5. Corticospinal excitability was significantly greater during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.002) and increased similarly in both muscles (p=0.861). Importantly, the excitability increase in the Post-inflation phase was greater for the Pain than the No-Pain condition (p=0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between the two conditions during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.030) but no difference during the Pre-inflation phase (p=0.601). In other words, the corticospinal facilitation was greater when pain was present prior to cuff inflation. These results indicate that pain can modulate the plasticity induced by another event, and could partially explain the sensorimotor reorganization often reported in chronic pain populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive Staircase Measurement of Hand Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Sexton, Brandon M.; Kurtz, Karl; Liu, Yang; Block, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers often need to measure proprioception (position sense), for example to monitor the progress of disease, to identify the cause of movement or balance problems, or to ascertain the effects of an intervention. While researchers can use sophisticated equipment to estimate proprioceptive acuity with good precision, clinicians lack this option and must rely on the subjective and imprecise methods currently available in the clinic. Here we describe a novel technique that applies psychometric adaptive staircase procedures to hand proprioception with a simple tablet-style apparatus that could easily be adapted for the clinic. We report test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the adaptive staircase method vs. two other methods that are commonly used in clinical settings: passive motion direction discrimination (PMDD) and matching. As a first step, we focus on healthy adults. Subjects ages 18–82 had their proprioception measured with each of the three techniques, at the metacarpophalangeal joint in the second finger of the right hand. A subset completed a second session in which the measures were repeated, to assess test-retest reliability. Another subset had the measurements done by two different testers to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed using stepwise regression on age and activity level, and correlations calculated across the three methods. Results suggest that of the three methods, the adaptive staircase method yields the best test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity. The adaptive staircase method may prove to be a valuable clinical tool where more accurate assessment of proprioception is needed. PMID:26274824

  15. Adaptive Staircase Measurement of Hand Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Sexton, Brandon M; Kurtz, Karl; Liu, Yang; Block, Hannah J

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers often need to measure proprioception (position sense), for example to monitor the progress of disease, to identify the cause of movement or balance problems, or to ascertain the effects of an intervention. While researchers can use sophisticated equipment to estimate proprioceptive acuity with good precision, clinicians lack this option and must rely on the subjective and imprecise methods currently available in the clinic. Here we describe a novel technique that applies psychometric adaptive staircase procedures to hand proprioception with a simple tablet-style apparatus that could easily be adapted for the clinic. We report test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the adaptive staircase method vs. two other methods that are commonly used in clinical settings: passive motion direction discrimination (PMDD) and matching. As a first step, we focus on healthy adults. Subjects ages 18-82 had their proprioception measured with each of the three techniques, at the metacarpophalangeal joint in the second finger of the right hand. A subset completed a second session in which the measures were repeated, to assess test-retest reliability. Another subset had the measurements done by two different testers to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed using stepwise regression on age and activity level, and correlations calculated across the three methods. Results suggest that of the three methods, the adaptive staircase method yields the best test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity. The adaptive staircase method may prove to be a valuable clinical tool where more accurate assessment of proprioception is needed.

  16. Rapid repetitive passive movement improves knee proprioception.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Liu, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Proprioception can be affected by many factors including exercise. Most exercises involve certain degrees of repeated passive movements, and different velocities of these movements might affect proprioception differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influences of different angular velocities of repeated passive movement on knee proprioception via active repositioning and kinesthesia measurement. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measure on movement velocity (0°/s, 2°/s, 90°/s, and 150°/s). Sixteen healthy young adults participated in the study. All of them received 30 times repeated passive knee movement intervention in four different knee angular velocities - 0°/s, 2°/s, 90°/s, and 150°/s - with counter-balanced sequence in four successive days. Knee active repositioning and kinesthesia were measured with error scores before and after the intervention. The results revealed a decrease in error scores in both active repositioning and kinesthesia measurement with the velocities of 90°/s and 150°/s (p<0.05); however no significant change was seen with the static condition (0°/s ) or with the velocity of 2°/s. We concluded that repeated passive movement with rapid angular velocities was capable of improving knee proprioception, specifically in active repositioning and kinesthesia measurements. These results would provide information on the effects of different movement velocities onto knee proprioception. Along with further investigations, the findings could potentially enhance our knowledge on knee injury prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower-limb proprioceptive awareness in professional ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Adam W; Riley, Michael A; Shockley, Kevin; Sitton, Candace A; Hewett, Timothy E; Cummins-Sebree, Sarah; Haas, Jacqui G

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced proprioceptive feedback strengthens synergistic muscle groups and stabilizes the coordination of limbs, thus contributing to the movement efficiency of ballet dancers. The present study compared lower-limb proprioceptive awareness in professional ballet dancers to matched controls who had no dance training. Two assessment methods were used to test the hypothesis that ballet dancers would demonstrate increased proprioceptive awareness in the ankle, knee, and hip: 1. a joint-position matching task to assess static proprioceptive joint awareness, and 2. an eyes-closed, quiet standing task to assess both static and dynamic proprioceptive awareness through measures of center of pressure (COP) variability. Results of the matching task indicated that the dancers exhibited greater proprioceptive awareness than controls for all three joints (p < 0.001). Also, dancers were equally aware of the positioning of their ankle, knee, and hip joints (p > 0.05), whereas controls were less aware of their ankle position compared to their knee and hip joints (p < 0.001). Measures indexing COP variability during quiet standing did not differ between groups and thus failed to reflect increased proprioceptive awareness in dancers (all p > 0.05). This indicates that quiet stance may have limited value as a means for evaluating proprioception. These findings provide preliminary evidence that enhanced proprioceptive awareness of lower limb joints should be considered as an evaluative criterion for dancers' ability to learn complex ballet skills. They also indicate that quiet standing tasks may not provide sufficient challenge for dancers' enhanced proprioceptive awareness to manifest.

  18. Cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator muscle are located in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kawagishi, Kyutaro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-12-01

    Since the levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles despite being antigravity mixed muscles to involuntarily sustain eyelid opening and eyebrow lifting, this study has proposed a hypothetical mechanism to compensate for this anatomical defect. The voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the levator muscle stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study confirmed the presence of cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. After confirming that severing the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induced ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, Fluorogold was applied as a tracer to the proximal stump of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve in rats. Fluorogold labelled the cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons, not in any regions of the rat brain including the trigeminal ganglion, but in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neighbouring the locus ceruleus. Some Fluorogold particles accumulated in the area of the locus ceruleus. The trigeminal proprioceptive neurons could be considered centrally displaced ganglion cells to transmit afferent signal from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the mesencephalon, where they may be able to make excitatory synaptic connections with both the oculomotor neurons and the frontalis muscle motoneurons for the involuntary coordination of the eyelid and eyebrow activities, and potentially to the locus ceruleus.

  19. Proprioception is robust under external forces.

    PubMed

    Kuling, Irene A; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2013-01-01

    Information from cutaneous, muscle and joint receptors is combined with efferent information to create a reliable percept of the configuration of our body (proprioception). We exposed the hand to several horizontal force fields to examine whether external forces influence this percept. In an end-point task subjects reached visually presented positions with their unseen hand. In a vector reproduction task, subjects had to judge a distance and direction visually and reproduce the corresponding vector by moving the unseen hand. We found systematic individual errors in the reproduction of the end-points and vectors, but these errors did not vary systematically with the force fields. This suggests that human proprioception accounts for external forces applied to the hand when sensing the position of the hand in the horizontal plane.

  20. Correlation among proprioception, muscle strength, and balance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huihui; Ji, Zhongqiu; Jiang, Guiping; Liu, Weitong; Jiao, Xibian

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To study the correlation among proprioception, muscle strength, and balance. [Subjects and Methods] A balance testing system (Biodex Balance System, BBS) and an isokinetic testing system (Biodex System 4, BS4) were used to test related indexes in 24 healthy young females. [Results] With the knee joint at 15 degree flexion, proprioception was significantly correlated with Limits of Stability-Time values, and was highly significantly correlated with Limits of Stability-Overall and Athlete Single Leg Medial/Lateral values. The sense of force was significantly correlated with Limits of Stability-Overall and Athlete Single Leg-Overall values. Quadriceps strength was significantly associated with Limits of Stability-Overall, Athlete Single Leg Medial/Lateral, and Athlete Double Leg-Overall values. The ratio of Quadriceps to Hamstring strength was significantly correlated with Athlete Single Leg Medial/Lateral, and Athlete Single Leg-Overall values. With the knee joint at 45°, proprioception was highly significantly correlated with dynamic balance, and was significantly correlated with double foot support under static balance; force sense had a high correlation with Limits of Stability-Overall, but no correlation with other indexes. Quadriceps strength had a significant correlation with dynamic and static balance; the ratio of Quadriceps/Hamstring had a highly significant correlation with Limits of Stability-Overall, Athlete Single Leg-Anterior/Posterior and Athlete Single Leg-Overall. [Conclusion] At different knee angles, the correlation differs among proprioception, force sense, quadriceps strength, the Quadriceps/Hamstring ratio, and balance. PMID:28174475

  1. Wrist Proprioception: Amplitude or Position Coding?

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    This work examines physiological mechanisms underlying the position sense of the wrist, namely, the codification of proprioceptive information related to pointing movements of the wrist toward kinesthetic targets. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated to a robot-aided assessment of their wrist proprioceptive acuity to investigate if the sensorimotor transformation involved in matching targets located by proprioceptive receptors relies on amplitude or positional cues. A joint position matching test was performed in order to explore such dichotomy. In this test, the wrist of a blindfolded participant is passively moved by a robotic device to a preset target position and, after a removal movement from this position, the participant has to actively replicate and match it as accurately as possible. The test involved two separate conditions: in the first, the matching movements started from the same initial location; in the second one, the initial location was randomly assigned. Target matching accuracy, precision, and bias in the two conditions were then compared. Overall results showed a consistent higher performance in the former condition than in the latter, thus supporting the hypothesis that the joint position sense is based on vectorial or amplitude coding rather than positional. PMID:27807417

  2. Effects of Selective Deafferentation on the Discharge Characteristics of Medial Rectus Motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Rosendo G; Benítez-Temiño, Beatriz; Morado-Díaz, Camilo J; Davis-López de Carrizosa, María América; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Angel M

    2017-09-20

    Medial rectus motoneurons receive two main pontine inputs: abducens internuclear neurons, whose axons course through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus, whose axons project through the ascending tract of Deiters (ATD). Abducens internuclear neurons are responsible for conjugate gaze in the horizontal plane, whereas ATD neurons provide medial rectus motoneurons with a vestibular input comprising mainly head velocity. To reveal the relative contribution of each input to the oculomotor physiology, single-unit recordings from medial rectus motoneurons were obtained in the control situation and after selective deafferentation from cats with unilateral transection of either the MLF or the ATD. Both MLF and ATD transection produced similar short-term alterations in medial rectus motoneuron firing pattern, which were more drastic in MLF of animals. However, long-term recordings revealed important differences between the two types of lesion. Thus, while the effects of the MLF section were permanent, 2 months after ATD lesioning all motoneuronal firing parameters were similar to the control. These findings indicated a more relevant role of the MLF pathway in driving motoneuronal firing and evidenced compensatory mechanisms following the ATD lesion. Confocal immunocytochemistry revealed that MLF transection produced also a higher loss of synaptic boutons, mainly at the dendritic level. Moreover, 2 months after ATD transection, we observed an increase in synaptic coverage around motoneuron cell bodies compared with short-term data, which is indicative of a synaptogenic compensatory mechanism of the abducens internuclear pathway that could lead to the observed firing and morphological recovery.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Eye movements rely on multiple neuronal circuits for appropriate performance. The abducens internuclear pathway through the medial longitudinal fascicle (MLF) and the vestibular neurons through the ascending tract

  3. Proprioception plays a different role for sensorimotor adaptation to different distortions.

    PubMed

    Bock, Otmar; Thomas, Monika

    2011-06-01

    If proprioceptive feedback is degraded by agonist-antagonist muscle vibration, then adaptation to rotated vision remains intact while adaptation to a velocity-dependent force field worsens. Here we evaluate whether this differential effect of vibration is related to the physical nature of the distortion - visual versus mechanical - or to their kinematic coupling to the subjects' hand - velocity versus position dependent. Subjects adapted to a velocity-dependent visual distortion, to a position-dependent force, or to a velocity-dependent force; one half of the subjects adapted with, and the other half without agonist-antagonist vibration at the wrist, elbow, and shoulder. We found, as before, that vibration slowed down adaptation to a velocity-dependent force. However, vibration did not modify adaptation to the other two distortions, nor did it influence the aftereffects of any distortion. From this we conclude that intact proprioception supports strategic compensatory processes when proprioceptive signals agree with visual ones, and provide relevant (dynamic) information not available to the visual system.

  4. Tactile feedback for relief of deafferentation pain using virtual reality system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuko; Wake, Naoki; Ichinose, Akimichi; Osumi, Michihiro; Oya, Reishi; Sumitani, Masahiko; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2016-06-28

    Previous studies have tried to relieve deafferentation pain (DP) by using virtual reality rehabilitation systems. However, the effectiveness of multimodal sensory feedback was not validated. The objective of this study is to relieve DP by neurorehabilitation using a virtual reality system with multimodal sensory feedback and to validate the efficacy of tactile feedback on immediate pain reduction. We have developed a virtual reality rehabilitation system with multimodal sensory feedback and applied it to seven patients with DP caused by brachial plexus avulsion or arm amputation. The patients executed a reaching task using the virtual phantom limb manipulated by their real intact limb. The reaching task was conducted under two conditions: one with tactile feedback on the intact hand and one without. The pain intensity was evaluated through a questionnaire. We found that the task with the tactile feedback reduced DP more (41.8 ± 19.8 %) than the task without the tactile feedback (28.2 ± 29.5 %), which was supported by a Wilcoxon signed-rank test result (p < 0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that the tactile feedback improves the immediate pain intensity through rehabilitation using our virtual reality system.

  5. Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor expression and affinity in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jean Ha; Zheng, Yiwen; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2011-01-10

    Numerous studies have shown that bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) results in spatial memory deficits and hippocampal dysfunction in rats and humans. Since cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are well known to regulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, we investigated whether BVD resulted in changes in CB(1) receptor expression and affinity in the rat hippocampus at 1, 3 and 7 days post-surgery, using a combination of Western blotting and radioligand binding. Using Western blotting, we found that CB(1) receptor expression was significantly lower in BVD animals compared to sham controls only in the CA3 area across the 3 time points (P=0.03). CB(1) receptor expression decreased significantly over time for both the BVD and sham animals (P=0.000). The radioligand binding assays showed no significant change in the IC(50) of the CB(1) receptor for the cannabinoid CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist, WIN55,212-2. These results suggest that the CB(1) receptor down-regulates in the CA3 region of the hippocampus following BVD, but with no changes in the affinity of the CB(1) receptor for WIN55,212-2.

  6. Nigro-caudate dopaminergic deafferentation: a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder?

    PubMed

    Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Famà, Francesco; Girtler, Nicola; Morbelli, Silvia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    Forty-nine consecutive, drug naïve outpatients with de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) and 12 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) underwent clinical examination and dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography with [(123)I]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane as a biomarker of nigro-striatal function. PD patients were grouped into rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) negative (PD-RBD-) and RBD positive (PD-RBD+). Repeated measures and univariate analysis of variance were used to compare dopaminergic and clinical impairment among groups. The variations of dopamine transporter-single photon emission computed tomography specific binding ratios (SBR) as a function of group belonging were significantly different (p = 0.0013) at caudate with respect to putamen level. Indeed, putamen SBR progressively decreased from iRBD to PD-RBD- and PD-RBD+ groups while caudate SBR were higher in PD-RBD- group than in PD-RBD+ and even than in iRBD group. Motor impairment was more severe in PD patients with RBD than in those without RBD. Our data suggest that a more severe nigro-caudate dopaminergic deafferentation is related to RBD, both in its idiopathic form and in PD patients.

  7. [Effect of deafferentation of the lateral geniculate body on its background activity].

    PubMed

    Liubimov, N N; Gadzhieva, N A; Kul'gavin, L E; Baziian, B Kh

    1985-01-01

    Elimination of reticular inputs to the lateral geniculate body (LGB) by sectioning of one half of the midbrain operculum, did not affect significantly the characteristics of the LGB evoked potential to light stimulus. At the same time LGB response to stimulation of the reticular formation by a single current impulse, though did not disappear completely, but changed greatly: its latency became twice as long, the negative component of the response was no more recorded. In conditions of LGB deafferentation, the characteristics of all rhythms of its electrical activity, besides the alpha-like one, considerably changed. At the same time, exactly this last rhythm underwent the greatest changes on the EEG of the visual cortex. On the basis of the obtained data it is suggested that the reticular formation takes a considerable and multiple part in generation of LGB rhythmic activity and that changes in its characteristics are clearly reflected in the ECoG rhythms formation. Retention of the LGB visual evoked potential and of the response to stimulation of the reticular formation after the section of one half of the midbrain operculum testifies to the presence of several reticular inputs to LGB.

  8. The effects of deefferentation without deafferentation on functional connectivity in patients with facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Carsten M; Volk, Gerd F; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral plasticity includes the adaptation of anatomical and functional connections between parts of the involved brain network. However, little is known about the network dynamics of these connectivity changes. This study investigates the impact of a pure deefferentation, without deafferentation or brain damage, on the functional connectivity of the brain. To investigate this issue, functional MRI was performed on 31 patients in the acute state of Bell's palsy (idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy). All of the patients performed a motor paradigm to identify seed regions involved in motor control. The functional connectivity of the resting state within this network of brain regions was compared to a healthy control group. We found decreased connectivity in patients, mainly in areas responsible for sensorimotor integration and supervision (SII, insula, thalamus and cerebellum). However, we did not find decreased connectivity in areas of the primary or secondary motor cortex. The decreased connectivity for the SII and the insula significantly correlated to the severity of the facial palsy. Our results indicate that a pure deefferentation leads the brain to adapt to the current compromised state during rest. The motor system did not make a major attempt to solve the sensorimotor discrepancy by modulating the motor program.

  9. Primary afferent plasticity following deafferentation of the trigeminal brainstem nuclei in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Pier Luigi; Russo, Antonella; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Stanzani, Stefania; Tringali, Giovanni; Roccazzello, Anna Maria; De Riu, Giacomo; Marongiu, Patrizia; Mameli, Ombretta

    2008-09-01

    Alpha-tyrosinated tubulin is a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in axonal growth and is considered a marker of neuronal plasticity in adult mammals. In adult rats, unilateral ablation of the left facial sensorimotor cortical areas induces degeneration of corticotrigeminal projections and marked denervation of the contralateral sensory trigeminal nuclei. Western blotting and real-time-PCR of homogenates of the contralateral trigeminal ganglion (TG) revealed consistent overexpression of growth proteins 15 days after left decortication in comparison with the ipsilateral side. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated marked overexpression of alpha-tyrosinated tubulin in the cells of the ganglion on the right side. Cytoskeletal changes were primarily observed in the small ganglionic neurons. Application of HRP-CT, WGA-HRP, and HRP to infraorbital nerves on both sides 15 days after left decortication showed a significant degree of terminal sprouting and neosynaptogenesis from right primary afferents at the level of the right caudalis and interpolaris trigeminal subnuclei. These observations suggest that the adaptive response of TG neurons to central deafferentation, leading to overcrowding and rearrangement of the trigeminal primary afferent terminals on V spinal subnuclei neurons, could represent the anatomical basis for distortion of facial modalities, perceived as allodynia and hyperalgesia, despite nerve integrity.

  10. Deafferentation-based pathophysiological differences in phantom sound: Tinnitus with and without hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Tinnitus has been considered an auditory phantom percept. Recently a theoretical multiphase compensation mechanism at a cortical level has been hypothesized linking auditory deafferentation to tinnitus. This Bayesian brain model predicts that two very different kinds of tinnitus should exist, depending on the amount of hearing loss: an auditory cortex related form of tinnitus not associated with hearing loss, and a (para)hippocampal form associated with hearing loss, in which the auditory cortex might be of little relevance. In order to verify this model, resting state source analyzed EEG recordings were made in 129 tinnitus patients, and correlated to the mean hearing loss, the range of the hearing loss and the hearing loss at the tinnitus frequency. Results demonstrate that tinnitus can be linked to 2 very different mechanisms. In patients with little or no hearing loss, the tinnitus seems to be more related to auditory cortex activity, but not to (para)hippocampal memory related activity, whereas in tinnitus patients with more severe hearing loss, tinnitus seems to be related to (para)hippocampal mechanisms. Furthermore hearing loss seems to drive the communication between the auditory cortex and the parahippocampus, as measured by functional and effective connectivity.

  11. Robot-aided developmental assessment of wrist proprioception in children.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Campus, Claudio; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2017-01-09

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders and brain injuries in children have been associated with proprioceptive dysfunction that will negatively affect their movement. Unfortunately, there is lack of reliable and objective clinical examination protocols and our current knowledge of how proprioception evolves in typically developing children is still sparse. Using a robotic exoskeleton, we investigated proprioceptive acuity of the wrist in a group of 49 typically developing healthy children (8-15 years), and a group of 40 young adults. Without vision participants performed an ipsilateral wrist joint position matching task that required them to reproduce (match) a previously experienced target position. All three joint degrees-of-freedom of the wrist/hand complex were assessed. Accuracy and precision were evaluated as a measure of proprioceptive acuity. The cross-sectional data indicating the time course of development of acuity were then fitted by four models in order to determine which function best describes developmental changes in proprioception across age. First, the robot-aided assessment proved to be an easy to administer method for objectively measuring proprioceptive acuity in both children and adult populations. Second, proprioceptive acuity continued to develop throughout middle childhood and early adolescence, improving by more than 50% with respect to the youngest group. Adult levels of performance were reached approximately by the age of 12 years. An inverse-root function best described the development of proprioceptive acuity across the age groups. Third, wrist/forearm proprioception is anisotropic across the three DoFs with the Abduction/Adduction exhibiting a higher level of acuity than those of Flexion/extension and Pronation/Supination. This anisotropy did not change across development. Proprioceptive development for the wrist continues well into early adolescence. Our normative data obtained trough this novel robot-aided assessment method provide a

  12. Proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Part 2: Clinical assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nicholas C; Röijezon, Ulrik; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Proprioception can be impaired in gradual-onset musculoskeletal pain disorders and following trauma. Understanding of the role of proprioception in sensorimotor dysfunction and methods for assessment and interventions is of vital importance in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. In Part 1 of this two-part Masterclass we presented a theory-based overview of the role of proprioception in sensorimotor control, causes and findings of altered proprioception in musculoskeletal conditions, and general principles of assessment and interventions. The aim of this second part is to present specific methods for clinical assessment and interventions to improve proprioception in the spine and extremities. Clinical assessment of proprioception can be performed using goniometers, inclinometers, laser-pointers, and pressure sensors. Manual therapy, taping, and bracing can immediately enhance proprioception and should be used to prepare for exercise interventions. Various types of exercise (active joint repositioning, force sense, co-ordination, muscle performance, balance/unstable surface, plyometric, and vibration training) should be employed for long-term enhancement of proprioception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of proprioceptive input on parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jörg; Fuss, Gerhard; Krick, Christoph; Schimrigk, Klaus; Dillmann, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a modification of parkinsonian tremor (PT) by proprioceptive input induced by passive joint movements. The authors investigated the impact of electrically evoked proprioceptive input on PT. In eight patients with PT they recorded surface EMG from the opponens pollicis muscle, and forearm extensors and flexors. Rhythmic electrical stimulation was applied to the ipsilateral median nerve at the wrist using a submaximal stimulus intensity and stimulus frequencies between two stimuli per second and five stimuli per second. The tremor frequency did not adapt to the stimulus frequency. Tremor frequency of parkinsonian resting tremor increased significantly in the directly stimulated opponens pollicis muscle (mean +/- standard deviation, 4.35 +/- 0.64 Hz without stimulation versus 4.53 +/- 0.68 Hz with stimulation; P < 0.05, paired t-test), the not directly stimulated forearm muscles (4.90 +/- 0.72 Hz versus 5.18 +/- 0.73 Hz, P < 0.001), and the upper arm muscles (5.13 +/- 0.61 Hz versus 5.36 +/- 0.68 Hz, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the parkinsonian postural tremor accelerated significantly during ipsilateral median nerve stimulation (5.31 +/- 0.99 Hz versus 5.44 +/- 1.03 Hz, P < 0.05). Parkinsonian resting tremor in the forearm muscles also accelerated significantly during ipsilateral ulnar nerve stimulation (4.85 +/- 0.57 Hz versus 5.05 +/- 0.65 Hz, P < 0.05). Contralateral median nerve stimulation had no significant effect. These results suggest a close interaction between proprioceptive input and PT generation.

  14. Effect of Tanner stage on proprioception accuracy.

    PubMed

    Duzgun, Irem; Kanbur, Nuray Oksuz; Baltaci, Gul; Aydin, Taner

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the proprioceptive accuracy in the dominant and nondominant lower extremities between early and late stages of adolescence in boys. Participants displaying sexual development consistent with Tanner stages I or II were included in the early adolescent group, and those displaying development consistent with Tanner Stages IV or V were included in the late adolescent group. Proprioception was evaluated using the following 4 tests: one-leg-standing test, a single-limb-hopping test, an active angle-reproduction test, and a passive angle-reproduction test. There were statistically significant differences between the early and late stages of adolescence in nondominant ankles with regard to this single-limb-standing test. There were no statistically significant differences between the early and late adolescent stages, and between dominant and nondominant extremities with regard to the single-limb-hopping test. There were no statistically significant differences between early and late adolescent stages with regard to passive and active ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion position reproduction. Based on these findings, we concluded that sexual maturation categorized by Tanner stage does not affect proprioceptive ability in adolescent individuals. This method, as a clinical assessment of detecting deficits in neuromuscular control examined by foot and ankle surgeons and a rehabilitation technique to treat functional instability of the ankle used by physical therapists, might be applied to adolescents. Therefore, clinicians may obtain reliable information from the functional test battery during the assessment of ankle joint performance in adolescents. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual proprioception with real-time step detection and processing.

    PubMed

    Lemoyne, Robert; Coroian, Cristian; Mastroianni, Timothy; Wu, Winston; Grundfest, Warren; Kaiser, William

    2008-01-01

    Virtual proprioception is a novel device for providing near autonomous biofeedback of hemiparetic gait disparity in real time. With virtual proprioception a user may modify gait dynamics to develop a more suitable gait in tandem with real time feedback. Accelerometers are fundamental to the operation of the device, and a thorough consideration of the accelerometry technology space for locomotion quantification is included. The role of traumatic brain injury and respective decrements to gait quality and proprioceptive feedback are addressed. Virtual proprioception conceptual test and evaluation yielded positive results. The active 'on' status of the virtual proprioception biofeedback for alternative gait strategy was bounded by a 90% confidence level with a 10% margin of error.

  16. Visual and proprioceptive interaction in patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Cutfield, Nicholas J; Scott, Gregory; Waldman, Adam D; Sharp, David J; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2014-01-01

    Following bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) patients gradually adapt to the loss of vestibular input and rely more on other sensory inputs. Here we examine changes in the way proprioceptive and visual inputs interact. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate visual responses in the context of varying levels of proprioceptive input in 12 BVL subjects and 15 normal controls. A novel metal-free vibrator was developed to allow vibrotactile neck proprioceptive input to be delivered in the MRI system. A high level (100 Hz) and low level (30 Hz) control stimulus was applied over the left splenius capitis; only the high frequency stimulus generates a significant proprioceptive stimulus. The neck stimulus was applied in combination with static and moving (optokinetic) visual stimuli, in a factorial fMRI experimental design. We found that high level neck proprioceptive input had more cortical effect on brain activity in the BVL patients. This included a reduction in visual motion responses during high levels of proprioceptive input and differential activation in the midline cerebellum. In early visual cortical areas, the effect of high proprioceptive input was present for both visual conditions but in lateral visual areas, including V5/MT, the effect was only seen in the context of visual motion stimulation. The finding of a cortical visuo-proprioceptive interaction in BVL patients is consistent with behavioural data indicating that, in BVL patients, neck afferents partly replace vestibular input during the CNS-mediated compensatory process. An fMRI cervico-visual interaction may thus substitute the known visuo-vestibular interaction reported in normal subject fMRI studies. The results provide evidence for a cortical mechanism of adaptation to vestibular failure, in the form of an enhanced proprioceptive influence on visual processing. The results may provide the basis for a cortical mechanism involved in proprioceptive substitution of vestibular

  17. Proprioceptive reaction times and long-latency reflexes in humans.

    PubMed

    Manning, C D; Tolhurst, S A; Bawa, P

    2012-08-01

    The stretch of upper limb muscles results in two electromyographic (EMG) peaks, M1 and M2. The amplitude of M2 peak can generally be modified by giving prior instruction to the subject on how to react to the applied perturbation. The unresolved question is whether the amplitude modulation results from change in the gain of the reflex pathway contributing to M2, or by superposition of reaction time (RT) activity. The following study attempted to resolve this question by examining the overlap between proprioceptive RT and M2 activities. Subject's right wrist flexors were stretched, and he/she was instructed either (1) not to intervene (passive task) or (2) to react as fast as possible by simultaneously flexing both wrists (active or compensate task). Under passive and active conditions, M1 and M2 were observed from EMG of right wrist flexors, and during the active condition, RT activities were additionally observed from both sides. The onset and offset of M2 (M1(onset), M2(offset)) were measured from the passive averages, while the RT was measured from the averaged EMG response of the left wrist flexors. For between-subject correlations, the data were divided into two sets: (1) subjects with RT shorter than M2(offset) (fast group) and (2) subjects with RT more than 10 ms longer than their M2(offset) (slow group). Modulation during M2 period was large for the fast group, and it was almost zero for the slow group. These results indicate that the superimposition of RT activity mainly contributes to the instruction-dependent modulation of M2 peak.

  18. New mouse model for inducing and evaluating unilateral vestibular deafferentation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cassel, R; Bordiga, P; Pericat, D; Hautefort, C; Tighilet, B; Chabbert, C

    2017-09-11

    Unilateral vestibular deafferentation syndrome (uVDS) holds a particular place in the vestibular pathology domain. Due to its suddenness, the violence of its symptoms that often result in emergency hospitalization, and its associated original neurophysiological properties, this syndrome is a major source of questioning for the otoneurology community. Also, its putative pathogenic causes remain to be determined. There is currently a strong medical need for the development of targeted and effective countermeasures to improve the therapeutic management of uVDS. The present study reports the development of a new mouse model for inducing and evaluating uVDS. Both the method for generating controlled excitotoxic-type peripheral vestibular damages, through transtympanic administration of the glutamate receptors agonist kainate (TTK), and the procedure for evaluating the ensuing clinical signs are detailed. Through extensive analysis of the clinical symptoms characteristics, this new animal model provides the opportunity to better follow the temporal evolution of various uVDS specific symptoms, while better appreciating the different phases that composed this syndrome. The uVDS evoked in the TTK mouse model displays two main phases distinguishable by their kinetics and amplitudes. Several parameters of the altered vestibular behaviour mimic those observed in the human syndrome. This new murine model brings concrete information about how uVDS develops and how it affects global behaviour. In addition, it opens new opportunity to decipher the etiopathological substrate of this pathology by authorizing the use of genetically modified mouse models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous and electrochemically stimulated changes in plasma LH in the female rat following hypothalamic deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Phelps, C P; Krieg, R J; Sawyer, C H

    1976-01-16

    Plasma LH levels in adult female rats were studied by radioimmunoassay 6 weeks after making frontal cuts (FC) at the optic chiasm with Halász knives of various sizes. Cuts made with a small knife (radius 1.3 mm) permitted a spontaneous rise in plasma LH during proestrus from a mean of 96 +/- 25 ng/ml at 14:00 h to 545 +/- 207 ng/ml at 18:00 h in 13 rats. Seven of the latter, with a mean plasma LH of 967 +/- 281 ng/ml at 18:00 h exhibited tubal ova at hemicastration (hemi-ovx) the following morning. In a similar experiment 6 FC females lesioned with a 1.5 mm knife had plasma LH levels of 53 +/- 7 ng/ml at 14:00 h, but showed neither detectable changes at 2 h intervals through 20:00 h nor ovulation at hemi-ovx. Similar results were obtained in 13 rats deafferented with a 2.0 mm knife. Nine weeks after FC and 3 weeks following hemi-ovx all animals were given pentobarbital (32 mg/kg i.p.) at 13:30 h and stimulated bilaterally in the medial preoptic area (MPO) passing 20 muA anodal DC X 60 sec through concentric bipolar steel electrodes placed 0.8 mm from the midline. All 3 groups of FC animals showed increases in plasma LH to comparable levels (range: 197 +/- 45-357 +/- 156 ng/ml) 1 h after stimulation. Electrochemical stimulation sites extended lateral to the cut locations on at least one side in all animals. The results of these studies suggest that chronically (9 week) deafferented female rats have the capacity to release pituitary LH in response to MPO electrochemical stimulation in spite of retrochiasmatic deafferentation, but that the ovaries of the persistent estrus rat are unresponsive to these amounts of circulating LH.

  20. The consequences of gustatory deafferentation on body mass and feeding patterns in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Connie L.; Garcea, Mircea; Smith, James C.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of orosensory signals, especially taste, on body mass, and feeding and drinking patterns in the rat was examined. Gustatory deafferentation was produced by bilateral transection of the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal, and greater superficial petrosal nerves. Total calories consumed from sweetened-milk diet and oil-chow mash by the nerve-transected rats significantly decreased relative to sham-operated controls, mostly attributable to decreases in bout number, but not size. Nevertheless, caloric intake steadily increased over the postsurgical observation period, but body mass remained below both presurgical baseline and control levels and did not significantly increase over this time. After the sweetened-milk diet/oil-chow mash phase, rats received a series of sucrose preference tests. Interestingly, the nerve-transected rats preferred sucrose, and intake did not differ from controls, likely due to the stimulus sharing some nontaste chemosensory properties with the sweetened-milk diet. The neurotomized rats initiated a greater number of sucrose-licking bouts that were smaller in size and slower in licking rate, compared with control rats, and, unlike in control rats, the latter two bout parameters did not vary across concentration. Thus, in the absence of gustatory neural input, body mass is more stable compared with the progressive trajectory of weight gain seen in intact rats, and caloric intake initially decreases but recovers. The consequences of gustatory neurotomy on processes that determine meal initiation (bout number) and meal termination (bout size) are not fixed and appear to be influenced by presurgical experience with food stimuli coupled with its nongustatory chemosensory properties. PMID:22785426

  1. The D₂ dopamine receptor and locomotor hyperactivity following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Lucy; Zheng, Yiwen; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2012-02-01

    Rats and mice with bilateral vestibular loss exhibit dramatic locomotor hyperactivity and circling behaviours, which to date cannot be explained. Dysfunction of the striatal dopaminergic system is responsible for a number of known movement disorders and the D(2) dopamine receptor is known to be implicated. Therefore, it is possible that changes in striatal function are responsible for locomotor hyperactivity and circling following bilateral vestibular lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the D(2) receptor antagonist, eticlopride (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06mg/kg; s.c.), on locomotor behaviour in rats at 5 months following bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD), using an open field maze. The levels of the D(2) receptor protein in the striatum were measured at 1 and 6 months post-BVD using western blotting. BVD rats exhibited locomotor hyperactivity and circling, which eticlopride did not eliminate. However, BVD rats did exhibit a decreased response to the inhibitory effect of eticlopride compared to sham controls at the 0.02 mg/kg dose. There were no changes in the amount of the D(2) receptor in the striatum at 1 or 6 months post-BVD; however, D(2) receptor levels were significantly higher on the right side than the left in both sham and BVD animals. These results suggest that locomotor hyperactivity and circling behaviours following BVD are not due simply to changes in D(2) receptor protein expression in the striatum and that other neurophysiological changes in the brain account for these behaviours following BVD.

  2. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  3. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  4. Proprioceptive feedback determines visuomotor gain in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bartussek, Jan; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a prerequisite for effective locomotor control in most animals. Especially, the impressive aerial performance of insects relies on rapid and precise integration of multiple sensory modalities that provide feedback on different time scales. In flies, continuous visual signalling from the compound eyes is fused with phasic proprioceptive feedback to ensure precise neural activation of wing steering muscles (WSM) within narrow temporal phase bands of the stroke cycle. This phase-locked activation relies on mechanoreceptors distributed over wings and gyroscopic halteres. Here we investigate visual steering performance of tethered flying fruit flies with reduced haltere and wing feedback signalling. Using a flight simulator, we evaluated visual object fixation behaviour, optomotor altitude control and saccadic escape reflexes. The behavioural assays show an antagonistic effect of wing and haltere signalling on visuomotor gain during flight. Compared with controls, suppression of haltere feedback attenuates while suppression of wing feedback enhances the animal’s wing steering range. Our results suggest that the generation of motor commands owing to visual perception is dynamically controlled by proprioception. We outline a potential physiological mechanism based on the biomechanical properties of WSM and sensory integration processes at the level of motoneurons. Collectively, the findings contribute to our general understanding how moving animals integrate sensory information with dynamically changing temporal structure. PMID:26909184

  5. Effect of acute and chronic bilateral visual deafferentation on c-Fos immunoreactivity in the visual system of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Rhea; Rosahl, Steffen K; Brinker, Thomas; Samii, Madjid; Nakamura, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    In our study we examined acute and chronic changes in c-Fos expression patterns in the visual system of the rat after complete visual deafferentation. In 20 male Lewis rats, the retro-bulbar part of the optic nerve was sectioned bilaterally. Ten animals underwent c-Fos immunohistochemistry after 3 days and 10 animals after 3 weeks examining time-dependent changes. The control group consisted of 10 animals, which did not undergo any surgical manipulation. c-Fos expression in the rat visual system experienced significant changes after acute and chronic bilateral complete visual deafferentation. Acute decrease in c-Fos level was observed in the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and layers IV and V of the primary visual cortex. After chronic deafferentation, c-Fos expression was also found to be decreased in the optic and deep layers of the superior colliculus and layer VI of the primary visual cortex. No change in c-Fos expression was observed in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and layers I, II and III of the primary visual cortex. This work shows that secondary complete blindness does not lead to uniform decrease in c-Fos levels in all subcortical and cortical brain regions related to vision. These findings provide important information concerning expression of the immediate-early gene product c-Fos in secondary blind rodent models. It may further serve as a relevant baseline finding when electrical stimulation of the visual system is performed, aiding the assessment of visual neuroprosthesis using c-Fos as a functional mapping tool when evaluating different stimulus parameters in blind rodent models.

  6. Tooth pulp deafferentation is associated with functional alterations in the properties of neurons in the trigeminal spinal tract nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hu, J W; Dostrovsky, J O; Lenz, Y E; Ball, G J; Sessle, B J

    1986-12-01

    The effects of deafferentation of the tooth pulps of mandibular or maxillary teeth were investigated on the functional properties of single neurons recorded in the subnucleus oralis of the trigeminal (V) spinal tract nucleus of adult cats. Deafferentation was produced by endodontic removal, under sterile conditions, of the coronal pulp of the canine, premolar, and molar teeth. The subnucleus oralis of each animal was then studied electrophysiologically in a series of microelectrode penetrations of the subnucleus at a single postoperative time that varied between 3 days and 2 yr. Data from deafferented cats were compared with those obtained from control (unoperated) animals. The study was based on an examination of over 2,000 single units recorded on the side ipsilateral to the pulp deafferentation. In animals deafferented 7-15 days prior to brain stem neuron recording, tooth pulp deafferentation was associated with a statistically significant decrease compared with control animals in the incidence of neurons having a mechanoreceptive field localized within the mandibular or maxillary division; this decrease in incidence was coincident with a significant increase in the occurrence of neurons having a mechanoreceptive field involving two or three V divisions. Linear trend analysis indicated a progressive return to control values from the 7- to 15-day postoperative period. In deafferented cats there were also statistically significant increases in the incidence of neurons having spontaneous activity or showing rapidly habituating responses to brisk tap stimuli applied to the orofacial region; neurons having a receptive field consisting of discontinuous zones of mechanosensitivity were also encountered. The mean impulse frequency of spontaneous activity was not, however, significantly different between control and deafferented animals. The responsiveness of the habituating tap-sensitive neurons was further quantified and compared with neurons showing normal rapidly

  7. The Effect of Chronic Deafferentation on Mental Imagery: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    ter Horst, Arjan C.; Cole, Jonathan; van Lier, Rob; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Visual- and motor imagery rely primarily on perceptual and motor processes, respectively. In healthy controls, the type of imagery used to solve a task depends on personal preference, task instruction, and task properties. But how does the chronic loss of proprioceptive and tactile sensory inputs from the body periphery influence mental imagery? In a unique case study, we investigated the imagery capabilities of the chronically deafferented patient IW when he was performing a mental rotation task. We found that IW's motor imagery processes were impaired and that visual imagery processes were enhanced compared to controls. These results suggest that kinaesthetic afferent signals from the body periphery play a crucial role in enabling and maintaining central sensorimotor representations and hence the ability to incorporate kinaesthetic information into the imagery processes. PMID:22880095

  8. EDITORIAL: Slow light Slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert; Hess, Ortwin; Denz, Cornelia; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Research into slow light began theoretically in 1880 with the paper [1] of H A Lorentz, who is best known for his work on relativity and the speed of light. Experimental work started some 60 years later with the work of S L McCall and E L Hahn [2] who explored non-linear self-induced transparency in ruby. This field of research has burgeoned in the last 10 years, starting with the work of L Vestergaard Hau and coworkers on slow light via electromagnetically induced transparency in a Bose-Einstein condensate [3]. Many groups are now able to slow light down to a few metres per second or even stop the motion of light entirely [4]. Today, slow light - or more often `slow and fast light' - has become its own vibrant field with a strongly increasing number of publications. In broad scope, slow light research can be categorized in terms of the sort of physical mechanism used to slow down the light. One sort of slow light makes use of material dispersion. This dispersion can be the natural dispersion of the ordinary refractive index or can be the frequency dependence of some nonlinear optical process, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent population oscillations, stimulated light scattering, or four-wave mixing processes. The second sort of slow light makes use of the wavelength dependence of artificially structured materials, such as photonic crystals, optical waveguides, and collections of microresonators. Material systems in which slow light has been observed include metal vapours, rare-earth-doped materials, Raman and Brillioun gain media, photonic crystals, microresonators and, more recently, metamaterials. A common feature of all of these schemes is the presence of a sharp single resonance or multiple resonances produced by an atomic transition, a resonance in a photonic structure, or in a nonlinear optical process. Current applications of slow light include a series of attractive topics in optical information processing, such as optical data

  9. Recruitment of local excitatory circuits in the superior colliculus following deafferentation and the regeneration of retinocollicular inputs.

    PubMed

    Turner, J P; Sauvé, Y; Varela-Rodriguez, C; Lund, R D; Salt, T E

    2005-10-01

    The local synaptic connectivity in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus (SC) was assessed following retinal ganglion cell axonal regeneration through a peripheral nerve graft into the SC of Lister Hooded rats, using in vitro brain slice techniques. Repair was effected between the ipsilateral eye and SC, following bilateral lesion of optic nerves and ablation of ipsilateral occipital cortex. Deafferentation surgery alone resulted in a complete loss of synaptic potentials of extrinsic origin, once both retinal and cortical inputs were removed. Stimulation of graft insertion sites elicited synaptic responses comprising monosynaptic and network-mediated depolarising events. This activity, together with similar spontaneous bursts of depolarising events and action potential firing, was generated by the activation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. This behaviour may reflect the development of a local recurrent synaptic connectivity following the repair surgery, as both evoked and spontaneous responses developed into large long-lasting bursts of excitatory activity when inhibition mediated by GABA receptors was blocked. These results suggest that the ultrastructural changes in the superficial layers of the SC resulting from deafferentation are reflected functionally at the synaptic level in the target structure even after repair. Such changes are likely to compromise the ability of the target structure to function normally during information processing. Therefore, although axons regenerating along peripheral nerve grafts can make functional synaptic connections, their efficacy in activating the target structure will probably be compromised by local changes in synaptic connectivity.

  10. Orofacial proprioceptive thalamus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Atsushi; Fujio, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Ali, Md Sams Sazzad; Haque, Tahsinul; Ohara, Haruka; Moritani, Masayuki; Kato, Takafumi; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O; Tachibana, Yoshihisa

    2017-08-01

    The ascending pathway mediating proprioception from the orofacial region is still not fully known. The present study elucidated the relay of jaw-closing muscle spindle (JCMS) inputs from brainstem to thalamus in rats. We injected an anterograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5), known to receive JCMS input. Many thalamic axon terminals were labeled and were found mainly contralaterally in a small, unpredicted area of the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve and passive jaw movements induced large responses in the VPMcvm. The VPMcvm is far from the rostrodorsal part of ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus (VPL) where proprioceptive inputs from the body are represented. After injection of a retrograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified VPMcvm, many neurons were labeled almost exclusively in the contralateral Su5, whereas no labeled neurons were found in the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Pr5) and spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5). In contrast, after injection of a retrograde tracer into the core of VPM, many neurons were labeled contralaterally in the Pr5 and Sp5, but none in the Su5. We conclude that JCMS input excites trigeminothalamic projection neurons in the Su5 which project primarily to the VPMcvm in marked contrast to other proprioceptors and sensory receptors in the orofacial region which project to the core VPM. These findings suggest that lesions or deep brain stimulation in the human equivalent of VPMcvm may be useful for treatment of movement disorders (e.g., orofacial tremor) without affecting other sensations.

  11. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  12. The role of proprioception and neuromuscular stability in carpal instabilities.

    PubMed

    Hagert, E; Lluch, A; Rein, S

    2016-01-01

    Carpal stability has traditionally been defined as dependent on the articular congruity of joint surfaces, the static stability maintained by intact ligaments, and the dynamic stability caused by muscle contractions resulting in a compression of joint surfaces. In the past decade, a fourth factor in carpal stability has been proposed, involving the neuromuscular and proprioceptive control of joints. The proprioception of the wrist originates from afferent signals elicited by sensory end organs (mechanoreceptors) in ligaments and joint capsules that elicit spinal reflexes for immediate joint stability, as well as higher order neuromuscular influx to the cerebellum and sensorimotor cortices for planning and executing joint control. The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the role of proprioception and neuromuscular control in carpal instabilities by delineating the sensory innervation and the neuromuscular control of the carpus, as well as descriptions of clinical applications of proprioception in carpal instabilities.

  13. Proprioceptive control of posture: a review of new concepts.

    PubMed

    Allum; Bloem; Carpenter; Hulliger; Hadders-Algra

    1998-12-01

    The assumption that proprioceptive inputs from the lower legs are used to trigger balance and gait movements is questioned in this review (an outgrowth of discussions initiated during the Neural Control of Movement Satellite meeting held in Cozumel, Mexico, April 1997). Recent findings presented here suggest that trunk or hip inputs may be more important in triggering human balance corrections and that proprioceptive input from the lower legs mainly helps with the final shaping and intermuscular coordination of postural and gait movements. Three major questions were considered. First, what role, if any, do lower-leg proprioceptive inputs play in the triggering of normal balance corrections? If this role is negligible, which alternative proprioceptive inputs then trigger balance corrections? Second, what is the effect of proprioceptive loss on the triggering of postural and gait movements? Third, how does proprioceptive loss affect the output of central pattern generators in providing the final shaping of postural movements? The authors conclude that postural and gait movements are centrally organized at two levels. The first level involves the generation of the basic directional-specific response pattern based primarily on hip or trunk proprioceptive input secondarily on vestibular inputs. This pattern specifies the spatial characteristics of muscle activation, that is which muscles are primarily activated, as well as intermuscular timing, that is, the sequence in which muscles are activated. The second level is involved in the shaping of centrally set activation patterns on the basis of multisensorial afferent input (including proprioceptive input from all body segments and vestibular sensors) in order that movements can adapt to different task conditions. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Unifying model of shoot gravitropism reveals proprioception as a central feature of posture control in plants.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Renaud; Bohr, Tomas; Moulia, Bruno; Douady, Stéphane

    2013-01-08

    Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a key determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Shoot gravitropism is triggered when statocysts sense the local angle of the growing organ relative to the gravitational field. Lateral transport of the hormone auxin to the lower side is then enhanced, resulting in differential gene expression and cell elongation causing the organ to bend. However, little is known about the dynamics, regulation, and diversity of the entire bending and straightening process. Here, we modeled the bending and straightening of a rod-like organ and compared it with the gravitropism kinematics of different organs from 11 angiosperms. We show that gravitropic straightening shares common traits across species, organs, and orders of magnitude. The minimal dynamic model accounting for these traits is not the widely cited gravisensing law but one that also takes into account the sensing of local curvature, what we describe here as a graviproprioceptive law. In our model, the entire dynamics of the bending/straightening response is described by a single dimensionless "bending number" B that reflects the ratio between graviceptive and proprioceptive sensitivities. The parameter B defines both the final shape of the organ at equilibrium and the timing of curving and straightening. B can be estimated from simple experiments, and the model can then explain most of the diversity observed in experiments. Proprioceptive sensing is thus as important as gravisensing in gravitropic control, and the B ratio can be measured as phenotype in genetic studies.

  15. Self-mutilation in patients after nerve injury may not be due to deafferentation pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kachramanoglou, Carolina; Carlstedt, Thomas; Koltzenburg, Martin; Choi, David

    2011-11-01

    Animals with transected nerves may develop self-mutilating behavior (autotomy) directed at the denervated body part. Autotomy is often thought to be a response to deafferentation pain produced by pathological changes in the dorsal horn, and self-mutilation after dorsal rhizotomy has consequently been used as an outcome measure for the investigation of chronic pain in animal models. A less recognized hypothesis suggests that autotomy is simply an animal's efforts to remove the useless part. We report a case of self-mutilation of the thumb and fingers in a patient with loss of all sensory modalities in the arm after brachial plexus avulsion. Asking the patient about the reasons for his self-mutilation provides insights into the cause of autotomy which cannot be established from animal studies. We suggest that autotomy may not be a result of chronic pain, and discuss the human experience and alternative underlying pathological processes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Scapholunate Instability: Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control

    PubMed Central

    Salva-Coll, Guillem; Garcia-Elias, Marc; Hagert, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    From a kinetic point of view, the wrist is considered stable when it is capable of resisting load without suffering injury. Several prerequisites are necessary for the wrist to be kinetically stable: bone morphology, normal articulating surfaces, ligaments, the sensorimotor system, the muscles crossing the wrist, and all nerves connecting to ligaments and muscles. Failure of any one of these factors may result in carpal instability. The terms “scapholunate (SL) dissociation” and “SL instability” refer to one of the most frequent types of wrist instability, resulting from rupture or attenuation of the SL supporting ligaments. From a radiologic point of view, SL instability may be dynamic or static. Unlike static instabilities, which tend to be painful and dysfunctional, a good proportion of dynamic SL instabilities remain asymptomatic and stable for prolonged periods of time. Such a lack of symptoms suggests that a ligament rupture, in itself, is not enough for a joint to become unstable. Certainly, the process of achieving stability is multifactorial and involves normal joint surfaces, ligaments, muscles, and a complex network of neural connections linking all these elements. In this article, we will review the neuromuscular stabilization of the SL joint and the proprioceptive mechanisms that contribute to the dynamic carpal stabilization. PMID:24436806

  17. Differential molecular profiles of astrocytes in degeneration and re-innervation after sensory deafferentation of the adult rat cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Fredrich, Michaela; Zeber, Anne C; Hildebrandt, Heika; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    Ablating the cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus. Over the first postoperative week, degeneration of the auditory nerve and its synaptic terminals in the cochlear nucleus temporally overlaps with its re-innervation by axon collaterals of medial olivocochlear neurons. At the same time, astrocytes increase in size and density. We investigated the time courses of the expression of ezrin, polysialic acid, matrix metalloprotease-9 and matrix metalloprotease-2 within these astrocytes during the first week following cochlear ablation. All four proteins are known to participate in degeneration, regeneration, or both, following injury of the central nervous system. In a next step, stereotaxic injections of kainic acid were made into the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body prior to cochlear ablation to destroy the neurons that re-innervate the deafferented cochlear nucleus by axon collaterals developing growth-associated protein 43 immunoreactivity. This experimental design allowed us to distinguish between molecular processes associated with degeneration and those associated with re-innervation. Under these conditions, astrocytic growth and proliferation showed an unchanged deafferentation-induced pattern. Similarly, the distribution and amount of ezrin and matrix metalloprotease-9 in astrocytes after cochlear ablation developed in the same way as under cochlear ablation alone. In sharp contrast, the astrocytic expression of polysialic acid and matrix metalloprotease-2 normally invoked by cochlear ablation collapsed when re-innervation of the cochlear nucleus was inhibited by lesioning medial olivocochlear neurons with kainic acid. In conclusion, re-innervation, including axonal growth and synaptogenesis, seems to prompt astrocytes to recompose their molecular profile, paving the way for tissue reorganisation after nerve degeneration and loss of synaptic contacts.

  18. A noninvasive electromagnetic perturbation approach to probe extraocular proprioception.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin O; Chen, Lewis L

    2016-02-01

    Extraocular proprioception has been shown to participate in spatial perception and binocular alignment. Yet the physiological approaches used to study this sensory signal are limited because proprioceptive signaling takes place at the same time as visuomotor signaling. It is critical to dissociate this sensory signal from other visuomotor events that accompany eye movements. We present a novel noninvasive and quantifiable method for probing extraocular proprioception independent of other visuomotor processing by attaching a rare-earth magnet to a real-time model eye and placing an electromagnet <20 mm from the eye. An electromagnet can increase or decrease angular displacements and velocities of the model eye. Electromagnetic activation rapidly affected (<2 ms) the rotation kinematics of the eye, which were correlated linearly with both the current supply and the distance of the electromagnet relative to the eye. This method circumvented the constraints of conventional physiological manipulation of extraocular proprioception, such as manually or mechanically tugging on the eye ball. It can be applied to produce the discrepancy between the intended and the executed eye movements, so that proprioceptive reafference signals are dissociated from corollary motor discharges and other visuomotor events. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Postural control in strabismic children: importance of proprioceptive information

    PubMed Central

    Lions, Cynthia; Bui Quoc, Emmanuel; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of proprioceptive information during postural control in strabismic children. Methods: Postural stability was recorded with a platform (Techno Concept®) in 12 strabismic children aged from 4.9 to 10 years and data were compared to that of 12 control age-matched children. Two postural positions were performed: Romberg and Tandem. Two postural conditions: without and with foam pad. We analyzed the surface area, the length, the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) and the effect of proprioceptive information. Results: Strabismic children are more instable than control age-matched children. The surface, the length and the mean speed of CoP are significantly higher in strabismic children than in control age-matched children. Both groups are more instable in Tandem position than in Romberg position. Finally, strabismic children use more proprioceptive information than control age-matched children. Conclusion: For both Romberg and Tandem position, strabismic children are more instable than control age-matched children. Strabismic children use proprioceptive information more than control age-matched children to control their posture. Significance: Proprioceptive inputs are important for control posture particularly for strabismic population. PMID:24795651

  20. Proprioceptive Localization Deficits in People With Cerebellar Damage.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Heidi M; Therrien, Amanda S; Bastian, Amy J

    2017-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that an important function of the cerebellum is predicting the state of the body during movement. Yet, the extent of cerebellar involvement in perception of limb state (i.e., proprioception, specifically limb position sense) has yet to be determined. Here, we investigated whether patients with cerebellar damage have deficits when trying to locate their hand in space (i.e., proprioceptive localization), which is highly important for everyday movements. By comparing performance during passive robot-controlled and active self-made multi-joint movements, we were able to determine that some cerebellar patients show improved precision during active movement (i.e., active benefit), comparable to controls, whereas other patients have reduced active benefit. Importantly, the differences in patient performance are not explained by patient diagnosis or clinical ratings of impairment. Furthermore, a subsequent experiment confirmed that active deficits in proprioceptive localization occur during both single-joint and multi-joint movements. As such, it is unlikely that localization deficits can be explained by the multi-joint coordination deficits occurring after cerebellar damage. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage may cause varied impairments to different elements of proprioceptive sense. It follows that proprioceptive localization should be adequately accounted for in clinical testing and rehabilitation of people with cerebellar damage.

  1. Muscular proprioception contributes to the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Julien; Calvin, Sarah; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-08-01

    The authors proposed a model of the control of interceptive action over a ground plane (Chardenon, Montagne, Laurent, & Bootsma, 2004). This model is based on the cancellation of the rate of change of the angle between the current position of the target and the direction of displacement (i.e., the bearing angle). While several sources of visual information specify this angle, the contribution of proprioceptive information has not been directly tested. In this study, the authors used a virtual reality setup to study the role of proprioception when intercepting a moving target. In a series of experiments, the authors manipulated proprioceptive information by using the tendon vibration paradigm. The results revealed that proprioception is crucial not only to locate a moving target with respect to the body but also, and more importantly, to produce online displacement velocity changes to intercept a moving target. These findings emphasize the importance of proprioception in the control of interceptive action and illustrate the relevance of our model to account for the regulations produced by the participants.

  2. Relationship among shoulder proprioception, kinematics, and pain after stroke.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Martijn H; Veeger, Dirkjan H; Meskers, Carel G; Koppe, Peter A; Konijnenbelt, Manin H; Janssen, Thomas W

    2009-09-01

    To identify a possible relationship among chronic poststroke shoulder pain (PSSP), scapular resting pose, and shoulder proprioception. Case-control study. Rehabilitation center. A total of 21 inpatients with stroke and 10 healthy control subjects. Not applicable. Orientations of both the contralateral and ipsilateral (ie, paretic and nonparetic) shoulders during rest in degrees, angular displacement (degrees) for threshold to detection of passive motion (TDPM) tests, and absolute error (degrees) for passive reproduction of joint position (PRJP) tests. The contralateral shoulder of patients with PSSP showed more scapular lateral rotation and larger TDPM and PRJP scores than both patients without PSSP and control subjects. Additionally, the contralateral shoulder of patients with deteriorated proprioception showed more scapular lateral rotation than control subjects, whereas their ipsilateral shoulder showed more scapular lateral rotation than both control subjects and patients with good proprioception. A clear relation among affected shoulder kinematics, affected proprioception, and PSSP was found. In determining the risk of developing PSSP, attention should be paid to a patients shoulder proprioception and kinematics. If both are altered after stroke, this could worsen the initial pathology or cause secondary pathologies and thus initiate a vicious circle of repetitive soft tissue damage leading to chronic PSSP. Additionally, more attention should be paid to the ipsilateral (ie, nonparetic) shoulder because it could be used in determining the risk of developing PSSP in the contralateral (ie, paretic) shoulder.

  3. Pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioception in females and males.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Kang, Sang Hoon; Geiger, François; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2015-04-01

    Noncontact ACL injuries occur most commonly in pivoting sports and are much more frequent in females than in males. However, information on sex differences in proprioceptive acuity under weight-bearing and leg neuromuscular control in pivoting is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences in pivoting neuromuscular control during strenuous stepping tasks and proprioceptive acuity under weight-bearing. 21 male and 22 female subjects were recruited to evaluate pivoting proprioceptive acuity under weight-bearing, and pivoting neuromuscular control (in terms of leg pivoting instability, stiffness, maximum internal and external pivoting angles, and entropy of time-to-peak EMG in lower limb muscles) during strenuous stepping tasks performed on a novel offaxis elliptical trainer. Compared to males, females had significantly lower proprioceptive acuity under weight-bearing in both internal and external pivoting directions, higher pivoting instability, larger maximum internal pivoting angle, lower leg pivoting stiffness, and higher entropy of time-to-peak EMG in the gastrocnemius muscles during strenuous stepping tasks with internal and external pivoting perturbations. Results of this study may help us better understand factors contributing to ACL injuries in females and males, develop training strategies to improve pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioceptive acuity, and potentially reduce ACL and lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries.

  4. Ankle taping can improve proprioception in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Iris; Monterde, Sónia; Montull, Salvador; Salvat, Isabel; Fernández-Ballart, J; Beceiro, Judith

    2010-12-01

    Taping is a common technique to treat inversion ankle sprains, but the effects of tape on proprioception are still not clear. The purpose of this study was to establish whether proprioception would be modified by the use of ankle tape. To do so we studied joint position sense (JPS) in healthy volunteers using three-dimensional (3D) movement analysis systems. Forty healthy volunteers (mean age and SD = 23.2 ± 4.2) were asked to actively reproduce four different ankle positions: 10 degrees of dorsiflexion, neutral, 10 degrees and 20 degrees of plantarflexion. The absolute difference between the estimated angle and the target angle was used to assess JPS. This difference was named Error. Subjects were randomly assigned to the control (n = 21) or the intervention (n = 19) groups. Members of the intervention group received ankle tape for a lateral ligament sprain in the non-dominant leg. A t-test was used to evaluate the results. Tape significantly improved JPS for the dorsiflexion position (p = 0.038). Neutral was the most accurately reproduced position, and the remaining positions were overestimated for both groups. Taping improved proprioception in healthy volunteers, and 3D movement analysis was a useful method to accurately quantify joint position sense. Because ankle proprioception is critical to the functional success of surgical and rehabilitation treatments, these results regarding proprioception are of particular importance because ankle taping is often used in preventing ankle sprains and it is a common treatment after ankle injuries.

  5. A preliminary study for quantitative assessment of upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Contu, Sara; Hussain, Asif; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications. Twelve participants were equally divided into Aged and Young groups and were asked to indicate when their dominant hand position matched a predefined target in the contralateral, sagittal and ipsilateral direction. Results indicated a better performance for movements towards the contralateral target in terms of both absolute and signed error while there was not a significant effect of age group. Error variability was not affected by the target location and participants' age. The present study established preliminary proprioceptive metrics that could assist in providing information about the normal range of proprioceptive acuity of healthy subjects of different age.

  6. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    PubMed

    Groot, H E; van der Worp, H; Nijenbanning, L; Diercks, R L; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2016-03-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study was to determine differences in proprioception, by measuring threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) between recreational athletes diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. The TTDPM as measure of proprioception was determined in 22 recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and 22 healthy recreational athletes using a validated instrument. Amount of knee flexion and extension before the movement was noticed by the subject was determined. 80 measurements per athlete (left and right leg, towards extension and flexion and with two starting angles of 20° and 40° flexion) were performed. Mean TTDPM was compared between groups and among the injured recreational athletes between the affected and unaffected knee. No significant difference in TTDPM was found between recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. We did find a significant difference between the injured and non-injured knee in recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy; mean TTDPM was 0.02° higher in the injured knee (p=0.044). No difference was found in proprioception between recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy recreational athletes. It is unclear whether such a small difference in TTDPM between affected and unaffected knee is important in clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related differences in proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive function in relation to fine motor behaviour.

    PubMed

    Liutsko, Liudmila; Muiños, Ruben; Tous-Ral, Josep Maria

    2014-09-01

    Leversen et al. (PLoS One 7(6):e38830, 2012) emphasise the importance of understanding the principles of life-long development. In their study of motor control, they found a common tendency towards improved motor performance from childhood to adulthood and a subsequent deterioration. The aim of our study was to examine this issue further by investigating fine motor behaviour (tracing a model line) in 196 participants (age range 12-95 years old) in two sensory conditions-proprioceptive + visual (PV) and proprioceptive only-in both hands and in two types of movement, frontal and transversal. Regression analyses of line length and task performance speed in relation to age were conducted for the different test conditions. The best performance was found in middle age, and a quadratic function provided the best fit for most of the test conditions. The corresponding inflection points (the age at which graphical analysis showed a change in performance as a peak of maturation before decline due to ageing) showed earlier ages in the proprioceptive condition. For most types of movement analysed, performance speed was slower under the PV condition. Paired correlation analysis showed that the symmetry of precision performance between hands became stronger with age. The results provide information on age-dependent differences in proprioception based on fine motor performance. They may be of use in the design of preventive strategies for preserving proprioceptive function by reducing the risk of falls and accidents or diseases such as Parkinson's.

  8. Interactions between tactile and proprioceptive representations in haptics.

    PubMed

    Rincon-Gonzalez, L; Naufel, S N; Santos, V J; Helms Tillery, S

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic limbs, regardless of their sophisticated motor control, require sensory feedback to viably interact with the environment. Toward that aim, the authors examined interrelationships between tactile and proprioceptive sensations. Through human psychophysics experiments, they evaluated error patterns of subjects estimating hand location in a horizontal 2-dimensional workspace under 3 tactile conditions. While tactile cues did not significantly affect the structure of the pattern of errors, touching the workspace reduced estimation errors. During neurophysiological experiments, a macaque grasped textured objects using 2 hand postures. Sensory coding showed dependence on both roughness of the manipulandum and posture. In summary, the authors suggest that tactile sensations underlying haptics are processed in a stable spatial reference frame provided by a proprioceptive system, and that tactile and proprioceptive inputs can be encoded simultaneously by individual cells. Such insights will be useful for providing stable, adaptive sensory feedback for neuroprosthetics.

  9. Proprioceptive target matching asymmetries in left-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Noble, Brittany C; Brown, Susan H

    2009-08-01

    In right-handers, the ability to reproduce proprioceptive targets has been shown to be asymmetric, favoring the non-preferred left arm. The present study sought to determine whether a similar arm/hemisphere asymmetry exists for left-handers. Ten strong left-handed adults used the left or right arm to perform proprioceptive target matching tasks that varied in processing demands (i.e., need for memory, interhemispheric transfer) and target amplitude (20, 40 degrees). Similar to right-handers, left-handed individuals had smaller total errors when matching with the non-preferred arm. This asymmetry was greatest in conditions with increased processing demands and larger amplitude targets. These results provide the first evidence to date of right arm/left hemisphere dominance for proprioceptive target matching in left-handers that is the "mirror image" of right-handers.

  10. Proprioceptive coupling within motor neurons drives C. elegans forward locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan; Po, Michelle; Hulme, Elizabeth; Chen, Sway; Liu, Xinyu; Kwok, Sen Wai; Gershow, Marc; Leifer, Andrew M; Butler, Victoria; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Kawano, Taizo; Schafer, William R; Whitesides, George

    2012-01-01

    Summary Locomotion requires coordinated motor activity throughout an animal’s body. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, chains of coupled Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are commonly evoked to explain local rhythmic behaviors. In C. elegans, we report that proprioception within the motor circuit is responsible for propagating and coordinating rhythmic undulatory waves from head to tail during forward movement. Proprioceptive coupling between adjacent body regions transduces rhythmic movement initiated near the head into bending waves driven along the body by a chain of reflexes. Using optogenetics and calcium imaging to manipulate and monitor motor circuit activity of moving C. elegans held in microfluidic devices, we found that the B-type cholinergic motor neurons transduce the proprioceptive signal. In C. elegans, a sensorimotor feedback loop operating within a specific type of motor neuron both drives and organizes body movement. PMID:23177960

  11. Piezo2 is the principal mechanotransduction channel for proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lukacs, Viktor; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Zaytseva, Dasha; Criddle, Connor R.; Francisco, Allain; Jessell, Thomas M.; Wilkinson, Katherine A.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Proprioception, the perception of body and limb position, is mediated by proprioceptors, specialized mechanosensory neurons that convey information about the stretch and tension experienced by muscles, tendons, skin, and joints. In mammals, the molecular identity of the stretch-sensitive channel that mediates proprioception is unknown. Here we show that the mechanically activated (MA) nonselective cation channel Piezo2 is expressed in sensory endings of proprioceptors innervating muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs in mice. Two independent mouse lines that lack Piezo2 in proprioceptive neurons show severely uncoordinated body movements and abnormal limb positions. Moreover, the mechanosensitivity of Pvalb+ neurons that predominantly mark proprioceptors are dependent on Piezo2 in vitro, and the stretch-induced firing of proprioceptors in muscle-nerve recordings is dramatically reduced in Piezo2-deficient mice. Together, our results indicate that Piezo2 is the major mechanotransducer of mammalian proprioceptors. PMID:26551544

  12. Piezo2 is the principal mechanotransduction channel for proprioception.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lukacs, Viktor; de Nooij, Joriene C; Zaytseva, Dasha; Criddle, Connor R; Francisco, Allain; Jessell, Thomas M; Wilkinson, Katherine A; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-12-01

    Proprioception, the perception of body and limb position, is mediated by proprioceptors, specialized mechanosensory neurons that convey information about the stretch and tension experienced by muscles, tendons, skin and joints. In mammals, the molecular identity of the stretch-sensitive channel that mediates proprioception is unknown. We found that the mechanically activated nonselective cation channel Piezo2 was expressed in sensory endings of proprioceptors innervating muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs in mice. Two independent mouse lines that lack Piezo2 in proprioceptive neurons showed severely uncoordinated body movements and abnormal limb positions. Moreover, the mechanosensitivity of parvalbumin-expressing neurons that predominantly mark proprioceptors was dependent on Piezo2 expression in vitro, and the stretch-induced firing of proprioceptors in muscle-nerve recordings was markedly reduced in Piezo2-deficient mice. Together, our results indicate that Piezo2 is the major mechanotransducer of mammalian proprioceptors.

  13. Proprioceptive control of wrist movements in Parkinson's disease. Reduced muscle vibration-induced errors.

    PubMed

    Rickards, C; Cody, F W

    1997-06-01

    The effects upon the trajectories of practised slow (approximately 9 degrees/s) voluntary wrist-extension movements of applying vibration to the tendon of an antagonist muscle (flexor carpi radialis) during the course of the movement have been studied in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and age-matched healthy individuals. In both patient and control groups, flexor vibration elicited undershooting of wrist-extension movements. Wrist extensor and flexor surface EMG recordings indicated that, in patients and controls, such undershooting resulted principally from sustained reductions in extensor (prime mover) activity. Small vibration reflexes were commonly elicited in the wrist flexors which, in both Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects, were usually otherwise virtually quiescent during these slow extension movements. The amplitudes of such vibration reflexes did not differ systematically between patient and control groups and appeared inadequate to have exerted an appreciable braking action upon the extension trajectories. However, the extent of vibration-induced undershooting was, on average, significantly less in the Parkinson's disease group. In a subgroup of patients with asymmetrical parkinsonism the effects of antagonist vibration upon wrist movements of the more and less affected limb were compared. The degree of vibration-induced undershooting was significantly smaller on the more affected side. This finding suggests that disturbed proprioceptive guidance of voluntary movements in Parkinson's disease is related to the severity of clinical motor deficits. A small number Parkinson's disease patients were studied 'ON' and 'OFF' their routine anti-parkinsonian medication. A non-significant tendency was found for vibration-induced errors to be less marked in the 'OFF' state. In a separate series of experiments, under isometric conditions, vibration-induced EMG changes were recorded whilst subjects attempted to maintain a steady (15% maximum

  14. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Timothy; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance.

  15. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach

    PubMed Central

    Judkins, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance. PMID

  16. Hypermobility and proprioception in the finger joints of flautists.

    PubMed

    Artigues-Cano, Isabel; Bird, Howard A

    2014-06-01

    Ergonomically, the flute is especially complex among wind instruments, and flautists may therefore be at particular risk of performance-related musculoskeletal disorders. Yet little is known about injury prevalence among flute players, and even less in those flautists who are also hypermobile. Recent research has found hand and wrist pain to be common complaints among flautists. Understanding of the predictors of injury and pain is therefore crucial as the presence of pain decreases performance quality and causes unnecessary time loss. There is a strong relationship between hypermobility and impaired proprioception, although many musicians may acquire greater proprioception than the average population. We have compared flexibility and proprioception of the hand in a study of flautists. Twenty flautists took part in the study. General hypermobility, the passive range of motion of the 3 specific joints most involved in flute playing, and proprioception acuity were all measured accurately for the first time in this awkward instrument that needs high levels of dexterity. Flautists' finger joints have a greater range of movement than in the general population. This group of flute players had especially large ranges of movement in the finger joints, which take the weight of the instrument. Although flautists have hypermobile finger joints, they are not generally hypermobile elsewhere as measured by the Beighton Scale. Flautists, even with very mobile finger joints, have very accurate proprioception, which may be acquired through training. The study of instrumentalists may provide an ideal model for study of the interaction between localized joint flexibility and joint proprioception, both inherited and acquired.

  17. Reactive Neurogenesis and Down-Regulation of the Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 in the Cochlear Nuclei after Cochlear Deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Tighilet, Brahim; Dutheil, Sophie; Siponen, Marina I.; Noreña, Arnaud J.

    2016-01-01

    While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the CN sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to 1 month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal CN) and give rise to a variety of cell types, i.e., microglial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Interestingly, many of the newborn neurons had an inhibitory (GABAergic) phenotype. This result is intriguing since sensory deafferentation is usually accompanied by enhanced excitation, consistent with a reduction in central inhibition. The membrane potential effect of GABA depends, however, on the intra-cellular chloride concentration, which is maintained at low levels in adults by the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. The KCC2 density on the plasma membrane of neurons was then assessed after cochlear deafferentation in the cochlear nuclei ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Cochlear deafferentation is accompanied by a strong down-regulation of KCC2 ipsilateral to the lesion at 3 and 30 days post-lesion. This study suggests that reactive neurogenesis and down-regulation of KCC2 is part of the vast repertoire involved in homeostatic plasticity triggered by hearing loss. These central changes may also play a role in the generation of tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:27630564

  18. Upper Extremity Proprioception After Stroke: Bridging the Gap Between Neuroscience and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Findlater, Sonja E; Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-01-01

    Proprioception is an important aspect of function that is often impaired in the upper extremity following stroke. Unfortunately, neurorehabilitation has few evidence based treatment options for those with proprioceptive deficits. The authors consider potential reasons for this disparity. In doing so, typical assessments and proprioceptive intervention studies are discussed. Relevant evidence from the field of neuroscience is examined. Such evidence may be used to guide the development of targeted interventions for upper extremity proprioceptive deficits after stroke. As researchers become more aware of the impact of proprioceptive deficits on upper extremity motor performance after stroke, it is imperative to find successful rehabilitation interventions to target these deficits and ultimately improve daily function.

  19. Changes in TNFα, NFκB and MnSOD protein in the vestibular nuclei after unilateral vestibular deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unilateral vestibular deafferentation results in strong microglial and astroglial activation in the vestibular nuclei (VN) that could be due to an inflammatory response. This study was aimed at determining if markers of inflammation are upregulated in the VN after chemical unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) in the rat, and if the inflammatory response, if any, induces the expression of neuroprotective factors that could promote the plasticity mechanisms involved in the vestibular compensation process. The expressions of inflammatory and neuroprotective factors after chemical or mechanical UL were also compared to verify that the inflammatory response was not due to the toxicity of sodium arsanilate. Methods Immunohistological investigations combined the labeling of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), as a marker of the VN inflammatory response, and of nuclear transcription factor κB (NFκB) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), as markers of neuroprotection that could be expressed in the VN because of inflammation. Immunoreactivity (Ir) of the VN cells was quantified in the VN complex of rats. Behavioral investigations were performed to assess the functional recovery process, including both static (support surface) and dynamic (air-righting and landing reflexes) postural tests. Results Chemical UL (arsanilate transtympanic injection) induced a significant increase in the number of TNFα-Ir cells in the medial and inferior VN on both sides. These changes were detectable as early as 4 h after vestibular lesion, persisted at 1 day, and regained nearly normal values at 3 days. The early increase in TNFα expression was followed by a slightly delayed upregulation of NFκB 8 h after chemical UL, peaking at 1 day, and regaining control values 3 days later. By contrast, upregulation of MnSOD was more strongly delayed (1 day), with a peak at 3 days, and a return to control values at 15 days. Similar changes of TNFα, NFκB, and MnSOD expression were found in

  20. Proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Part 1: Basic science and principles of assessment and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Röijezon, Ulrik; Clark, Nicholas C; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Impaired proprioception has been reported as a feature in a number of musculoskeletal disorders of various body parts, from the cervical spine to the ankle. Proprioception deficits can occur as a result of traumatic damage, e.g., to ligaments and muscles, but can also occur in association with painful disorders of a gradual-onset nature. Muscle fatigue can also adversely affect proprioception and this has implications for both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Due to the importance of proprioception for sensorimotor control, specific methods for assessment and training of proprioception have been developed for both the spine and the extremities. The aim of this first part of a two part series on proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation is to present a theory based overview of the role of proprioception in sensorimotor control, assessment, causes and findings of altered proprioception in musculoskeletal disorders and general principles of interventions targeting proprioception. An understanding of the basic science of proprioception, consequences of disturbances and theories behind assessment and interventions is vital for the clinical management of musculoskeletal disorders. Part one of this series supplies a theoretical base for part two which is more practically and clinically orientated, covering specific examples of methods for clinical assessment and interventions to improve proprioception in the spine and the extremities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport.

  2. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport. PMID:26583139

  3. Proprioceptive Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Dysfunction in Movement Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Trompetto, Carlo; Mori, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders (MDs) are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease) and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia), suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with MDs, and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using “task-intrinsic” or “augmented feedback.” This perspective article reviews the available evidence on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with MDs and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception. PMID:25505402

  4. Proprioceptive rehabilitation of upper limb dysfunction in movement disorders: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Trompetto, Carlo; Mori, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders (MDs) are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson's disease) and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia), suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with MDs, and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using "task-intrinsic" or "augmented feedback." This perspective article reviews the available evidence on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with MDs and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception.

  5. Bimanual proprioception: are two hands better than one?

    PubMed

    Wong, Jeremy D; Wilson, Elizabeth T; Kistemaker, Dinant A; Gribble, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Information about the position of an object that is held in both hands, such as a golf club or a tennis racquet, is transmitted to the human central nervous system from peripheral sensors in both left and right arms. How does the brain combine these two sources of information? Using a robot to move participant's passive limbs, we performed psychophysical estimates of proprioceptive function for each limb independently and again when subjects grasped the robot handle with both arms. We compared empirical estimates of bimanual proprioception to several models from the sensory integration literature: some that propose a combination of signals from the left and right arms (such as a Bayesian maximum-likelihood estimate), and some that propose using unimanual signals alone. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the nervous system both has knowledge of and uses the limb with the best proprioceptive acuity for bimanual proprioception. Surprisingly, a Bayesian model that postulates optimal combination of sensory signals could not predict empirically observed bimanual acuity. These findings suggest that while the central nervous system seems to have information about the relative sensory acuity of each limb, it uses this information in a rather rudimentary fashion, essentially ignoring information from the less reliable limb.

  6. Proprioception in motor learning: lessons from a deafferented subject.

    PubMed

    Yousif, N; Cole, J; Rothwell, J; Diedrichsen, J

    2015-08-01

    Proprioceptive information arises from a variety of channels, including muscle, tendon, and skin afferents. It tells us where our static limbs are in space and how they are moving. It remains unclear however, how these proprioceptive modes contribute to motor learning. Here, we studied a subject (IW) who has lost large myelinated fibres below the neck and found that he was strongly impaired in sensing the static position of his upper limbs, when passively moved to an unseen location. When making reaching movements however, his ability to discriminate in which direction the trajectory had been diverted was unimpaired. This dissociation allowed us to test the involvement of static and dynamic proprioception in motor learning. We found that IW showed a preserved ability to adapt to force fields when visual feedback was present. He was even sensitive to the exact form of the force perturbation, responding appropriately to a velocity- or position-dependent force after a single perturbation. The ability to adapt to force fields was also preserved when visual feedback about the lateral perturbation of the hand was withdrawn. In this experiment, however, he did not exhibit a form of use-dependent learning, which was evident in the control participants as a drift of the intended direction of the reaching movement in the perturbed direction. This suggests that this form of learning may depend on static position sense at the end of the movement. Our results indicate that dynamic and static proprioception play dissociable roles in motor learning.

  7. Measurement of active shoulder proprioception: dedicated system and device.

    PubMed

    Lubiatowski, Przemyslaw; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Wojtaszek, Marcin; Kaniewski, Ryszard; Stefaniak, Jakub; Dudziński, Witold; Romanowski, Leszek

    2013-02-01

    Proprioception is an essential part of shoulder stability and neuromuscular control. The purpose of the study was the development of a precise system of shoulder proprioception assessment in the active mode (Propriometr). For that purpose, devices such as the electronic goniometer and computer software had been designed. A pilot study was carried out on a control group of 27 healthy subjects, the average age being 23.8 (22-29) in order to test the system. The result of the assessment was the finding of the error of active reproduction of the joint position (EARJP). EARJP was assessed for flexion, abduction, external and internal rotation. For every motion, reference positions were used at three different angles. The results showed EARJP to range in 3-6.1°. The proprioception evaluation system (propriometr) allows a precise measurement of active joint position sense. The designed system can be used to assess proprioception in both shoulder injuries and treatment. In addition, all achieved results of normal shoulders may serve as reference to be compared with the results of forthcoming studies.

  8. Effects of Pivoting Neuromuscular Training on Pivoting Control and Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Chang, Alison H.; Geiger, François; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioceptive acuity may play an important role in ACL injuries. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pivoting neuromuscular training on an offaxis elliptical trainer (POINT) could improve pivoting neuromuscular control, proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance. Methods Among 41 subjects, 21 subjects participated in 18 sessions of POINT (3 sessions/week for 6 weeks), and 20 subjects served as controls who did their regular workout. Both groups received pre-, mid-, and post-intervention evaluations. Propensity score analysis with multivariable regression adjustment was used to investigate the effect of training on pivoting neuromuscular control (pivoting instability, leg pivoting stiffness, maximum internal and external pivoting angles), proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance in both groups. Results Compared to the control group, the training group significantly improved pivoting neuromuscular control as reduced pivoting instability, reduced maximum internal and external pivoting angles, increased leg pivoting stiffness, and decreased entropy of time to peak EMG in the gluteus maximus and lateral gastrocnemius under pivoting perturbations. Furthermore, the training group enhanced weight-bearing proprioceptive acuity and improved the single leg hop distance. Conclusion Improvement of pivoting neuromuscular control in functional weight-bearing activities and task performances following POINT may help develop lower limb injury prevention and rehabilitation methods to reduce ACL and other musculoskeletal injuries associated with pivoting sports. PMID:24389517

  9. Effects of pivoting neuromuscular training on pivoting control and proprioception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Chang, Alison H; Geiger, François; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-07-01

    Pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioceptive acuity may play an important role in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pivoting off-axis intensity adjustable neuromuscular control training (POINT) could improve pivoting neuromuscular control, proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance. Among 41 subjects, 21 subjects participated in 18 sessions of POINT (three sessions per week for 6 wk), and 20 subjects served as controls who did their regular workout. Both groups received pre-, mid-, and postintervention evaluations. Propensity score analysis with multivariable regression adjustment was used to investigate the effect of training on pivoting neuromuscular control (pivoting instability, leg pivoting stiffness, maximum internal, and external pivoting angles), proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance in both groups. Compared with the control group, the training group significantly improved pivoting neuromuscular control as reduced pivoting instability, reduced maximum internal and external pivoting angles, increased leg pivoting stiffness, and decreased entropy of time to peak EMG in the gluteus maximus and lateral gastrocnemius under pivoting perturbations. Furthermore, the training group enhanced weight-bearing proprioceptive acuity and improved the single leg hop distance. Improvement of pivoting neuromuscular control in functional weight-bearing activities and task performances after POINT may help develop lower limb injury prevention and rehabilitation methods to reduce anterior cruciate ligament and other musculoskeletal injuries associated with pivoting sports.

  10. Differences in Sensorimotor Processing of Visual and Proprioceptive Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamen, Gary and Morris, Harold H.

    1988-01-01

    A paradox in studying sensory perception is that people often attend to a stimulus which provides the least optimal information. Usually, this is a visual stimulus. The study sought to lessen this reliance on vision by training subjects to respond to proprioceptive stimuli. Results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  11. PROPRIOCEPTION, BODY BALANCE AND FUNCTIONALITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, Tássia Silveira; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; do Pinho, Alexandre Severo; Bernardes, Emanuele da Silva; Zaro, Milton Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate and compare proprioception, body balance and knee functionality of individuals with or without unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods : Forty individuals were divided in two groups: Experimental group, 20 individuals with ACL reconstruction at six months postoperative, and control group, 20 individuals with no history of lower limb pathologies. In the experimental group, we assessed lower limbs with reconstructed ACL and contralateral limb; in the control group the dominant and the non-dominant lower limbs were assessed. All subjects were submitted to joint position sense test to evaluate proprioception, postural control measure in single-limb, and step up and down (SUD) test for functional assessment. Results : There were no deficits in proprioception and postural control. In the SUD test, a 5% decrease in lift up force was found in reconstructed ACL lower limbs, however, a statistically not significant difference. The impact and step down force during the course of test were 30% greater in anatomic ACL than in control lower limbs. Conclusion : The individuals with ACL reconstruction at six months postoperative did not show changes in proprioception and postural control, but showed motor control changes, influencing knee functionality. Level of Evidence IV, Prognostic Studies. PMID:26981038

  12. Neck Proprioception Shapes Body Orientation and Perception of Motion

    PubMed Central

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This review article deals with some effects of neck muscle proprioception on human balance, gait trajectory, subjective straight-ahead (SSA), and self-motion perception. These effects are easily observed during neck muscle vibration, a strong stimulus for the spindle primary afferent fibers. We first remind the early findings on human balance, gait trajectory, SSA, induced by limb, and neck muscle vibration. Then, more recent findings on self-motion perception of vestibular origin are described. The use of a vestibular asymmetric yaw-rotation stimulus for emphasizing the proprioceptive modulation of motion perception from the neck is mentioned. In addition, an attempt has been made to conjointly discuss the effects of unilateral neck proprioception on motion perception, SSA, and walking trajectory. Neck vibration also induces persistent aftereffects on the SSA and on self-motion perception of vestibular origin. These perceptive effects depend on intensity, duration, side of the conditioning vibratory stimulation, and on muscle status. These effects can be maintained for hours when prolonged high-frequency vibration is superimposed on muscle contraction. Overall, this brief outline emphasizes the contribution of neck muscle inflow to the construction and fine-tuning of perception of body orientation and motion. Furthermore, it indicates that tonic neck-proprioceptive input may induce persistent influences on the subject’s mental representation of space. These plastic changes might adapt motion sensitiveness to lasting or permanent head positional or motor changes. PMID:25414660

  13. Laterality of proprioception in the orofacial muscles and temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Ellie; Coulson, Susan; Adams, Roger; Croxson, Glen; Waddington, Gordon

    2016-12-02

    Laterality of function in the orofacial musculature suggests there may be side-to-side asymmetry of proprioceptive acuity in lip movement compared to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In the present work, 14 young adults were tested for acuity of lip and TMJ closure movements onto plugs varying from 5 to 8mm without visual feedback. Testing was conducted on both left and right sides, using the same psychophysical task and stimuli. Results showed superior proprioceptive acuity at the lips, with no significant side effect. However, there was side-to-side asymmetry in the correlations between proprioceptive performance for the two anatomical structures, with performance on the right side strongly correlated but not on the left. This is consistent with the need for coordination between structures during chewing. When acuity at different points in the stimulus range was examined, the right side lips were better with small stimuli. Overall, results support enhanced use-specific proprioception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Finger opening in an overarm throw is not triggered by proprioceptive feedback from elbow extension or wrist flexion.

    PubMed

    Hore, J; Ritchie, R; Watts, S

    1999-04-01

    Accuracy in an overarm throw requires great precision in the timing of finger opening. We tested the hypothesis that finger opening in an overarm throw is triggered by proprioceptive feedback from elbow extension or wrist flexion. The hypothesis was tested in two ways: first, by unexpectedly perturbing elbow extension or slowing wrist flexion and determining whether changes occurred in finger opening, and second, by measuring the latency from the start of these joint rotations to the start of finger opening. Subjects threw balls fast and accurately from a sitting or standing position while joint rotations were recorded with the search-coil technique. Elbow extension was unexpectedly blocked near the start of forward motion of the hand by a rope attached to the wrist that passed through a catch mechanism located behind the subject. In spite of a slowing or complete block of elbow extension, and in some cases a replacement of elbow extension by elbow flexion, finger opening always occurred and at the same latency as for normal throws. Wrist flexion was slowed in seven of eight subjects when subjects changed from throwing with a light ball (14 g, 70 mm diam.) to a heavy ball (210 g, 65 mm diam.). For the first throw with the heavy ball, this slowing was neither fully anticipated by the subject nor compensated for by the changed proprioceptive feedback associated with the slowing. Consequently, the timing of finger opening was unchanged and (to the surprise of the thrower) the ball went high. Furthermore, in unperturbed throws with tennis balls, the latency from onset of wrist flexion or elbow extension to onset of finger opening was too short for either to have triggered finger opening (across subjects means were 4 ms for wrist flexion and 21 ms for elbow extension). In additional analysis, no relation was found between the time of onset of earlier occurring rotations at the shoulder and the time of onset of finger opening. We concluded that, although a role for all

  15. Slow Pseudotachylites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pec, M.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic pseudotachylites as solidified, friction induced melts are believed to be the only unequivocal evidence for paleo-earthquakes. Earthquakes occur when fast slip (1 - 3 m/s) propagates on a localized failure plane and are always related with stress drops. The mechanical work expended, together with the rock composition and the efficiency of thermal dissipation, controls whether the temperature increase on a localized slip plane will be sufficient to induce fusion. We report the formation of pseudotachylites during steady-state plastic flow at slow bulk shear strain rates (~10^-3 to ~10^-5 /s corresponding to slip rates of ~10^-6 to ~10^-8 m/s) in experiments performed at high confining pressures (500 MPa) and temperatures (300°C) corresponding to a depth of ~15 km. Crushed granitioid rock (Verzasca gneiss), grain size ≤ 200 μm, with 0.2 wt% water added was placed between alumina forcing blocks pre-cut at 45°, weld-sealed in platinum jackets and deformed with a constant displacement rate in a solid medium deformation apparatus (modified Griggs rig). Microstructural observations show the development of a S-C-C' fabric with C' slip zones being the dominant feature. Strain hardening in the beginning of the experiment is accompanied with compaction which is achieved by closely spaced R1 shears pervasively cutting the whole gouge zone and containing fine-grained material (d < 100 nm). The peak strength is achieved at γ ~ 2 at shear stress levels of 1350-1450 MPa when compaction ceases. During further deformation, large local displacements (γ > 10) are localized in less densely spaced, ~10 μm thick C'-C slip zones which develop predominantly in feldspars and often contain micas. In TEM, they appear to have no porosity consisting of partly amorphous material and small crystalline fragments with the average grain size of 20 nm. After the peak strength, the samples weaken by ~20 MPa and continue deforming up to γ ~ 4 without any stress drops. Strain

  16. Clinical balance tests, proprioceptive system and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Morgane; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Bourdeauducq, Isabelle; Versyp, Marie-Christine; Donze, Cécile; Thévenon, André; Catanzariti, Jean-Francois

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spinal column of unknown etiology. Multiple factors could be involved, including neurosensory pathways and, potentially, an elective disorder of dynamic proprioception. The purpose of this study was to determine whether routine balance tests could be used to demonstrate an elective alteration of dynamic proprioception in AIS. This was a multicentre case-control study based on prospectively collected clinical data, in three hospitals pediatric, with spine consultation, from January 2013 through April 2015. From an original population of 547 adolescents, inclusion and non-inclusion criteria indentified 114 adolescents with right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.5 ± 1.9 years, Cobb angle 35.7 ± 15.3°) and 81 matched adolescents without scoliosis (mean age 14.1 ± 1.9 years). Participants performed three routine clinical balance tests to assess the static and dynamic proprioception: the Fukuda-Utenberger stepping test (angle of rotation in degrees and distance of displacement in cm) to assess dynamic balance; the sharpened Romberg test and the unipedal stance test (eyes closed) to assess static balance. There was no significant difference between AIS subjects and controls for the static tests, but there was a significant difference for the dynamic test for both measures: distance of displacement (p < 0.01) and angle of rotation (p < 0.0001). This result confirms our initial these: the dynamic proprioception is altered electively in AIS. These findings confirm recent AIS studies. Our results might be related to immature central integration of dynamic proprioceptive input leading to a poorly adapted motor response, particularly for postural control of the, in AIS. These balance tests can be performed in routine practice. Their validity as a biomarker for screening and monitoring purposes should be assessed.

  17. Horizontal otolith-ocular responses in humans after unilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Lempert, T; Gianna, C; Brookes, G; Bronstein, A; Gresty, M

    1998-02-01

    We studied horizontal eye movements evoked by lateral whole body translation in nine patients who underwent vestibular nerve section. Preoperatively, all had preserved caloric function on both sides. Testing was performed before, 1 week and 6-10 weeks after surgery. Patients were seated upright in an electrically powered car running on a linear track. The car executed acceleration steps of 0.24 g, randomly to the left and right in the dark. The normal response consisted of a bidirectionally symmetrical nystagmus with compensatory slow phases. Response asymmetry of the slow-phase velocity of the desaccaded and averaged eye position signal was less than 13% in normals (n = 21). Before surgery, patients' responses were mostly symmetrical. Postoperatively, responses were diminished or absent with head acceleration towards the operated ear in all patients, causing a marked asymmetry which averaged 56% after correction for spontaneous nystagmus. On follow-up, responses regained symmetry. Thus, early after vestibular nerve section, a single utricle produces a normal LVOR only with ipsilateral head translation. Therefore, afferents for the LVOR seem to originate from the mid-lateral area of the macula, where hair cells are stimulated in their on-direction during ipsilateral head translation. Compensation may depend on recovery of the off-directional responses from lateral hair cells of the remaining utricle.

  18. The Effects of Complete Vestibular Deafferentation on Spatial Memory and the Hippocampus in the Rat: The Dunedin Experience.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Darlington, Cynthia L; Zhen, Yiwen

    2015-01-01

    Our studies conducted over the last 14 years have demonstrated that a complete bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) in rats results in spatial memory deficits in a variety of behavioural tasks, such as the radial arm maze, the foraging task and the spatial T maze, as well as deficits in other tasks such as the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRT task) and object recognition memory task. These deficits persist long after the BVD, and are not simply attributable to ataxia, anxiety, hearing loss or hyperactivity. In tasks such as the foraging task, the spatial memory deficits are evident in darkness when vision is not required to perform the task. The deficits in the radial arm maze, the foraging task and the spatial T maze, in particular, suggest hippocampal dysfunction following BVD, and this is supported by the finding that both hippocampal place cells and theta rhythm are dysfunctional in BVD rats. Now that it is clear that the hippocampus is adversely affected by BVD, the next challenge is to determine what vestibular information is transmitted to it and how that information is used by the hippocampus and the other brain structures with which it interacts.

  19. Deafferentation-induced plasticity of visual callosal connections: predicting critical periods and analyzing cortical abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Olavarria, Jaime F; Bock, Andrew S; Leigland, Lindsey A; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Callosal connections form elaborate patterns that bear close association with striate and extrastriate visual areas. Although it is known that retinal input is required for normal callosal development, there is little information regarding the period during which the retina is critically needed and whether this period correlates with the same developmental stage across species. Here we review the timing of this critical period, identified in rodents and ferrets by the effects that timed enucleations have on mature callosal connections, and compare it to other developmental milestones in these species. Subsequently, we compare these events to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements of water diffusion anisotropy within developing cerebral cortex. We observed that the relationship between the timing of the critical period and the DTI-characterized developmental trajectory is strikingly similar in rodents and ferrets, which opens the possibility of using cortical DTI trajectories for predicting the critical period in species, such as humans, in which this period likely occurs prenatally. Last, we discuss the potential of utilizing DTI to distinguish normal from abnormal cerebral cortical development, both within the context of aberrant connectivity induced by early retinal deafferentation, and more generally as a potential tool for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. The effect of 8-weeks proprioceptive exercise program in postural sway and isokinetic strength of ankle sprains of Tunisian athletes.

    PubMed

    Ben Moussa Zouita, A; Majdoub, O; Ferchichi, H; Grandy, K; Dziri, C; Ben Salah, F Z

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to investigate the effects of proprioceptive exercises rehabilitation on isokinetic strength and postural balance in athletes with sprain ankle. The ankles of 16 subjects were tested: eight in the functional instability (FI) group and eight non-injured (NI) subjects in the control group. Subjects were asked to take part in a testing session. The test order for the postural stability and isokinetic strength tests was randomized to avoid learning or fatigue effects. The testing session started with a 5-minute warm-up. Subjects were then instructed to perform several lower body flexibility exercises. The test procedure consisted in static assessments, where single-limb (right and left) stance postural stability was assessed. Three practice trials were allowed for each subject. The assessment quantifies postural sway velocity while the athlete stands calmly on one foot on the force plate, for each leg. They were asked to stand as still as possible for 30s, upper limbs along the body. The subjects were requested to maintain balance with eyes open and then with the eyes closed on the firm surface. The sway velocity (in degrees per second) is given for all trials. Subjects were allowed a 1-minute rest between tests. The regime of isokinetic evaluation of dorsi-plantar flexions is concentric, with three successive speeds: slow (30°/s, reps 5), average (60°/s, reps 10), and fast (120°/s, reps 15), according to the protocol established by European Group for the development and the isokinetic research and the procedural guidelines. Relative moment of strength and times of acceleration and deceleration were calculated for each set of isokinetic testing repetitions per body side, muscle group and testing speed. The results of tests-retest and between both groups (injured vs. healthy) show that after eight weeks of proprioceptive work, significant increase of maximal strength, decrease in times of acceleration and deceleration at the level of plantar flexors

  1. Electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induces involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    The levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles, despite consisting of slow-twitch fibres that involuntarily sustain eyelid-opening and eyebrow-raising against gravity. To compensate for this anatomical defect, this study hypothetically proposes that initial voluntary contraction of the levator fast-twitch muscle fibres stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle and evokes proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study sought to determine whether unilateral transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle could induce electromyographic responses in the frontalis muscles, with monitoring responses in the orbicularis oculi muscles. The study population included 27 normal subjects and 23 subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, who displayed persistently raised eyebrows on primary gaze and light eyelid closure. The stimulation induced a short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle of all subjects and long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of normal subjects. However, it did not induce long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The orbicularis oculi muscles showed R1 and/or R2 responses. The stimulation might reach not only the proprioceptive fibres, but also other sensory fibres related to the blink or corneal reflex. The experimental system can provoke a monosynaptic short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle, probably through the mesencephalic trigeminal proprioceptive neuron and the frontalis motor neuron, and polysynaptic long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles through an unknown pathway. The latter neural circuit appeared to be engaged by the circumstances of aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

  2. Deafferentation of the Superior Colliculus Abolishes Spatial Summation of Redundant Visual Signals

    PubMed Central

    van Koningsbruggen, Martijn; Koller, Kristin; Rafal, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Two visual signals appearing simultaneously are detected more rapidly than either signal appearing alone. Part of this redundant target effect (RTE) can be attributed to neural summation that has been proposed to occur in the superior colliculus (SC). We report direct evidence in two neurological patients for neural summation in the SC, and that it is mediated by afferent visual information transmitted through its brachium. The RTE was abolished in one patient with a hemorrhage involving the right posterior thalamus that damaged part of the SC and that disrupted its brachium; and in another patient in whom the SC appeared intact but deafferented due to traumatic avulsion of its brachium. In addition reaction time for unilateral targets in the contralesional field was slowed in both patients, providing the first evidence that visual afferents to the SC contribute to the efficiency of target detection. PMID:28286472

  3. Unifying model of shoot gravitropism reveals proprioception as a central feature of posture control in plants

    PubMed Central

    Bastien, Renaud; Bohr, Tomas; Moulia, Bruno; Douady, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a key determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Shoot gravitropism is triggered when statocysts sense the local angle of the growing organ relative to the gravitational field. Lateral transport of the hormone auxin to the lower side is then enhanced, resulting in differential gene expression and cell elongation causing the organ to bend. However, little is known about the dynamics, regulation, and diversity of the entire bending and straightening process. Here, we modeled the bending and straightening of a rod-like organ and compared it with the gravitropism kinematics of different organs from 11 angiosperms. We show that gravitropic straightening shares common traits across species, organs, and orders of magnitude. The minimal dynamic model accounting for these traits is not the widely cited gravisensing law but one that also takes into account the sensing of local curvature, what we describe here as a graviproprioceptive law. In our model, the entire dynamics of the bending/straightening response is described by a single dimensionless “bending number” B that reflects the ratio between graviceptive and proprioceptive sensitivities. The parameter B defines both the final shape of the organ at equilibrium and the timing of curving and straightening. B can be estimated from simple experiments, and the model can then explain most of the diversity observed in experiments. Proprioceptive sensing is thus as important as gravisensing in gravitropic control, and the B ratio can be measured as phenotype in genetic studies. PMID:23236182

  4. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  5. Proprioceptive gait and speed selection in a slender inertial swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argentina, Mederic; Gazzola, Mattia; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a slender inertial swimmer accounting for hydrodynamics, mechanics, muscle activity and sensory feedbacks. Our theory elucidates how elastic properties and proprioception contribute to selecting swimming speed and locomotion gait. Swimmers are shown to take advantage of resonance phenomena to enhance speed and efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a minimal proprioceptive model, in which the local muscle activation is function of body curvature, is sufficient to exploit hydro-mechanic properties and drive elastic instabilities associated with thrust production. Our results quantitatively agree with live fish experiments and provide a mechanistic basis for the relation U/L ~ f between the swimmer's speed U, length L and tail beat frequency f determined empirically by Bainbridge more than half a century ago.

  6. Proprioception and tension receptors in crab limbs: student laboratory exercises.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Zana R; Titlow, Josh; Hartman, H Bernard; Cooper, Robin

    2013-10-24

    The primary purpose of these procedures is to demonstrate for teaching and research purposes how to record the activity of living primary sensory neurons responsible for proprioception as they are detecting joint position and movement, and muscle tension. Electrical activity from crustacean proprioceptors and tension receptors is recorded by basic neurophysiological instrumentation, and a transducer is used to simultaneously measure force that is generated by stimulating a motor nerve. In addition, we demonstrate how to stain the neurons for a quick assessment of their anatomical arrangement or for permanent fixation. Staining reveals anatomical organization that is representative of chordotonal organs in most crustaceans. Comparing the tension nerve responses to the proprioceptive responses is an effective teaching tool in determining how these sensory neurons are defined functionally and how the anatomy is correlated to the function. Three staining techniques are presented allowing researchers and instructors to choose a method that is ideal for their laboratory.

  7. Visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children.

    PubMed

    Vinter, Annie; Chartrel, Estelle

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments investigated visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-5 years were asked to recognize a visually presented target letter after a 3s inspection time, from among two distracters: a highly and a moderately similar letter. Visual letter recognition improved rapidly between 3 and 5 years and was a function of the "uniqueness" of letter shape and of letter frequency. In Experiment 2, children aged 4-6 years were asked to recognize a target letter from among 2 distracters, after having traced over the letter in a "blind" condition, with their hand guided by the experimenter. Proprioceptive recognition developed more slowly than visual recognition, and was not a function of letter frequency. The results are discussed in terms of integration versus differentiation of perceptual information, and of the tendency to base recognition on local rather than global similarity.

  8. Manifestations of Proprioception During Vertical Jumps to Specific Heights

    PubMed Central

    Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Winiarski, Sławomir; Juras, Grzegorz; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Artur, S, Bogdan, P, Kawczyński, A, Winiarski, S, Grzegorz, J, and Andrzej, R. Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific heights. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1694–1701, 2017—Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared with their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8 ± 0.9 years, body height: 181.8 ± 8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8 ± 11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8 ± 1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1 ± 0.8 years, body height: 170.5 ± 6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3 ± 9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7 ± 1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, sex, and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately 2 times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads. PMID:28538322

  9. Arm-trunk coordination in the absence of proprioception.

    PubMed

    Tunik, E; Poizner, H; Levin, M F; Adamovich, S V; Messier, J; Lamarre, Y; Feldman, A G

    2003-12-01

    During trunk-assisted reaching to targets placed within arm's length, the influence of trunk motion on the hand trajectory is compensated for by changes in the arm configuration. The role of proprioception in this compensation was investigated by analyzing the movements of 2 deafferented and 12 healthy subjects. Subjects reached to remembered targets (placed approximately 80 degrees ipsilateral or approximately 45 degrees contralateral to the sagittal midline) with an active forward movement of the trunk produced by hip flexion. In 40% of randomly selected trials, trunk motion was mechanically blocked. No visual feedback was provided during the experiment. The hand trajectory and velocity profiles of healthy subjects remained invariant whether or not the trunk was blocked. The invariance was achieved by changes in arm interjoint coordination that, for reaches toward the ipsilateral target, started as early as 50 ms after the perturbation. Both deafferented subjects exhibited considerable, though incomplete, compensation for the effects of the perturbation. Compensation was more successful for reaches to the ipsilateral target. Both deafferented subjects showed invariance between conditions (unobstructed or blocked trunk motion) in their hand paths to the ipsilateral target, and one did to the contralateral target. For the other deafferented subject, hand paths in the two types of trials began to deviate after about 50% into the movement, because of excessive elbow extension. In movements to the ipsilateral target, when deafferented subjects compensated successfully, the changes in arm joint angles were initiated as early as 50 ms after the trunk perturbation, similar to healthy subjects. Although the deafferented subjects showed less than ideal compensatory control, they compensated to a remarkably large extent given their complete loss of proprioception. The presence of partial compensation in the absence of vision and proprioception points to the likelihood that

  10. Dicer maintains the identity and function of proprioceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sean M; Ferrer, Monica M; Mekonnen, Jennifer; Zhang, Haihan; Shima, Yasuyuki; Ladle, David R; Nelson, Sacha B

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell G, Heintz N. Neuron 80: 602-612, 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris ES, Hobert O. Nat Neurosci 17: 899-907, 2014). Posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian S, Sun T. Mol Neurobiol 44: 359-373, 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how posttranscriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well-established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion. By conditionally ablating Dicer in mice, using parvalbumin (Pvalb)-driven Cre recombinase, we impaired posttranscriptional regulation in the proprioceptive sensory neuron population. Knockout (KO) animals display a progressive form of ataxia at the beginning of the fourth postnatal week that is accompanied by a cell death within the DRG. Before cell loss, expression profiling shows a reduction of proprioceptor specific genes and an increased expression of nonproprioceptive genes normally enriched in other ganglion neurons. Furthermore, although central connections of these neurons are intact, the peripheral connections to the muscle are functionally impaired. Posttranscriptional regulation is therefore necessary to retain the transcriptional identity and support functional specialization of the proprioceptive sensory neurons.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have demonstrated that selectively impairing Dicer in parvalbumin-positive neurons, which include the proprioceptors, triggers behavioral changes, a lack of muscle connectivity, and a loss of transcriptional identity as observed through RNA sequencing. These results suggest that Dicer and, most likely by extension, micro

  11. Plasticity response in the contralesional hemisphere after subtle neurotrauma: gene expression profiling after partial deafferentation of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Daniel; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Nilsson, Michael; Kubista, Mikael; Ståhlberg, Anders; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrauma or focal brain ischemia are known to trigger molecular and structural responses in the uninjured hemisphere. These responses may have implications for tissue repair processes as well as for the recovery of function. To determine whether the plasticity response in the uninjured hemisphere occurs even after a subtle trauma, we subjected mice to a partial unilateral deafferentation of the hippocampus induced by stereotactically performed entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL). The expression of selected genes was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in the hippocampal tissue at the injured side and the contralesional side at day 4 and 14 after injury. We observed that expression of genes coding for synaptotagmin 1, ezrin, thrombospondin 4, and C1q proteins, that have all been implicated in the synapse formation, re-arrangement and plasticity, were upregulated both in the injured and the contralesional hippocampus, implying a plasticity response in the uninjured hemisphere. Several of the genes, the expression of which was altered in response to ECL, are known to be expressed in astrocytes. To test whether astrocyte activation plays a role in the observed plasticity response to ECL, we took advantage of mice deficient in two intermediate filament (nanofilament) proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin (GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) ) and exhibiting attenuated astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis. The absence of GFAP and vimentin reduced the ECL-induced upregulation of thrombospondin 4, indicating that this response to ECL depends on astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis. We conclude that even a very limited focal neurotrauma triggers a distinct response at the contralesional side, which at least to some extent depends on astrocyte activation.

  12. Unilateral vestibular deafferentation-induced changes in calcium signaling-related molecules in the rat vestibular nuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Masumura, Chisako; Horii, Arata; Mitani, Kenji; Kitahara, Tadashi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    2007-03-23

    Inquiries into the neurochemical mechanisms of vestibular compensation, a model of lesion-induced neuronal plasticity, reveal the involvement of both voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC) and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Indeed, our previous microarray analysis showed an up-regulation of some calcium signaling-related genes such as the alpha2 subunit of L-type calcium channels, calcineurin, and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 1 (PMCA1) in the ipsilateral vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD). To further elucidate the role of calcium signaling-related molecules in vestibular compensation, we used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to confirm the microarray results and investigated changes in expression of these molecules at various stages of compensation (6 h to 2 weeks after UVD). We also investigated the changes in gene expression during Bechterew's phenomenon and the effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on vestibular compensation. Real-time PCR showed that genes for the alpha2 subunit of VGCC, PMCA2, and calcineurin were transiently up-regulated 6 h after UVD in ipsilateral VNC. A subsequent UVD, which induced Bechterew's phenomenon, reproduced a complete mirror image of the changes in gene expressions of PMCA2 and calcineurin seen in the initial UVD, while the alpha2 subunit of VGCC gene had a trend to increase in VNC ipsilateral to the second lesion. Pre-treatment by FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, decelerated the vestibular compensation in a dose-dependent manner. Although it is still uncertain whether these changes in gene expression are causally related to the molecular mechanisms of vestibular compensation, this observation suggests that after increasing the Ca(2+) influx into the ipsilateral VNC neurons via up-regulated VGCC, calcineurin may be involved in their synaptic plasticity. Conversely, an up-regulation of PMCA2, a brain-specific Ca(2+) pump, would increase an efflux of Ca

  13. Chlorpheniramine produces spinal motor, proprioceptive and nociceptive blockades in rats.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Lin, Heng-Teng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-04-05

    This study aimed to assess the local anesthetic effects of chlorpheniramine in spinal anesthesia and is compared with mepivacaine, a widely-used local anesthetic. Spinal anesthesia with chlorpheniramine and mepivacaine was constructed in a dosage-dependent fashion after the rats were injected intrathecally. The spinal block effect of chlorpheniramine in motor function, nociception, and proprioception was compared to that of mepivacaine. We revealed that intrathecal chlorpheniramine and mepivacaine exhibited a dose-dependent spinal block of motor function, nociception, and proprioception. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the ranks of potencies in motor function, nociception, and proprioception were chlorpheniramine>mepivacaine (P<0.01 for the differences). On the equianesthetic basis (ED25, ED50, ED75), the duration of spinal anesthesia with chlorpheniramine was greater than that of mepivacaine (P<0.01 for the differences). Instead of mepivacaine, chlorpheniramine produced a greater duration of sensory blockade than the motor blockade. These preclinical data showed that chlorpheniramine has a better sensory-selective action over motor block to produce more potent and long-lasting spinal anesthesia than mepivacaine.

  14. Knee proprioception after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Vasques, J; Duarte, J A; Cabri, J M H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exercise-induced quadriceps muscle damage affects knee proprioception such as joint position sense (JPS), force sense and the threshold to detect passive movement (TTDPM). Fourteen young men performed sets of eccentric quadriceps contractions at a target of 60% of the maximal concentric peak torque until exhaustion; the exercise was interrupted whenever the subject could not complete two sets. Muscle soreness, JPS, the TTDPM and force sense were examined before the exercise as well as one, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exercise. The results were compared using one-way repeated-measure ANOVA. Plasma CK activity, collected at the same times, was analyzed by the Friedman's test to discriminate differences between baseline values and each of the other assessment moments (p<0.05). Relative to the proprioception assessment, JPS at 30 and 70 degrees of knee flexion and force sense were significantly decreased up to 48 h, whereas TTDPM decreased significantly at only one hour and 24 h after exercise, at 30 and 70 degrees of the knee flexion, respectively. The results allow the conclusion that eccentric exercise leading to muscle damage alters joint proprioception, suggesting that there might be impairment in the intrafusal fibres of spindle muscles and in the tendon organs.

  15. Proprioception and Flexibility Profiles of Elite Synchronized Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nora M Y; Giorgi, Hedda P; Liu, Karen P Y; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Chung, Louisa M Y; Kaewkaen, Kitchana; Fong, Shirley S M

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the full-body flexibility and joint proprioception (on land and underwater) of (a) 20 elite female synchronized swimmers (mean age ± standard deviation = 18.5 ± 1.9 years) and (b) 20 college female swim team members with no training in synchronized swimming (control participants; mean age ± standard deviation = 20.6 ± 1.3 years). Flexibility of the trunk and upper and lower limbs was measured using plastic tape and a goniometer, respectively. Joint proprioception (joint position sense) of the upper and lower limbs on land and underwater was measured by an active joint angle repositioning test. Principle outcome measures were passive joint range of motion (flexibility) and active joint repositioning error (proprioception). Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that, compared with control swimmers, synchronized swimmers had greater passive joint ranges of motion in the spinal and upper and lower limb joints ( p < .05) and fewer active joint repositioning errors in the shoulder, wrist, and ankle on land ( p < .05) and in the hip and ankle underwater ( p < .05). These results help characterize peak synchronized swimmer capabilities, provide valuable reference details for coaches, and may be useful for talent identification and skill development in this sport.

  16. Proprioceptive reflexes in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Schouten, A C; Van de Beek, W J T; Van Hilten, J J; Van der Helm, F C T

    2003-07-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a syndrome that frequently follows an injury and is characterized by sensory, autonomic and motor features of the affected extremities. One of the more common motor features of RSD is tonic dystonia, which is caused by impairment of inhibitory interneuronal spinal circuits. In this study the circuits that modulate the gain of proprioceptive reflexes of the shoulder musculature are quantitatively assessed in 19 RSD patients, 9 of whom presented with dystonia. The proprioceptive reflexes are quantified by applying two types of force disturbances: (1) disturbances with a fixed low frequency and a variable bandwidth and (2) disturbances with a small bandwidth around a prescribed centre frequency. Compared to controls, patients have lower reflex gains for velocity feedback in response to the disturbances around a prescribed centre frequency. Additionally, patients with dystonia lack the ability to generate negative reflex gains for position feedback, for these same disturbances. Proprioceptive reflexes to the disturbances with a fixed low frequency and variable bandwidth present no difference between patients and controls. Although dystonia in the RSD patients was limited to the distal musculature, the results suggest involvement of interneuronal circuits that mediate postsynaptic inhibition of the motoneurons of the proximal musculature.

  17. Proprioception and Throwing Accuracy in the Dominant Shoulder After Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wassinger, Craig A; Myers, Joseph B; Gatti, Joseph M; Conley, Kevin M; Lephart, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Application of cryotherapy modalities is common after acute shoulder injury and as part of rehabilitation. During athletic events, athletes may return to play after this treatment. The effects of cryotherapy on dominant shoulder proprioception have been assessed, yet the effects on throwing performance are unknown. Objective: To determine the effects of a cryotherapy application on shoulder proprioception and throwing accuracy. Design: Single-group, pretest-posttest control session design. Setting: University-based biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Healthy college-aged subjects (n = 22). Intervention(s): Twenty-minute ice pack application to the dominant shoulder. Main Outcome Measure(s): Active joint position replication, path of joint motion replication, and the Functional Throwing Performance Index. Results: Subjects demonstrated significant increases in deviation for path of joint motion replication when moving from 90° of abduction with 90° of external rotation to 20° of flexion with neutral shoulder rotation after ice pack application. Also, subjects exhibited a decrease in Functional Throwing Performance Index after cryotherapy application. No differences were found in subjects for active joint position replication after cryotherapy application. Conclusions: Proprioception and throwing accuracy were decreased after ice pack application to the shoulder. It is important that clinicians understand the deficits that occur after cryotherapy, as this modality is commonly used following acute injury and during rehabilitation. This information should also be considered when attempting to return an athlete to play after treatment. PMID:17597948

  18. Trials needed to assess knee proprioception following stroke.

    PubMed

    Piriyaprasarth, Pagamas; Morris, Meg E; Delany, Clare; Winter, Adele; Finch, Sue

    2009-03-01

    This study explores the number of trials required to identify clinically significant impairments in knee joint position sense and movement sense following stroke. Proprioception was assessed in 33 stroke patients aged 37-87 years. Ten trials for each assessment were performed in sitting and supine positions using both verbal response techniques and contralateral limb matching. Forty-six percent of participants were identified with a proprioceptive deficit. The trial where the first incorrect response occurred varied across individuals and testing positions. Performing only one trial detected proprioceptive impairments in less than 10% patients, and incorrect responses did not always occur in the first 5 trials. In sitting, no participant failed the assessment of knee joint position sense using the verbal response technique after only 6 trials. In supine, no participant failed the assessment of knee movement sense using the verbal response technique after only 6 trials. For the assessment of knee joint position sense in sitting using contralateral limb matching an estimated 9.4% of patients with a deficit would be missed if only 3 trials were used in preference to 5. For assessment of knee joint position sense in sitting, an estimated 18.8% of patients with deficits would be missed if only 3 trials were used rather than 10 trials. Clinicians should perform at least 10 trials in either sitting or supine to quantify joint position sense and movement sense at the knee following stroke. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan; Rutbİl, Hİlal; Akpinar, Ercan; Yildirim, Alİ; Karakaya, İlkİm Çitak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance. [Subjects and Methods] In this randomized-controlled, single-blind study, 59 university students (35 females, 24 males) were randomized into study (n=29) and control (n=30) groups. The study group received a foot and ankle proprioceptive exercise program including stretching, strengthening (plantar and dorsi-flexors, invertor and evertor muscles), and balance board exercises, each with 10 repetitions per session, 5 days a week, for a total of 10 sessions. The control group did not receive any intervention. Static body balance was evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer, which showed the balance index scores under both single foot and both feet conditions. This evaluation was repeated at the end of two weeks for both groups. [Results] Outcome measures of the groups were similar at the baseline. Balance index scores of both groups improved at the end of two weeks, and the study group had significantly lower index scores than those of the control group, indicating better balance. [Conclusion] Ankle proprioceptive training had positive effects on static body balance parameters in healthy individuals, and it is worth investigating the effects of this type of training in patients with balance disorders. PMID:26644697

  20. Restoring Proprioception via a Cortical Prosthesis: A Novel Learning Based Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    somatosensory cortex • Determine whether artificial proprioception improves brain- machine interface (BMI) learning rate and asymptotic performance...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0510 TITLE: Restoring Proprioception via a Cortical Prosthesis: A Novel Learning -Based Approach PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Restoring Proprioception via a Cortical Prosthesis: A Novel Learning -Based

  1. The specificity of practice hypothesis in goal-directed movements: visual dominance or proprioception neglect?

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore; Badets, Arnaud; Chesnet, David; Proteau, Luc

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to examine whether modifying the proprioceptive feedback usually associated with a specific movement would decrease the dominance of visual feedback and/or decrease, which appears to be the neglect of proprioceptive feedback in ensuring the accuracy of goal-directed movements. We used a leg positioning recall task and measured the recall error after 15 and 165 acquisition trials performed with both vision and proprioception or proprioception only, under either a normal or a modified proprioception condition (i.e., with a 1-kg load attached to the participants' ankle). Participant learning was evaluated in transfer with proprioception only. In support of the specificity of practice hypothesis, the recall errors in acquisition were significantly smaller when practice occurred with both vision and proprioception, in either the loaded or the unloaded leg condition, and they increased significantly in transfer when vision was withdrawn. An important finding of the study highlighted that withdrawing vision after 165 acquisition trials had less deleterious effects on the recall errors when practice occurred under the loaded leg condition. Under that modified condition, recall errors in transfer were similar when practice occurred with and without vision, whereas larger errors were observed following practice with vision under the normal proprioceptive condition. Overall, these results highlighted the dominance of vision in ensuring accurate leg positioning recall and revealed that the dominance of vision is such that the processing of proprioceptive feedback may be neglected. Importantly, modifying the proprioceptive feedback has the advantage of reducing what appears to be the neglect of proprioceptive information when movement execution occurs in a visuo-proprioceptive context. Practical considerations for rehabilitation are discussed at the end of the manuscript.

  2. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p < 0.01), no relationship was found between shoulder proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes.

  3. Proprioception: where are we now? A commentary on clinical assessment, changes across the life course, functional implications and future interventions.

    PubMed

    Suetterlin, Karen Joan; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2014-05-01

    Proprioception, the sense of where one is in space, is essential for effective interaction with the environment. A lack of or reduction in proprioceptive acuity has been directly correlated with falls and with reduced functional independence in older people. Proprioceptive losses have also been shown to negatively correlate with functional recovery post stroke and play a significant role in other conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, despite its central importance to many geriatric syndromes, the clinical assessment of proprioception has remained remarkably static. We look at approaches to the clinical assessment of proprioception, changes in proprioception across the life course, functional implications of proprioception in health and disease and the potential for targeted interventions in the future such as joint taping, and proprioception-specific rehabilitation and footwear.

  4. Successful Graded Mirror Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Deafferentation Pain in Whom Traditional Mirror Therapy was Ineffective: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mibu, Akira; Nishigami, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Katsuyoshi; Osumi, Michihiro; Tanabe, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    A 43-year-old man had deafferentation pain in his right upper extremity secondary to brachial plexus avulsion from a traffic accident 23 years previously. On our initial examination, he had severe tingling pain with numbness in the right fingers rated 10 on the numerical rating scale. The body perception of the affected third and fourth fingers was distorted in the flexed position. Although he performed traditional mirror therapy (TMT) for 4 weeks in the same methods as seen in previous studies, he could not obtain willed motor imagery and pain-alleviation effect. Therefore, we modified the task of TMT: Graded mirror therapy (GMT). GMT consisted of five stages: (1) observation of the mirror reflection of the unaffected side without imagining any movements of the affected side; (2) observation of the mirror reflection of the third and fourth fingers changing shape gradually adjusted from a flexed position to a extended position; (3) observation of the mirror reflection of passive movement; (4) motor imagery of affected fingers with observation of the mirror reflection (similar to TMT); (5) motor imagery of affected fingers without mirror. Each task was performed for 3 to 4 weeks. As a result, pain intensity during mirror therapy gradually decreased and finally disappeared. The body perception of the affected fingers also improved, and he could imagine the movement of the fingers with or without mirror. We suggested that GMT starting from the observation task without motor imagery may effectively decrease deafferentation pain compared to TMT.

  5. Interhemispheric neuroplasticity following limb deafferentation detected by resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies in rat brain show brain reorganization following peripheral nerve injury. Subacute neuroplasticity was observed two weeks following transection of the four major nerves of the brachial plexus. Direct functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulation of the intact radial nerve reveals an activation pattern in the forelimb regions of the sensory and motor cortices that is significantly different from that observed in normal rats. Results of this fMRI experiment were used to determine seed voxel regions for fcMRI analysis. Intrahemispheric connectivities in the sensorimotor forelimb representations in both hemispheres are largely unaffected by deafferentation, whereas substantial disruption of interhemispheric sensorimotor cortical connectivity occurs. In addition, significant intra- and interhemispheric changes in connectivities of thalamic nuclei were found. These are the central findings of the study. They could not have been obtained from fMRI studies alone—both fMRI and fcMRI are needed. The combination provides a general marker for brain plasticity. The rat visual system was studied in the same animals as a control. No neuroplastic changes in connectivities were found in the primary visual cortex upon forelimb deafferentation. Differences were noted in regions responsible for processing multisensory visual-motor information. This incidental discovery is considered to be significant. It may provide insight into phantom limb epiphenomena. PMID:19796693

  6. No Proprioceptive Deficits in Autism despite Movement-Related Sensory and Execution Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often involves sensory and motor problems, yet the proprioceptive sense of limb position has not been directly assessed. We used three tasks to assess proprioception in adolescents with ASD who had motor and sensory perceptual abnormalities, and compared them to age- and IQ-matched controls. Results showed no group…

  7. Use of a robotic device to measure age-related decline in finger proprioception.

    PubMed

    Ingemanson, Morgan L; Rowe, Justin B; Chan, Vicky; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in proprioception are known to affect postural stability, yet the extent to which such changes affect the finger joints is poorly understood despite the importance of finger proprioception in the control of skilled hand movement. We quantified age-related changes in finger proprioception in 37 healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults using two robot-based tasks wherein participants' index and middle fingers were moved by an exoskeletal robot. The first task assessed finger position sense by asking participants to indicate when their index and middle fingers were directly overlapped during a passive crisscross movement; the second task assessed finger movement detection by asking participants to indicate the onset of passive finger movement. When these tasks were completed without vision, finger position sense errors were 48 % larger in older adults compared to young participants (p < 0.05); proprioceptive reaction time was 78 % longer in older adults compared to young adults (p < 0.01). When visual feedback was provided in addition to proprioception, these age-related differences were no longer apparent. No difference between dominant and non-dominant hand performance was found for either proprioception task. These findings demonstrate that finger proprioception is impaired in older adults, and visual feedback can be used to compensate for this deficit. The findings also support the feasibility and utility of the FINGER robot as a sensitive tool for detecting age-related decline in proprioception.

  8. No Proprioceptive Deficits in Autism despite Movement-Related Sensory and Execution Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often involves sensory and motor problems, yet the proprioceptive sense of limb position has not been directly assessed. We used three tasks to assess proprioception in adolescents with ASD who had motor and sensory perceptual abnormalities, and compared them to age- and IQ-matched controls. Results showed no group…

  9. Deficits in the Ability to Use Proprioceptive Feedback in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Brown, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Compared with motor impairment in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP), less attention has been paid to sensory feedback processing deficits. This includes, especially, proprioceptive information regarding arm position. This study examined the ability of children with hemiplegic CP to use proprioceptive feedback during a goal-directed…

  10. Deficits in the Ability to Use Proprioceptive Feedback in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Brown, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Compared with motor impairment in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP), less attention has been paid to sensory feedback processing deficits. This includes, especially, proprioceptive information regarding arm position. This study examined the ability of children with hemiplegic CP to use proprioceptive feedback during a goal-directed…

  11. Upper Extremity Proprioception in Healthy Aging and Stroke Populations, and the Effects of Therapist- and Robot-Based Rehabilitation Therapies on Proprioceptive Function

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Tommasino, Paolo; Budhota, Aamani; Campolo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is aging, with the number of people ages 65 or older expected to surpass 1.5 billion people, or 16% of the global total. As people age, there are notable declines in proprioception due to changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, the risk of stroke increases with age, with approximately two-thirds of stroke-related hospitalizations occurring in people over the age of 65. In this literature review, we first summarize behavioral studies investigating proprioceptive deficits in normally aging older adults and stroke patients, and discuss the differences in proprioceptive function between these populations. We then provide a state of the art review the literature regarding therapist- and robot-based rehabilitation of the upper extremity proprioceptive dysfunction in stroke populations and discuss avenues of future research. PMID:25784872

  12. Head-controlled assistive telerobot with extended physiological proprioception capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganicoff, Marcos; Rahman, Tariq; Mahoney, Ricardo; Pino, D.; Jayachandran, Vijay; Kumar, Vijay; Chen, Shoupu; Harwin, William S.

    1995-12-01

    People with disabilities such as quadriplegia can use mouth-sticks and head-sticks as extension devices to perform desired manipulations. These extensions provide extended proprioception which allows users to directly feel forces and other perceptual cues such as texture present at the tip of the mouth-stick. Such devices are effective for two principle reasons: because of their close contact with the user's tactile and proprioceptive sensing abilities; and because they tend to be lightweight and very stiff, and can thus convey tactile and kinesthetic information with high-bandwidth. Unfortunately, traditional mouth-sticks and head-sticks are limited in workspace and in the mechanical power that can be transferred because of user mobility and strength limitations. We describe an alternative implementation of the head-stick device using the idea of a virtual head-stick: a head-controlled bilateral force-reflecting telerobot. In this system the end-effector of the slave robot moves as if it were at the tip of an imaginary extension of the user's head. The design goal is for the system is to have the same intuitive operation and extended proprioception as a regular mouth-stick effector but with augmentation of workspace volume and mechanical power. The input is through a specially modified six DOF master robot (a PerForceTM hand-controller) whose joints can be back-driven to apply forces at the user's head. The manipulation tasks in the environment are performed by a six degree-of-freedom slave robot (the Zebra-ZEROTM) with a built-in force sensor. We describe the prototype hardware/software implementation of the system, control system design, safety/disability issues, and initial evaluation tasks.

  13. Somatosensory evoked potentials following proprioceptive stimulation of finger in man.

    PubMed

    Mima, T; Terada, K; Maekawa, M; Nagamine, T; Ikeda, A; Shibasaki, H

    1996-09-01

    Brisk passive flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger, produced by using a newly devised instrument, elicited evoked potentials on the scalp. The present study carefully excluded the possible contribution of sensory modalities other than proprioception. The initial part of cortical response was a positive deflexion at the contralateral central area (P1 at 34.6 ms after the stimulus). This was followed by a midfrontal negative wave (N1 at 44.8 ms) and a clear positivity at the contralateral centroparietal area (P2 at 48.0 ms). The evoked responses persisted in spite of the abolition of cutaneous and joint afferents of the finger caused by ischemic anesthesia, but they were lost by ischemic anesthesia of the forearm. Thus, the cortical evoked responses obtained in this study most probably reflect muscle afferent inputs. The scalp distribution of P1 suggested that its cortical generator source was different from that of the N20-P20 components of evoked potentials to electrical median nerve stimulation. Brodmann areas 2 and 3a of human brain, which are known to receive deep receptor inputs, are the most plausible generator sites for the early components of the proprioception-related evoked responses. The amplitude of P2 was related to the velocity but not to the magnitude of movement. In conclusion, the present study established a method for recording the evoked responses to the brisk passive movement of the finger joint, which mainly reflect the dynamic aspects of proprioception mediated through muscle afferent.

  14. Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific heights.

    PubMed

    Artur, Struzik; Bogdan, Pietraszewski; Adam, Kawczyñski; Sławomir, Winiarski; Grzegorz, Juras; Andrzej, Rokita

    2017-02-23

    Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared to their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8±0.9 years, body height: 181.8±8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8±11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8±1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1±0.8 years, body height: 170.5±6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3±9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7±1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed two countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, gender and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately two times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads.

  15. Brain-actuated gait trainer with visual and proprioceptive feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Weihai; Lee, Kyuhwa; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Bouri, Mohamed; Pei, Zhongcai; Del R Millán, José

    2017-10-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been proposed in closed-loop applications for neuromodulation and neurorehabilitation. This study describes the impact of different feedback modalities on the performance of an EEG-based BMI that decodes motor imagery (MI) of leg flexion and extension. We executed experiments in a lower-limb gait trainer (the legoPress) where nine able-bodied subjects participated in three consecutive sessions based on a crossover design. A random forest classifier was trained from the offline session and tested online with visual and proprioceptive feedback, respectively. Post-hoc classification was conducted to assess the impact of feedback modalities and learning effect (an improvement over time) on the simulated trial-based performance. Finally, we performed feature analysis to investigate the discriminant power and brain pattern modulations across the subjects. (i) For real-time classification, the average accuracy was [Formula: see text]% and [Formula: see text]% for the two online sessions. The results were significantly higher than chance level, demonstrating the feasibility to distinguish between MI of leg extension and flexion. (ii) For post-hoc classification, the performance with proprioceptive feedback ([Formula: see text]%) was significantly better than with visual feedback ([Formula: see text]%), while there was no significant learning effect. (iii) We reported individual discriminate features and brain patterns associated to each feedback modality, which exhibited differences between the two modalities although no general conclusion can be drawn. The study reported a closed-loop brain-controlled gait trainer, as a proof of concept for neurorehabilitation devices. We reported the feasibility of decoding lower-limb movement in an intuitive and natural way. As far as we know, this is the first online study discussing the role of feedback modalities in lower-limb MI decoding. Our results suggest that proprioceptive feedback has an

  16. The effect of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on proprioception.

    PubMed

    Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish; Wassinger, Craig

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder injuries may be associated with proprioceptive deficits, however, it is unknown whether these changes are due to the experience of pain, tissue damage, or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on proprioceptive variables. Sub-acromial pain was induced via hypertonic saline injection in 20 healthy participants. Passive joint replication (PJR) and threshold to detection of movement direction (TTDMD) were assessed with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer for baseline control, experimental pain and recovery control conditions with a starting position of 60° shoulder abduction. The target angle for PJR was 60° external rotation, starting from 40°. TTDMD was tested from a position of 20° external rotation. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine differences between PJR absolute and variable errors and TTDMD for the control and experimental conditions. Pain was elicited with a median 7 on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. TTDMD was significantly decreased for the experimental pain condition compared to baseline and recovery conditions (≈30%, P = 0.003). No significant differences were found for absolute (P = 0.152) and variable (P = 0.514) error for PJR. Movement sense was enhanced for the experimental sub-acromial pain condition, which may reflect protective effects of the central nervous system in response to the pain. Where decreased passive proprioception is observed in shoulders with injuries, these may be due to a combination of peripheral tissue injury and neural adaptations that differ from those due to acute pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new form of congenital proprioceptive sensory neuropathy associated with arthrogryposis multiplex.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Takefumi; Mezaki, Takahiro; Kihara, Takeshi; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Ikeda, Akio; Shimohama, Shun; Ito, Masatoshi; Oka, Nobuyuki

    2004-11-01

    We report two siblings who presented with non-progressive marked sensory ataxia associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). Deep tendon reflexes and H reflex were completely absent, but F waves were preserved. The sensory nerve conduction studies indicated the presence of relatively mild sensory polyneuropathy. The conventional somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) showed mildly prolonged latency for both the peripheral and cortical responses, suggesting a slowed conduction through the peripheral as well as central pathway. However, the 'proprioceptive SEPs' were absent, in conformity with complete loss of joint sense. Sural nerve biopsy revealed only mild thinning of myelin in the younger sister but was entirely normal in her brother. Taken together with the characteristic electrophysiological findings, the symptoms were considered to be due to predominant involvement of a selective population of somatosensory ganglions. The present cases showed no progression of the neurological deficit what-so-ever since birth, which strongly suggests a developmental anomaly or aplasia of a limited population of peripheral sensory neurons.

  18. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  19. The rehabilitation outcome of spinal meningioma induced proprioception deficit.

    PubMed

    Tai, Wen-Chin; Pong, Ya-Ping; Yeh, Hsiang-Chun; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lau, Yiu-Chung

    2005-10-01

    Chronic non-traumatic myelopathy developed in a woman who presented symptoms of gait ataxia, right leg motor weakness, dysesthesia and urinary difficulty. Clinical evaluation revealed right leg weakness and global anesthesia as well as temperature, vibratory and proprioception sensation loss below the T-9 level and deep tendon hyperreflexia over the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extra-intramedullary meningioma at the T-9 level. Following microscopic subtotal excision of the tumor, the patient underwent satisfactory rehabilitation programs with outstanding outcomes presented using the neurological scoring system, functional balance grade, postural analysis of Baropodometry screen and single leg standing time.

  20. The role of proprioceptive feedback in Parkinsonian resting tremor.

    PubMed

    Govil, Nikhil; Akinin, Abraham; Ward, Samuel; Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use a closed-loop force feedback system to investigate the effect of altering proprioceptive feedback on EEG and resting tremor in Parkinson's Disease. A velocity dependent counterforce simulating viscous friction was provided by haptic robots with simultaneous recording of kinematics, EMG and EEG while a patient was on and off dopaminergic medication' We were able to reduce the amplitude of the tremor. We also showed that force feedback shifts the center of EEG-EMG coherence posteriorly toward the somatosensory regions, which may have ramifications for noninvasive therapies.

  1. Piezo2 in Cutaneous and Proprioceptive Mechanotransduction in Vertebratesa

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E.O.; Schneider, E.R.; Bagriantsev, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanosensitivity is a fundamental physiological capacity, which pertains to all life forms. Progress has been made with regard to understanding mechanosensitivity in bacteria, flies, and worms. In vertebrates, however, the molecular identity of mechanotransducers in somatic and neuronal cells has only started to appear. The Piezo family of mechanogated ion channels marks a pivotal milestone in understanding mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 have now been shown to participate in a number of processes, ranging from arterial modeling to sensing muscle stretch. In this review, we focus on Piezo2 and its role in mediating mechanosensation and proprioception in vertebrates. PMID:28728817

  2. Effects of head movement and proprioceptive feedback in training of sound localization

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Akio; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hidaka, Souta; Gyoba, Jiro; Iwaya, Yukio; Suzuki, Yôiti

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of listeners' head movements and proprioceptive feedback during sound localization practice on the subsequent accuracy of sound localization performance. The effects were examined under both restricted and unrestricted head movement conditions in the practice stage. In both cases, the participants were divided into two groups: a feedback group performed a sound localization drill with accurate proprioceptive feedback; a control group conducted it without the feedback. Results showed that (1) sound localization practice, while allowing for free head movement, led to improvement in sound localization performance and decreased actual angular errors along the horizontal plane, and that (2) proprioceptive feedback during practice decreased actual angular errors in the vertical plane. Our findings suggest that unrestricted head movement and proprioceptive feedback during sound localization training enhance perceptual motor learning by enabling listeners to use variable auditory cues and proprioceptive information. PMID:24349686

  3. Associations between Proprioceptive Neural Pathway Structural Connectivity and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fling, Brett W; Dutta, Geetanjali Gera; Schlueter, Heather; Cameron, Michelle H; Horak, Fay B

    2014-01-01

    Mobility and balance impairments are a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting nearly half of patients at presentation and resulting in decreased activity and participation, falls, injuries, and reduced quality of life. A growing body of work suggests that balance impairments in people with mild MS are primarily the result of deficits in proprioception, the ability to determine body position in space in the absence of vision. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of balance disturbances in MS is needed to develop evidence-based rehabilitation approaches. The purpose of the current study was to (1) map the cortical proprioceptive pathway in vivo using diffusion-weighted imaging and (2) assess associations between proprioceptive pathway white matter microstructural integrity and performance on clinical and behavioral balance tasks. We hypothesized that people with MS (PwMS) would have reduced integrity of cerebral proprioceptive pathways, and that reduced white matter microstructure within these tracts would be strongly related to proprioceptive-based balance deficits. We found poorer balance control on proprioceptive-based tasks and reduced white matter microstructural integrity of the cortical proprioceptive tracts in PwMS compared with age-matched healthy controls (HC). Microstructural integrity of this pathway in the right hemisphere was also strongly associated with proprioceptive-based balance control in PwMS and controls. Conversely, while white matter integrity of the right hemisphere's proprioceptive pathway was significantly correlated with overall balance performance in HC, there was no such relationship in PwMS. These results augment existing literature suggesting that balance control in PwMS may become more dependent upon (1) cerebellar-regulated proprioceptive control, (2) the vestibular system, and/or (3) the visual system.

  4. The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Joshua E.; Elangovan, Naveen; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system. Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review. Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases. Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function

  5. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    PubMed

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic.

  6. Knee joint proprioception in ballet dancers and non-dancers.

    PubMed

    Dieling, Simone; van der Esch, Martin; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of upper-leg muscle fatigue on knee joint proprioception in 13 ballet dancers and 13 non-dancer controls. Proprioception acuity, expressed as position and motion sense, was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. The position and motion sense assessments were prior to and immediately after an isokinetic upper-leg muscle fatigue protocol. Participants wore blindfolds for both tasks to eliminate vision, an inflated air splint on their lower leg to neutralize cutaneous sensation, and headphones with white noise during the motion sense task to eliminate auditory cues. Results showed no significant differences in position and motion sense between dancers and controls in the non-fatigued state. In the fatigued state no significant differences were found in position sense between dancers and controls, while controls increased significantly in motion sense error (p = 0.030) and ballet dancers showed no change in motion sense. It is concluded that position sense and motion sense acuity are not affected by muscle fatigue in dancers, but motion sense is affected by muscle fatigue in non-dancers.

  7. Motor Unit Recruitment and Proprioceptive Feedback Decrease the Common Drive

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Carlo J.; Gonzalez-Cueto, Jose A.; Bonato, Paolo; Adam, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    It has been documented that concurrently active motor units fire under the control of a common drive. That is, the firing rates show high correlation with near-zero time lag. This degree of correlation has been found to vary among muscles and among contractions performed at different force levels in the same muscle. This study provides an explanation indicating that motor units recruited during a contraction cause an increase in the variation (SD) and a decrease in the degree (amplitude) of the correlation of the firing rates. The degree of correlation is lower in muscles having greater spindle density. This effect appears to be mediated by the proprioceptive feedback from the spindles and possibly the Golgi tendon organs. Muscle spindles in particular respond to the mechanical excitation of the nonfused muscle fibers and provide a discordant excitation to the homonymous motoneurons, resulting in a decrease in the correlation of the firing rates of motor units. The implication of this work is that the decreased correlation of the firing rates in some muscles is not necessarily an indication of a decreased common drive from the CNS, but rather an inhibitory influence of the proprioceptive feedback from the peripheral nervous system. This explanation is useful for understanding various manifestations of the common drive reported in the literature. PMID:18562556

  8. Proprioceptive Body Illusions Modulate the Visual Perception of Reaching Distance

    PubMed Central

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M. Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide—without engaging in explicit action—whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas. PMID:26110274

  9. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface

    PubMed Central

    Tabot, Gregg A.; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry – the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation – and that of adaptation – the brain’s ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25201560

  10. Proprioceptive sensibility in the elderly: degeneration, functional consequences and plastic-adaptive processes.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Coxon, James P; Wenderoth, Nicole; Van Impe, Annouchka; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2009-03-01

    As the percentage of individuals over the age of 60 years continues to rise, determining the extent and functional significance of age-related declines in sensorimotor performance is of increasing importance. This review examines the specific contribution of proprioceptive feedback to sensorimotor performance in older adults. First, a global perspective of proprioceptive acuity is provided assimilating information from studies where only one of several aspects of proprioceptive function (e.g. sense of position, motion or dynamic position) was quantified, and/or a single joint or limb segment tested. Second, the consequences of proprioceptive deficits are established with particular emphasis placed on postural control. Lastly, the potential for plastic changes in the aging proprioceptive system is highlighted, including studies which relate physical activity to enhanced proprioceptive abilities in older adults. Overall, this review provides a foundation for future studies regarding the proprioceptive feedback abilities of elderly individuals. Such studies may lead to greater advances in the treatment and prevention of the sensorimotor deficits typically associated with the aging process.

  11. Effect of proprioception cross training on repositioning accuracy and balance among healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    El-Gohary, Tarek Mohamed; Khaled, Osama Ahmed; Ibrahim, Sameh R; Alshenqiti, Abdullah M; Ibrahim, Mahmoud I

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate possible cross effects of proprioception training on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty healthy college students and faculty members from faculty of physical therapy, Cairo University were recruited to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to training group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The training group received proprioceptive training program only for the dominant leg while the control group did not receive any kind of training. Outcome measures were twofold: (1) proprioception repositioning accuracy quantified through the active repositioning test for the non-dominant knee; and (2) balance stability indices determined through using Biodex balance system. Measurements were recorded before and after 8 weeks of proprioception training. [Results] There were significant decrease in the error of repositioning accuracy and the stability indices including anterposterior stability index, mediolateral stability index, and overall stability index of training group, measured post training, compared with control group. [Conclusion] Proprioception training has significant cross training effects on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance among healthy subjects. PMID:27942145

  12. Contributions of visual and proprioceptive information to travelled distance estimation during changing sensory congruencies.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jennifer L; Butler, John S; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has provided evidence that visual and body-based cues (vestibular, proprioceptive and efference copy) are integrated using a weighted linear sum during walking and passive transport. However, little is known about the specific weighting of visual information when combined with proprioceptive inputs alone, in the absence of vestibular information about forward self-motion. Therefore, in this study, participants walked in place on a stationary treadmill while dynamic visual information was updated in real time via a head-mounted display. The task required participants to travel a predefined distance and subsequently match this distance by adjusting an egocentric, in-depth target using a game controller. Travelled distance information was provided either through visual cues alone, proprioceptive cues alone or both cues combined. In the combined cue condition, the relationship between the two cues was manipulated by either changing the visual gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 1) or the proprioceptive gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 2). Results demonstrated an overall higher weighting of proprioception over vision. These weights were scaled, however, as a function of which sensory input provided more stable information across trials. Specifically, when visual gain was constantly manipulated, proprioceptive weights were higher than when proprioceptive gain was constantly manipulated. These results therefore reveal interesting characteristics of cue-weighting within the context of unfolding spatio-temporal cue dynamics.

  13. Brain-actuated gait trainer with visual and proprioceptive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Weihai; Lee, Kyuhwa; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Bouri, Mohamed; Pei, Zhongcai; Millán, José del R.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been proposed in closed-loop applications for neuromodulation and neurorehabilitation. This study describes the impact of different feedback modalities on the performance of an EEG-based BMI that decodes motor imagery (MI) of leg flexion and extension. Approach. We executed experiments in a lower-limb gait trainer (the legoPress) where nine able-bodied subjects participated in three consecutive sessions based on a crossover design. A random forest classifier was trained from the offline session and tested online with visual and proprioceptive feedback, respectively. Post-hoc classification was conducted to assess the impact of feedback modalities and learning effect (an improvement over time) on the simulated trial-based performance. Finally, we performed feature analysis to investigate the discriminant power and brain pattern modulations across the subjects. Main results. (i) For real-time classification, the average accuracy was 62.33 +/- 4.95 % and 63.89 +/- 6.41 % for the two online sessions. The results were significantly higher than chance level, demonstrating the feasibility to distinguish between MI of leg extension and flexion. (ii) For post-hoc classification, the performance with proprioceptive feedback (69.45 +/- 9.95 %) was significantly better than with visual feedback (62.89 +/- 9.20 %), while there was no significant learning effect. (iii) We reported individual discriminate features and brain patterns associated to each feedback modality, which exhibited differences between the two modalities although no general conclusion can be drawn. Significance. The study reported a closed-loop brain-controlled gait trainer, as a proof of concept for neurorehabilitation devices. We reported the feasibility of decoding lower-limb movement in an intuitive and natural way. As far as we know, this is the first online study discussing the role of feedback modalities in lower-limb MI decoding. Our results suggest that

  14. Using touch or imagined touch to compensate for loss of proprioception: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer A; Cole, Whitney G; Vishton, Peter M

    2012-02-01

    Proprioception is the sense of the position of one's own body. Here, we present a case study of an individual with proprioceptive loss in one limb consequent to stroke. The patient indicated that merely touching his impaired arm with his unimpaired arm temporarily restored his proprioception. We examined this claim and the effects of imagined touch by the unimpaired arm. Assessments were made using three-dimensional tracking of reaching trajectories towards targets in conditions of light and darkness. Both actual and imagined touching significantly reduced movement error and jerk, specifically for targets located in regions that both hands would be able to reach.

  15. Slow and Fast Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-24

    25) where λ is the vacuum wavelength of the radiation. Recent demonstrations of slow light have been enabled by nonlinear optical techniques which can...typical procedure for producing slow light is to make use of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a technique introduced by Harris, Field and... Slow ” and “Fast” Light Robert W. Boyd The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 USA Daniel J. Gauthier Department of

  16. Proprioception assessment in subjects with idiopathic loss of shoulder range of motion: joint position sense and a novel proprioceptive feedback index.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Lan; Chen, Shiauyee; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Lin, Jiu-jenq

    2008-09-01

    We examined the effects of elevation range and plane on shoulder joint proprioception in subjects with idiopathic loss of shoulder range of motion (ROM). Joint position sense (JPS) and a novel proprioceptive feedback index (PFI), including difference magnitude and the similarity index, were used to assess proprioception. Twelve subjects (eight male, four female) with involved stiff shoulders and normal opposite shoulders were recruited from a university hospital. Subjects attempted to repeat six target positions. Target positions consisted of arm elevation in three planes (frontal, scapular, and sagittal planes) and two ranges (end/mid range). Six trials of each target position were used to determine acceptable trials for stabilization of the data, less than 5% of the cumulative mean values for at least three successive trials. The data stabilized at the sixth repetition. Compared to control shoulders, involved shoulders had enhanced proprioception during end range movements (p < 0.05). The magnitude of the repositioning error and difference magnitude decreased (1.6 degrees -3.5 degrees for repositioning error and 22.2 degrees -62.1 degrees for difference magnitude), whereas similarity index improved at end range movements compared to mid range movements (p < 0.05) in involved stiff shoulders. Results of JPS and PFI suggest that both capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous mechanoreceptors play an important role in proprioception feedback during active movements in subjects with idiopathic loss of shoulder ROM.

  17. Audible sonar images generated with proprioception for target analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuc, Roman B

    2017-05-01

    Some blind humans have demonstrated the ability to detect and classify objects with echolocation using palatal clicks. An audible-sonar robot mimics human click emissions, binaural hearing, and head movements to extract interaural time and level differences from target echoes. Targets of various complexity are examined by transverse displacements of the sonar and by target pose rotations that model movements performed by the blind. Controlled sonar movements executed by the robot provide data that model proprioception information available to blind humans for examining targets from various aspects. The audible sonar uses this sonar location and orientation information to form two-dimensional target images that are similar to medical diagnostic ultrasound tomograms. Simple targets, such as single round and square posts, produce distinguishable and recognizable images. More complex targets configured with several simple objects generate diffraction effects and multiple reflections that produce image artifacts. The presentation illustrates the capabilities and limitations of target classification from audible sonar images.

  18. Piezo2 in Cutaneous and Proprioceptive Mechanotransduction in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E O; Schneider, E R; Bagriantsev, S N

    2017-01-01

    Mechanosensitivity is a fundamental physiological capacity, which pertains to all life forms. Progress has been made with regard to understanding mechanosensitivity in bacteria, flies, and worms. In vertebrates, however, the molecular identity of mechanotransducers in somatic and neuronal cells has only started to appear. The Piezo family of mechanogated ion channels marks a pivotal milestone in understanding mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 have now been shown to participate in a number of processes, ranging from arterial modeling to sensing muscle stretch. In this review, we focus on Piezo2 and its role in mediating mechanosensation and proprioception in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can textured insoles improve ankle proprioception and performance in dancers?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Begg, Rezaul; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of determining both the acute and the chronic effects of textured insoles on the ankle discrimination and performance ability of dancers, 60 ballet dancers from the Australian Ballet School, aged 14-19 years, were divided into three groups (two intervention groups and a control group), age- and level-matched. In the first 5 weeks (weeks 1 to 5), the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their ballet shoes and the second intervention group (GRP2) was not given textured insoles to wear. In the next 5 weeks (weeks 6 to 10), GRP2 was asked to wear the same type of textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. The control group (CTRL) did not wear textured insoles during the whole 10 weeks. All participants were tested preintervention, after 5 weeks and after 10 weeks for ankle discrimination score (AUC scores). Dance performance was assessed by 5-7 dance teachers. Pre-to-post change in AUC scores was significantly greater for the groups wearing insoles than for the controls (P = .046) and the size of pre-to-post changes did not differ between the two intervention groups (P = .834). Significant correlation was found between ankle discrimination score and performance scores, using the textured insoles (r = .412; P = .024). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for five weeks was sufficient to improve the proprioceptive ability and performance ability of ballet dancers.

  20. Corticokinematic coherence mainly reflects movement-induced proprioceptive feedback.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Mathieu; Piitulainen, Harri; De Tiège, Xavier; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2015-02-01

    Corticokinematic coherence (CKC) reflects coupling between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals and hand kinematics, mainly occurring at hand movement frequency (F0) and its first harmonic (F1). Since CKC can be obtained for both active and passive movements, it has been suggested to mainly reflect proprioceptive feedback to the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex. However, the directionality of the brain-kinematics coupling has not been previously assessed and was thus quantified in the present study by means of renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). MEG data were obtained from 15 subjects who performed right index-finger movements and whose finger was, in another session, passively moved, with or without tactile input. Four additional subjects underwent the same task with slowly varying movement pace, spanning the 1-5 Hz frequency range. The coupling between SM1 activity recorded with MEG and finger kinematics was assessed with coherence and rPDC. In all conditions, the afferent rPDC spectrum, which resembled the coherence spectrum, displayed higher values than the efferent rPDC spectrum. The afferent rPDC was 37% higher when tactile input was present, and it was at highest at F1 of the passive conditions; the efferent rPDC level did not differ between conditions. The apparent latency for the afferent input, estimated within the framework of the rPDC analysis, was 50-100 ms. The higher directional coupling between hand kinematics and SM1 activity in afferent than efferent direction strongly supports the view that CKC mainly reflects movement-related somatosensory proprioceptive afferent input to the contralateral SM1 cortex.

  1. Relationship between two proprioceptive measures and stiffness at the ankle.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Carrie L; Arnold, Brent L; Zinder, Steven M; Granata, Kevin; Gansneder, Bruce M

    2004-06-01

    Previous research has investigated the role of proprioception and stiffness in the control of joint stability. However, to date, no research has been done on the relationship between proprioception and stiffness. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between force sense, joint reposition sense, and stiffness at the ankle. A heterogeneous sample was obtained for this study; 20 of the 40 participants had a history of ankle sprains, and 13 of the 20 had been diagnosed by a physician (two mild ankle sprains, seven moderate sprains, four severe sprains). All subjects were asymptomatic and active at the time of the study. Active joint reposition sense was measured using a custom-built ankle goniometer, force sense was measured unilaterally and contralaterally with a load cell, and ankle muscle stiffness was measured via transient oscillation using a custom-built inversion-eversion cradle. We found no significant correlations between stiffness and joint reposition sense, with values of r ranging from 0.01 to 0.21. Significant correlations were found between stiffness and force sense. Specifically, contralateral force sense reproduction was significantly correlated to stiffness in the injured or "involved" ankle (r's ranging from 0.47 to 0.65; P< or =0.008). Whether the decreased ability to appropriately sense force (increased error) sends information to the central nervous system to increase muscle stiffness in response to an unexpected loss of stability, or whether these two phenomena function independently and both change concurrently as a result of injury to the system requires further investigation.

  2. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A.; Pell, Gaby S.; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror ­copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke-­affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  3. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A; Pell, Gaby S; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror -copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke--affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  4. The Slow Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roucek, Joseph S., Ed.

    Papers on the slow learner treat physical defects and learning abilities, social and economic background as an obstacle to learning, the causes of dropouts and lapses in study, and the limitations and potential of the ungifted. The contribution interest in the slow learner has made to education is discussed; also discussed are problems of the…

  5. Degradation of mouse locomotor pattern in the absence of proprioceptive sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Akay, Turgay; Tourtellotte, Warren G; Arber, Silvia; Jessell, Thomas M

    2014-11-25

    Mammalian locomotor programs are thought to be directed by the actions of spinal interneuron circuits collectively referred to as "central pattern generators." The contribution of proprioceptive sensory feedback to the coordination of locomotor activity remains less clear. We have analyzed changes in mouse locomotor pattern under conditions in which proprioceptive feedback is attenuated genetically and biomechanically. We find that locomotor pattern degrades upon elimination of proprioceptive feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The degradation of locomotor pattern is manifest as the loss of interjoint coordination and alternation of flexor and extensor muscles. Group Ia/II sensory feedback from muscle spindles has a predominant influence in patterning the activity of flexor muscles, whereas the redundant activities of group Ia/II and group Ib afferents appear to determine the pattern of extensor muscle firing. These findings establish a role for proprioceptive feedback in the control of fundamental aspects of mammalian locomotor behavior.

  6. Effect of ankle proprioceptive exercise on static and dynamic balance in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to investigate whether ankle proprioceptive exercise affects static and dynamic balance in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults were recruited to measure their static and dynamic balancing before and after the proprioceptive exercise. A subject stood with bare feet on the round supporting platform of the device for measuring balance, and the investigator entered the age and the height of the subjects and set his/her feet on the central point of the monitor screen. Training of ankle proprioceptive sense for the movements of plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion was performed. In the training of joint position sense in plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion, the plantar-flexion and the dorsiflexion were set as 15°, respectively. [Results] The static balancing did not show significant differences in average, while the dynamic balancing showed significant differences. [Conclusion] Ankle proprioceptive exercise can affect dynamic balance. PMID:28265149

  7. Effects of spiral taping on proprioception in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Sook

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The Purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of spiral taping on proprioception in functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five participants in this study had discomfort in only one ankle and Cumberland ankle instability score of ≤23. ST was applied to the unstable ankle, and proprioception was measured baseline and 30 min later. Proprioception was measured using the active joint angle reproduction test. [Results] Plantar flexions of 10° (ES, 0.303) and 20° (ES, 1.369) and inversion 20° (ES, 0.998) showed a significant improvement. [Conclusion] Spiral taping improved on proprioception. Therefore, spiral taping may be an effective method for functional ankle instability.

  8. Proprioceptive acuity assessment via joint position matching: from basic science to general practice.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    Over the past several decades, studies of use-dependent plasticity have demonstrated a critical role for proprioceptive feedback in the reorganization, and subsequent recovery, of neuromotor systems. As such, an increasing emphasis has been placed on tests of proprioceptive acuity in both the clinic and the laboratory. One test that has garnered particular interest is joint position matching, whereby individuals must replicate a reference joint angle in the absence of vision (ie, using proprioceptive information). On the surface, this test might seem straightforward in nature. However, the present perspective article informs therapists and researchers alike of multiple insights gained from a recent series of position matching studies by the author and colleagues. In particular, 5 factors are outlined that can assist clinicians in developing well-informed opinions regarding the outcomes of tests of position matching abilities. This information should allow for enhanced diagnosis of proprioceptive deficits within clinical settings in the future.

  9. Investigation of rotational skin stretch for proprioceptive feedback with application to myoelectric systems.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Jason; Bark, Karlin; Savall, Joan; Cutkosky, Mark

    2010-02-01

    We present a new wearable haptic device that provides a sense of position and motion by inducing rotational skin stretch on the user's skin. In the experiments described in this paper, the device was used to provide proprioceptive feedback from a virtual prosthetic arm controlled with myoelectric sensors on the bicep and tricep muscles in 15 able-bodied participants. Targeting errors in blind movements with the haptic device were compared to cases where no feedback and contralateral proprioception were provided. Average errors were lower with the device than with no feedback but larger than with contralateral proprioceptive feedback. Participants also had lower visual demand with the device than with no feedback while tracking a 30 ( degrees ) moving range. The results indicate that the rotational skin stretch may ultimately be effective for proprioceptive feedback in myoelectric prostheses, particularly when vision is otherwise occupied.

  10. Sensorimotor posture control in the blind: superior ankle proprioceptive acuity does not compensate for vision loss.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Recep A; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Paloski, William H

    2013-09-01

    To better understand sensorimotor posture control differences between blind and sighted individuals, we examined the role of ankle joint proprioception and ankle muscle strength on postural control in healthy blind (n=13, 25-58 years) and age- and sex-matched sighted (n=15, 20-65 years) volunteers. We measured ankle joint proprioceptive acuity and isokinetic muscle strength in plantarflexion and dorsiflexion using an isokinetic dynamometer. We also assessed postural control performance during quiet bipedal stance with and without sudden postural perturbations, and during quiet unipedal stance. We found that while our blind subjects exhibited significantly better proprioceptive acuity than our sighted subjects their postural control performance was significantly poorer than that of the sighted group with eyes open, and no different from that of the sighted group with eyes closed suggesting that their superior proprioceptive acuity does not translate to improved balance control.

  11. Effects of spiral taping on proprioception in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Sook

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The Purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of spiral taping on proprioception in functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five participants in this study had discomfort in only one ankle and Cumberland ankle instability score of ≤23. ST was applied to the unstable ankle, and proprioception was measured baseline and 30 min later. Proprioception was measured using the active joint angle reproduction test. [Results] Plantar flexions of 10° (ES, 0.303) and 20° (ES, 1.369) and inversion 20° (ES, 0.998) showed a significant improvement. [Conclusion] Spiral taping improved on proprioception. Therefore, spiral taping may be an effective method for functional ankle instability. PMID:28210052

  12. iProprio: a smartphone-based system to measure and improve proprioceptive function.

    PubMed

    Mourcou, Q; Fleury, A; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that proprioception is necessary to maintain balance control. Although proprioceptive exercices have shown to have beneficial effects on balance, the joint position sense is not easy to measure and patient cannot practise self-measurement. This article proposes a new system specifically desinged to allow measure and improve proprioceptive function. This so-called `iProprio' system uses inertial sensors included in a smartphone, wireless communication and voice command to allow joint position sense measurment in autonomous way and provide a configurable vibrotactile biofeedback for end-users at home. A proof-of-concept study was performed to assess the effectiveness of iProprio on sixteen young healthy subjects. Results showed that they were able to take advantage of vibrotactile biofeedback to increase knee joint repositioning accuracy and consistency. Results suggest that iProprio can be used for rehabilitation proprioceptive home exercices.

  13. A critical role for Piezo2 channels in the mechanotransduction of mouse proprioceptive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Florez-Paz, Danny; Bali, Kiran Kumar; Kuner, Rohini; Gomis, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptors are responsible for the conscious sensation of limb position and movement, muscle tension or force, and balance. Recent evidence suggests that Piezo2 is a low threshold mechanosensory receptor in the peripheral nervous system, acting as a transducer for touch sensation and proprioception. Thus, we characterized proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus that are involved in processing proprioceptive information from the face and oral cavity. This is a specific population of neurons that produce rapidly adapting mechanically-activated currents that are fully dependent on Piezo2. As such, we analyzed the deficits in balance and coordination caused by the selective deletion of the channel in proprioceptors (conditional knockout). The data clearly shows that Piezo2 fulfills a critical role in a defined homogeneous population of proprioceptor neurons that innervate the head muscles, demonstrating that this ion channel is essential for mammalian proprioceptive mechanotransduction. PMID:27184818

  14. A critical role for Piezo2 channels in the mechanotransduction of mouse proprioceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Florez-Paz, Danny; Bali, Kiran Kumar; Kuner, Rohini; Gomis, Ana

    2016-05-17

    Proprioceptors are responsible for the conscious sensation of limb position and movement, muscle tension or force, and balance. Recent evidence suggests that Piezo2 is a low threshold mechanosensory receptor in the peripheral nervous system, acting as a transducer for touch sensation and proprioception. Thus, we characterized proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus that are involved in processing proprioceptive information from the face and oral cavity. This is a specific population of neurons that produce rapidly adapting mechanically-activated currents that are fully dependent on Piezo2. As such, we analyzed the deficits in balance and coordination caused by the selective deletion of the channel in proprioceptors (conditional knockout). The data clearly shows that Piezo2 fulfills a critical role in a defined homogeneous population of proprioceptor neurons that innervate the head muscles, demonstrating that this ion channel is essential for mammalian proprioceptive mechanotransduction.

  15. A robotic test of proprioception within the hemiparetic arm post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Simo, Lucia; Botzer, Lior; Ghez, Claude; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-04-30

    Proprioception plays important roles in planning and control of limb posture and movement. The impact of proprioceptive deficits on motor function post-stroke has been difficult to elucidate due to limitations in current tests of arm proprioception. Common clinical tests only provide ordinal assessment of proprioceptive integrity (eg. intact, impaired or absent). We introduce a standardized, quantitative method for evaluating proprioception within the arm on a continuous, ratio scale. We demonstrate the approach, which is based on signal detection theory of sensory psychophysics, in two tasks used to characterize motor function after stroke. Hemiparetic stroke survivors and neurologically intact participants attempted to detect displacement- or force-perturbations robotically applied to their arm in a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice test. A logistic psychometric function parameterized detection of limb perturbations. The shape of this function is determined by two parameters: one corresponds to a signal detection threshold and the other to variability of responses about that threshold. These two parameters define a space in which proprioceptive sensation post-stroke can be compared to that of neurologically-intact people. We used an auditory tone discrimination task to control for potential comprehension, attention and memory deficits. All but one stroke survivor demonstrated competence in performing two-alternative discrimination in the auditory training test. For the remaining stroke survivors, those with clinically identified proprioceptive deficits in the hemiparetic arm or hand had higher detection thresholds and exhibited greater response variability than individuals without proprioceptive deficits. We then identified a normative parameter space determined by the threshold and response variability data collected from neurologically intact participants. By plotting displacement detection performance within this normative space, stroke survivors

  16. A robotic test of proprioception within the hemiparetic arm post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proprioception plays important roles in planning and control of limb posture and movement. The impact of proprioceptive deficits on motor function post-stroke has been difficult to elucidate due to limitations in current tests of arm proprioception. Common clinical tests only provide ordinal assessment of proprioceptive integrity (eg. intact, impaired or absent). We introduce a standardized, quantitative method for evaluating proprioception within the arm on a continuous, ratio scale. We demonstrate the approach, which is based on signal detection theory of sensory psychophysics, in two tasks used to characterize motor function after stroke. Methods Hemiparetic stroke survivors and neurologically intact participants attempted to detect displacement- or force-perturbations robotically applied to their arm in a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice test. A logistic psychometric function parameterized detection of limb perturbations. The shape of this function is determined by two parameters: one corresponds to a signal detection threshold and the other to variability of responses about that threshold. These two parameters define a space in which proprioceptive sensation post-stroke can be compared to that of neurologically-intact people. We used an auditory tone discrimination task to control for potential comprehension, attention and memory deficits. Results All but one stroke survivor demonstrated competence in performing two-alternative discrimination in the auditory training test. For the remaining stroke survivors, those with clinically identified proprioceptive deficits in the hemiparetic arm or hand had higher detection thresholds and exhibited greater response variability than individuals without proprioceptive deficits. We then identified a normative parameter space determined by the threshold and response variability data collected from neurologically intact participants. By plotting displacement detection performance within this normative

  17. Plastic Changes in Hand Proprioception Following Force-Field Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, Joaquin A.

    2010-01-01

    Motor neurophysiologists are placing greater emphasis on sensory feedback processing than ever before. In line with this shift, a recent article by Ostry and colleagues provided timely new evidence that force-field motor learning influences not only motor output, but also proprioceptive sense. In this Neuro Forum, the merits and limitations of Ostry and colleagues are explored in the context of recent work on proprioceptive function, including several recent studies from this journal. PMID:20610787

  18. Anatomical correlates of proprioceptive impairments following acute stroke: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kenzie, Jeffrey M; Semrau, Jennifer A; Findlater, Sonja E; Herter, Troy M; Hill, Michael D; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2014-07-15

    Proprioception is the sensation of position and movement of our limbs and body in space. This sense is important for performing smooth coordinated movements and is impaired in approximately 50% of stroke survivors. In the present case series we wanted to determine how discrete stroke lesions to areas of the brain thought to be critical for somatosensation (thalamus, posterior limb of internal capsule, primary somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex) would affect position sense and kinesthesia in the acute stages post-stroke. Given the known issues with standard clinical measures of proprioception (i.e. poor sensitivity and reliability) we used more modern quantitative robotic assessments to measure proprioception. Neuroimaging (MRI, n=10 or CT, n=2) was performed on 12 subjects 2-10 days post-stroke. Proprioception was assessed using a KINARM robot within the same time frame. Visually guided reaching was also assessed to allow us to compare and contrast proprioception with visuomotor performance. Proprioceptive impairments were observed in 7 of 12 subjects. Thalamic lesions (n=4) were associated with position sense (n=1) or position sense and kinesthesia (n=1) impairments. Posterior limb of the internal capsule lesions (n=4) were associated with primarily position sense (n=1) or kinesthesia (n=2) impairments. Lesions affecting primary somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex (n=2) were associated with significant position sense and kinesthesia impairments. All subjects with damage to hypothesized structures displayed impairments with performance on the visually guided reaching task. Across the proprioceptive tasks, we saw that position sense and kinesthesia were impaired to differing degrees, suggesting a potential dissociation between these two components of proprioception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor dysfunction of complex regional pain syndrome is related to impaired central processing of proprioceptive information.

    PubMed

    Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of proprioceptive deficits in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its potential contribution to impaired motor function is still limited. To gain more insight into these issues, we evaluated accuracy and precision of joint position sense over a range of flexion-extension angles of the wrist of the affected and unaffected sides in 25 chronic CRPS patients and in 50 healthy controls. The results revealed proprioceptive impairment at both the patients' affected and unaffected sides, characterized predominantly by overestimation of wrist extension angles. Precision of the position estimates was more prominently reduced at the affected side. Importantly, group differences in proprioceptive performance were observed not only for tests at identical percentages of each individual's range of wrist motion but also when controls were tested at wrist angles that corresponded to those of the patient's affected side. More severe motor impairment of the affected side was associated with poorer proprioceptive performance. Based on additional sensory tests, variations in proprioceptive performance over the range of wrist angles, and comparisons between active and passive displacements, the disturbances of proprioceptive performance most likely resulted from altered processing of afferent (and not efferent) information and its subsequent interpretation in the context of a distorted "body schema." The present results point at a significant role for impaired central processing of proprioceptive information in the motor dysfunction of CRPS and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at identification of proprioceptive impairments and their restoration may promote the recovery of motor function in CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disruption in proprioception from long-term thalamic deep brain stimulation: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Jennifer A.; Herter, Troy M.; Kiss, Zelma H.; Dukelow, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an excellent treatment for tremor and is generally thought to be reversible by turning off stimulation. For tremor, DBS is implanted in the ventrointermedius (Vim) nucleus of the thalamus, a region that relays proprioceptive information for movement sensation (kinaesthesia). Gait disturbances have been observed with bilateral Vim DBS, but the long-term effects on proprioceptive processing are unknown. We aimed to determine whether Vim DBS surgical implantation or stimulation leads to proprioceptive deficits in the upper limb. We assessed two groups of tremor subjects on measures of proprioception (kinaesthesia, position sense) and motor function using a robotic exoskeleton. In the first group (Surgery), we tested patients before and after implantation of Vim DBS, but before DBS was turned on to determine if proprioceptive deficits were inherent to tremor or caused by DBS implantation. In the second group (Stim), we tested subjects with chronically implanted Vim DBS ON and OFF stimulation. Compared to controls, there were no proprioceptive deficits before or after DBS implantation in the Surgery group. Surprisingly, those that received chronic long-term stimulation (LT-stim, 3–10 years) displayed significant proprioceptive deficits ON and OFF stimulation not present in subjects with chronic short-term stimulation (ST-stim, 0.5–2 years). LT-stim had significantly larger variability and reduced workspace area during the position sense assessment. During the kinesthetic assessment, LT-stim made significantly larger directional errors and consistently underestimated the speed of the robot, despite generating normal movement speeds during motor assessment. Chronic long-term Vim DBS may potentially disrupt proprioceptive processing, possibly inducing irreversible plasticity in the Vim nucleus and/or its network connections. Our findings in the upper limb may help explain some of the gait disturbances seen by others following Vim DBS

  1. Age-related hip proprioception declines: effects on postural sway and dynamic balance.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Jason R; Welder, Catherine; Foo, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of age on hip proprioception, and determine whether age-related hip proprioception declines disrupt balance. Survey of proprioception and balance differences between 3 age groups. University balance laboratory. Volunteer sample of independent community-dwelling adults (N=102) without sensory or other neurologic impairments in 3 age groups: younger (mean age, 24.6y; range, 19-37y), mid-aged (mean age, 53.3y; range, 40-64y), and older adults (mean age, 76.3y; range, 65-94y). Not applicable. Hip joint position sense (JPS) and kinesthesia were measured using a custom-built device. JPS error was determined by the magnitude of matching errors during vision and no-vision conditions. Kinesthesia was evaluated by the ability to detect passive limb rotation without vision. Postural sway was assessed during static stance and measured using root mean square of center of pressure (COP) displacement and velocity of COP displacement. Clinical balance and fear of falling were assessed with the mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (mini-BESTest) and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. Both older and mid-aged adults had significantly increased JPS error compared with younger adults (P<.05). Kinesthesia accuracy was significantly decreased in older adults compared with mid-aged and younger adults (P≤.01). Both measures of proprioception error correlated with age (P≤.001). There were no relationships between hip proprioception error and postural sway during static stance. However, older adults with lower proprioceptive error had significantly higher mini-BESTest scores of dynamic balance abilities (P=.005). These results provide evidence of significant hip proprioception declines with age. Although these declines are not related to increases in postural sway, participants with hip proprioception declines demonstrated disrupted dynamic balance, as indicated by decreased mini-BESTest scores. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of

  2. Modulation of proprioceptive integration in the motor cortex shapes human motor learning.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Rothwell, John C

    2012-06-27

    Sensory and motor systems interact closely during movement performance. Furthermore, proprioceptive feedback from ongoing movements provides an important input for successful learning of a new motor skill. Here, we show in humans that attention to proprioceptive input during a purely sensory task can influence subsequent learning of a novel motor task. We applied low-amplitude vibration to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of eight healthy volunteers for 15 min while they discriminated either a small change in vibration frequency or the presence of a simultaneous weak cutaneous stimulus. Before and after the sensory attention tasks, we evaluated the following in separate experiments: (1) sensorimotor interaction in the motor cortex by testing the efficacy of proprioceptive input to reduce GABA(A)ergic intracortical inhibition using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, and (2) how well the same subjects learned a ballistic thumb abduction task using the APB muscle. Performance of the vibration discrimination task increased the interaction of proprioceptive input with motor cortex excitability in the APB muscle, whereas performance in the cutaneous discrimination task had the opposite effect. There was a significant correlation between the integration of proprioceptive input in the motor cortex and the motor learning gain: increasing the integration of proprioceptive input from the APB increased the rate of motor learning and reduced performance variability, while decreasing proprioceptive integration had opposite effects. These findings suggest that the sensory attention tasks transiently change how proprioceptive input is integrated into the motor cortex and that these sensory changes drive subsequent learning behavior in the human motor cortex.

  3. Does proprioceptive acuity during active knee rotation in the transverse plane vary at different ranges?

    PubMed

    Muaidi, Qassim I

    2016-11-21

    Knee proprioception in the sagittal plane has been widely investigated in prospective studies, however limited information is known about proprioceptive acuity during active knee rotation and the way most commonly injured. To investigate whether proprioceptive acuity during active internal and external knee rotation varies at different ranges in the transverse plane. Healthy volunteers (N: 26) without previous injury or surgery of the knee joint participated in the study.Knee rotation proprioceptive acuity was measured using a custom-designed device. The measure of proprioceptive acuity used in this study was the just-noticeable-difference (JND). Participants actively rotated the knee at different intervals(initial, mid, and terminal internal or external rotation range) to one of four movement blocks and the magnitude of the permitted motion was judged. The means of the JND for proprioceptive acuity at initial internal rotation (0.80° ± 0.06) were significantly (p< 0.002) lower than for mid (1.62° ± 0.18), and terminal (2.08° ± 0.35) internal rotation. The means of the JND for proprioceptive acuity at initial external rotation (1.16° ± 0.10) were significantly (p< 0.04) lower than for mid (1.95° ± 0.30), and terminal (1.97° ± 0.24) internal rotation. Participants perceived smaller differences between active internal and external rotation movements at initial rotation range than at the mid and terminal rotation range of movement. This suggests better proprioceptive acuity at the initial rotation range of movement in the transverse plane.

  4. Degeneration of proprioceptive sensory nerve endings in mice harboring amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sydney K; Kemp, Zachary; Hatzipetros, Theo; Vieira, Fernando; Valdez, Gregorio

    2015-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily targets the motor system. Although much is known about the effects of ALS on motor neurons and glial cells, little is known about its effect on proprioceptive sensory neurons. This study examines proprioceptive sensory neurons in mice harboring mutations associated with ALS, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. In both transgenic lines, we found fewer proprioceptive sensory neurons containing fluorescently tagged cholera toxin in their soma five days after injecting this retrograde tracer into the tibialis anterior muscle. We asked whether this is due to neuronal loss or selective degeneration of peripheral nerve endings. We found no difference in the total number and size of proprioceptive sensory neuron soma between symptomatic SOD1(G93A) and control mice. However, analysis of proprioceptive nerve endings in muscles revealed early and significant alterations at Ia/II proprioceptive nerve endings in muscle spindles before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Although these changes occur alongside those at α-motor axons in SOD1(G93A) mice, Ia/II sensory nerve endings degenerate in the absence of obvious alterations in α-motor axons in TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. We next asked whether proprioceptive nerve endings are similarly affected in the spinal cord and found that nerve endings terminating on α-motor neurons are affected during the symptomatic phase and after peripheral nerve endings begin to degenerate. Overall, we show that Ia/II proprioceptive sensory neurons are affected by ALS-causing mutations, with pathological changes starting at their peripheral nerve endings.

  5. Proprioception rehabilitation training system for stroke patients using virtual reality technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun I; Song, In-Ho; Cho, Sangwoo; Kim, In Young; Ku, Jeonghun; Kang, Youn Joo; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a virtual reality (VR) proprioceptive rehabilitation system that could manipulate the visual feedback of upper-limb during training and could do training by relying on proprioception feedback only. Virtual environments were designed in order to switch visual feedback on/off during upper-limb training. Two types of VR training tasks were designed for evaluating the effect of the proprioception focused training compared to the training with visual feedback. In order to evaluate the developed proprioception feedback virtual environment system, we recruited ten stroke patients (age: 54.7± 7.83years, on set: 3.29± 3.83 years). All patients performed three times PFVE task in order to check the improvement of proprioception function just before training session, after one week training, and after all training. In a comparison between FMS score and PFVE, the FMS score had a significant relationship with the error distance(r = -.662, n=10, p = .037) and total movement distance(r = -.726, n=10, p = .018) in PFVE. Comparing the training effect between in virtual environment with visual feedback and with proprioception, the click count, error distance and total error distance was more reduced in PFVE than VFVE. (Click count: p = 0.005, error distance: p = 0.001, total error distance: p = 0.007). It suggested that the proprioception feedback rather than visual feedback could be effective means to enhancing motor control during rehabilitation training. The developed VR system for rehabilitation has been verified in that stroke patients improved motor control after VR proprioception feedback training.

  6. Plastic changes in hand proprioception following force-field motor learning.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Anguera, Joaquin A

    2010-09-01

    Motor neurophysiologists are placing greater emphasis on sensory feedback processing than ever before. In line with this shift, a recent article by Ostry and colleagues provided timely new evidence that force-field motor learning influences not only motor output, but also proprioceptive sense. In this Neuro Forum, the merits and limitations of Ostry and colleagues are explored in the context of recent work on proprioceptive function, including several recent studies from this journal.

  7. Effects of active fatiguing movement versus passive repetitive movement on knee proprioception.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Wang, Chia-Wei; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2010-08-01

    Proprioception can be affected by many factors such as age, gender, injury, disease, exercise, and fatigue. To date, the mechanisms or pathways by which fatigue influences proprioception have not been elucidated. Generally, it is accepted that local muscular effects occurred during fatigue state may negatively affect proprioception. Research has indicated that metabolic acidosis resulting from active muscle activities, along with tissue stretching and joint laxity resulting from repetitive joint movements, are likely related to proprioceptive deterioration. So far, little direct evidence or research supports these statements. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue exercises (repetitive active movement) and repetitive passive movements on knee proprioception. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measure on proprioception following two forms of knee joint movement (repetitive active/passive movement in 120 degrees /s with 60 repetitions over a 10 degrees -100 degrees range) was conducted. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent two forms of movement intervention in two consecutive days in a counter-balanced manner. Knee joint repositioning errors were measured before and after the movement intervention. Study results showed a statistically significant increase in absolute repositioning error following repetitive active movement, but a decrease following repetitive passive movement intervention. This study concluded that a repetitive passive movement protocol was capable of improving knee joint position sense. Meanwhile, the negative effect from the muscle receptors following the repetitive active movement overwhelmed the positive effect from the repetitive passive movement intervention. It supports the clinical utilization of repetitive passive movement to promote proprioception. This utilization can be implemented for proprioceptive training in sports activities, plus injury prevention and rehabilitation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Atrophy/hypertrophy cell signaling in muscles of young athletes trained with vibrational-proprioceptive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kern, Helmut; Pelosi, Laura; Coletto, Luisa; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Vogelauer, Michael; Trimmel, Lukas; Cvecka, Jan; Hamar, Dusan; Kovarik, Josef; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Protasi, Feliciano; Adami, Nicoletta; Biral, Donatella; Zampieri, Sandra; Carraro, Ugo

    2011-12-01

    To compare the effects of isokinetic (ISO-K) and vibrational-proprioceptive (VIB) trainings on muscle mass and strength. In 29 ISO-K- or VIB-trained young athletes we evaluated: force, muscle fiber morphometry, and gene expression of muscle atrophy/hypertrophy cell signaling. VIB training increased the maximal isometric unilateral leg extension force by 48·1%. ISO-K training improved the force by 24·8%. Both improvements were statistically significant (P⩿0·01). The more functional effectiveness of the VIB training in comparison with the ISO-K training was shown by the statistical significance changes only in VIB group in: rate of force development in time segment 0-50 ms (P<0·001), squat jump (P<0·05) and 30-m acceleration running test (P<0·05). VIB training induced a highly significant increase of mean diameter of fast fiber (+9%, P<0·001), but not of slow muscle fibers (-3%, not significant). No neural cell adhesion molecule-positive (N-CAM(+)) and embryonic myosin heavy chain-positive (MHC-emb(+)) myofibers were detected. VIB induced a significant twofold increase (P<0·05) of the skeletal muscle isoform insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Ec mRNA. Atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1) did not change, but myostatin was strongly downregulated after VIB training (P<0·001). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression increased in post-training groups, but only in VIB reached statistical significance (+228%, P<0·05). We demonstrated that both trainings are effective and do not induce muscle damage. Only VIB-trained group showed statistical significance increase of hypertrophy cell signaling pathways (IGF-1Ec and PGC-1α upregulation, and myostatin downregulation) leading to hypertrophy of fast twitch muscle fibers.

  9. Proprioceptive illusions created by vibration of one arm are altered by vibrating the other arm.

    PubMed

    Hakuta, Naoyuki; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Murai, Norimitsu; Atsumi, Takashi; Homma, Ikuo

    2014-07-01

    There is some evidence that signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position and movement of one arm. We examined whether the sense of position and movement of one (reference) arm is altered by increases in muscle spindle signals in the other (indicator) arm in blindfolded participants (n = 26). To increase muscle spindle discharge, we applied 70-80 Hz muscle vibration to the elbow flexors of the indicator arm. In a first experiment, proprioceptive illusions in the vibrated reference arm in a forearm position-matching task were compared between conditions in which the indicator arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not vibrated. We found that the vibration illusion of arm extension induced by vibration of reference arm elbow flexors was reduced in the presence of vibration of the indicator elbow flexors. In a second experiment, participants were asked to describe their perception of the illusion of forearm extension movements of the reference arm evoked by vibration of reference arm elbow flexors in response to on/off and off/on transitions of vibration of non-reference arm elbow flexors. When vibration of non-reference arm elbow flexors was turned on, they reported a sensation of slowing down of the illusion of the reference arm. When it was turned off, they reported a sensation of speeding up. To conclude, the present study shows that both the sense of limb position and the sense of limb movement of one arm are dependent to some extent on spindle signals coming from the other arm.

  10. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Kayla B; Whitcomb, Tyler J; Briggs, Wyatt O; Hong, Junggi

    2012-03-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently.

  11. The effects of eccentric exercise on muscle function and proprioception of individuals being overweight and underweight.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Raso, Vagner; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of being overweight or underweight on proprioception at rest and after muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Twelve lean, 12 overweight, and 8 underweight female participants performed an eccentric exercise session using the knee extensor muscles of the dominant leg. Muscle damage indices and proprioception were assessed up to 3 days postexercise. The results indicated that proprioception at baseline of the lean individuals was superior to that of the other 2 groups. The overweight individuals exhibited a smaller knee joint reaction angle to release than did the lean group, whereas the underweight individuals exhibited a larger reaction angle to release than did the lean group. After eccentric exercise, proprioception was affected more in the overweight and the underweight groups than in the lean group. The greater exercise-induced muscle damage appeared in the overweight group, and the deficient muscle mass of the underweight participants could explain in part the greater disturbances that appeared in proprioception in these 2 groups than for the lean counterparts. In conclusion, deviating from the normal body mass is associated with significant disturbances in the proprioception of the legs at rest and after participation in activities involving eccentric actions.

  12. A task-dependent effect of memory and hand-target on proprioceptive localization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie A H; Fiehler, Katja; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2012-06-01

    We examine whether the task goal affects the accuracy and precision with which participants can localize an unseen hand. Proprioceptive localization was measured using three different tasks: two goal-directed movement tasks (reaching to and reproducing final hand-target location) and a perceptual estimation task in which participants judged the location of the hand-target relative to visual references. We also assessed whether proprioceptive localization in these different tasks is affected by localization from memory, the hand-target being localized (left or right) or the movement path of the proprioceptive target (9 paths, derived from combinations of starting and final hand-target positions). We found that participants were less precise when reaching from memory, but not when reproducing or estimating remembered final hand-target location. Participants also misperceived the felt location of their hands, judging their left hand to be more leftward and their right hand to be more rightward when reaching to and when estimating final hand-target location, but not when reproducing hand-target location. The movement path of the proprioceptive target did not affect localization, regardless of the task goal. Overall, localization seems poorer when proprioception is used to guide a reach with the opposite hand, particularly from memory, and best when merely reproducing the proprioceptive target site. This may have an important application in neuro-rehabilitation, whereby one task may better establish or re-establish important or failing sensory connections.

  13. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments.

  14. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  15. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Kayla B.; Whitcomb, Tyler J.; Briggs, Wyatt O.; Hong, Junggi

    2012-01-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently. PMID:23487249

  16. Reversal of alcohol-induced effects on response control due to changes in proprioceptive information processing.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Mückschel, Moritz; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has drawn interest to the effects of binge drinking on response selection. However, choosing an appropriate response is a complex endeavor that usually requires us to process and integrate several streams of information. One of them is proprioceptive information about the position of limbs. As to now, it has however remained elusive how binge drinking affects the processing of proprioceptive information during response selection and control in healthy individuals. We investigated this question using neurophysiological (EEG) techniques in a response selection task, where we manipulated proprioceptive information. The results show a reversal of alcohol-induced effects on response control due to changes in proprioceptive information processing. The most likely explanation for this finding is that proprioceptive information does not seem to be properly integrated in response selection processes during acute alcohol intoxication as found in binge drinking. The neurophysiological data suggest that processes related to the preparation and execution of the motor response, but not upstream processes related to conflict monitoring and spatial attentional orienting, underlie these binge drinking-dependent modulations. Taken together, the results show that even high doses of alcohol have very specific effects within the cascade of neurophysiological processes underlying response control and the integration of proprioceptive information during this process. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Body ownership and agency: task-dependent effects of the virtual hand illusion on proprioceptive drift.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Satoshi; Unenaka, Satoshi; Ohki, Yukari

    2017-01-01

    Body ownership and agency are fundamental to self-consciousness. These bodily experiences have been intensively investigated using the rubber hand illusion, wherein participants perceive a fake hand as their own. After presentation of the illusion, the position of the participant's hand then shifts toward the location of the fake hand (proprioceptive drift). However, it remains controversial whether proprioceptive drift is able to provide an objective measurement of body ownership, and whether agency also affects drift. Using the virtual hand illusion (VHI), the current study examined the effects of body ownership and agency on proprioceptive drift, with three different visuo-motor tasks. Twenty healthy adults (29.6 ± 9.2 years old) completed VH manipulations using their right hand under a 2 × 2 factorial design (active vs. passive manipulation, and congruent vs. incongruent virtual hand). Prior to and after VH manipulation, three different tasks were performed to assess proprioceptive drift, in which participants were unable to see their real hands. The effects of the VHI on proprioceptive drift were task-dependent. When participants were required to judge the position of their right hand using a ruler, or by reaching toward a visual target, both body ownership and agency modulated proprioceptive drift. Comparatively, when participants aligned both hands, drift was influenced by ownership but not agency. These results suggest that body ownership and agency might differentially modulate various body representations in the brain.

  18. Proprioceptive acuity in the frontal and sagittal planes of the knee: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dhaher, Yasin Y.

    2012-01-01

    Though the knee experiences three-dimensional loading during everyday tasks, assessment of proprioceptive acuity has typically been limited to the primary direction of movement, knee flexion and extension. While loading in the constrained directions (varus/valgus and internal/external rotation) may contribute to injury and joint disease, little information is available regarding proprioceptive acuity in these planes of movement. The primary aim of this study was to characterize proprioceptive acuity in the frontal plane (varus/valgus) and to compare it with sagittal plane (flexion/extension) proprioceptive acuity in healthy subjects. Proprioception was assessed in 17 young, healthy subjects (11 females, 6 males, ages 21–33 years) using the threshold to detection of passive movement (TDPM). TDPM was found to be significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the frontal plane [valgus: mean (SD) 0.60 (0.20)° and varus: 0.58 (0.23)°] compared with the sagittal plane [extension: 0.78 (0.34)°, flexion: 0.82 (0.48)°]; however, no significant differences were noted within the same plane of movement. Results from this preliminary study may suggest more accurate proprioceptive acuity in the frontal plane compared with the sagittal plane. While further examination is necessary to confirm this relationship, more accurate frontal plane acuity may reflect a protective neural mechanism which enables more precise neuromuscular control of the joint in this constrained plane of movement. PMID:21140163

  19. Ankle proprioception is not targeted by exercises on an unstable surface.

    PubMed

    Kiers, Henri; Brumagne, Simon; van Dieën, Jaap; van der Wees, Philip; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-04-01

    Laboratory study using a repeated measures design. The aim of this study was to determine if ankle proprioception is targeted in exercises on unstable surfaces. Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) has recurrence rates over 70%, which are believed to be due to a reduced accuracy of proprioceptive signals from the ankle. Proprioceptive exercises in rehabilitation of LAS mostly consist of balancing activities on an unstable surface. The methods include 100 healthy adults stood barefoot on a solid surface and a foam pad over a force plate, with occluded vision. Mechanical vibration was used to stimulate proprioceptive output of muscle spindles of triceps surae and lumbar paraspinal musculature. Each trial lasted for 60 s; vibration was applied from the 15th till the 30th second. Changes in mean velocity and mean position of the center of pressure (CoP) as a result of muscle vibration were calculated. Results show that on foam, the effect of triceps surae vibration on mean CoP velocity was significantly smaller than on a solid surface, while for paraspinal musculature vibration the effect was bigger on foam than on solid surface. Similar effects were seen for mean CoP displacement as outcome. Exercises on unstable surfaces appear not to target peripheral ankle proprioception. Exercises on an unstable surface may challenge the capacity of the central nervous system to shift the weighting of sources of proprioceptive signals on balance.

  20. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  1. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  2. Slow medical education.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians.

  3. Activation of Hindbrain Neurons Is Mediated by Portal-Mesenteric Vein Glucosensors During Slow-Onset Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, MaryAnn; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Saberi, Maziyar; Khan, Arshad M.; Watts, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemic detection at the portal-mesenteric vein (PMV) appears mediated by spinal afferents and is critical for the counter-regulatory response (CRR) to slow-onset, but not rapid-onset, hypoglycemia. Since rapid-onset hypoglycemia induces Fos protein expression in discrete brain regions, we hypothesized that denervation of the PMV or lesioning spinal afferents would suppress Fos expression in the dorsal medulla during slow-onset hypoglycemia, revealing a central nervous system reliance on PMV glucosensors. Rats undergoing PMV deafferentation via capsaicin, celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy (CSMG), or total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (TSV) were exposed to hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamps where glycemia was lowered slowly over 60–75 min. In response to hypoglycemia, control animals demonstrated a robust CRR along with marked Fos expression in the area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Fos expression was suppressed by 65–92% in capsaicin-treated animals, as was epinephrine (74%), norepinephrine (33%), and glucagon (47%). CSMG also suppressed Fos expression and CRR during slow-onset hypoglycemia, whereas TSV failed to impact either. In contrast, CSMG failed to impact upon Fos expression or the CRR during rapid-onset hypoglycemia. Peripheral glucosensory input from the PMV is therefore required for activation of hindbrain neurons and the full CRR during slow-onset hypoglycemia. PMID:24727435

  4. The influence of below-knee compression garments on knee-joint proprioception.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Shashank; Driller, Matthew W; Masters, Rich S W

    2016-08-09

    The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of below-knee compression garments on proprioception accuracy under, information processing constraints designed to cause high or low conscious attention to the task. In a counterbalanced, single-blinded, crossover trial, 44 healthy participants (26 male/18 female) with a mean age of 22.7±6.9 years performed an active joint repositioning task using their nondominant and their dominant leg, with and without below-knee compression and with and without conducting a secondary task. Analysis of variance revealed no main effect of leg dominance and no interactions (p's>0.05). However, a main effect was evident for both compression (F1, 43=84.23, p<0.001, ηp(2)=0.665) and secondary task (F1, 43=4.391, p=0.04, ηp(2)=0.093). The study is the first to evaluate the effects of a belowknee compression garment on knee proprioception under differential information processing constraints. We conclude that proprioception accuracy of the knee joint is significantly enhanced post application of below-knee compression garments and when a secondary task is conducted concurrently with active joint repositioning. The findings suggest that below-knee compression garments may improve proprioception of the knee, regardless of leg dominance, and that secondary tasks that direct attention away from proprioceptive judgments may also improve proprioception, regardless of the presence of compression. Clinical implications are discussed with respect to proprioception in modern.sports and rehabilitation settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Parkinson's disease on proprioceptively based on-line movement control.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, David; Blanchet, Pierre; Bergeron, Stéphanie; Messier, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients produce large spatial errors when reaching to proprioceptively defined targets. Here, we examined whether these movement inaccuracies result mainly from impaired use of proprioceptive inputs for movement planning mechanisms or from on-line movement guidance. Medicated and non-medicated PD patients and healthy controls performed three-dimensional reaching movements in four sensorimotor conditions that increase proprioceptive processing requirements. We assessed the influence of these sensorimotor conditions on the final accuracy and initial kinematics of the movements. If the patterns of final errors are primarily determined by planning processes before the initiation of the movement, the initial kinematics of reaching movements should show similar trends and predict the pattern of final errors. Medicated and non-medicated PD patients showed a greater mean level of final 3D errors than healthy controls when proprioception was the sole source of information guiding the movement, but this difference reached significance only for medicated PD patients. However, the pattern of initial kinematics and final spatial errors were markedly different both between sensorimotor conditions and between groups. Furthermore, medicated and non-medicated PD patients were less efficient than healthy controls in compensating for their initial spatial errors (hand distance from target location at peak velocity) when aiming at proprioceptively defined compared to visually defined targets. Considered together, the results are consistent with a selective deficit in proprioceptively based movement guidance in PD. Furthermore, dopaminergic medication did not improve proprioceptively guided movements in PD patients, indicating that dopaminergic dysfunction within the basal ganglia is not solely responsible for these deficits.

  6. The co-constitution of the self and the world: action and proprioceptive coupling.

    PubMed

    Gapenne, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical reflection on the conditions for the constitution of a distinction between the self and the world by a cognitive system. The main hypothesis is the following: proprioception, as a sensory system that is habitually dedicated essentially to experience of the body, is conceived here as a coupling which is necessary for the dual and concomitant constitution of a bodily self and of a distal perceptual field. After recalling the singular characteristics of proprioceptive coupling, three lines of thought are developed. The first, which is notably inspired by research on sensory substitution, aims at emphasizing the indispensable role of action in the context of such perceptual learning. In a second part, this hypothesis is tested against opposing arguments. In particular, we shall discuss, in the context of what Braitenberg called a synthetic psychology, the emergence of oriented behaviors in simple robots that can be regulated by sensory regulations which are strictly external, since these robots do not have any form of "proprioception." In the same vein, this part also provides the opportunity to discuss the argument concerning a bijective relation between action and proprioception; it has been argued by others that because of this strict bijection it is not possible for proprioception to be the basis for the constitution of an exteriority. The third part, which is more prospective, suggests that it is important to take the measure of the phylogenetic history of this exteriority, starting from unicellular organisms. Taking into account the literature which attests the existence of proprioception even amongst the most elementary living organisms, this leads us to propose that the coupling of proprioception to action is very primitive, and that the role we propose for it in the co-constitution of an exteriority and self is probably already at work in the simplest living organisms.

  7. Proprioceptive Changes Impair Balance Control in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Lotte; Brumagne, Simon; McConnell, Alison K.; Claeys, Kurt; Pijnenburg, Madelon; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim; Decramer, Marc; Troosters, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Balance deficits are identified as important risk factors for falling in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the specific use of proprioception, which is of primary importance during balance control, has not been studied in individuals with COPD. The objective was to determine the specific proprioceptive control strategy during postural balance in individuals with COPD and healthy controls, and to assess whether this was related to inspiratory muscle weakness. Methods Center of pressure displacement was determined in 20 individuals with COPD and 20 age/gender-matched controls during upright stance on an unstable support surface without vision. Ankle and back muscle vibration were applied to evaluate the relative contribution of different proprioceptive signals used in postural control. Results Individuals with COPD showed an increased anterior-posterior body sway during upright stance (p = 0.037). Compared to controls, individuals with COPD showed an increased posterior body sway during ankle muscle vibration (p = 0.047), decreased anterior body sway during back muscle vibration (p = 0.025), and increased posterior body sway during simultaneous ankle-muscle vibration (p = 0.002). Individuals with COPD with the weakest inspiratory muscles showed the greatest reliance on ankle muscle input when compared to the stronger individuals with COPD (p = 0.037). Conclusions Individuals with COPD, especially those with inspiratory muscle weakness, increased their reliance on ankle muscle proprioceptive signals and decreased their reliance on back muscle proprioceptive signals during balance control, resulting in a decreased postural stability compared to healthy controls. These proprioceptive changes may be due to an impaired postural contribution of the inspiratory muscles to trunk stability. Further research is required to determine whether interventions such as proprioceptive training and inspiratory

  8. Integration of Visual and Proprioceptive Limb Position Information in Human Posterior Parietal, Premotor, and Extrastriate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-03-02

    The brain constructs a flexible representation of the body from multisensory information. Previous work on monkeys suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) represent the position of the upper limbs based on visual and proprioceptive information. Human experiments on the rubber hand illusion implicate similar regions, but since such experiments rely on additional visuo-tactile interactions, they cannot isolate visuo-proprioceptive integration. Here, we independently manipulated the position (palm or back facing) of passive human participants' unseen arm and of a photorealistic virtual 3D arm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that matching visual and proprioceptive information about arm position engaged the PPC, PMv, and the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA); activity in the PMv moreover reflected interindividual differences in congruent arm ownership. Further, the PPC, PMv, and EBA increased their coupling with the primary visual cortex during congruent visuo-proprioceptive position information. These results suggest that human PPC, PMv, and EBA evaluate visual and proprioceptive position information and, under sufficient cross-modal congruence, integrate it into a multisensory representation of the upper limb in space. The position of our limbs in space constantly changes, yet the brain manages to represent limb position accurately by combining information from vision and proprioception. Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys have revealed neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor cortices that seem to implement and update such a multisensory limb representation, but this has been difficult to demonstrate in humans. Our fMRI experiment shows that human posterior parietal, premotor, and body-selective visual brain areas respond preferentially to a virtual arm seen in a position corresponding to one's unseen hidden arm, while increasing their communication with regions conveying visual

  9. The co-constitution of the self and the world: action and proprioceptive coupling

    PubMed Central

    Gapenne, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical reflection on the conditions for the constitution of a distinction between the self and the world by a cognitive system. The main hypothesis is the following: proprioception, as a sensory system that is habitually dedicated essentially to experience of the body, is conceived here as a coupling which is necessary for the dual and concomitant constitution of a bodily self and of a distal perceptual field. After recalling the singular characteristics of proprioceptive coupling, three lines of thought are developed. The first, which is notably inspired by research on sensory substitution, aims at emphasizing the indispensable role of action in the context of such perceptual learning. In a second part, this hypothesis is tested against opposing arguments. In particular, we shall discuss, in the context of what Braitenberg called a synthetic psychology, the emergence of oriented behaviors in simple robots that can be regulated by sensory regulations which are strictly external, since these robots do not have any form of “proprioception.” In the same vein, this part also provides the opportunity to discuss the argument concerning a bijective relation between action and proprioception; it has been argued by others that because of this strict bijection it is not possible for proprioception to be the basis for the constitution of an exteriority. The third part, which is more prospective, suggests that it is important to take the measure of the phylogenetic history of this exteriority, starting from unicellular organisms. Taking into account the literature which attests the existence of proprioception even amongst the most elementary living organisms, this leads us to propose that the coupling of proprioception to action is very primitive, and that the role we propose for it in the co-constitution of an exteriority and self is probably already at work in the simplest living organisms. PMID:24971073

  10. Robot-Assisted Proprioceptive Training with Added Vibro-Tactile Feedback Enhances Somatosensory and Motor Performance.

    PubMed

    Cuppone, Anna Vera; Squeri, Valentina; Semprini, Marianna; Masia, Lorenzo; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision. We assessed whether training improved the acuity of the wrist joint position sense. In addition, we checked if sensory learning generalized to the motor domain and improved spatial precision of wrist tracking movements that were not trained. The main findings of the study are: First, proprioceptive acuity of the wrist joint position sense improved after training for the group that received the combined proprioceptive/haptic and vibro-tactile feedback (VTF). Second, training had no impact on the spatial accuracy of the untrained tracking task. However, learners who had received VTF significantly reduced their reliance on haptic guidance feedback when performing the untrained motor task. That is, concurrent VTF was highly salient movement feedback and obviated the need for haptic feedback. Third, VTF can be also provided by the limb not involved in the task. Learners who received VTF to the contralateral limb equally benefitted. In conclusion, somatosensory training can significantly enhance proprioceptive acuity within days when learning is coupled with vibro-tactile sensory cues that provide feedback about movement errors. The observable sensory improvements in proprioception facilitates motor learning and such learning may generalize to the sensorimotor control of the untrained motor tasks. The implications of these findings for

  11. Robot-Assisted Proprioceptive Training with Added Vibro-Tactile Feedback Enhances Somatosensory and Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cuppone, Anna Vera; Squeri, Valentina; Semprini, Marianna; Masia, Lorenzo; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision. We assessed whether training improved the acuity of the wrist joint position sense. In addition, we checked if sensory learning generalized to the motor domain and improved spatial precision of wrist tracking movements that were not trained. The main findings of the study are: First, proprioceptive acuity of the wrist joint position sense improved after training for the group that received the combined proprioceptive/haptic and vibro-tactile feedback (VTF). Second, training had no impact on the spatial accuracy of the untrained tracking task. However, learners who had received VTF significantly reduced their reliance on haptic guidance feedback when performing the untrained motor task. That is, concurrent VTF was highly salient movement feedback and obviated the need for haptic feedback. Third, VTF can be also provided by the limb not involved in the task. Learners who received VTF to the contralateral limb equally benefitted. In conclusion, somatosensory training can significantly enhance proprioceptive acuity within days when learning is coupled with vibro-tactile sensory cues that provide feedback about movement errors. The observable sensory improvements in proprioception facilitates motor learning and such learning may generalize to the sensorimotor control of the untrained motor tasks. The implications of these findings for

  12. Proprioception in the extraocular muscles of mammals and man.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Roland; Konacki, Kadriye Zeynep; Streicher, Johannes; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Blumer, Michael Josef Franz; Lukas, Julius-Robert

    2006-06-01

    This article summarizes the authors' previous studies on proprioceptors in extraocular muscles (EOMs) of mammals and man. They report on muscle spindles in the EOMs of man, Golgi tendon organs in the EOMs of even-toed ungulates, and palisade endings in the EOMs of the cat. Muscle spindles: Muscle spindles are present in the EOMs of some mammals and in the EOMs of man. Compared with muscle spindles in other skeletal muscles, those in human EOMs exhibit structural differences. These structural differences may indicate a special function. Golgi tendon organs: Golgi tendon organs are absent in human EOMs. Golgi tendon organs exhibiting a specific morphology are present in the EOMs of even-toed ungulates. Their high number and rich innervation indicate functional importance. Palisade endings: Palisade endings are nervous end organs confined to the EOMs of mammals and man. It is assumed that these organs have a proprioceptive function. The authors show that palisade endings are immunoreactive for antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. Neuromuscular contacts, if present in palisade endings, are alpha -bungarotoxin positive as well. Taken together, these results show that palisade endings exhibit molecular characteristics of effector organs.

  13. Modelling muscle spindle dynamics for a proprioceptive prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ian; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    Muscle spindles are found throughout our skeletal muscle tissue and continuously provide us with a sense of our limbs' position and motion (proprioception). This paper advances a model for generating artificial muscle spindle signals for a prosthetic limb, with the aim of one day providing amputees with a sense of feeling in their artificial limb. By utilising the Opensim biomechanical modelling package the relationship between a joint's angle and the length of surrounding muscles is estimated for a prosthetic limb. This is then applied to the established Mileusnic model to determine the associated muscle spindle firing pattern. This complete system model is then reduced to allow for a computationally efficient hardware implementation. This reduction is achieved with minimal impact on accuracy by selecting key mono-articular muscles and fitting equations to relate joint angle to muscle length. Parameter values fitting the Mileusnic model to human spindles are then proposed and validated against previously published human neural recordings. Finally, a model for fusimotor signals is also proposed based on data previously recorded from reduced animal experiments.

  14. Inspiratory augmentation during asphyxic hyperpnoea and gasping: proprioceptive influences.

    PubMed

    Macefield, G; Nail, B

    1986-04-01

    The relative inspiratory augmentations of sternomastoid, scalene, external intercostal, interchondral and diaphragmatic electromyographic activities were examined during the progressive asphyxia induced by rebreathing in pentobarbitone/urethane anaesthetized rabbits. Diaphragmatic activity augmented significantly less than that of the scalene, intercostal and interchondral muscles in response to the asphyxic increase in inspiratory drive (hyperpnoea). Cervical vagotomy significantly increased the levels of inspiratory activity during the asphyxic hyperpnoea but did not abolish these relations. Dorsal rhizotomy at levels appropriate for the respective recording sites significantly limited the intercostal and interchondral augmentations, and depressed diaphragmatic activity to a less pronounced extent, but did not affect scalene activity. The asphyxic apnoea succeeding the hyperpnoea was terminated by gasping respiration. Excepting the interchondrals each muscle exhibited significantly greater electromyographic amplitudes during gasping than during the terminal hyperpnoeic efforts. Only during gasping were the sternomastoid muscles recruited. The intercostal and scalene gasps were significantly greater than those exhibited by either the interchondrals or the diaphragm. Such disproportionate responses were not affected by vagotomy or dorsal rhizotomy. The disparate inspiratory contributions during progressive asphyxia can therefore only be partially accounted for by differences in proprioceptive control.

  15. Proprioceptive Training and Injury Prevention in a Professional Men's Basketball Team: A Six-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Riva, D, Bianchi, R, Rocca, F, and Mamo, C. Proprioceptive training and injury prevention in a professional men's basketball team: A six-year prospective study. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 461–475, 2016—Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004–2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006–2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008–2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p < 0.001). Low back pain showed similar results with a reduction of 77.8% (p < 0.005). The reduction in knee sprains was 64.5% (not significant). Comparing the third biennium with the level of all new entry players, proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that improvements in proprioceptive control in single stance may be a key factor for an effective reduction in ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain

  16. Cortical Auditory Deafferentation Induces Long-Term Plasticity in the Inferior Colliculus of Adult Rats: Microarray and qPCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Herrero-Turrión, M. Javier; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The cortico-collicular pathway is a bilateral excitatory projection from the cortex to the inferior colliculus (IC). It is asymmetric and predominantly ipsilateral. Using microarrays and RT-qPCR we analyzed changes in gene expression in the IC after unilateral lesions of the auditory cortex, comparing the ICs ipsi- and contralateral to the lesioned side. At 15 days after surgery there were mainly changes in gene expression in the IC ipsilateral to the lesion. Regulation primarily involved inflammatory cascade genes, suggesting a direct effect of degeneration rather than a neuronal plastic reorganization. Ninety days after the cortical lesion the ipsilateral IC showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and axonal regeneration combined with a down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission, synaptic growth, and gap junction assembly. In contrast, the contralateral IC at 90 days post-lesion showed an up-regulation in genes primarily related to neurotransmission, cell proliferation, and synaptic growth. There was also a down-regulation in autophagy and neuroprotection genes. These findings suggest that the reorganization in the IC after descending pathway deafferentation is a long-term process involving extensive changes in gene expression regulation. Regulated genes are involved in many different neuronal functions, and the number and gene rearrangement profile seems to depend on the density of loss of the auditory cortical inputs. PMID:23233834

  17. Slow light beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanhong; Klein, Mason; Hohensee, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Phillips, David F; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-07-25

    We demonstrate a slow light beam splitter using rapid coherence transport in a wall-coated atomic vapor cell. We show that particles undergoing random and undirected classical motion can mediate coherent interactions between two or more optical modes. Coherence, written into atoms via electromagnetically induced transparency using an input optical signal at one transverse position, spreads out via ballistic atomic motion, is preserved by an antirelaxation wall coating, and is then retrieved in outgoing slow light signals in both the input channel and a spatially-separated second channel. The splitting ratio between the two output channels can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. The slow light beam splitter may improve quantum repeater performance and be useful as an all-optical dynamically reconfigurable router.

  18. Computationally efficient modeling of proprioceptive signals in the upper limb for prostheses: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ian; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models of proprioceptive neural patterns could 1 day play an important role in the creation of an intuitive proprioceptive neural prosthesis for amputees. This paper looks at combining efficient implementations of biomechanical and proprioceptor models in order to generate signals that mimic human muscular proprioceptive patterns for future experimental work in prosthesis feedback. A neuro-musculoskeletal model of the upper limb with 7 degrees of freedom and 17 muscles is presented and generates real time estimates of muscle spindle and Golgi Tendon Organ neural firing patterns. Unlike previous neuro-musculoskeletal models, muscle activation and excitation levels are unknowns in this application and an inverse dynamics tool (static optimization) is integrated to estimate these variables. A proprioceptive prosthesis will need to be portable and this is incompatible with the computationally demanding nature of standard biomechanical and proprioceptor modeling. This paper uses and proposes a number of approximations and optimizations to make real time operation on portable hardware feasible. Finally technical obstacles to mimicking natural feedback for an intuitive proprioceptive prosthesis, as well as issues and limitations with existing models, are identified and discussed. PMID:25009463

  19. The proprioceptive senses: their roles in signaling body shape, body position and movement, and muscle force.

    PubMed

    Proske, Uwe; Gandevia, Simon C

    2012-10-01

    This is a review of the proprioceptive senses generated as a result of our own actions. They include the senses of position and movement of our limbs and trunk, the sense of effort, the sense of force, and the sense of heaviness. Receptors involved in proprioception are located in skin, muscles, and joints. Information about limb position and movement is not generated by individual receptors, but by populations of afferents. Afferent signals generated during a movement are processed to code for endpoint position of a limb. The afferent input is referred to a central body map to determine the location of the limbs in space. Experimental phantom limbs, produced by blocking peripheral nerves, have shown that motor areas in the brain are able to generate conscious sensations of limb displacement and movement in the absence of any sensory input. In the normal limb tendon organs and possibly also muscle spindles contribute to the senses of force and heaviness. Exercise can disturb proprioception, and this has implications for musculoskeletal injuries. Proprioceptive senses, particularly of limb position and movement, deteriorate with age and are associated with an increased risk of falls in the elderly. The more recent information available on proprioception has given a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these senses as well as providing new insight into a range of clinical conditions.

  20. Task-dependent asymmetries in the utilization of proprioceptive feedback for goal-directed movement.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2007-07-01

    Whereas the majority of studies regarding upper limb asymmetries in motor performance have focused on preferred arm dominance for producing motor output, studies exploring the role of sensory feedback have suggested that the preferred and non-preferred arms are specialized for different aspects of movement. A recent study by Goble et al. (2006) found evidence of a non-preferred left arm (and presumably right hemisphere) proprioceptive dominance for a target matching task that required subjects to both memorize and transfer across hemispheres proprioceptive target information. This paradigm contrasted previous studies of proprioceptive matching asymmetry that explored only memory-based matching and produced equivocal results. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to examine task-dependent asymmetries in proprioceptive matching performance, including differences related to active versus passive presentation of the matching target. It was found that the non-preferred left arm of right handers matched target elbow angles more accurately than the preferred arm, but only in the matching condition that required both memory and interhemispheric transfer. Task-dependent asymmetries were not affected by the mode of target presentation and assessment of matching kinematics revealed differences in strategy for both the speed and smoothness of targeted movements. Taken together, these results suggest that the non-preferred arm/hemisphere system is specialized for the processing of movement-related proprioceptive feedback.

  1. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  2. Correlation analysis of proprioceptive acuity in ipsilateral position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Domkin, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    In order to plan and control movements the central nervous system (CNS) needs to continuously keep track of the state of the musculoskeletal system. Therefore the CNS constantly uses sensory input from mechanoreceptors in muscles, joints and skin to update information about body configuration on different levels of the CNS. On the conscious level, such representations constitute proprioception. Different tests for assessment of proprioceptive acuity have been described. However, it is unclear if the proprioceptive acuity measurements in these tests correlate within subjects. By using both uni- and multivariate analysis we compared proprioceptive acuity in different variants of ipsilateral active and passive limb position-matching and ipsilateral passive limb movement velocity-discrimination in a group of healthy subjects. The analysis of the position-matching data revealed a higher acuity of matching for active movements in comparison to passive ones. The acuity of matching was negatively correlated to movement extent. There was a lack of correlation between proprioceptive acuity measurements in position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

  3. Analysis of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation of the Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Martha J.; Walters, Marie C.; Ladle, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying them within the intact mouse soleus muscle using high magnification confocal microscopy. Total proprioceptive receptors numbered 11.3 ± 0.4 and 5.2 ± 0.2 for muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, respectively, and these receptor counts varied independently (n = 27 muscles). Analogous to findings in the rat, muscle spindles analyzed were most frequently supplied by two proprioceptive afferents, and in the majority of instances, both were classified as primary endings using established morphological criteria. Secondary endings were most frequently observed when spindle associated afferents totaled three or more. The mean diameter of primary and secondary afferent axons differed significantly, but the distributions overlap more than previously observed in cat and rat studies. PMID:28122055

  4. Proprioceptive impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis are not generalized to the ankle and elbow joints.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Camille J; Wrigley, Tim V; Farrell, Michael J; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms for proprioceptive changes associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) remain elusive. Observations of proprioceptive changes in both affected knees and other joints imply more generalized mechanisms for proprioceptive impairment. However, evidence for a generalized effect remains controversial. This study examined whether joint repositioning proprioceptive deficits are localized to the diseased joint (knee) or generalized across other joints (elbow and ankle) in people with knee OA. Thirty individuals with right knee OA (17 female, 66±7 [mean±SD] years) of moderate/severe radiographic disease severity and 30 healthy asymptomatic controls of comparable age (17 female, 65±8years) performed active joint repositioning tests of the knee, ankle and elbow in randomised order in supine. Participants with knee OA had a larger relative error for joint repositioning of the knee than the controls (OA: 2.7±2.1°, control: 1.6±1.7°, p=.03). Relative error did not differ between groups for the ankle (OA: 2.2±2.5°, control: 1.9±1.3°, p=.50) or elbow (OA: 2.5±3.3°, control: 2.9±2.8°, p=.58). These results are consistent with a mechanism for proprioceptive change that is localized to the knee joint. This could be mediated by problems with mechanoreceptors, processing/relay of somatosensory input to higher centers, or joint-specific interference with cognitive processes by pain.

  5. Upper limb asymmetries in the matching of proprioceptive versus visual targets.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which "sensory dominance" exists in right-handers with respect to the utilization of proprioceptive versus visual feedback. Thirteen right-handed adults performed two target-matching tasks using instrumented manipulanda. In the proprioceptive matching task, the left or right elbow of blindfolded subjects was passively extended by a torque motor system to a target position and held for 3 s before being returned to the start position. The target angle was then matched with either the ipsilateral or contralateral arm. In the second task, visual matching, circular targets were briefly projected to either side of a visual fixation point located in front of the subject. Subjects then matched the target positions with a laser pointer by moving either the ipsilateral or contralateral arm. Overall, marked arm differences in accuracy were seen based on the type of sensory feedback used for target presentation. For the proprioceptive matching task errors were smaller for the nonpreferred left arm, whereas during the visual matching task smaller errors were found for the preferred right arm. These results suggest a left arm/right hemisphere advantage for proprioceptive feedback processing and a right arm/left hemisphere advantage for visual information processing. Such asymmetries may reflect fundamental differences between the two arm/hemisphere systems during the performance of bimanual tasks where the preferred arm requires visual guidance to manipulate an object, whereas the nonpreferred stabilizes that object on the basis of proprioceptive feedback.

  6. Effect of interstimulus interval on cortical proprioceptive responses to passive finger movements.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Eero; Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Shortening of the interstimulus interval (ISI) generally leads to attenuation of cortical sensory responses. For proprioception, however, this ISI effect is still poorly known. Our aim was to characterize the ISI dependence of movement-evoked proprioceptive cortical responses and to find the optimum ISI for proprioceptive stimulation. We measured, from 15 healthy adults, magnetoencephalographic responses to passive flexion and extension movements of the right index finger. The movements were generated by a movement actuator at fixed ISIs of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 s, in separate blocks. The responses peaked at ~ 70 ms (extension) and ~ 90 ms (flexion) in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex. The strength of the cortical source increased with the ISI, plateauing at the 8-s ISI. Modeling the ISI dependence with an exponential saturation function revealed response lifetimes of 1.3 s (extension) and 2.2 s (flexion), implying that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a given measurement time is achieved with ISIs of 1.7 s and 2.8 s respectively. We conclude that ISIs of 1.5-3 s should be used to maximize SNR in recordings of proprioceptive cortical responses to passive finger movements. Our findings can benefit the assessment of proprioceptive afference in both clinical and research settings.

  7. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2017-09-15

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  8. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly effortless, we adjust our movements to continuously changing environments. After initiation of a goal-directed movement, the motor command is under constant control of sensory feedback loops. The main sensory signals contributing to movement control are vision and proprioception. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive feedback for online reaching control, and demonstrate that distinct cortical areas process proprioceptive-only and multi-sensory information for fast feedback corrections.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Proprioception Using Dynamometer in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of a knee proprioception evaluation using a dynamometer as a tool for evaluating proprioception of the lower extremities in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and to explore its usefulness in predicting the ambulatory outcome. Methods A total of 14 SCI patients (10 tetraplegic, 4 paraplegic; all AIS D) were included in this study. The passive repositioning error (PRE) and active repositioning error (ARE) were measured with a dynamometer, along with tibial somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and abductor hallucis motor-evoked potential (MEP). Ambulatory capacity was assessed with the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II (WISCI-II), both at the time of the proprioception test (WISCI_i) and at least 6 months after the test (WISCI_6mo). Results The PRE showed a negative correlation with WISCI_i (r=-0.440, p=0.034) and WISCI_6mo (r=-0.568, p=0.010). Linear multiple regression showed the type of injury, lower extremities motor score, MEP, and PRE accounted for 75.4% of the WISCI_6mo variance (p=0.080). Conclusion Proprioception of the knee can be measured quantitatively with a dynamometer in patients with incomplete SCI, and PRE was related to the outcome of the ambulatory capacity. Along with the neurological and electrophysiological examinations, a proprioception test using a dynamometer may have supplementary value in predicting the ambulatory capacity in patients with incomplete SCI. PMID:28503454

  10. A quantitative and standardized robotic method for the evaluation of arm proprioception after stroke.

    PubMed

    Simo, Lucia S; Ghez, Claude; Botzer, Lior; Scheidt, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Stroke often results in both motor and sensory deficits, which may interact in the manifested functional impairment. Proprioception is known to play important roles in the planning and control of limb posture and movement; however, the impact of proprioceptive deficits on motor function has been difficult to elucidate due in part to the qualitative nature of available clinical tests. We present a quantitative and standardized method for evaluating proprioception in tasks directly relevant to those used to assess motor function. Using a robotic manipulandum that exerted controlled displacements of the hand, stroke participants were evaluated, and compared with a control group, in their ability to detect such displacements in a 2-alternative, forced-choice paradigm. A psychometric function parameterized the decision process underlying the detection of the hand displacements. The shape of this function was determined by a signal detection threshold and by the variability of the response about this threshold. Our automatic procedure differentiates between participants with and without proprioceptive deficits and quantifies functional proprioceptive sensation on a magnitude scale that is meaningful for ongoing studies of degraded motor function in comparable horizontal movements.

  11. A Prosthesis to Train the Proprioceptive Capabilities of the Residual Limb of Military Personnel Recovering from Lower Limb Amputation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    10-1-0573 TITLE: A prosthesis to train the proprioceptive capabilities of the residual limb of military personnel recovering from lower limb...To) 1September2011-31August2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Prosthesis to Train the Proprioceptive Capabilities of the 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  12. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  13. Psychomotor Slowing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morrens, Manuel; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Psychomotor slowing (PS) is a cluster of symptoms that was already recognized in schizophrenia by its earliest investigators. Nevertheless, few studies have been dedicated to the clarification of the nature and the role of the phenomenon in this illness. Moreover, slowed psychomotor functioning is often not clearly delineated from reduced processing speed. The current, first review of all existing literature on the subject discusses the key findings. Firstly, PS is a clinically observable feature that is most frequently established by neuropsychological measures assessing speed of fine movements such as writing or tasks that require rapid fingertip manipulations or the maintenance of maximal speed over brief periods of time in manual activities. Moreover, the slowed performance on the various psychomotor measures has been demonstrated independent of medication and has also been found to be associated with negative symptoms and, to a lesser extent, with positive and depressive symptoms. Importantly, performance on the psychomotor tasks proved related to the patients' social, clinical, and functional outcomes. Several imaging studies showed slowed performance to coincide with dopaminergic striatal activity. Finally, conventional neuroleptics do not improve the patients' PS symptoms, in contrast to the atypical agents that do seem to produce modestly improving effects. PMID:17093141

  14. Effects of whole body vibration on spinal proprioception in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Y; Chow, D H K

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with high reoccurrence rate. While most LBP cases are classified as non-specific, patients in general often present impaired proprioception. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been proven to improve muscle function and proprioception in the lumbo-pelvic region. The aim of this study was to determine whether WBV would affect spinal proprioception. Eleven young normal individuals were recruited. Their body alignment, lumbar repositioning error and lumbo-pelvic coordination during dynamic motion were assessed before and after 5 minutes WBV (18 Hz, 6 mm amplitude). Assessments were conducted before, immediately after, 30 minutes after and 1 hour after WBV. Subjects were found to have improved lumbo-pelvic coordination and flexibility without any adverse effect on the neuromuscular system after WBV. However, WBV had no significant immediate effect on lumbar repositioning ability and body alignment. Future studies of the effects of different WBV protocols on LBP patients are recommended.

  15. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop.

  16. Posing for awareness: proprioception modulates access to visual consciousness in a continuous flash suppression task.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Roy; Lim, Melanie; Herbelin, Bruno; Hesselmann, Guido; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-06-03

    The rules governing the selection of which sensory information reaches consciousness are yet unknown. Of our senses, vision is often considered to be the dominant sense, and the effects of bodily senses, such as proprioception, on visual consciousness are frequently overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that the position of the body influences visual consciousness. We induced perceptual suppression by using continuous flash suppression. Participants had to judge the orientation a target stimulus embedded in a task-irrelevant picture of a hand. The picture of the hand could either be congruent or incongruent with the participants' actual hand position. When the viewed and the real hand positions were congruent, perceptual suppression was broken more rapidly than during incongruent trials. Our findings provide the first evidence of a proprioceptive bias in visual consciousness, suggesting that proprioception not only influences the perception of one's own body and self-consciousness, but also visual consciousness.

  17. Deficits in the ability to use proprioceptive feedback in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Hurvitz, Edward A; Brown, Susan H

    2009-09-01

    Compared with motor impairment in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP), less attention has been paid to sensory feedback processing deficits. This includes, especially, proprioceptive information regarding arm position. This study examined the ability of children with hemiplegic CP to use proprioceptive feedback during a goal-directed target-matching task. Eight children with hemiplegic CP and eight typically developing children performed proprioceptively guided matching of elbow position with either arm. Between groups, it was found that matching errors were significantly greater for the affected arm of children with hemiplegic CP. With respect to the side of brain injury, deficits were only seen for children with right hemisphere damage. These results provide valuable information that may assist in the development of more effective sensorimotor rehabilitation and training paradigms.

  18. Manually controlled human balancing using visual, vestibular and proprioceptive senses involves a common, low frequency neural process

    PubMed Central

    Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Ten subjects balanced their own body or a mechanically equivalent unstable inverted pendulum by hand, through a compliant spring linkage. Their balancing process was always characterized by repeated small reciprocating hand movements. These bias adjustments were an observable sign of intermittent alterations in neural output. On average, the adjustments occurred at intervals of ∼400 ms. To generate appropriate stabilizing bias adjustments, sensory information about body or load movement is needed. Subjects used visual, vestibular or proprioceptive sensation alone and in combination to perform the tasks. We first ask, is the time between adjustments (bias duration) sensory specific? Vision is associated with slow responses. Other senses involved with balance are known to be faster. Our second question is; does bias duration depend on sensory abundance? An appropriate bias adjustment cannot occur until unplanned motion is unambiguously perceived (a sensory threshold). The addition of more sensory data should therefore expedite action, decreasing the mean bias adjustment duration. Statistical analysis showed that (1) the mean bias adjustment duration was remarkably independent of the sensory modality and (2) the addition of one or two sensory modalities made a small, but significant, decrease in the mean bias adjustment duration. Thus, a threshold effect can alter only a very minor part of the bias duration. The bias adjustment duration in manual balancing must reflect something more than visual sensation and perceptual thresholds; our suggestion is that it is a common central motor planning process. We predict that similar processes may be identified in the control of standing. PMID:16959857

  19. Effects of nine holes of simulated golf and orthotic intervention on balance and proprioception in experienced golfers.

    PubMed

    Stude, D E; Brink, D K

    1997-01-01

    To investigate effects of orthotic intervention on balance and proprioception among a group of experienced golfers. Northwestern College of Chiropractic. Twelve experienced golfers were included in the study. Balance and proprioception were measured before and after nine holes of simulated golf using piezo-electric film sensor platforms. Subjects wore custom-made, flexible orthotics daily for 6 wk and were then retested using the same objective measurement parameters. Primary outcome measures included stabilization index and stabilization time. Statistical trends suggest that the custom-made, flexible orthotics used in this study were effective in enhancing balance and proprioception and may have reduced the relative effects of fatigue associated with nine holes of simulated golf. Although individual differences were anticipated, data trends suggest that nine holes of simulated golf promotes changes in standing balance and proprioception and that 6 wk of wearing these custom-made, flexible orthotics has a positive influence in promoting balance and proprioceptive symmetry.

  20. Does Knee Osteoarthritis Differentially Modulate Proprioceptive Acuity in the Frontal and Sagittal Planes of the Knee?

    PubMed Central

    Cammarata, Martha L; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Dhaher, Yasin Y

    2012-01-01

    Objective Impaired proprioception may alter joint loading and contribute to the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Though frontal plane loading at the knee contributes to OA, proprioception and its modulation with OA in this direction have not been examined. The aim of this study was to assess knee proprioceptive acuity in the frontal and sagittal planes in knee OA and healthy participants. We hypothesized that proprioceptive acuity will be decreased in the OA population in both planes of movement. Methods Thirteen persons with knee OA and fourteen healthy age-matched subjects participated. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed in varus, valgus, flexion, and extension using the threshold to detection of passive movement (TDPM). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in TDPM between subject groups and across movement directions. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation of TDPM between and within planes of movement. Results TDPM was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05), in the knee OA group compared to the control group for all directions tested, indicating reduced proprioceptive acuity. Differences in TDPM between groups were consistent across all movement directions, with mean difference (95% CI) for valgus: 0.94° (0.20°, 1.65°), varus: 0.92° (0.18°, 1.68°), extension: 0.93° (0.19°, 1.66°), and flexion: 1.11° (0.38°, 1.85°). TDPM measures across planes of movement were only weakly correlated, especially in the OA group. Conclusions Consistent differences in TDPM between the OA and control groups across all movement directions suggest a global, not direction-specific, reduction in sensation in knee OA patients. PMID:21547895

  1. Response to Tendon Vibration Questions the Underlying Rationale of Proprioceptive Training.

    PubMed

    Lubetzky, Anat Vilnai; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Price, Robert; Kartin, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Proprioceptive training on compliant surfaces is used to rehabilitate and prevent ankle sprains. The ability to improve proprioceptive function via such training has been questioned. Achilles tendon vibration is used in motor-control research as a form of proprioceptive stimulus. Using measures of postural steadiness with nonlinear measures to elucidate control mechanisms, tendon vibration can be applied to investigate the underlying rationale of proprioceptive training. To test whether the effect of vibration on young adults' postural control depended on the support surface. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Thirty healthy adults and 10 adults with chronic ankle instability (CAI; age range = 18-40 years). With eyes open, participants stood in bilateral stance on a rigid plate (floor), memory foam, and a Both Sides Up (BOSU) ball covering a force platform. We applied bilateral Achilles tendon vibration for the middle 20 seconds in a series of 60-second trials and analyzed participants' responses from previbration to vibration (pre-vib) and from vibration to postvibration (vib-post). We calculated anterior-posterior excursion of the center of pressure and complexity index derived from the area under multiscale entropy curves. The excursion response to vibration differed by surface, as indicated by a significant interaction of P < .001 for the healthy group at both time points and for the CAI group vib-post. Although both groups demonstrated increased excursion from pre-vib and from vib-post, a decrease was observed on the BOSU. The complexity response to vibration differed by surface for the healthy group (pre-vib, P < .001). The pattern for the CAI group was similar but not significant. Complexity changes vib-post were the same on all surfaces for both groups. Participants reacted less to ankle vibration when standing on the BOSU as compared with the floor, suggesting that proprioceptive training may not be occurring. Different balance

  2. Evidence of Impaired Proprioception in Chronic, Idiopathic Neck Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Hayley B.; Chalmers, K. Jane; Moseley, G. Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite common use of proprioceptive retraining interventions in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain, evidence that proprioceptive dysfunction exists in this population is lacking. Determining whether proprioceptive dysfunction exists in people with chronic neck pain has clear implications for treatment prescription. Purpose The aim of this study was to synthesize and critically appraise all evidence evaluating proprioceptive dysfunction in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain by completing a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched. Study Selection All published studies that compared neck proprioception (joint position sense) between a chronic, idiopathic neck pain sample and asymptomatic controls were included. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers extracted relevant population and proprioception data and assessed methodological quality using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Data Synthesis Thirteen studies were included in the present review. Meta-analysis on 10 studies demonstrated that people with chronic neck pain perform significantly worse on head-to-neutral repositioning tests, with a moderate standardized mean difference of 0.44 (95% confidence interval=0.25, 0.63). Two studies evaluated head repositioning using trunk movement (no active head movement thus hypothesized to remove vestibular input) and showed conflicting results. Three studies evaluated complex or postural repositioning tests; postural repositioning was no different between groups, and complex movement tests were impaired only in participants with chronic neck pain if error was continuously evaluated throughout the movement. Limitations A paucity of studies evaluating complex or postural repositioning

  3. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, D.; Maier, A. B.; Schouten, A. C.; van der Kooij, H.; Meskers, C. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and specific diseases. Ten healthy young subjects (aged between 20 and 30 yr) and 44 elderly subjects (aged above 65 yr) encompassing 10 healthy elderly, 10 with cataract, 10 with polyneuropathy, and 14 with impaired balance, participated in the study. During stance, proprioceptive information of the ankles was disturbed by rotation of the support surface with specific frequency content where disturbance amplitude increased over trials. Body sway and reactive ankle torque were measured to determine sensitivity functions of these responses to the disturbance amplitude. Model fits resulted in a proprioceptive weight (changing over trials), time delay, force feedback, reflexive stiffness, and damping. The proprioceptive weight was higher in healthy elderly compared with young subjects and higher in elderly subjects with cataract and with impaired balance compared with healthy elderly subjects. Proprioceptive weight decreased with increasing disturbance amplitude; decrease was similar in all groups. In all groups, the time delay was higher and the reflexive stiffness was lower compared with young or healthy elderly subjects. In conclusion, proprioceptive information is weighted more with age and in patients with cataract and impaired balance. With age and specific diseases the time delay was higher and reflexive stiffness was lower. These results illustrate the opportunity to detect the underlying cause of impaired balance in the elderly with system identification. PMID:26424578

  4. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease.

    PubMed

    Pasma, J H; Engelhart, D; Maier, A B; Schouten, A C; van der Kooij, H; Meskers, C G M

    2015-12-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and specific diseases. Ten healthy young subjects (aged between 20 and 30 yr) and 44 elderly subjects (aged above 65 yr) encompassing 10 healthy elderly, 10 with cataract, 10 with polyneuropathy, and 14 with impaired balance, participated in the study. During stance, proprioceptive information of the ankles was disturbed by rotation of the support surface with specific frequency content where disturbance amplitude increased over trials. Body sway and reactive ankle torque were measured to determine sensitivity functions of these responses to the disturbance amplitude. Model fits resulted in a proprioceptive weight (changing over trials), time delay, force feedback, reflexive stiffness, and damping. The proprioceptive weight was higher in healthy elderly compared with young subjects and higher in elderly subjects with cataract and with impaired balance compared with healthy elderly subjects. Proprioceptive weight decreased with increasing disturbance amplitude; decrease was similar in all groups. In all groups, the time delay was higher and the reflexive stiffness was lower compared with young or healthy elderly subjects. In conclusion, proprioceptive information is weighted more with age and in patients with cataract and impaired balance. With age and specific diseases the time delay was higher and reflexive stiffness was lower. These results illustrate the opportunity to detect the underlying cause of impaired balance in the elderly with system identification. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The role of internal forward models and proprioception in hand position estimation.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Fatemeh; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad-Ali; Darainy, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Our ability to properly move and react in different situations is largely dependent on our perception of our limbs' position. At least three sources - vision, proprioception, and internal forward models (FMs) - seem to contribute to this perception. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of each source has not been studied individually. Specifically, role of FM has been ignored in some previous studies. We hypothesized that FM has a critical role in subjects' perception which needs to be considered in the relevant studies to obtain more reliable results. Therefore, we designed an experiment with the goal of investigating FM and proprioception role in subjects' perception of their hand's position. Three groups of subjects were recruited in the study. Based on the experiment design, it was supposed that subjects in different groups relied on proprioception, FM, and both of them for estimating their unseen hand's position. Comparing the results of three groups revealed significant difference between their estimation' errors. FM provided minimum estimation error, while proprioception had a bias error in the tested region. Integrating proprioception with FM decreased this error. Integration of two Gaussian functions, fitted to the error distribution of FM and proprioception groups, was simulated and created a mean error value almost similar to the experimental observation. These results suggest that FM role needs to be considered when studying the perceived position of the limbs. This can lead to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying the perception of our limbs' position which might have potential clinical and rehabilitation applications, e.g., in the postural control of elderly which are at high risk of falls and injury because of deterioration of their perception with age.

  6. Effects on posture by different neuromuscular afferent stimulations and proprioceptive insoles: Rasterstereographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dankerl, Peter; Keller, Andrea Kerstin; Häberle, Lothar; Stumptner, Thomas; Pfaff, Gregor; Uder, Michael; Forst, Raimund

    2016-06-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulating insoles are increasingly applied in treating functional complaints, chronic pain, foot disorders and so on. To evaluate rasterstereography as a tool in objectifying postural changes resulting from neuromuscular afferent stimulation and proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulating insoles and to compare the respective effects on posture. This is a prospective experimental study. A total of 27 healthy volunteers were consecutively exposed to six different varying intense neuromuscular afferent stimulating test conditions at three different times. One test condition featured proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulating insoles. In each test condition, a sequence of 12 rasterstereographic recordings of back shape was documented. Changes between six different test conditions and over time for 14 posture characterising parameters were investigated, for example, trunk inclination, pelvic torsion, lateral deviation of the spine's amplitude or sagittal spinal curve. Standard deviation of our rasterstereographic measurements (±2.67 mm) was better than in most comparable reference values. Different neuromuscular stimuli were found to provoke significant changes to various posture parameters, including trunk inclination, pelvic torsion and so on ( each p < 0.001, F-tests). Proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulating insoles induced significant changes for parameter lateral deviation of the spine's amplitude (p = 0.03). Neuromuscular afferent stimulation and proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulating insoles induce postural changes, which can be detected reliably by rasterstereography. We demonstrated that rasterstereography - a radiation-free imaging modality - enables visualisation and documentation of subtle postural changes induced by varying intense neuromuscular afferent stimulation and the application of proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulating insoles. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Restoring Proprioception via a Cortical Prosthesis: A Novel Learning-Based Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0510 TITLE: Restoring Proprioception via a Cortical Prosthesis: A Novel Learning -Based Approach PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Proprioception via a Cortical Prosthesis: A Novel Learning -Based Approach 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Philip Sabes, PhD 5d...known in advance, we are focusing on the brain’s ability to learn to interpret new signals. In previous work, we showed that the brain can learn to

  8. Feeling pain in the rubber hand: integration of visual, proprioceptive, and painful stimuli.

    PubMed

    Capelari, Edla D P; Uribe, Carlos; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim P

    2009-01-01

    The visual capture phenomenon has recently been explored, especially in the context of the rubber-hand illusion (RHI)--an illusion in which tactile sensations are referred to an illusory limb. We have induced the RHI with the difference that tactile-painful stimuli were added in order to verify the interaction between vision, touch, proprioception, and pain. Thirty volunteers were used. We found that tactile-painful stimuli could cause the same illusion as purely tactile stimuli. This result suggests that localisation of pain may also be distorted by spurious visual cues. The implications of this finding for distorted human proprioception (as in amputees with phantom pain or limbs) are discussed.

  9. Knee Proprioception and Strength and Landing Kinematics During a Single-Leg Stop-Jump Task

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; House, Anthony J; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Context The importance of the sensorimotor system in maintaining a stable knee joint has been recognized. As individual entities, knee-joint proprioception, landing kinematics, and knee muscles play important roles in functional joint stability. Preventing knee injuries during dynamic tasks requires accurate proprioceptive information and adequate muscular strength. Few investigators have evaluated the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Objective To examine the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Fifty physically active men (age = 26.4 ± 5.8 years, height = 176.5 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 79.8 ± 16.6 kg). Intervention(s) Three tests were performed. Knee conscious proprioception was evaluated via threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM). Knee strength was evaluated with a dynamometer. A 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis of a single-legged stop-jump task was used to calculate initial contact (IC) knee-flexion angle and knee-flexion excursion. Main Outcome Measure(s) The TTDPM toward knee flexion and extension, peak knee flexion and extension torque, and IC knee-flexion angle and knee flexion excursion. Linear correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships of both proprioception and strength against landing kinematics. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Enhanced TTDPM and greater knee strength were positively correlated with greater IC knee-flexion angle (r range = 0.281–0.479, P range = .001–.048). The regression analysis revealed that 27.4% of the variance in IC knee-flexion angle could be accounted for by knee-flexion peak torque and TTDPM toward flexion (P = .001). Conclusions The current research highlighted the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Individuals with enhanced

  10. Proprioceptive Training and Injury Prevention in a Professional Men's Basketball Team: A Six-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Riva, Dario; Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004-2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006-2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008-2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p < 0.001). Low back pain showed similar results with a reduction of 77.8% (p < 0.005). The reduction in knee sprains was 64.5% (not significant). Comparing the third biennium with the level of all new entry players, proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that improvements in proprioceptive control in single stance may be a key factor for an effective reduction in ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain.

  11. Visualization Method for Proprioceptive Drift on a 2D Plane Using Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tota; Kume, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takako

    2016-10-27

    Proprioceptive drift, which is a perceptual shift in body-part position from the unseen real body to a visible body-like image, has been measured as the behavioral correlate for the sense of ownership. Previously, the estimation of proprioceptive drift was limited to one spatial dimension, such as height, width, or depth. As the hand can move freely in 3D, measuring proprioceptive drift in only one dimension is not sufficient for the estimation of the drift in real life situations. In this article, we provide a novel method to estimate proprioceptive drift on a 2D plane using the mirror illusion by combining an objective behavioral measurement (hand position tracking) and subjective, phenomenological assessment (subjective assessment of hand position and questionnaire) with a sophisticated machine learning approach. This technique permits not only an investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the sense of ownership and agency but also assists in the rehabilitation of a missing or paralyzed limb and in the design rules of real-time control systems with a self-body-like usability, in which the operator controls the system as if it were part of his/her own body.

  12. Proprioception and Clinical Results of Anterolateral Single-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Remnant Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dung Chul; Kwack, Byung Hoon; Lee, Sung Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical and radiological results and proprioception following anterolateral single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with an isolated PCL injury (16 males and 4 females) were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 61 months (≥24 months) and the mean age of the patients was 36 years. Knee joint instability was evaluated using posterior drawer stress radiography. Knee function, level of activities, and individual satisfaction were assessed using the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity score, and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Knee proprioception was assessed using an isokinetic machine. Results The mean ligament laxity assessed using the posterior drawer stress radiography was improved from 10.8-3.2 mm. The mean Lysholm knee score was improved from 70.0-88.9 points, and the mean Tegner activity score was improved from 2.7-6.2 points. Individual satisfaction assessed using the IKDC score was improved from 62.7-85.4 points (p<0.05). Knee proprioception was not significantly different between the treated and the uninjured knees. Conclusions Single-bundle PCL reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury exhibited satisfactory outcomes regarding functional outcome, joint stability, and proprioception. PMID:24032101

  13. Intra- and intermodal integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Stefan; Sutter, Christine; Müsseler, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects puts high demands on the human information processing system. The present study aimed to examine the integration mechanisms for the motor (Exp. 1) and visual modality (Exp. 2). According to theories of common coding, we assumed that visual as well as proprioceptive information is represented within the same cognitive domain and is therefore likely to affect each other (multisensory cross talk). Thus, apart from the often-confirmed visual dominance in multisensory integration, we asked about intra- and intermodal recall of either proprioceptive or visual information and whether there were any differences between the motor and visual modality. In a replication paradigm, we perturbed the relation between hand movements and cursor movements. The task required the (intra- vs. intermodal) replication of an initially performed (seen) hand (cursor) movement in a subsequent motor (visual) replication phase. First, mechanisms of integration were found to be dependent on the output modality. Visual action effects interfered the motor modality, but proprioceptive action effects did not have any effects on the visual modality. Second, however, intermodal integration was more susceptible to interference, and this was found to be independent from the output modality. Third, for the motor modality, the locus of perturbation (perturbation of cursor amplitude or perturbation of hand amplitude) was irrelevant, but for the visual modality, perturbation of hand amplitudes reduced the cross talk. Tool use is one field of application of these kinds of results, since the optimized integration of conflicting action effects is a precondition for using tools successfully.

  14. Different Effects of Numerical Magnitude on Visual and Proprioceptive Reference Frames

    PubMed Central

    Blini, Elvio; Cattaneo, Zaira; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether numerical magnitude affects the setting of basic spatial coordinates and reference frames, namely the subjective straight ahead. Three tasks were given to 24 right-handed healthy participants: a proprioceptive and a visuo-proprioceptive task, requiring pointing to the subjective straight ahead, and a visual task, requiring a perceptual judgment about the straight ahead position of a light moving left-to-right, or right-to-left. A control task, requiring the bisection of rods of different lengths, was also given. The four tasks were performed under conditions of passive auditory numerical (i.e., listening to small, “2,” and large, “8,” numbers), and neutral auditory-verbal (“blah”) stimulation. Numerical magnitude modulated the participants’ deviations in the visual straight ahead task, when the movement of the light was from left-to-right, with the small number bringing about a leftward deviation, the large number a rightward deviation. A similar directional modulation was found in the rod bisection task, in line with previous evidence. No effects of numerical magnitude were found on the proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive straight ahead tasks. These results suggest that the spatial effects induced by the activation of the mental number line extend to an egocentric frame of reference but only when a portion of horizontal space has to be “actively” explored. PMID:23616777

  15. Infant Reactivity to Redundant Proprioceptive and Auditory Stimulation: A Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Daele, Leland D.

    The role of genetic factors in infant response to redundancy was evaluated through observation of the behavior of three sets of same-sex fraternal twins and six sets of same-sex identical twins to combinations of redundant proprioceptive and auditory stimulation. The twins ranged in age from 6 weeks to 24 weeks. One member of each twin set was…

  16. Time Course of Reach Adaptation and Proprioceptive Recalibration during Visuomotor Learning.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Jennifer E; Cressman, Erin K; 't Hart, Bernard Marius; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2016-01-01

    Training to reach with rotated visual feedback results in adaptation of hand movements, which persist when the perturbation is removed (reach aftereffects). Training also leads to changes in felt hand position, which we refer to as proprioceptive recalibration. The rate at which motor and proprioceptive changes develop throughout training is unknown. Here, we aim to determine the timescale of these changes in order to gain insight into the processes that may be involved in motor learning. Following six rotated reach training trials (30° rotation), at three radially located targets, we measured reach aftereffects and perceived hand position (proprioceptive guided reaches). Participants trained with opposing rotations one week apart to determine if the original training led to any retention or interference. Results suggest that both motor and proprioceptive recalibration occurred in as few as six rotated-cursor training trials (7.57° & 3.88° respectively), with no retention or interference present one week after training. Despite the rapid speed of both motor and sensory changes, these shifts do not saturate to the same degree. Thus, different processes may drive these changes and they may not constitute a single implicit process.

  17. Immediate effect of stretching and ultrasound on hamstring flexibility and proprioception.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This research explored the positive effects of self-myofascial release on hamstring muscular flexibility and proprioception and investigated the effectiveness of the stretch combined with therapeutic ultrasound. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 healthy university students with no history of pain in the Achilles tendon or hamstring within the recent 6 months. Each participant completed two experiments. In the first experiment (MS), they completed self-myofascial stretching using a foam roller for 7 days. In the second experiment (MSU), the same participants performed the self-myofascial stretching after the 15-minute application of ultrasound. This study involved a pre- and post-test on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. [Results] The use of self-myofascial stretching in the MS experiment had a significant effect on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. However, the addition of ultrasound in the MSU experiment had no additive effect. [Conclusion] Self-myofascial stretching immediately increased hamstring muscle flexibility and improved hip joint proprioception, but the addition of pre-stretch ultra sound provided no further benefit.

  18. The Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals Proprioceptive and Sensorimotor Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bryan; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by differences in unimodal and multimodal sensory and proprioceptive processing, with complex biases towards local over global processing. Many of these elements are implicated in versions of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which were therefore studied in high-functioning individuals with ASD and a…

  19. The mirror illusion: does proprioceptive drift go hand in hand with sense of agency?

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tota; Kume, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Vection can be regarded as the illusion of “whole-body” position perception. In contrast, the mirror illusion is that of “body-part” position perception. When participants viewed their left hands in a mirror positioned along the midsaggital axis while moving both hands synchronously, they hardly noticed the spatial offset between the hand in the mirror and the obscured real right hand. This illusion encompasses two phenomena: proprioceptive drift and sense of agency. Proprioceptive drift represented a perceptual change in the position of the obscured hand relative to that of the hand in the mirror. Sense of agency referred to the participants' subjective sense of controlling body image as they would their own bodies. We examined the spatial offset between these two phenomena. Participants responded to a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) question regarding the subjective position of their right hands and questionnaires regarding sense of agency at various positions of the right hand. We analyzed the 2AFC data using a support vector machine and compared its classification result and the questionnaire results. Our data analysis suggested that the two phenomena were observed in concentric space, but the estimated range of the proprioceptive drift was slightly narrower than the range of agency. Although this outcome can be attributed to differences in measurement or analysis, to our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that proprioceptive drift and sense of agency are concentric and almost overlap. PMID:25774145

  20. Upper Limb Asymmetries in the Perception of Proprioceptively Determined Dynamic Position Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Brown, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on…

  1. Perceptual distortion of intrapersonal and near-personal space sensed by proprioception.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi

    2002-04-01

    It is known that the illusory displacement of a vibrated limb can be transferred to a nonvibrated contacted limb. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the transferred illusory displacements occurring in the intrapersonal and near-personal space. In two tasks, 8 male and 8 female blindfolded subjects estimated (1) the height of the left elbow and (2) the height of an external object located at the same height as the left elbow, by the proprioception of the right arm which was Subject to illusory displacement. If the internal representation of the left elbow in one's body schema could provide precise information of its static position independently of the proprioception of the right arm, the perceived displacement of the right arm might be smaller when influenced by proprioceptive information from the static left arm, than when in contrast instead with an object which is not a body part. There was no difference in the estimation of illusory displacement between male and female subjects and between right and left arms. No significant difference was observed between transferred displacements of the left elbow and the object. This means that the perception of limb position sensed by the proprioception of another limb can be distorted as easily as the perception of location of an external object. This suggests that the internal representation of static limb position is not enough to provide the correct information of current limb position in the absence of vision.

  2. The mirror illusion: does proprioceptive drift go hand in hand with sense of agency?

    PubMed

    Tajima, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tota; Kume, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Vection can be regarded as the illusion of "whole-body" position perception. In contrast, the mirror illusion is that of "body-part" position perception. When participants viewed their left hands in a mirror positioned along the midsaggital axis while moving both hands synchronously, they hardly noticed the spatial offset between the hand in the mirror and the obscured real right hand. This illusion encompasses two phenomena: proprioceptive drift and sense of agency. Proprioceptive drift represented a perceptual change in the position of the obscured hand relative to that of the hand in the mirror. Sense of agency referred to the participants' subjective sense of controlling body image as they would their own bodies. We examined the spatial offset between these two phenomena. Participants responded to a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) question regarding the subjective position of their right hands and questionnaires regarding sense of agency at various positions of the right hand. We analyzed the 2AFC data using a support vector machine and compared its classification result and the questionnaire results. Our data analysis suggested that the two phenomena were observed in concentric space, but the estimated range of the proprioceptive drift was slightly narrower than the range of agency. Although this outcome can be attributed to differences in measurement or analysis, to our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that proprioceptive drift and sense of agency are concentric and almost overlap.

  3. Proprioception and clinical results of anterolateral single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with remnant preservation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dung Chul; Shon, Oog Jin; Kwack, Byung Hoon; Lee, Sung Jun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiological results and proprioception following anterolateral single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury. Twenty patients with an isolated PCL injury (16 males and 4 females) were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 61 months (≥24 months) and the mean age of the patients was 36 years. Knee joint instability was evaluated using posterior drawer stress radiography. Knee function, level of activities, and individual satisfaction were assessed using the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity score, and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Knee proprioception was assessed using an isokinetic machine. The mean ligament laxity assessed using the posterior drawer stress radiography was improved from 10.8-3.2 mm. The mean Lysholm knee score was improved from 70.0-88.9 points, and the mean Tegner activity score was improved from 2.7-6.2 points. Individual satisfaction assessed using the IKDC score was improved from 62.7-85.4 points (p<0.05). Knee proprioception was not significantly different between the treated and the uninjured knees. Single-bundle PCL reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury exhibited satisfactory outcomes regarding functional outcome, joint stability, and proprioception.

  4. Time Course of Reach Adaptation and Proprioceptive Recalibration during Visuomotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Jennifer E.; Cressman, Erin K.; ’t Hart, Bernard Marius; Henriques, Denise Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    Training to reach with rotated visual feedback results in adaptation of hand movements, which persist when the perturbation is removed (reach aftereffects). Training also leads to changes in felt hand position, which we refer to as proprioceptive recalibration. The rate at which motor and proprioceptive changes develop throughout training is unknown. Here, we aim to determine the timescale of these changes in order to gain insight into the processes that may be involved in motor learning. Following six rotated reach training trials (30° rotation), at three radially located targets, we measured reach aftereffects and perceived hand position (proprioceptive guided reaches). Participants trained with opposing rotations one week apart to determine if the original training led to any retention or interference. Results suggest that both motor and proprioceptive recalibration occurred in as few as six rotated-cursor training trials (7.57° & 3.88° respectively), with no retention or interference present one week after training. Despite the rapid speed of both motor and sensory changes, these shifts do not saturate to the same degree. Thus, different processes may drive these changes and they may not constitute a single implicit process. PMID:27732595

  5. Does kinesiology taping of the ankles affect proprioceptive control in professional football (soccer) players?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel; Firth, Paul

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the bilateral application of kinesiology tape (KT) to professional footballers' ankles can improve their lower limb proprioception. A single blind randomised crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a proprioception test in either a taped or not taped condition first. Following a wash out period, participants were then re-tested in the alternate condition. A UK Championship League Football Club, mid-season. Twenty male professional football players over the age of 18, currently match fit with no injuries. Proprioception was assessed by participants undertaking the moving target program on the balance module attached to a Kin-Com 125AP isokinetic dynamometer. A paired sample two tailed t-test was used to assess whether there was a significant difference between the participants test scores in the not taped and taped conditions. The bilateral application of KT to professional footballers' ankles did not bring about a significant change in participants' scores when tested with a fine movement and balance control test. Percentage accuracy score mean difference 4.2 (p = 0.285). The results of this study do not support the use of KT when applied to the ankles of healthy footballers as a method of improving proprioception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental changes in bodily self-consciousness are tuned to the frequency sensitivity of proprioceptive fibres.

    PubMed

    Palluel, Estelle; Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Lavanchy, Tom; Blanke, Olaf

    2012-04-18

    Several lines of evidence suggest an important implication of proprioceptive signals in bodily self-consciousness. By manipulating proprioceptive signals using muscle vibration, here, we investigated whether such effects depend on the vibration frequency by testing three different vibratory stimuli applied at the lower limbs (20, 40 and 80 Hz). We thus explored whether frequency-specific proprioceptive interference that has been reported in postural or motor tasks will also be found for measures of bodily self-consciousness. Self-identification (questionnaires) and visuotactile integration (asking participants to make tactile discriminations) were quantified during synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions that are known to manipulate bodily self-consciousness. We found that even though muscle vibrations were applied at the same body location in all cases, 20 Hz vibrations did not alter the magnitude of self-identification and visuotactile integration, whereas 40 and 80 Hz vibrations did. These frequency-specific effects extend earlier vibration effects on motor and postural tasks to bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that the observed changes in bodily self-consciousness are due to altered proprioceptive signals from the lower limbs and that these changes depend on the tuning of Ia fibres to muscle vibration.

  7. Differential Effects of Motor Efference Copies and Proprioceptive Information on Response Evaluation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian

    2013-01-01

    It is well-kown that sensory information influences the way we execute motor responses. However, less is known about if and how sensory and motor information are integrated in the subsequent process of response evaluation. We used a modified Simon Task to investigate how these streams of information are integrated in response evaluation processes, applying an in-depth neurophysiological analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs), time-frequency decomposition and sLORETA. The results show that response evaluation processes are differentially modulated by afferent proprioceptive information and efference copies. While the influence of proprioceptive information is mediated via oscillations in different frequency bands, efference copy based information about the motor execution is specifically mediated via oscillations in the theta frequency band. Stages of visual perception and attention were not modulated by the interaction of proprioception and motor efference copies. Brain areas modulated by the interactive effects of proprioceptive and efference copy based information included the middle frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area (SMA), suggesting that these areas integrate sensory information for the purpose of response evaluation. The results show how motor response evaluation processes are modulated by information about both the execution and the location of a response. PMID:23658624

  8. Upper Limb Asymmetries in the Perception of Proprioceptively Determined Dynamic Position Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Brown, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on…

  9. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  10. Do Ankle Orthoses Improve Ankle Proprioceptive Thresholds or Unipedal Balance in Older Persons with Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jaebum; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Richardson, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ankle orthoses that provide medial and lateral support, and have been found to decrease gait variability in older persons with peripheral neuropathy, decrease (improve) frontal plane ankle proprioceptive thresholds or increase unipedal stance time in that same population. Design Observational study in which unipedal stance time was determined with a stopwatch, and frontal plane ankle (inversion and eversion) proprioceptive thresholds were quantified during bipedal stance with and without the ankle orthoses, in 11 older diabetic subjects with peripheral neuropathy (8 men; age 72 ± 7.1 years) using a foot cradle system which presented a series of 100 rotational stimuli. Results The subjects demonstrated no change in combined frontal plane (inversion + eversion) proprioceptive thresholds or unipedal stance time with versus without the orthoses (1.06 ± 0.56 versus 1.13 ± 0.39 degrees, respectively; p = 0.955 and 6.1 ± 6.5 versus 6.2 ± 5.4 seconds, respectively; p = 0.922). Conclusion Ankle orthoses which provide medial-lateral support do not appear to change ankle inversion/eversion proprioceptive thresholds or unipedal stance time in older persons with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Previously identified improvements in gait variability using orthoses in this population are therefore likely related to an orthotically-induced stiffening of the ankle rather than a change in ankle afferent function. PMID:20407302

  11. The Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals Proprioceptive and Sensorimotor Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bryan; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by differences in unimodal and multimodal sensory and proprioceptive processing, with complex biases towards local over global processing. Many of these elements are implicated in versions of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which were therefore studied in high-functioning individuals with ASD and a…

  12. Influence of proprioceptive insoles on spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Noll, Christine; Steitz, Vanessa; Daentzer, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Proprioceptive insoles are known to influence the functions of posture and gait by modulations of the sensory structures at the sole of the foot. Literature has shown that they could improve the position of the upper-body in patients with postural complaints of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of proprioceptive insoles on the spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis. Eighteen patients were included in this prospective, single-centre, randomized study. All patients needed to have a relevant growth potential and suffered from a slight idiopathic scoliosis. Two groups were used, where group 1 performed physiotherapy twice a week, whereas group 2 was additionally supplied with proprioceptive insoles. Patients underwent three-dimensional rasterstereography for back-shape analysis. Furthermore, a conventional x-ray imaging of the spine was performed at the beginning and 1 year later to document the curvatures. There was no statistical difference in the Cobb angles, and in almost all parameters of the rasterstereography, there was no statistically significant change between and within both groups. According to the results of this study, there was no evidence of any statistical significant effect of proprioceptive insoles on spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis.

  13. Immediate effect of stretching and ultrasound on hamstring flexibility and proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This research explored the positive effects of self-myofascial release on hamstring muscular flexibility and proprioception and investigated the effectiveness of the stretch combined with therapeutic ultrasound. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 healthy university students with no history of pain in the Achilles tendon or hamstring within the recent 6 months. Each participant completed two experiments. In the first experiment (MS), they completed self-myofascial stretching using a foam roller for 7 days. In the second experiment (MSU), the same participants performed the self-myofascial stretching after the 15-minute application of ultrasound. This study involved a pre- and post-test on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. [Results] The use of self-myofascial stretching in the MS experiment had a significant effect on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. However, the addition of ultrasound in the MSU experiment had no additive effect. [Conclusion] Self-myofascial stretching immediately increased hamstring muscle flexibility and improved hip joint proprioception, but the addition of pre-stretch ultra sound provided no further benefit. PMID:27390420

  14. Comparison of Trunk Proprioception Between Patients With Low Back Pain and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Angela S.; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N. Peter; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.; Mysliwiec, Lawrence W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if proprioceptive impairments exist in patients with low back pain (LBP). We hypothesized that patients with LBP would exhibit larger trunk proprioception errors than healthy controls. Design Case-control study. Setting University laboratory. Participants 24 patients with non-specific LBP and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures We measured trunk proprioception in all 3 anatomical planes using motion perception threshold, active repositioning, and passive repositioning tests. Results LBP patients had significantly greater motion perception threshold than controls (P<0.001)(1.3±0.9 vs. 0.8±0.6 degrees). Furthermore, all subjects had the largest motion perception threshold in the transverse plane (P<0.001) (1.2±0.7 vs. 1.0±0.8 degrees for all other planes averaged). There was no significant difference between LBP and healthy control groups in the repositioning tasks. Errors in active repositioning test were significantly smaller than in passive repositioning test (P=0.032) (1.9±1.2 vs. 2.3±1.4 degrees). Conclusions These findings suggest that impairments in proprioception may be detected in patients with LBP when assessed with a motion perception threshold measure. PMID:20801248

  15. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Mourcou, Quentin; Fleury, Anthony; Diot, Bruno; Franco, Céline; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM). Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS). Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home.

  16. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Mourcou, Quentin; Fleury, Anthony; Diot, Bruno; Franco, Céline; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM). Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS). Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home. PMID:26583101

  17. Changes in proprioception and pain in patients with neck pain after upper thoracic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmo; Lee, Byoungkwon; Kim, Changbeom

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain and then investigate the changes of cervical proprioception and pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 workers with mechanical neck pain, who were randomly divided into an upper thoracic manipulation group and a cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation after cervical stability training was conducted for the upper thoracic manipulation group, and only stability training was conducted for the cervical stability training group. The intervention period was six weeks, and consisted of three sessions a week, each of which lasted for 30 minutes. For proprioception measurement, an electro-goniometer was used to measure reposition sense before and after the intervention. The visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. [Results] After the intervention, the error angle was significantly smaller in flexion and right left side-bending, and pain was significantly reduced in the upper thoracic manipulation group. According to the post intervention comparison of the two groups, there were significant differences in the proprioception and pain values. [Conclusion] Conducting both cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain was more helpful for the improvement of proprioception and pain than cervical stability training alone.

  18. Differential effects of motor efference copies and proprioceptive information on response evaluation processes.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian

    2013-01-01

    It is well-kown that sensory information influences the way we execute motor responses. However, less is known about if and how sensory and motor information are integrated in the subsequent process of response evaluation. We used a modified Simon Task to investigate how these streams of information are integrated in response evaluation processes, applying an in-depth neurophysiological analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs), time-frequency decomposition and sLORETA. The results show that response evaluation processes are differentially modulated by afferent proprioceptive information and efference copies. While the influence of proprioceptive information is mediated via oscillations in different frequency bands, efference copy based information about the motor execution is specifically mediated via oscillations in the theta frequency band. Stages of visual perception and attention were not modulated by the interaction of proprioception and motor efference copies. Brain areas modulated by the interactive effects of proprioceptive and efference copy based information included the middle frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area (SMA), suggesting that these areas integrate sensory information for the purpose of response evaluation. The results show how motor response evaluation processes are modulated by information about both the execution and the location of a response.

  19. Proprioceptive acuity predicts muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis in older adults' dynamic postural control.

    PubMed

    Craig, C E; Goble, D J; Doumas, M

    2016-05-13

    Older adults use a different muscle strategy to cope with postural instability, in which they 'co-contract' the muscles around the ankle joint. It has been suggested that this is a compensatory response to age-related proprioceptive decline however this view has never been assessed directly. The current study investigated the association between proprioceptive acuity and muscle co-contraction in older adults. We compared muscle activity, by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from the bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles, in young (aged 18-34) and older adults (aged 65-82) during postural assessment on a fixed and sway-referenced surface at age-equivalent levels of sway. We performed correlations between muscle activity and proprioceptive acuity, which was assessed using an active contralateral matching task. Despite successfully inducing similar levels of sway in the two age groups, older adults still showed higher muscle co-contraction. A stepwise regression analysis showed that proprioceptive acuity measured using variable error was the best predictor of muscle co-contraction in older adults. However, despite suggestions from previous research, proprioceptive error and muscle co-contraction were negatively correlated in older adults, suggesting that better proprioceptive acuity predicts more co-contraction. Overall, these results suggest that although muscle co-contraction may be an age-specific strategy used by older adults, it is not to compensate for age-related proprioceptive deficits.

  20. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p < 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9* +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.5%, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  1. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p < 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9* +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.5%, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  2. A pilot study of the effect of Kinesiology tape on knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Simona; Bottoni, Giuliamarta; Heinrich, Dieter; Kofler, Philipp; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Kinesiology tape has gained significant popularity in recent years and is widely used as an adjunct for treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries. However, evidence regarding its influence on knee proprioception is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kinesiology tape on knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy women. It was hypothesized that Kinesiology tape enhances knee proprioception. Longitudinal analysis, pretest-posttest design. Twelve young women with healthy knees were tested for knee proprioception without the use of Kinesiology tape and wearing Kinesiology tape at the knee. The joint position sense was measured at the start and after a 30-min uphill walking protocol on a treadmill. Outcome was the knee angle deviation. No significant difference of proprioceptive performance between the application with Kinesiology tape and without Kinesiology tape was found after uphill walking (p > 0.05). However, when the participants' results for knee angle deviation were graded into good (< 6.1°) and poor ( > 6.1°), Kinesiology tape significantly enhanced those with poor proprioceptive ability after uphill walking, compared to the untaped knee (p = 0.002). This study has shown that the application of Kinesiology tape did not improve knee proprioception in a group of healthy young women. However, it also has demonstrated that Kinesiology tape provided significant proprioceptive enhancement at the knee joint after uphill walking in healthy women with poor proprioceptive ability. This may support its use in sports medicine for preventing knee injuries. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing ankle performance when taped: Effects of kinesiology and athletic taping on proprioception in full weight-bearing stance.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhi; Wang, Renwei; Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Anson, Judith

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and athletic taping (AT) on ankle proprioception when tested in functional, full weight-bearing stance. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-four healthy university students participated. Proprioception was measured using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). The three testing conditions: no-taping, KT, AT, and foot tested were randomly assigned. Perceived comfort, support and proprioceptive performance under two taping conditions were recorded. Proprioceptive discrimination scores with 95% CIs for no-taping, KT and AT were 0.81 (0.79-0.84), 0.81 (0.79-0.83), and 0.79 (0.77-0.81). Repeated measures ANOVA showed neither any significant difference associated with taping compared with no-taping (p=0.30), nor any difference between KT and AT (p=0.19). The group was then divided, according to their no-taping scores, into two sub-groups: with scores below the no-taping mean (n=13), and above the mean (n=11). ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p=0.008) indicating that above-average no-taping performers proprioception scores were worse when taped, whereas below-average performers improved. For both KT and AT, only ratings of perceived comfort when taped were significantly associated with actual proprioceptive performance (both r>0.44, p≤0.03). Other perception ratings (support and performance) were significantly inter-correlated (both r>0.42, p<0.04), but neither was significantly correlated with actual performance (both p>0.31). Taping of the foot and ankle may amplify sensory input in a way that enhances proprioception of poor performers but produces an input overload that impairs proprioception in those who originally performed well when no-taping. Screening of ankle proprioception may identify those who would benefit most from taping. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is There a Relationship Between Lumbar Proprioception and Low Back Pain? A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Matthew Hoyan; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Kiers, Henri; Ferreira, Paulo; Refshauge, Kathryn; van Dieën, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review the relationship between lumbar proprioception and low back pain (LBP). Four electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus) and reference lists of relevant articles were searched from inception to March-April 2014. Studies compared lumbar proprioception in patients with LBP with controls or prospectively evaluated the relationship between proprioception and LBP. Two reviewers independently screened articles and determined inclusion through consensus. Data extraction and methodologic quality assessment were independently performed using standardized checklists. Twenty-two studies (1203 participants) were included. Studies measured lumbar proprioception via active or passive joint repositioning sense (JRS) or threshold to detection of passive motion (TTDPM). Data from 17 studies were pooled for meta-analyses to compare patients with controls. Otherwise, descriptive syntheses were performed. Data were analyzed according to measurement method and LBP subgroup. Active JRS was worse in patients compared with controls when measured in sitting (standard mean difference, .97; 95% confidence interval [CI], .31-1.64). There were no differences between groups measured via active JRS in standing (standard mean difference, .41; 95% CI, -.07 to .89) or passive JRS in sitting (standard mean difference, .38; 95% CI, -.83 to 1.58). Patients in the O'Sullivan flexion impairment subgroup had worse proprioception than the total LBP cohort. The TTDPM was significantly worse in patients than controls. One prospective study found no link between lumbar proprioception and LBP. Patients with LBP have impaired lumbar proprioception compared with controls when measured actively in sitting positions (particularly those in the O'Sullivan flexion impairment subgroup) or via TTDPM. Clinicians should consider the relationship between sitting and proprioception in LBP and subgroup patients to guide management. Further studies focusing on subgroups, longitudinal

  5. Quantum gravity slows inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsamis, N.C. |; Woodard, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the quantum gravitational back-reaction on an initially inflating, homogeneous and isotropic universe whose topology is T{sup 3} {times} {Re}. Although there is no secular effect at one loop, an explicit calculation shows that two-loop processes act to slow the rate of expansion by an amount which becomes non-pertubatively large at late times. By exploiting Feynman`s tree theorem we show that all higher loops act in the same sense. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick tips for seasonal health, safety and fun Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of California and Flaghouse, Inc. 2002 Food Group GO Almost anytime foods SLOW Sometimes foods WHOA Once ...

  7. Leg muscle vibration modulates bodily self-consciousness: integration of proprioceptive, visual, and tactile signals.

    PubMed

    Palluel, Estelle; Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-05-01

    Behavioral studies have used visuo-tactile conflicts between a participant's body and a visually presented fake or virtual body to investigate the importance of bodily perception for self-consciousness (bodily self-consciousness). Illusory self-identification with a fake body and changes in tactile processing--modulation of visuo-tactile cross-modal congruency effects (CCEs)--were reported in previous findings. Although proprioceptive signals are deemed important for bodily self-consciousness, their contribution to the representation of the full body has not been studied. Here we investigated whether and how self-identification and tactile processing (CCE magnitude) could be modified by altering proprioceptive signals with 80-Hz vibrations at the legs. Participants made elevation judgments of tactile cues (while ignoring nearby lights) during synchronous and asynchronous stroking of a seen fake body. We found that proprioceptive signals during vibrations altered the magnitude of self-identification and mislocalization of touch (CCE) in a synchrony-dependent fashion: we observed an increase of self-identification and CCE magnitude during asynchronous stroking. In a second control experiment we studied whether proprioceptive signals per se, or those from the lower limbs in particular, were essential for these changes. We applied vibrations at the upper limbs (which provide no information about the position of the participant's body in space) and in this case observed no modulation of bodily self-consciousness or tactile perception. These data link proprioceptive signals from the legs that are conveyed through the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway to bodily self-consciousness. We discuss their integration with bodily signals from vision and touch for full-body representations.

  8. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F.; Jandl, Nico M.; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  9. The effect of exergaming on knee proprioception in older men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Hakim, Mohammad Nazrul; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Amri, Saidon Bin; Razeghi, Mohsen; Farazdaghi, Mohammadreza; Shakoor, Elham

    Proprioception is the ability to sense the body position, muscle sense, joint stability and posture. As balance decreases during the process of aging, knee proprioception has a critical role in body balance and daily activities. Exergaming has shown to be a potentially effective and more enjoyable form of exercise delivery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week Xbox Kinect exercise program on knee proprioception in healthy older adults. Thirty-two elderly men who were 65 years of age or older were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group (allocation ratio 1:1). The experimental group received an exergame intervention that included Xbox Kinect with games focusing on movements of the knee joint for 8 weeks (three times per week and 40min per sessions). A Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to measure knee joint position sense before and after the exercise program. After eight weeks of training, knee proprioception significantly improved in the intervention group for several knee joint angles: 30° (3.5±1.1), 45° (3.1±0.9), and 60° (3.0±0.6) compared to the control group 30° (5.2±0.8), 45° (5.2±0.8), and 60° (6.2±0.9) (dominant leg F1, 28=23.469, p=0.001. ƞ2=0.456; non-dominant leg F1, 28=23.076, p=0.001. ƞ2=0.452). The results from this study indicate that exergame intervention can enhance knee proprioception in elderly men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A balance and proprioception intervention programme to enhance combat performance in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Funk, Shany; Jacob, T; Ben-Dov, D; Yanovich, E; Tirosh, O; Steinberg, N

    2017-09-14

    Optimal functioning of the lower extremities under repeated movements on unstable surfaces is essential for military effectiveness. Intervention training to promote proprioceptive ability should be considered in order to limit the risk for musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a proprioceptive intervention programme on static and dynamic postural balance among Israel Defense Forces combat soldiers. Twenty-seven male soldiers, aged 18-20 years, from a physical fitness instructor's course, were randomly divided into two groups matched by age and army unit. The intervention group (INT) underwent 4 weeks of proprioceptive exercises for 10 min daily; the control group underwent 4 weeks of upper body stretching exercises for 10 min daily. All participants were tested pre and postintervention for both static and dynamic postural balance. Significant interaction (condition*pre-post-test*group) was found for static postural balance, indicating that for the INT group, in condition 3 (on an unstable surface-BOSU), the post-test result was significantly better compared with the pretest result (p<0.05). Following intervention, the INT group showed significant correlations between static postural stability in condition 2 (eyes closed) and the dynamic postural stability (length of time walked on the beam following fatigue) (r ranged from 0.647 to 0.822; p<0.05). The proprioceptive intervention programme for combat soldiers improved static postural balance on unstable surfaces, and improved the correlation between static postural balance in the eyes closed condition and dynamic postural balance following fatigue. Further longitudinal studies are needed to verify the relationship between proprioception programmes, additional weight bearing and the reduction of subsequent injuries in combat soldiers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  11. Ankle Injuries and Ankle Strength, Flexibility, and Proprioception in College Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Kristen A.; Berg, Kris; Latin, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine if ankle muscular strength, flexibility and proprioception can predict ankle injury in college basketball players and to compare ankle injury rates in female and male players. Design and Setting: In this prospective, correlational study, subjects were tested at the start of the competitive season for ankle joint muscle strength, flexibility, and proprioception. The first ankle injury for each subject was recorded on an injury report form, and the data were analyzed to determine if any of these preseason measurements predicted future injury. The setting was a competitive 9-week season for four women's and four men's college basketball teams. Subjects: A convenience sample of 31 female and 11 male college basketball players. Measurements: Subjects were tested for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, various measures of ankle proprioception, and isokinetic peak torque of ankle dorsiflexion-plantar flexion and eversion-inversion at 30°/sec and 180°/sec before the start of the conference basketball seasons. Data were analyzed using a series of multiple regression equations to determine the variance in ankle injury attributed to each variable. Results: Various measures of proprioception predicted left ankle injury in all subjects (p < .05), while ankle strength and flexibility measures failed to account for additional variance. There was no statistically significant difference in ankle injury rate between women and men. Conclusions: Ankle joint proprioceptive deficits can be used to predict ankle injury, but further research is needed to identify other sources of variance. In our study, ankle injury rate was similar in female and male college basketball players. PMID:16558453

  12. Elderly adults delay proprioceptive reweighting during the anticipation of collision avoidance when standing.

    PubMed

    Eikema, D J A; Hatzitaki, V; Konstantakos, V; Papaxanthis, C

    2013-03-27

    The ability to reweight visual and proprioceptive information is critical for maintaining postural stability in a dynamic environment. In this study, we examined whether visual anticipation of collision avoidance (AV) while standing could facilitate the down-weighting of altered proprioception in young and elderly adults. Twelve young (24.91±6.44years) and 12 elderly (74.8±6.42years) participants stood upright for 180s under two task conditions: (a) quiet stance (QS) and (b) standing while anticipating virtual objects to be avoided. In order to disrupt the accuracy of proprioceptive input participants were exposed to bilateral Achilles tendon vibration during the middle 60s of standing in both tasks. Visual field dependence was assessed using the Rod and Frame Test (RFT). Elderly demonstrated significantly higher visual field dependence compared to the young participants. Analysis of the normalized Root Mean Square (RMS) of the Center of Pressure velocity (dCoP) revealed that young participants immediately reduced the sway velocity variability induced by tendon vibration during the anticipation of collision AV compared to the QS task. In the elderly, however, the modulating influence of visual anticipation was delayed and became significant only in the last two time intervals of the vibration phase. These results suggest that volitionally shifting reliance on vision when anticipating a collision AV event facilitates the down-weighting of altered proprioception. Elderly adults seem to be unable to dynamically exploit visual anticipation in order to down weight the altered proprioception possibly as a result of their more permanent up-weighting of the visual modality. Sensory reweighting seems to be a more time consuming process in aging which may have important clinical implications for falling.

  13. Reliable and Rapid Robotic Assessment of Wrist Proprioception Using a Gauge Position Matching Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Rinderknecht, Mike D.; Popp, Werner L.; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of position sense are essential for the investigation of proprioception, as well as for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning for patients with somatosensory deficits. Despite the development and use of various paradigms and robotic tools, their clinimetric properties are often poorly evaluated and reported. A proper evaluation of the latter is essential to compare results between different studies and to identify the influence of possible confounds on outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of a rapid robotic assessment of wrist proprioception using a passive gauge position matching task. Thirty-two healthy subjects undertook six test-retests of proprioception of the right wrist on two different days. The constant error (CE) was 0.87°, the absolute error (AE) was 5.87°, the variable error (VE) was 4.59° and the total variability (E) was 6.83° in average for the angles presented in the range from 10° to 30°. The intraclass correlation analysis provided an excellent reliability for CE (0.75), good reliability for AE (0.68) and E (0.68), and fair reliability for VE (0.54). Tripling the assessment length had negligible effects on the reliabilities. Additional analysis revealed significant trends of larger overestimation (constant errors), as well as larger absolute and variable errors with increased flexion angles. No proprioceptive learning occurred, despite increased familiarity with the task, which was reflected in significantly decreased assessment duration by 30%. In conclusion, the proposed automated assessment can provide sensitive and reliable information on proprioceptive function of the wrist with an administration time of around 2.5 min, demonstrating the potential for its application in research or clinical settings. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of reporting the complete set of errors (CE, AE, VE, and E) in a matching experiment for the identification of

  14. Differential contributions of vision, touch and muscle proprioception to the coding of hand movements.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Caroline; Roll, Régine; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Kavounoudias, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration, this study examines the controversial issue of whether congruent inputs from three different sensory sources can enhance the perception of hand movement. Illusory sensations of clockwise rotations of the right hand were induced by either separately or simultaneously stimulating visual, tactile and muscle proprioceptive channels at various intensity levels. For this purpose, mechanical vibrations were applied to the pollicis longus muscle group in the subjects' wrists, and a textured disk was rotated under the palmar skin of the subjects' right hands while a background visual scene was projected onto the rotating disk. The elicited kinaesthetic illusions were copied by the subjects in real time and the EMG activity in the adductor and abductor wrist muscles was recorded. The results show that the velocity of the perceived movements and the amplitude of the corresponding motor responses were modulated by the nature and intensity of the stimulation. Combining two sensory modalities resulted in faster movement illusions, except for the case of visuo-tactile co-stimulation. When a third sensory input was added to the bimodal combinations, the perceptual responses increased only when a muscle proprioceptive stimulation was added to a visuo-tactile combination. Otherwise, trisensory stimulation did not override bimodal conditions that already included a muscle proprioceptive stimulation. We confirmed that vision or touch alone can encode the kinematic parameters of hand movement, as is known for muscle proprioception. When these three sensory modalities are available, they contribute unequally to kinaesthesia. In addition to muscle proprioception, the complementary kinaesthetic content of visual or tactile inputs may optimize the velocity estimation of an on-going movement, whereas the redundant kinaesthetic content of the visual and tactile inputs may rather enhance the latency of the perception.

  15. Relative contributions of spatial weighting, explicit knowledge and proprioception to hand localisation during positional ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Valeria; Gilpin, Helen R; Stanton, Tasha R; Dagsdóttir, Lilja K; Gallace, Alberto; Lorimer Moseley, G

    2017-02-01

    When vision and proprioception are rendered incongruent during a hand localisation task, vision is initially weighted more than proprioception in determining location, and proprioception gains more weighting over time. However, it is not known whether, under these incongruency conditions, particular areas of space are also weighted more heavily than others, nor whether explicit knowledge of the sensory incongruence (i.e. disconfirming the perceived location of the hand) modulates the effect. Here, we hypothesised that both non-informative inputs coming from one side of space and explicit knowledge of sensory incongruence would modulate perceived location of the limb. Specifically, we expected spatial weighting to shift hand localisation towards the weighted area of space, and we expected greater weighting of proprioceptive input once perceived location was demonstrated to be inaccurate. We manipulated spatial weighting using an established auditory cueing paradigm (Experiment 1, n = 18) and sensory incongruence using the 'disappearing hand trick' (Experiment 2, n = 9). Our first hypothesis was not supported-spatial weighting did not modulate hand localisation. Our second hypothesis was only partially supported-disconfirmation of hand position did lead to more accurate localisations, even if participants were still unaware of their hand position. This raised the possibility that rather than disconfirmation, a simple movement of the hand in view could update the sensory-motor system, by immediately increasing the weighting of proprioceptive input relative to visual input. This third hypothesis was then confirmed (Experiment 3, n = 9). These results suggest that hand localisation is robust in the face of differential weighting of space, but open to modulation in a modality-specific manner, when one sense (vision) is rendered inaccurate.

  16. The Validity and Reliability of Knee Proprioception Measurement Performed With Inclinometer in Different Positions.

    PubMed

    Suner-Keklik, Sinem; Cobanoglu-Seven, Gamze; Kafa, Nihan; Ugurlu, Mustafa; Guzel, Nevin Atalay

    2017-06-12

    Proprioception is the basic element of the spontaneous control of movement, balance and joint stability. Therefore, it is necessary for the execution of walking and daily and sport activities. Loss of proprioception of the knee, which may cause a new injury, is important to evaluate the position sense of the joint during the rehabilitation period. However, the evaluation methods that are used are very expensive, complicated and non-portable, or the measuring method is difficult to implement. We demonstrated the validity and reliability of knee proprioception measurements performed in the open kinetic chain position and closed kinetic chain position with a dual inclinometer. We assessed the validity and intra-tester reliability of a digital inclinometer for measuring the knee joint position sense in different positions. Clinical laboratory. We enrolled 22 participants (age = 21.8 ± 0.95 years, height = 172 ± 9.1 cm, weight = 64.9 ± 14 kg) into the study. The same investigator used an inclinometer to take knee proprioception measurements in open and closed kinetic chain positions. The relative angular error was calculated by taking the arithmetic average of the difference between the target angle and reproduced angle and was the main outcome measure. We found that the dynamometer-inclinometer had a moderate ICC value (ICC = 0.594, SEM = 1.60, p = 0.005), whereas inclinometer t1 vs inclinometer t2 (ICC = 0.778, SEM = 0.62, p < 0.001) and closed kinetic chain position t1 and closed kinetic chain position t2 (ICC = 0.888, SEM = 0.63, p < 0.001) had high ICC values. Knee proprioception measurements performed with a dual inclinometer were reliable in the closed kinetic chain position in healthy, sedentary individuals and were valid and reliable in the open kinetic chain position.

  17. Shoulder proprioception: How is it measured and is it reliable? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ager, Amanda L; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Roos, Marianne; Belley, Amélie Fournier; Cools, Ann; Hébert, Luc J

    Systematic review. Constituents of proprioception include our awareness of the position (joint position sense [JPS]) and motion (kinesthesia) of our limbs in space. Proprioceptive deficits are associated with musculoskeletal disorders but remain a challenge to quantify, particularly at the shoulder. To report the psychometric values of validity, reliability, and responsiveness for shoulder JPS and/or kinesthesia protocols. A review of 5 databases was conducted from inception to July 2016 for studies reporting a psychometric property of a shoulder proprioception protocol. The included studies were evaluated using the QualSyst checklist and COSMIN 4-point scale. Twenty-one studies were included, yielding 407 participants and 553 evaluated shoulders (n). The included studies support excellent methodological scores using the QualSyst checklist (88.1 ± 9.9%) and good psychometric scores with the COSMIN for reliability (71.1%) and moderate-to-low quality score (50%) for criterion validity. Weighted average intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intrarater reliability were highest for passive JPS and kinesthesia, ICC = 0.92 ± 0.07 (n = 214) and ICC = 0.92 ± 0.04 (n = 74), respectively. The most reliable movement and tool are internal rotation at 90° of abduction, ICC = 0.88 ± 0.01 (n = 53), and the dynamometer, ICC = 0.92 ± 0.88 (n = 225). Only 2 studies quantify an aspect of validity and no responsiveness indices were reported among the included studies. Based on the results of the included studies, the evaluation of shoulder proprioception is most reliable when using a passive protocol with an isokinetic dynamometer for internal rotation at 90° of shoulder abduction. Standardized protocols addressing the psychometric properties of shoulder proprioception measures are needed. Level 1a: systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Slow Transit Constipation.

    PubMed

    Wald, Arnold

    2002-08-01

    The diagnosis of slow transit functional constipation is based upon diagnostic testing of patients with idiopathic constipation who responded poorly to conservative measures such as fiber supplements, fluids, and stimulant laxatives. These tests include barium enema or colonoscopy, colonic transit of radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry, and expulsion of a water-filled balloon. Plain abdominal films can identify megacolon, which can be further characterized by barium or gastrografin studies. Colonic transit of radio-opaque markers identifies patients with slow transit with stasis of markers in the proximal colon. However, anorectal function should be characterized to exclude outlet dysfunction, which may coexist with colonic inertia. Because slow colonic transit is defined by studies during which patients consume a high-fiber diet, fiber supplements are generally not effective, nor are osmotic laxatives that consist of unabsorbed sugars. Stimulant laxatives are considered first-line therapy, although studies often show a diminished colonic motor response to such agents. There is no evidence to suggest that chronic use of such laxatives is harmful if they are used two to three times per week. Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes may be useful in a minority of patients, often combined with misoprostol. I prefer to start with misoprostol 200 mg every other morning and increase to tolerance or efficacy. I see no advantage in prescribing misoprostol on a TID or QID basis or even daily because it increases cramping unnecessarily. This drug is not acceptable in young women who wish to become pregnant. An alternative may be colchicine, which is reported to be effective when given as 0.6 mg TID. Long-term efficacy has not been studied. Finally, biofeedback is a risk-free approach that has been reported as effective in approximately 60% of patients with slow transit constipation in the absence of outlet dysfunction. Although difficult to understand

  19. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  20. Slowing of Vortex Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell; Bolster, Diogo; Hershberger, Robert

    2008-11-01

    We have investigated the slowing of vortex rings in water which are created with very thin cores. We find that these rings propagate with no measurable change in diameter or core size. The drag appears to be the result of viscous forces on the core. A simple model for this drag describes experimental data in terms of a drag coefficient, which depends only on Reynolds number. Barenghi's group at Newcastle found that the translational velocity of a ring in an inviscid fluid perturbed by Kelvin waves decreases with increasing amplitude of Kelvin waves. This suggests that the velocity of vortex rings in a viscous fluid may well depend on the amplitude of Kelvin waves at the time of formation. Rings with substantial amplitude of Kelvin waves will be expected to move more slowly than rings with little or no Kelvin wave amplitude. We present experimental data confirming this suggestion.

  1. Slow-walking inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Halter, Sebastian; Núñez, Carlos; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: s.halter@physik.uni-muenchen.de E-mail: gianmassimo.tasinato@port.ac.uk

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model of slow-roll inflation in string cosmology, based on warped throat supergravity solutions displaying 'walking' dynamics, i.e. the coupling constant of the dual gauge theory slowly varies over a range of energy scales. The features of the throat geometry are sourced by a rich field content, given by the dilaton and RR and NS fluxes. By considering the motion of a D3-brane probe in this geometry, we are able to analytically calculate the brane potential in a physically interesting regime. This potential has an inflection point: in its proximity we realize a model of inflation lasting sixty e-foldings, and whose robust predictions are in agreement with current observations. We are also able to interpret some of the most interesting aspects of this scenario in terms of the properties of the QFT dual theory.

  2. Slow change deafness.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, John G; Wayand, Joseph; Ndiaye, Mamoudou C; Berkow, Ann B; Bertacchi, Breanna R; Benton, Catherine A

    2015-05-01

    In four experiments, we demonstrated a new phenomenon called "slow-change deafness." In Experiment 1 we presented listeners with continuous speech that changed three semitones in pitch over time, and we found that nearly 50 % failed to notice the change. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated the finding, demonstrated that the changes in the stimuli were well above threshold, and showed that when listeners were alerted to the possibility of a change, detection rates improved dramatically. Experiment 4 showed that increasing the magnitude of the change that occurred in the stimulus decreased the rate of change deafness. Our results are consistent with previous work that had shown that cueing listeners to potential auditory changes can significantly reduce change deafness. These findings support an account of change deafness that is dependent on both the magnitude of a stimulus change and listener expectations.

  3. Effects of proprioceptive circuit exercise on knee joint pain and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck; Kim, Sang-Soo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study applied proprioceptive circuit exercise to patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and examined its effects on knee joint muscle function and the level of pain. [Subjects] In this study, 14 patients with knee osteoarthritis in two groups, a proprioceptive circuit exercise group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7), were examined. [Methods] IsoMed 2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany) was used to assess knee joint muscle function, and a Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain level. [Results] In the proprioceptive circuit exercise group, knee joint muscle function and pain levels improved significantly, whereas in the control group, no significant improvement was observed. [Conclusion] A proprioceptive circuit exercise may be an effective way to strengthen knee joint muscle function and reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  4. The effect of instability training on knee joint proprioception and core strength.

    PubMed

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Ak, Emre; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Korkusuz, Feza; Behm, David G

    2012-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating increased trunk activation under unstable conditions, it is not known whether this increased activation would translate into meaningful trunk strength with a prolonged training program. Additionally, while balance-training programs have been shown to improve stability, their effect on specific joint proprioception is not clear. Thus the objective of this study was to examine training adaptations associated with a 10-week instability-training program. Participants were tested pre- and post-training for trunk extension and flexion strength and knee proprioception. Forty-three participants participated in either a 10-week (3 days per week) instability-training program using Swiss balls and body weight as resistance or a control group (n = 17). The trained group increased (p < 0. 05) trunk extension peak torque/body weight (23.6%) and total work output (20.1%) from pre- to post-training while the control group decreased by 6.8% and 6.7% respectively. The exercise group increased their trunk flexion peak torque/body weight ratios by 18.1% while the control group decreased by 0.4%. Knee proprioception (combined right and left joint repositioning) improved 44.7% from pre- to post-training (p = 0.0006) and persisted (21.5%) for 9 months post-training. In addition there was a side interaction with the position sense of the right knee at 9 months showing 32.1% (p = 0.03) less deviation from the reference angle than the right knee during pre-testing. An instability-training program using Swiss balls with body weight as resistance can provide prolonged improvements in joint proprioception and core strength in previously untrained individuals performing this novel training stress which would contribute to general health. Key pointsAlthough traditional free weight resistance exercises have been recommended as most beneficial for improving strength and power in athletes (Behm et al., 2010b), an IT program using Swiss balls and body

  5. Knee-Joint Proprioception During 30-Day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily log proprioceptive training, would influence log proprioceptive tracking responses during Bed Rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a NO-Exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and IsoTanic Exercise (ITE, n = 7) and IsoKinetic Exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min period / d, 5 d /week. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a now isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pro-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p less than 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9 +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.50, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both lsotonic exercise training (without additional propriaceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  6. Knee-Joint Proprioception During 30-Day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily log proprioceptive training, would influence log proprioceptive tracking responses during Bed Rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a NO-Exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and IsoTanic Exercise (ITE, n = 7) and IsoKinetic Exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min period / d, 5 d /week. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a now isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pro-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p less than 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9 +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.50, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both lsotonic exercise training (without additional propriaceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  7. Pointing to oneself: active versus passive proprioception revisited and implications for internal models of motor system function.

    PubMed

    Capaday, Charles; Darling, Warren G; Stanek, Konrad; Van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2013-08-01

    We re-examined the issue of active versus passive proprioception to more fully characterize the accuracy afforded by proprioceptive information in natural, unconstrained, movements in 3-dimensions. Subjects made pointing movements with their non-dominant arm to various locations with eyes closed. They then proprioceptively localized the tip of its index finger with a prompt pointing movement of their dominant arm, thereby bringing the two indices in apposition. Subjects performed this task with remarkable accuracy. More remarkably, the same subjects were equally accurate at localizing the index finger when the arm was passively moved and maintained in its final position by an experimenter. Two subjects were also tested with eyes open, and they were no more accurate than with eyes closed. We also found that the magnitude of the error did not depend on movement duration, which is contrary to a key observation in support of the existence of an internal forward model-based state-reconstruction scheme. Three principal conclusions derive from this study. First, in unconstrained movements, proprioceptive information provides highly accurate estimates of limb position. Second, so-called active proprioception does not provide better estimates of limb position than passive proprioception. Lastly, in the active movement condition, an internal model-based estimation of limb position should, according to that hypothesis, have occurred throughout the movement. If so, it did not lead to a better estimate of final limb position, or lower variance of the estimate, casting doubt on the necessity to invoke this hypothetical construct.

  8. Where was my arm again? Memory-based matching of proprioceptive targets is enhanced by increased target presentation time.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Noble, Brittany C; Brown, Susan H

    2010-08-30

    Our sense of proprioception is vital for the successful performance of most activities of daily living, and memory-based joint position matching (JPM) tasks are often utilized to quantify such proprioceptive abilities. In the present study we sought to determine if matching a remembered proprioceptive target angle was influenced significantly by the length of time given to develop a neural representation of that position. Thirteen healthy adult subjects performed active matching of passively determined elbow joint angles (amplitude = 20 degrees or 40 degrees extension) in the absence of vision, with either a relatively "short" (3 s) or "long" (12 s) target presentation time. In the long condition, where subjects had a greater opportunity to develop an internal representation of the target elbow joint angle, matching movements had significantly smaller variable errors and were associated with smoother matching movement trajectories of a shorter overall duration. Taken together, these findings provide an important proprioceptive corollary for previous results obtained in studies of visually-guided reaching suggesting that increased exposure to target sensory stimuli can improve the accuracy of matching performance. Further, these results appear to be of particular importance with respect to the estimation of proprioceptive function in individuals with disability, who typically have increased noise in their proprioceptive systems.

  9. Effects of spinal manipulation on trunk proprioception in subjects with chronic low back pain during symptom remission.

    PubMed

    Learman, Kenneth E; Myers, Joseph B; Lephart, Scott M; Sell, Timothy C; Kerns, G Jay; Cook, Chad E

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on trunk proprioception in subjects with asymptomatic chronic low back pain (CLBP) and determine if those effects lasted 1 week. This unbalanced randomized controlled crossover design examined 33 subjects with CLBP. Proprioception was tested via joint position sense, threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM), direction of motion (DM), and force reproduction. Each subject received lumbar manipulation or a sham procedure followed by proprioception retest. This procedure was repeated 1 week later using the opposing treatment. Subjects receiving SMT in the second session returned a third time receiving the sham procedure again. Spinal manipulative therapy produced an effect for TTDPM in the manipulation first group (P = .008), the sham procedure produced an effect for joint position sense in the sham first group (P = .005). Spinal manipulative therapy had a 1-week effect for the manipulation first group (P = .006). No effect was noted for either DM or force reproduction. Results suggest SMT had minimal immediate effect on trunk proprioception. The effects noted occurred in session 1, implicating learning as a potential source. Learning, from repetitive proprioception training, may enhance neuromuscular control in subjects with CLBP before the use of therapeutic exercise. Subjects showed smaller deficits than previously reported for TTDPM or DM, suggesting proprioception deficits may correlate with pain level.

  10. Can ageing be slowed?

    PubMed Central

    Gaman, L; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2011-01-01

    Redox metabolism has long been considered to play important roles in aging and the development of age-related diseases. Both dietary and pharmacological manipulations of redox metabolism have been associated with the extension of lifespan. Increasing new evidence s also suggests that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged material. The accumulation of this molecular “garbage”, relatively indigestible, further hinders cellular functions, induces progressive failure of maintenance and repair and increases the probability of death. One important trend in anti–aging strategy is, therefore, to prevent or even revert the accumulation of these oxidatively altered molecules by stimulating the maintenance and repair systems through hormesis. A promising approach for slowing down ageing and achieving a healthy senescence is represented by repeated exposure to various mild stresses (caloric restriction, moderate exercise, nutritional or pharmacological hormetins). This article reviews the potential therapeutic tools available to date for increasing longevity and obtaining and successful ageing from the redox and hormetic perspective. PMID:22514565

  11. Slowing Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Currently our ocean's pH is 8.1, a decrease from 8.2 in the past 200 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The ocean absorbs about a third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, which is helpful to us, since reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere shows global warming. However, what is the impact of all that CO2 on the ocean? I evaluated the effect of acidic water on bivalves, and found that the shells were broken down with exposure to increased acidity. I am concerned that continued ocean acidification will impact organisms that are unable to adapt to the changing ocean chemistry. While the US currently invests in alternative forms of energy including solar and wind, approximately 66% of our energy comes from sources that are releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. I want to explore the potential of wave energy as another form of renewable energy. When wind blows over the surface of the ocean, it creates a wave. Could this wave energy be a consistent clean energy source? Could a strategy to slow and reverse ocean acidification be found in the ocean?

  12. Slow wave sleep dreaming.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, C; Cicogna, P; Natale, V; Occhionero, M; Zito, A

    1992-12-01

    Fifty volunteers slept two nonconsecutive nights in a sleep laboratory under electropolygraphic control. They were awakened for one report per night. Awakenings were made, in counterbalanced order, from slow wave sleep (SWS--stage 3-4 and stage 4) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following dream reporting, subjects were asked to identify memory sources of their dream imagery. Two independent judges reliably rated mentation reports for temporal units and for several content and structural dimensions. The same judges also categorized memory sources as autobiographical episodes, abstract self-references, or semantic knowledge. We found that REM reports were significantly longer than SWS reports. Minor content SWS-REM differences were also detected. Moreover, semantic knowledge was more frequently mentioned as a dream source for REM than for SWS dream reports. These findings are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that dreaming is a continuous process that is not unique to REM sleep. Different levels of engagement of the cognitive system are responsible for the few SWS-REM differences that have been detected.

  13. Slow frictional waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  14. Gravity slows light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The speed of light is measured as a constant number of metres per second. However, a meter is a measure of how far light travels in a second. That is, light always travels as far as it does in a second every second. This is a circular definition. When measured against other things, light speed must change. Gravity is usually described as a consequence of a curve in spacetime. The word ``space'' has two distinct meanings. In geometry, space is a continuous area. In relativity, ``space'' refers exclusively to geometric spaces measured with light. ``Time'' in a relativistic sense also refers exclusively to the passage of time as measured against light. So a curve in spacetime (a relativistic concept) is a gradual deviation in the thing we use to measure geometric spaces and the passage of time, i.e. the speed of light. I show how Newtonian gravity can explain observable phenomena if the speed of light is inversely proportional to the strength of the gravitational field. For example, we would also expect light to refract as it changes speed passing near massive bodies. Boundary conditions are also discussed, for example, very high gravity will slow light to a stop, making it impossible to measure anything against light, giving a gravitational singularity.

  15. CNT coated thread micro-electro-mechanical system for finger proprioception sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafi, A. A.; Wicaksono, D. H. B.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to fabricate cotton thread based sensor for proprioceptive application. Cotton threads are utilized as the structural component of flexible sensors. The thread is coated with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersion by using facile conventional dipping-drying method. The electrical characterization of the coated thread found that the resistance per meter of the coated thread decreased with increasing the number of dipping. The CNT coated thread sensor works based on piezoresistive theory in which the resistance of the coated thread changes when force is applied. This thread sensor is sewed on glove at the index finger between middle and proximal phalanx parts and the resistance change is measured upon grasping mechanism. The thread based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) enables the flexible sensor to easily fit perfectly on the finger joint and gives reliable response as proprioceptive sensing.

  16. Defensive activation during the rubber hand illusion: Ownership versus proprioceptive drift.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Martin; Bublatzky, Florian; Trojan, Jörg; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-07-01

    A strong link between body perception and emotional experience has been proposed. To examine the interaction between body perception and anticipatory anxiety, two well-established paradigms were combined: The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the threat-of-shock paradigm. An artificial hand and the participants' own hand (hidden from sight) were touched synchronously or asynchronously, while either threat-of-shock or safety was cued. Potentiated startle reflexes and enhanced skin conductance responses were observed during threat as compared to safety conditions, but threat conditions did not interact with illusory body perceptions. Thus, defense system activation was not modulated by altered body representations. Physiological responses increased with the sense of ownership for the artificial limb, but not with proprioceptive drift towards its location. The results indicate that ownership ratings and proprioceptive drift capture different aspects of the RHI. The study presents a new approach to investigate the relationship between body representations and emotional states.

  17. Upper limb asymmetries in the perception of proprioceptively determined dynamic position sense.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on instrumented manipulanda. In Part 1, subjects performed dynamic position matching of 3 target elbow amplitudes determined with the preferred or nonpreferred arm, and then matched during movement of the same or opposite elbow. In Part 2, a similar paradigm was used, but with varying target determination speeds to account for the so called "tau effect." Overall, it was found that errors were smaller when the matching phase involved the nonpreferred arm, especially for larger target amplitudes. This asymmetry was independent of the tau effect and likely reflects specialization of the right hemisphere/left arm for proprioceptive feedback processing that is either position- or dynamic position-related.

  18. A model of a flexible anguilliform swimmer driven by a central pattern generator with proprioceptive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, Christina; Tytell, Eric; Hoffman, Kathleen; Fauci, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The swimming of a simple vertebrate, the lamprey, can shed light on how a flexible body can couple with a fluid environment to swim rapidly and efficiently. Animals use proprioceptive sensory information to sense how their bodies are bending, and then adjust the neural signals to their muscles to improve performance. We will present recent progress in the development of a computational model of a lamprey swimming in a Navier-Stokes fluid where a simple central pattern generator model, based on phase oscillators, is coupled to the evolving body dynamics of the swimmer through curvature and curvature derivative feedback. Such feedback can be positive (frequency decreasing), negative (frequency increasing), or mixed (positive to one side of the body and negative to the other, or vice versa). We will examine how the emergent swimming behavior and cost of transport depends upon these functional forms of proprioceptive feedback chosen in the model.

  19. Agency elicits body-ownership: proprioceptive drift toward a synchronously acting external proxy.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2016-05-01

    Awareness of our own bodies (sense of body-ownership) and actions (sense of agency) is fundamental for self-consciousness. In the rubber hand illusion, watching a rubber hand being stroked synchronously as one's own unseen hand is also stroked causes the observer to attribute the rubber hand to their own body. The findings of the series of experiments reported here suggest that body-ownership, measured using proprioceptive drift, is elicited by the external acting proxy that drives the sense of agency. While participants clasped and unclasped their left hand for 60 s, they focused on video feedback on a monitor in front of them. Proprioceptive drift was observed only under the conditions, including synchronized conditions, where the sense of agency for the acting proxy occurred, suggesting an essential interaction between body-ownership and agency.

  20. Adaptation to visual and proprioceptive rearrangement - Origin of the differential effectiveness of active and passive movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure and compare the accuracy with which subjects pointed to visual targets before and after an exposure period in which they received systematic proprioceptive misinformation about the locations of visual targets. The crucial factor determining whether adaptation will be elicited is shown to be the presence of a discordance in the positional information being conveyed over two different sensory modalities. Another experiment was carried out to study the effectiveness of active and passive movements in eliciting adaptation when the subjects were exposed to a systematic discordance between the visual and proprioceptive locations of external targets without being permitted sight of their hands. Superiority of active over passive movements in producing adaptation to visual rearrangement is due to the greater accuracy of position sense information about voluntarily moved limbs, partly derived from the contribution of muscle afferent signals.

  1. How far do patients with sensory ataxia benefit from so-called "proprioceptive rehabilitation"?

    PubMed

    Missaoui, B; Thoumie, P

    2009-01-01

    A rehabilitation program including foot sensory stimulation, balance and gait training with limited vision was performed in 24 patients with clinically defined sensory ataxia. There were 15 patients with bilateral somatosensory loss related to chronic neuropathy and nine patients with unilateral loss-related to multiple sclerosis. After training, balance control assessed using the Berg Balance Test improved similarly in both groups, and Romberg's sign disappeared in some patients, suggesting an improvement in dynamic balance and in the proprioceptive contribution. Conversely, balance assessed on a static force platform remained similar in the open-eyes condition and improved in the closed-eyes condition only in patients with unilateral sensory loss. These results show that ataxic patients can improve their balance with better results in dynamic conditions and that the relative contribution of proprioceptive and visual inputs may depend on the extent of somatosensory loss.

  2. Proprioception after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. An objective indication of the need for surgery?

    PubMed

    Beard, D J; Kyberd, P J; Fergusson, C M; Dodd, C A

    1993-03-01

    Failure of conservative treatment is the usual indication for the reconstruction of a knee with deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and this depends on subjective judgement. The ability of muscles to protect the subluxing joint by reflex contraction could provide an objective measurement. We have studied 30 patients with unilateral ACL deficiency by measuring the latency of reflex hamstring contraction. We found that the mean latency in the injured leg was nearly twice that in the unaffected limb (99 ms and 53 ms respectively). There was a significant correlation between the differential latency and the frequency of 'giving way' indicating that functional instability may be due, in part, to loss of proprioception. Measures of proprioception, including reflex hamstring latency, may be useful in providing an objective assessment of the efficacy of conservative treatment and the need for surgery.

  3. Visual and Proprioceptive Adaptation of Arm Position in a Virtual Environment.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the resolution of a discrepancy between visual and proprioceptive estimates of arm position in 10 participants. The participants fixed their right shoulder at 0°, 30°, or 60° of transverse adduction while they viewed a video on a head-mounted display that showed their right arm extended in front of the trunk for 30 min. The perceived arm position more closely approached the seen arm position on the display as the difference between the actual and visually displayed arm positions increased. In the extreme case of a 90° discrepancy, the seen arm position on the display was very gradually perceived as approaching the actual arm position. The magnitude of changes in sensory estimates was larger for proprioception (20%) than for vision (< 10%).

  4. EPA Slow in Controlling PCBs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-30

    SIANOARDS- 1963 A BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE SReport To The Administrator ~Environmental Protection Agency EPA Slow In Controlling PC;s In 1976 the...Congress required that the Envi- ronmental Protection Agency control the wide- ly used chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls D T IC (PCBs). Slow in...parties. Sincerely yours, Henry Eschwege Director I I " V . I GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE EPA SLOW IN CONTROLLING PCBs REPORT TO TME ADMINISTRATOR

  5. Slow Speed Machining of Titanium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    MRL-R-833 SLOW SPEED MACHINING OF TITANIUM D.M. Turley Approved for Public Release I -J C) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 1981 OCTOBER, 1981 82ോ 20 059...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES REPORT MRL-R-833 SLOW SPEED MACHINING OF TITANIUM D.M. Turley ABSTRACT Catastrophic-shear type...MRL-R-833 b. Title in isolation: UNCLASSIFIED c. Report Number: MRL-R-833 c. Abstract in isolation: UNCLASSIFIED 3. TITLE: SLOW SPEED MACHINING OF

  6. Proprioceptive Feedback Facilitates Motor Imagery-Related Operant Learning of Sensorimotor β-Band Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Sam; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Boulay, Chadwick B.; Ridding, Michael C.; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) activates the sensorimotor system independent of actual movements and might be facilitated by neurofeedback. Knowledge on the interaction between feedback modality and the involved frequency bands during MI-related brain self-regulation is still scarce. Previous studies compared the cortical activity during the MI task with concurrent feedback (MI with feedback condition) to cortical activity during the relaxation task where no feedback was provided (relaxation without feedback condition). The observed differences might, therefore, be related to either the task or the feedback. A proper comparison would necessitate studying a relaxation condition with feedback and a MI task condition without feedback as well. Right-handed healthy subjects performed two tasks, i.e., MI and relaxation, in alternating order. Each of the tasks (MI vs. relaxation) was studied with and without feedback. The respective event-driven oscillatory activity, i.e., sensorimotor desynchronization (during MI) or synchronization (during relaxation), was rewarded with contingent feedback. Importantly, feedback onset was delayed to study the task-related cortical activity in the absence of feedback provision during the delay period. The reward modality was alternated every 15 trials between proprioceptive and visual feedback. Proprioceptive input was superior to visual input to increase the range of task-related spectral perturbations in the α- and β-band, and was necessary to consistently achieve MI-related sensorimotor desynchronization (ERD) significantly below baseline. These effects occurred in task periods without feedback as well. The increased accuracy and duration of learned brain self-regulation achieved in the proprioceptive condition was specific to the β-band. MI-related operant learning of brain self-regulation is facilitated by proprioceptive feedback and mediated in the sensorimotor β-band. PMID:28232788

  7. Effects of Massage on Muscular Strength and Proprioception After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), which is commonly associated with eccentric exercise, unaccustomed exercise, and resistance training, may lead to delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, decreased muscle strength, and range of motion. Many researchers have evaluated various interventions to treat the signs and symptoms of EIMD. However, the effects of massage after EIMD are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of massage on muscle strength and proprioception after EIMD. All subjects randomly were divided into an EIMD-treated control group (n = 10) and a massage-treated after EIMD experimental group (n = 11). Exercise-induced muscle damage was induced by repeated exercise. Massage treatment was provided by physiotherapist for 15 minutes. It consists of light stroking, milking, friction, and skin rolling. Lactate was evaluated by Lactate Pro analyzer in pre- and postexercise. Surface electromyography (muscle activity) and sonography (muscle thickness) were used to confirm the muscular characteristics. Proprioception was investigated by dual inclinometer. As a result, massage treatment on the gastrocnemius after EIMD increased activation of the medial gastrocnemius during contraction (p ≤ 0.05). In the lateral and medial gastrocnemius, the θs, which is the angle between muscle fibers and superficial aponeurosis, showed a significant change (p ≤ 0.05). However, there are no differences in the θd, which is the angle between muscle fibers and deep aponeurosis. We also found that proprioceptive acuity in the ankle joint was significantly greater in the massage-treated experimental group compared with that in the control group (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that massage of the gastrocnemius after EIMD can improve muscle strength and proprioception by influencing the superficial layer of the gastrocnemius.

  8. Influence of sensory and proprioceptive impairment on the development of phantom limb syndrome during regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Paqueron, Xavier; Leguen, Morgan; Gentili, Marc E; Riou, Bruno; Coriat, Pierre; Willer, Jean Claude

    2004-04-01

    The relation between impairment of sensorimotor function and occurrence of phantom limb syndrome (PLS) during regional anesthesia has not been described. This study assessed the temporal relation between PLS and the progression of sensorimotor impairment during placement of a brachial plexus nerve block. Fifty-two patients had their arm randomly placed either alongside their body (group A) or in 90 degrees abduction (group B) immediately after brachial plexus nerve block placement. Responses to pin prick, cold, heat, touch, proprioception, and voluntary movement were assessed every 5 min for 60 min. Meanwhile, patients described their perceptions of the size, shape, and position of their anesthetized limb. Phantom limb syndrome occurred 19 +/- 9 min after nerve block placement. Proprioception was impaired and abolished after 22 +/- 9 and 43 +/- 17 min, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. PLS onset). When PLS occurred, responses to pin prick, cold, heat, and proprioception were abolished in 96, 94, 87, and 4% of patients, respectively. Patients were more likely to feel their anesthetized limb in adduction and in abduction in groups A and B (P < 0.05 vs. group A), respectively. After PLS had become motionless, two stereotyped positions were identified: arm adduction, elbow flexion, hand over the abdomen (68% of group A patients) and arm abduction, elbow flexion, hand held close to the homolateral ear (48% of group B patients). This study provides a better understanding of the determinants of PLS by showing that the final position of PLS is related both to the abolition of proprioception and the initial position of the anesthetized limb.

  9. Limb position drift results from misalignment of proprioceptive and visual maps.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jacqueline R; Brown, Liana E; Wagstaff, David A; Sainburg, Robert L

    2017-03-27

    Previous work (Brown et al., 2003a,b) has shown that limb position drifts when individuals make repetitive movements in the absence of visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to examine whether limb position drift might reflect a misalignment in visual and proprioceptive maps by examining the nature of information used to specify new movements from a drifted limb position. In a virtual reality (VR) environment, participants made continuous movements with their dominant right hand between two targets positioned 15cm apart, paced by a 0.625-Hz metronome. After 5 cycles, cursor feedback of the hand was removed for the next 44 cycles, which induced an average drift in hand position of roughly 5cm. On the 50th cycle, participants were required to move to one of 6 new targets from the drifted hand position. Kinematic analysis indicated that movement direction was unambiguously determined by the visual input marked by the original start position, or the last-seen hand position. Forward dynamics analysis revealed that current limb configuration was used to inform joint torques to produce this parallel direction. For new movement specification, accurate proprioceptive information about the drifted limb position was used, even though it was apparently not available for detecting drift in the first place. Movement distance varied directly with the extent of limb drift, although the differentiation of visual and proprioceptive control of distance could not be analyzed, as our control conditions were not significantly different for this measure. We suggest that movement drift, in the absence of visual feedback during cyclic repetitive movements, reflects a misalignment between largely accurate visual and proprioceptive maps, rather than a weighted fusion of the two modalities.

  10. Lumbar Repositioning Accuracy as a Measure of Proprioception in Patients with Back Dysfunction and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A control group cross-sectional design. Purpose To compare the difference in repositioning accuracy, as a measure of lumbar proprioception, between patients with back dysfunction and healthy subjects. Overview of Literature Evidence suggests that spinal stability might be compromised in patients with back dysfunction. Lumbar proprioception in back dysfunction has not, however, been adequately investigated. Methods Forty-five participants, representing three groups, took part in the study. Subjects in group one (n = 15) were healthy subjects. Subjects in group two (n = 15) had a history of non-specific mechanical back dysfunction, while subjects in group three (n = 15) had discogenic back dysfunction. Subjects were required to reproduce a target position of 30° lumbar flexion and the absolute error (AE) was calculated. Results The AEs between target and reproduced positions were calculated. The average repositioning AEs were 2.8, 7.5, and 7.1° for the control, mechanical, and discogenic back dysfunction groups respectively. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference between the three groups (p < 0.0002). The AEs were greater in the two back dysfunction groups compared to the control group. Post-hoc tests revealed significant difference in AEs between the control and mechanical group (p < 0.0003), and discogenic group (p < 0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the mechanical and discogenic back dysfunction groups (p = 0.73). Conclusions Differences in proprioception do exist between subjects with back dysfunction and normal subjects. The proprioceptive deficits do exist regardless of the cause of the back dysfunction, and may represent an important aspect of the patho-physiology of such a condition. PMID:22164313

  11. Robot-Assisted Training of the Kinesthetic Sense: Enhancing Proprioception after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Dalia; Zenzeri, Jacopo; Casadio, Maura; Masia, Lorenzo; Riva, Assunta; Morasso, Pietro; Squeri, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Proprioception has a crucial role in promoting or hindering motor learning. In particular, an intact position sense strongly correlates with the chances of recovery after stroke. A great majority of neurological patients present both motor dysfunctions and impairments in kinesthesia, but traditional robot and virtual reality training techniques focus either in recovering motor functions or in assessing proprioceptive deficits. An open challenge is to implement effective and reliable tests and training protocols for proprioception that go beyond the mere position sense evaluation and exploit the intrinsic bidirectionality of the kinesthetic sense, which refers to both sense of position and sense of movement. Modulated haptic interaction has a leading role in promoting sensorimotor integration, and it is a natural way to enhance volitional effort. Therefore, we designed a preliminary clinical study to test a new proprioception-based motor training technique for augmenting kinesthetic awareness via haptic feedback. The feedback was provided by a robotic manipulandum and the test involved seven chronic hemiparetic subjects over 3 weeks. The protocol included evaluation sessions that consisted of a psychometric estimate of the subject’s kinesthetic sensation, and training sessions, in which the subject executed planar reaching movements in the absence of vision and under a minimally assistive haptic guidance made by sequences of graded force pulses. The bidirectional haptic interaction between the subject and the robot was optimally adapted to each participant in order to achieve a uniform task difficulty over the workspace. All the subjects consistently improved in the perceptual scores as a consequence of training. Moreover, they could minimize the level of haptic guidance in time. Results suggest that the proposed method is effective in enhancing kinesthetic acuity, but the level of impairment may affect the ability of subjects to retain their improvement in time

  12. Randomized Control Trial Investigating the Effects of Kinesiology Tape on Shoulder Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, Sean M; Chimera, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    Athletes participating in upper-extremity-dominant sports such as softball and volleyball are at increased risk for glenohumeral-joint pain and injury. For these athletes, an integral part of many injury-prevention and -rehabilitation programs includes improving joint proprioception. One way to measure joint proprioception is through the reproduction of joint angles, or joint-reposition sense (JRS). Kinesiology tape is purported to enhance neuromuscular feedback; therefore, it may influence JRS. However, conflicting findings and the lack of research in the upper extremity warrant further investigation. To determine the effects of kinesiology tape on shoulder-joint proprioception by actively reproducing joint angles, or measurement of JRS. Randomized controlled trial. College laboratory. 9 men and 7 women 24 ± 3 y old. SpiderTech kinesiology tape precut Shoulder Spider was applied to the shoulder of participants block randomized to the experimental group, following product-specific instructions, to measure its influence on JRS compared with a control group. JRS-error scores in shoulder flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation (ER). There was a significant interaction between groups pre- to postintervention resulting in decreased JRS errors in flexion (P = .04) and ER (P = .03) in the experimental compared with the control group. The 95% confidence intervals suggest a clinically relevant difference in the variability of JRS errors between postintervention movements for the experimental group in flexion and ER, such that the control group demonstrated much more variability in JRS errors than the experimental group. After the application of kinesiology tape the JRS errors were smaller in flexion and ER. This may be of clinical significance in improving proprioception and thus improving joint stability. Additional research should determine the effectiveness of kinesiology tape in reducing joint injury.

  13. Mobility, proprioception, strength and FMS as predictors of injury in professional footballers

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Jonathan; Cleves, Andrew; Griffiths, Hywell; Nokes, Len

    2016-01-01

    Background The premise of this study was to investigate if anthropometric variables such as mobility, proprioception, strength and modified Functional Movement Screen (mFMS) could be used as primary indicators of injury risk in an English Championship division football team. This study focused on moderate injuries occurring in the lower extremities, during the 2014/2015 competitive season. Methods To differentiate between minor, moderate and severe injuries, this study classified moderate injuries as an injury with an average injury severity of 2–28 days. This study is composed of 4 individual investigations. Each variable was assessed against 2 groups: injured (n=6) and non-injured (n=10). The 2 groups were compiled from the first team, with the criteria that each participant of this study required: full preseason assessment and injury history for the time period, 1 July 2014 to 19 March 2015. A Mann-Whitney U test (0.05% significance) was applied to statistically analyse if each variable showed any variation across the 2 groups. Effect size was estimated with Cliff's d. Results Strength asymmetry displayed significant difference (p=0.007), mobility, proprioception and mFMS did not (p=0.263, p=0.792 and p=0.181, respectively). Mean scores for mobility, proprioception, strength asymmetry and mFMS for injured versus non-injured players (effect size) were: 40.00 vs 38.00 (0.37), 10.33 vs 10.20 (0.10), 61.13 vs 30.40 (0.80) and 7.33 vs 8.90 (−0.4), respectively. Conclusions This study found no relationship between mobility/proprioception and injury risk; however, strength asymmetry was statistically significant in predicting injury and mFMS exhibited enough positive difference for recommendation of further investigation. PMID:27900187

  14. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    PubMed

    Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Tsukada, Setsuro; Hakuta, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm) to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  15. Proprioceptive Feedback Facilitates Motor Imagery-Related Operant Learning of Sensorimotor β-Band Modulation.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Sam; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Boulay, Chadwick B; Ridding, Michael C; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) activates the sensorimotor system independent of actual movements and might be facilitated by neurofeedback. Knowledge on the interaction between feedback modality and the involved frequency bands during MI-related brain self-regulation is still scarce. Previous studies compared the cortical activity during the MI task with concurrent feedback (MI with feedback condition) to cortical activity during the relaxation task where no feedback was provided (relaxation without feedback condition). The observed differences might, therefore, be related to either the task or the feedback. A proper comparison would necessitate studying a relaxation condition with feedback and a MI task condition without feedback as well. Right-handed healthy subjects performed two tasks, i.e., MI and relaxation, in alternating order. Each of the tasks (MI vs. relaxation) was studied with and without feedback. The respective event-driven oscillatory activity, i.e., sensorimotor desynchronization (during MI) or synchronization (during relaxation), was rewarded with contingent feedback. Importantly, feedback onset was delayed to study the task-related cortical activity in the absence of feedback provision during the delay period. The reward modality was alternated every 15 trials between proprioceptive and visual feedback. Proprioceptive input was superior to visual input to increase the range of task-related spectral perturbations in the α- and β-band, and was necessary to consistently achieve MI-related sensorimotor desynchronization (ERD) significantly below baseline. These effects occurred in task periods without feedback as well. The increased accuracy and duration of learned brain self-regulation achieved in the proprioceptive condition was specific to the β-band. MI-related operant learning of brain self-regulation is facilitated by proprioceptive feedback and mediated in the sensorimotor β-band.

  16. Generalization patterns for reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration differ after visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Erin K; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2015-07-01

    Visuomotor learning results in changes in both motor and sensory systems (Cressman EK, Henriques DY. J Neurophysiol 102: 3505-3518, 2009), such that reaches are adapted and sense of felt hand position recalibrated after reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand. Moreover, visuomotor learning has been shown to generalize such that reach adaptation achieved at a trained target location can influence reaches to novel target directions (Krakauer JW, Pine ZM, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. J Neurosci 20: 8916-8924, 2000). We looked to determine whether proprioceptive recalibration also generalizes to novel locations. Moreover, we looked to establish the relationship between reach adaptation and changes in sense of felt hand position by determining whether proprioceptive recalibration generalizes to novel targets in a similar manner as reach adaptation. On training trials, subjects reached to a single target with aligned or misaligned cursor-hand feedback, in which the cursor was either rotated or scaled in extent relative to hand movement. After reach training, subjects reached to the training target and novel targets (including targets from a second start position) without visual feedback to assess generalization of reach adaptation. Subjects then performed a proprioceptive estimation task, in which they indicated the position of their hand relative to visual reference markers placed at similar locations as the trained and novel reach targets. Results indicated that shifts in hand position generalized across novel locations, independent of reach adaptation. Thus these distinct sensory and motor generalization patterns suggest that reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration arise from independent error signals and that changes in one system cannot guide adjustments in the other.

  17. Robot-assisted training of the kinesthetic sense: enhancing proprioception after stroke.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Dalia; Zenzeri, Jacopo; Casadio, Maura; Masia, Lorenzo; Riva, Assunta; Morasso, Pietro; Squeri, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception has a crucial role in promoting or hindering motor learning. In particular, an intact position sense strongly correlates with the chances of recovery after stroke. A great majority of neurological patients present both motor dysfunctions and impairments in kinesthesia, but traditional robot and virtual reality training techniques focus either in recovering motor functions or in assessing proprioceptive deficits. An open challenge is to implement effective and reliable tests and training protocols for proprioception that go beyond the mere position sense evaluation and exploit the intrinsic bidirectionality of the kinesthetic sense, which refers to both sense of position and sense of movement. Modulated haptic interaction has a leading role in promoting sensorimotor integration, and it is a natural way to enhance volitional effort. Therefore, we designed a preliminary clinical study to test a new proprioception-based motor training technique for augmenting kinesthetic awareness via haptic feedback. The feedback was provided by a robotic manipulandum and the test involved seven chronic hemiparetic subjects over 3 weeks. The protocol included evaluation sessions that consisted of a psychometric estimate of the subject's kinesthetic sensation, and training sessions, in which the subject executed planar reaching movements in the absence of vision and under a minimally assistive haptic guidance made by sequences of graded force pulses. The bidirectional haptic interaction between the subject and the robot was optimally adapted to each participant in order to achieve a uniform task difficulty over the workspace. All the subjects consistently improved in the perceptual scores as a consequence of training. Moreover, they could minimize the level of haptic guidance in time. Results suggest that the proposed method is effective in enhancing kinesthetic acuity, but the level of impairment may affect the ability of subjects to retain their improvement in time.

  18. Evaluation of elbow joint proprioception with RehabRoby: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Özkul, Fatih; Erol Barkana, Duygun; Badıllı Demirbaş, Şule; Inal, Serap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proprioceptive sense of elbow flexion through a robot-assisted rehabilitation system, RehabRoby, and to understand the usability of RehabRoby as a robotic system in physiotherapy. The study included 20 volunteer, healthy students studying either physiotherapy (PT) (5 females and 5 males) or electrical and electronics engineering (EEE) (5 females and 5 males). Using the RehabRoby, they were asked to flex their elbow joints in pronation actively and then against a comfortable resistance to the target angles (20°, 45° and 90°), with eyes open and closed. Angle of movement and applied torque for each target angle and error of movement with respect to the target angle (error of matching) were recorded as absolute values. Participants' socio-demographic and physical features were also evaluated. Physiotherapy students had less matching error at 45° with eyes opened than EEE students. A negative correlation was found between resistive elbow flexion and applied torque while eyes closed at 20° (p<0.05). Biceps brachii strength and being female were significant predictive factors for the least matching error in active elbow flexion at 20° with eyes closed. Error of matching at 45° without vision was lower in the PT group (-0.31) than in the EEE group (0.77). In addition, it was noticed that biceps brachii muscle strength played an important role in the proprioceptive sense of the motion at 20°. The RehabRoby can be considered a usable system for the evaluation of joint proprioception sense. With future validity studies, the RehabRoby may be used to assess, diagnose and improve the proprioceptive sense of patients.

  19. Impaired Varus-Valgus Proprioception and Neuromuscular Stabilization in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alison H.; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The study objectives were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08 ± 0.59° vs. 0.69 ± 0.49°, p < 0.05), decreased normalized varus muscle strength (1.31 ± 0.75% vs. 1.79 ± 0.84% body weight, p < 0.05), a trend toward decreased valgus strength (1.29 ± 0.67% vs. 1.88 ± 0.99%, p = 0.054), and impaired ability to actively stabilize the knee in the frontal plane during external perturbation (4.67 ± 2.86 vs. 8.26 ± 5.95 Nm/degree, p < 0.05). The knee frontal plane sensorimotor control system is compromised in persons with medial KOA. Our findings suggest varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). PMID:24321442

  20. Impaired varus-valgus proprioception and neuromuscular stabilization in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alison H; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-22

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The objectives of the study were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08±0.59° vs. 0.69±0.49°, p<0.05), decreased normalized varus muscle strength (1.31±0.75% vs. 1.79±0.84% body weight, p<0.05), a trend toward decreased valgus strength (1.29±0.67% vs. 1.88±0.99%, p=0.054), and impaired ability to actively stabilize the knee in the frontal plane during external perturbation (4.67±2.86 vs. 8.26±5.95 Nm/degree, p<0.05). The knee frontal plane sensorimotor control system is compromised in persons with medial KOA. Our findings suggest varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Slow light and slow acoustic phonons in optophononic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafañe, V.; Soubelet, P.; Bruchhausen, A. E.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaître, A.; Fainstein, A.

    2016-11-01

    Slow and confined light have been exploited in optoelectronics to enhance light-matter interactions. Here we describe the GaAs/AlAs semiconductor microcavity as a device that, depending on the excitation conditions, either confines or slows down both light and optically generated acoustic phonons. The localization of photons and phonons in the same place of space amplifies optomechanical processes. Picosecond laser pulses are used to study through time-resolved reflectivity experiments the coupling between photons and both confined and slow acoustic phonons when the laser is tuned either with the cavity (confined) optical mode or with the stop-band edge (slow) optical modes. A model that fully takes into account the modified propagation of the acoustic phonons and light in these resonant structures is used to describe the laser detuning dependence of the coherently generated phonon spectra and amplitude under these different modes of laser excitation. We observe that confined light couples only to confined mechanical vibrations, while slow light can generate both confined and slow coherent vibrations. A strong enhancement of the optomechanical coupling using confined photons and vibrations, and also with properly designed slow photon and phonon modes, is demonstrated. The prospects for the use of these optoelectronic devices in confined and slow optomechanics are addressed.

  2. Importance of Proprioceptive Information for Postural Control in Children with Strabismus before and after Strabismus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria P.; Soufi, Hayette; Villeneuve, Philippe; Colleville, Lucile; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Lions, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the role of proprioception in postural balance in children with strabismus before and after realignment of their visual axes by eye surgery. Postural recordings were made with the TechnoConcept® force platform in 23 children. Several conditions were studied, whether the subjects had both eyes open, or either the dominant or the non-dominant eye open, without and with foam pads of 4 mm underfoot. Recordings were performed before and after strabismus surgery. The surface area, the length and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were analyzed. Before strabismus surgery, all children showed better stability with both eyes open with respect to the condition with the non-dominant eye open; furthermore postural stability improved in the presence of foam pads. After surgery, the surface area of CoP decreased significantly, especially in the non-dominant eye viewing condition. We suggest that strabismic children use mainly proprioceptive information in order to control their posture, but also visual inputs, which are important for obtaining a good postural stability. The alignment of the visual axes after surgery provides enhanced postural stability, suggesting, again the major role of visual inputs in the control of posture. Proprioceptive plasticity after strabismus surgery may allow better visual rehabilitation. PMID:27656133

  3. Isolating Visual and Proprioceptive Components of Motor Sequence Learning in ASD.

    PubMed

    Sharer, Elizabeth A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Oberman, Lindsay M

    2016-05-01

    In addition to defining impairments in social communication skills, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also show impairments in more basic sensory and motor skills. Development of new skills involves integrating information from multiple sensory modalities. This input is then used to form internal models of action that can be accessed when both performing skilled movements, as well as understanding those actions performed by others. Learning skilled gestures is particularly reliant on integration of visual and proprioceptive input. We used a modified serial reaction time task (SRTT) to decompose proprioceptive and visual components and examine whether patterns of implicit motor skill learning differ in ASD participants as compared with healthy controls. While both groups learned the implicit motor sequence during training, healthy controls showed robust generalization whereas ASD participants demonstrated little generalization when visual input was constant. In contrast, no group differences in generalization were observed when proprioceptive input was constant, with both groups showing limited degrees of generalization. The findings suggest, when learning a motor sequence, individuals with ASD tend to rely less on visual feedback than do healthy controls. Visuomotor representations are considered to underlie imitative learning and action understanding and are thereby crucial to social skill and cognitive development. Thus, anomalous patterns of implicit motor learning, with a tendency to discount visual feedback, may be an important contributor in core social communication deficits that characterize ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 563-569. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of knee joint proprioception and balance of young female volleyball players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Neşe; Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main purpose of our study was the evaluation of the effects of long-term volleyball practice on knee joint proprioception and balance of young female athletes. [Subjects and Methods] An observational case-control study was performed. The study enrolled 19 female volleyball players in the experimental group and 19 sedentary counterparts as controls. A Biodex balance system and dynamometer were used for the evaluations. The paired t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the performance of athletes and controls. [Results] The knee proprioception analysis showed a significant difference at 60° joint position in active and passive tests. A similar trend, but without significance, was found for the 20° joint position. In the postural stability tests both groups showed similar results with no significant differences between them. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results indicate a significant influence on joint proprioception is elicited by long-term exposure to a team sport like volleyball. However, the postural stability indexes showed similar trends in both groups, highlighting the analogous ontogenesis of the subjects investigated and the low influence of volleyball practice on postural stability. PMID:25729185

  5. Chronic physical activity preserves efficiency of proprioception in postural control in older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Jully, Jean-Louis; Gasnier, Yannick; Paillard, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of proprioceptive disruption on postural control for participants of different ages according to their physical and/or sport activity levels. Two groups of young and old participants who practiced chronic physical and/or sport activities (young active [n = 17; average age 20.5 +/- 1.1 yr] and old active [n = 17; average age 74.0 +/- 3.8 yr]) and two groups of young and old participants who did not practice physical and/or sport activities (young sedentary [n = 17; average age 20.0 +/- 1.3 yr] and old sedentary [n = 17; average age 74.7 +/- 6.3 yr]) participated in the study. They were compared in a bipedal quiet stance reference condition and a bilateral Achilles tendon vibration condition. Center of foot pressure displacements and frequency analysis were compared between the groups. The results indicated that when proprioceptive information was disrupted, the postural control disturbance was more important for the old sedentary group than for the other groups. There were no differences between the old active group and the young sedentary group. Postural control was less altered for the young active group than for the other groups. Aging decreases the efficiency of postural control regardless of the assessment conditions. Physical and sport activities may compensate for the disturbing effects of proprioceptive perturbation through a better use of sensory information whatever the age of the participants.

  6. Hip proprioceptive feedback influences the control of mediolateral stability during human walking.

    PubMed

    Roden-Reynolds, Devin C; Walker, Megan H; Wasserman, Camille R; Dean, Jesse C

    2015-10-01

    Active control of the mediolateral location of the feet is an important component of a stable bipedal walking pattern, although the roles of sensory feedback in this process are unclear. In the present experiments, we tested whether hip abductor proprioception influenced the control of mediolateral gait motion. Participants performed a series of quiet standing and treadmill walking trials. In some trials, 80-Hz vibration was applied intermittently over the right gluteus medius (GM) to evoke artificial proprioceptive feedback. During walking, the GM was vibrated during either right leg stance (to elicit a perception that the pelvis was closer mediolaterally to the stance foot) or swing (to elicit a perception that the swing leg was more adducted). Vibration during quiet standing evoked leftward sway in most participants (13 of 16), as expected from its predicted perceptual effects. Across the 13 participants sensitive to vibration, stance phase vibration caused the contralateral leg to be placed significantly closer to the midline (by ∼2 mm) at the end of the ongoing step. In contrast, swing phase vibration caused the vibrated leg to be placed significantly farther mediolaterally from the midline (by ∼2 mm), whereas the pelvis was held closer to the stance foot (by ∼1 mm). The estimated mediolateral margin of stability was thus decreased by stance phase vibration but increased by swing phase vibration. Although the observed effects of vibration were small, they were consistent with humans monitoring hip proprioceptive feedback while walking to maintain stable mediolateral gait motion.

  7. Does proprioceptive system stimulation improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo P; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Lahr, Juliana; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Sit-to-walk performance is linked to proper proprioceptive information processing. Therefore, it is believed that an increase of proprioceptive inflow (using muscle vibration) might improve sit-to-walk performance. However, before testing muscle vibration effects on a frail population, assessment of its effects on healthy young people is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle vibration on sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen young adults performed the sit-to-walk task under three conditions: without vibration, with vibration applied before movement onset, and with vibration applied during the movement. Vibration was applied bilaterally for 30 s to the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and upper trapezius muscles bellies. The vibration parameters were as follows: 120 Hz and 1.2 mm. Kinematics and kinetic data were assessed using a 3D motion capture system and two force plates. The coordinates of reflective markers were used to define the center-of-mass velocities and displacements. In addition, the first step spatiotemporal variables were assessed. [Results] No vibration effect was observed on any dependent variables. [Conclusion] The results show that stimulation of the proprioceptive system with local muscle vibration does not improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults.

  8. Perceived size change induced by nonvisual signals in darkness: the relative contribution of vergence and proprioception.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Irene; Kaderali, Shaleeza; Chouinard, Philippe A; Frey, Jared; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2013-10-23

    Most of the time, the human visual system computes perceived size by scaling the size of an object on the retina with its perceived distance. There are instances, however, in which size-distance scaling is not based on visual inputs but on extraretinal cues. In the Taylor illusion, the perceived afterimage that is projected on an observer's hand will change in size depending on how far the limb is positioned from the eyes-even in complete darkness. In the dark, distance cues might derive from hand position signals either by an efference copy of the motor command to the moving hand or by proprioceptive input. Alternatively, there have been reports that vergence signals from the eyes might also be important. We performed a series of behavioral and eye-tracking experiments to tease apart how these different sources of distance information contribute to the Taylor illusion. We demonstrate that, with no visual information, perceived size changes mainly as a function of the vergence angle of the eyes, underscoring its importance in size-distance scaling. Interestingly, the strength of this relationship decreased when a mismatch between vergence and proprioception was introduced, indicating that proprioceptive feedback from the arm also affected size perception. By using afterimages, we provide strong evidence that the human visual system can benefit from sensory signals that originate from the hand when visual information about distance is unavailable.

  9. Hip proprioceptive feedback influences the control of mediolateral stability during human walking

    PubMed Central

    Roden-Reynolds, Devin C.; Walker, Megan H.; Wasserman, Camille R.

    2015-01-01

    Active control of the mediolateral location of the feet is an important component of a stable bipedal walking pattern, although the roles of sensory feedback in this process are unclear. In the present experiments, we tested whether hip abductor proprioception influenced the control of mediolateral gait motion. Participants performed a series of quiet standing and treadmill walking trials. In some trials, 80-Hz vibration was applied intermittently over the right gluteus medius (GM) to evoke artificial proprioceptive feedback. During walking, the GM was vibrated during either right leg stance (to elicit a perception that the pelvis was closer mediolaterally to the stance foot) or swing (to elicit a perception that the swing leg was more adducted). Vibration during quiet standing evoked leftward sway in most participants (13 of 16), as expected from its predicted perceptual effects. Across the 13 participants sensitive to vibration, stance phase vibration caused the contralateral leg to be placed significantly closer to the midline (by ∼2 mm) at the end of the ongoing step. In contrast, swing phase vibration caused the vibrated leg to be placed significantly farther mediolaterally from the midline (by ∼2 mm), whereas the pelvis was held closer to the stance foot (by ∼1 mm). The estimated mediolateral margin of stability was thus decreased by stance phase vibration but increased by swing phase vibration. Although the observed effects of vibration were small, they were consistent with humans monitoring hip proprioceptive feedback while walking to maintain stable mediolateral gait motion. PMID:26289467

  10. The relationship between anterior glenohumeral laxity and proprioception in collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G; Meister, Keith; Kajiyama, Satoshi; Noel, Bria

    2012-11-01

    To determine if a relationship exists between anterior glenohumeral (GH) laxity and proprioception. Cross-sectional study. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty asymptomatic collegiate baseball players. Anterior GH laxity. Proprioception (active joint position sense) at positions of 75 degrees of external rotation, 30 degrees of external rotation, and 30 degrees of internal rotation were measured using an isokinetic dynomometer. Anterior GH laxity was measured using an instrumented arthrometer. Linear regression analyses showed that there were no relationships between anterior GH laxity and active joint position sense at 30 degrees of GH internal rotation and 30 degrees of GH external rotation (r = 0.21, P = 0.13). However, there was a moderate positive relationship between anterior GH laxity and joint position sense at 75 degrees of shoulder external rotation (r = 0.56, P = 0.001). These results suggest that shoulder proprioception in 75 degrees of external rotation decreases as anterior GH laxity increases. These results may prove beneficial in the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of various shoulder injuries associated with GH laxity.

  11. Hearing visuo-tactile synchrony - Sound-induced proprioceptive drift in the invisible hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Hegedüs, Gábor; Kincses, Péter; Kállai, János; Kovács, Márton; Simon, Eszter; Nagy, Zsófia; Janszky, József

    2017-02-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and its variant the invisible hand illusion (IHI) are useful for investigating multisensory aspects of bodily self-consciousness. Here, we explored whether auditory conditioning during an RHI could enhance the trisensory visuo-tactile-proprioceptive interaction underlying the IHI. Our paradigm comprised of an IHI session that was followed by an RHI session and another IHI session. The IHI sessions had two parts presented in counterbalanced order. One part was conducted in silence, whereas the other part was conducted on the backdrop of metronome beats that occurred in synchrony with the brush movements used for the induction of the illusion. In a first experiment, the RHI session also involved metronome beats and was aimed at creating an associative memory between the brush stroking of a rubber hand and the sounds. An analysis of IHI sessions showed that the participants' perceived hand position drifted more towards the body-midline in the metronome relative to the silent condition without any sound-related session differences. Thus, the sounds, but not the auditory RHI conditioning, influenced the IHI. In a second experiment, the RHI session was conducted without metronome beats. This confirmed the conditioning-independent presence of sound-induced proprioceptive drift in the IHI. Together, these findings show that the influence of visuo-tactile integration on proprioceptive updating is modifiable by irrelevant auditory cues merely through the temporal correspondence between the visuo-tactile and auditory events. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Proprioceptive deficit in patients with complete tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Pedro; Nicoliche, Eduardo; Cossich, Victor; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Velasques, Bruna; Salles, José Inácio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence of proprioceptive deficits between the injured limb and the uninjured (i.e. contralateral normal) limb, in individuals who suffered complete tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), using a strength reproduction test. Methods Sixteen patients with complete tearing of the ACL participated in the study. A voluntary maximum isometric strength test was performed, with reproduction of the muscle strength in the limb with complete tearing of the ACL and the healthy contralateral limb, with the knee flexed at 60°. The meta-intensity was used for the procedure of 20% of the voluntary maximum isometric strength. The proprioceptive performance was determined by means of absolute error, variable error and constant error values. Results Significant differences were found between the control group and ACL group for the variables of absolute error (p = 0.05) and constant error (p = 0.01). No difference was found in relation to variable error (p = 0.83). Conclusion Our data corroborate the hypothesis that there is a proprioceptive deficit in subjects with complete tearing of the ACL in an injured limb, in comparison with the uninjured limb, during evaluation of the sense of strength. This deficit can be explained in terms of partial or total loss of the mechanoreceptors of the ACL. PMID:26229870

  13. Impact of Patellar Tendinopathy on Knee Proprioception: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rui; Ferreira, João; Silva, Diogo; Rodrigues, Elisa; Bessa, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether high-level athletes with patellar tendinopathy have diminished knee proprioceptive acuity. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory (institutional). Twenty-one basketball and volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (13 men and 8 women; mean age 24.5 ± 3.6; body mass index = 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m) and an equal number of athletes without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy injury were included in this study. Participants underwent knee proprioception assessments on a single day. Furthermore, age, sex, height, weight, VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) questionnaire sports participation, medical history, knee injuries, previous treatment, and medication were obtained. Knee proprioception was evaluated by assessing sense of resistance, using a weight discrimination protocol, and joint position sense (JPS). No significant differences were observed in JPS at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion between groups (P = 0.165 and 0.481, respectively). In regard to the ability to discriminate weight, significant differences between the 2 groups were found with the tendinopathy group showing a higher percentage of error (P = 0.009), namely when the set of incremental weights varied by 10% from the standard weight. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have a diminished perception of force signals required for weight discrimination, whereas JPS remains unaffected in these athletes.

  14. Early non-visual experience influences proprioceptive-spatial discrimination acuity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fiehler, Katja; Reuschel, Johanna; Rösler, Frank

    2009-02-01

    The present study tested whether non-visual spatial experience affects later acuity of space perception. Congenitally blind adults who differed in the age acquired spatial knowledge via an orientation and mobility (O&M) training and matched sighted controls performed passive arm movements and judged the direction of the sensed movement. Proprioceptive-spatial discrimination acuity was assessed by an adaptive psychophysical procedure in two spatial coding conditions. In the egocentric coding condition, participants judged whether the hand trajectory felt left- or right-tilted in reference to a straight trajectory aligned to the transverse horizontal plane of the body midline axis. In the allocentric coding condition, they indicated whether the hand trajectory felt acute- or obtuse-angled in reference to a right angle. Proprioceptive-spatial acuity of congenitally blind participants significantly covaried with the age they attended an O&M training. The earlier the congenitally blind participants started the O&M training the more accurate was their space perception. Congenitally blind participants who underwent an O&M training after the age of 12 years showed poorer acuity than sighted controls. Congenitally blind participants with an earlier O&M training, however, approached the performance level of the sighted controls. The observed improvement in spatial acuity was more pronounced when judgements were given on the basis of an allocentric than an egocentric frame of reference. These findings suggest that proprioceptive-spatial acuity in adulthood depends on non-visual spatial experience during early development.

  15. Thoracolumbar fascia does not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Pickar, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    The thoracolumbar fascia attaches to the lumbar spinous processes and encloses the paraspinal muscles to form a muscle compartment. Because muscle spindles can respond to transverse forces applied at a muscle’s surface, we were interested in the mechanical effects this fascia may have on proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles during vertebral movement. The discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles at rest and in response to muscle history were investigated in the presence and absence of the thoracolumbar fascia in anesthetized cats. Muscle-history was induced by positioning the L6 vertebra in conditioning directions that lengthened and shortened the paraspinal muscles. The vertebra was then returned to an intermediate position for testing the spindles. Neither resting discharge (P= 0.49) nor the effects of muscle history (P>0.30) was significantly different with the fascia intact vs. removed. Our data showed that the thoracolumbar fascia did not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles spindles during small passive vertebral movements in cats. In addition, comparison of the transverse threshold pressures needed to stimulate our sample of muscle spindles in the cat with the thoracolumbar fascia compartmental pressures measured in humans during previous studies suggests that the thoracolumbar fascia likely does not affect proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in humans. PMID:19627391

  16. Effects of proprioceptive training program on core stability and center of gravity control in sprinters.

    PubMed

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martínez-López, Emilio; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a 6-week specific-sprinter proprioceptive training program on core stability and gravity center control in sprinters. Thirty-three athletes (age = 21.82 ± 4.84 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m, weight = 67.82 ± 08.04 kg, body mass index = 21.89 ± 2.37 kg · m(-2)) from sprint disciplines were divided into a control (n = 17) and experimental (n = 16) groups. A 30-minute proprioceptive training program was included in the experimental group training sessions, and it was performed for 6 weeks, 3 times each week. This program included 5 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to reproduce different moments of the technique of a sprint race. Stability with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed, postural stability, and gravity center control were assessed before and after the training program. Analyses of covariance (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences in stability in the medial-lateral plane with EO, gravity center control in the right direction and gravity center control in the back direction after the exercise intervention in the experimental athletes. Nevertheless, no other significant differences were demonstrated. A sprinter-specific proprioceptive training program provided postural stability with EO and gravity center control measures improvements, although it is not clear if the effect of training would transfer to the general population.

  17. The effect of elastic bandages on human knee proprioception in the uninjured population.

    PubMed

    Perlau, R; Frank, C; Fick, G

    1995-01-01

    Elastic bandages are often used to treat musculoskeletal disorders, even though there is little scientific evidence currently to support this generalized practice. We tested the hypothesis that elastic bandages improve proprioception of the bandaged joint during their use, and that this benefit was more than temporary. The uninjured human knee was used as a model. Fifty-four volunteers (54 knees), aged 22 to 40 years, were asked to identify a prior set joint angle as their knee was passively extended. Each knee was tested without the elastic bandage, immediately after bandage application, after 1 hour of bandage wear, and finally after removal of the bandage. Results showed that elastic bandages significantly improved knee joint proprioception in the uninjured knee during the entire interval of their use (mean decrease in inaccuracy of 1.0 degree, equivalent to 25% improvement, P < 0.05), and that this benefit was lost when the bandage was removed. The magnitude of the improvement, or the potential beneficial effect of the bandage, was inversely related to the participant's inherent knee proprioceptive ability, which was demonstrated in the test group before the initial application of the bandage.

  18. The influence of proprioceptive state on learning control of reach dynamics.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrea M; Labelle, Jean-Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The motor system shows a remarkable capacity to generalize learned behavior to new contexts while simultaneously permitting learning of multiple and sometimes conflicting skills. To examine the influence of proprioceptive state on this capacity, we compared the effectiveness of changes in workspace location and limb orientation (horizontal vs. parasagittal plane posture) in facilitating learning of opposing dynamic force-field perturbations. When opposing fields were encountered in similar workspace positions and limb orientations, subjects failed to learn the two tasks. In contrast, differences in initial limb proprioceptive state were sufficient for significant learning to take place. The extent of learning was similar when the two fields were encountered in different arm orientations in a similar workspace location as compared to when learning took place in spatially separated workspace locations, consistent with the generalization of learning mainly in intrinsic joint coordinates. In keeping with these observations, examination of how trial-to-trial adaptation generalized showed that generalization tended to be greater across similar limb postures. However, when the two fields were encountered in distinct spatial locations, the extent of generalization of adaptation to one field depended on the limb orientation in which the other field was encountered. These results suggest that three-dimensional proprioceptive limb state plays an important role in modulating generalization patterns so as to permit the best compromise between broad generalization and the simultaneous learning of conflicting skills.

  19. Effects of an exercise program on balance and trunk proprioception in older adults with diabetic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang Ho; Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Lee, Seung Won; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Yim, Jong Eun

    2011-08-01

    Diabetes is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathies. No definitive treatment for diabetic neuropathies has been reported, and very few studies have been published on the role of exercise in reducing either the symptoms or incidence of diabetic neuropathies. This study assessed the effects of an exercise program on balance and trunk proprioception in older adults with diabetic neuropathies. Thirty-eight patients with diabetes having peripheral neuropathies were enrolled, randomized, and subdivided in two groups: an experimental group of 19 participants with diabetes (72.9 ± 5.6 years old) and a control group of 19 participants with diabetes (73.2 ± 5.4 years old). Both groups received health education on diabetes for 50 min/week for 8 weeks. The experimental group practiced an additional balance exercise program for 60 min, two times a week. The exercise training was performed two times per week for 8 weeks. Results were evaluated by both static and dynamic balance and trunk proprioception. Postural sway significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the one-leg stance test significantly increased (P < 0.05), and dynamic balance from the Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Timed Up and Go test, and 10-m walking time improved significantly after balance exercise (P < 0.05). Trunk repositioning errors also decreased with training (P < 0.05). The balance exercise program improved balance and trunk proprioception. These results suggested that a balance exercise is suitable for individuals with diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Modulation of proprioceptive inflow when initiating a step influences postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Ruget, Hélène; Blouin, Jean; Coyle, Thelma; Mouchnino, Laurence

    2010-03-01

    A synergistic inclination of the whole body towards the supporting leg is required when producing a stepping movement. It serves to shift the centre of mass towards the stance foot. While the importance of sensory information in the setting of this postural adjustment is undisputed, it is currently unknown the extent to which proprioceptive afferences (Ia) give rise to postural regulation during stepping movement when the availability of other sensory information relying on static linear acceleration (gravity) is no longer sensed in microgravity. We tested this possibility asking subjects to step forward with their eyes closed in normo- and microgravity environments. At the onset of the stepping movement, we vibrated the ankle muscles acting in the lateral direction to induce modification of the afferent inflow (Ia fibres). Vibration-evoked movement (perceived movement) was in the same direction as the forthcoming body shift towards the supporting side (current movement). A control condition was performed without vibration. In both environments, when vibration was applied, the hip shift towards the supporting side decreased. These postural modifications occurred, however, earlier in normogravity before initiating the stepping movement than in microgravity (i.e. during the completion of the stepping movement). Our results suggest that proprioceptive information induced by vibration and afferent inflow related to body movement exaggerated sense of movement. This biased perception led to the postural adjustment decrease. We propose that in both environments, proprioceptive inflow enables the subject to scale the postural adjustments, provided that body motion-induced afferences are present to activate this postural control.

  1. Lower limb proprioception deficits persist following knee replacement surgery despite improvements in knee extension strength.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Menz, Hylton B; Morrow, Adam D; Wee, Elin; Feller, Julian A; Bartlett, John R; Bergman, Neil

    2012-06-01

    Knee pain and disability can persist following knee replacement surgery which may place patients at increased risk of falls. This study investigated the falls risk and the occurrence of falls of people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) before and at 12 months following knee replacement surgery. Thirty-five patients with knee OA were tested prior to undergoing knee replacement surgery and at 12 months following surgery using the short form Physiological Profile Assessment, which incorporates tests of vision, lower limb proprioception, knee extension strength, reaction time and postural sway. Physical activity, number of falls, fear of falling, pain, disability and health-related quality of life were also assessed. No significant differences were found between the number of falls pre- and post-surgery (n.s.), with 48.5 and 40% reporting at least one fall in the 12 months before and following the surgery, respectively. Improvements in knee strength, reaction time and fear of falling were evident following surgery, with no improvement in lower limb proprioception. Self-reported pain, function and stiffness were significantly improved, but health-related quality of life deteriorated following the surgery. The number of falls experienced following knee replacement surgery remained relatively high, which may be attributed to the persistence of impaired lower limb proprioception. Although knee replacement surgery improves function and alleviates pain, people who undergo this procedure may need to engage in rehabilitation following the surgery to reduce the risk of falling. Therapeutic study investigating the result of treatment on patient outcomes, Level IV.

  2. The effect of repetitive passive and active movements on proprioception ability in forearm supination.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ohsung; Lee, Seungwon; Lee, Youngwoo; Seo, Dongkwon; Jung, Sangwoo; Chol, Wonjae

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of repetitive passive movement and repetitive active movement on proprioception in forearm supination. [Subjects] This study had a cross-sectional design. Twenty-three right-handed healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects randomly received both repetitive passive movement and repetitive active movement (repetitive passive/active movement at 120°/s with 60 repetitions over a 0-80° range). Active and passive joint repositioning of all subjects was measured using the error score for position sense, both before and after repositioning intervention. [Results] In the repetitive passive movement test, there was a statistically significant decrease in the pre- versus post-repositioning error scores in the active and passive angle examinations. In the repetitive active movement test, there was a statistically significant increase in pre- versus post-repositioning error scores in the active and passive angle examinations. In the comparison of position sense, there was a statistically significant decrease in both active and passive angle repositioning error scores in repetitive passive movement versus repetitive active movement. [Conclusion] Repetitive passive movement improved the proprioception results for forearm supination, compared to repetitive active movement. Results of this study indicate that repetitive passive movement can be recommended to clinicians for rehabilitation therapy as it provides greater proprioception benefits.

  3. Human upright posture control models based on multisensory inputs; in fast and slow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Ryosuke; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Ota, Jun; Yozu, Arito; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Posture control to maintain an upright stance is one of the most important and basic requirements in the daily life of humans. The sensory inputs involved in posture control include visual and vestibular inputs, as well as proprioceptive and tactile somatosensory inputs. These multisensory inputs are integrated to represent the body state (body schema); this is then utilized in the brain to generate the motion. Changes in the multisensory inputs result in postural alterations (fast dynamics), as well as long-term alterations in multisensory integration and posture control itself (slow dynamics). In this review, we discuss the fast and slow dynamics, with a focus on multisensory integration including an introduction of our study to investigate "internal force control" with multisensory integration-evoked posture alteration. We found that the study of the slow dynamics is lagging compared to that of fast dynamics, such that our understanding of long-term alterations is insufficient to reveal the underlying mechanisms and to propose suitable models. Additional studies investigating slow dynamics are required to expand our knowledge of this area, which would support the physical training and rehabilitation of elderly and impaired persons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Slow-release fertilizers 101

    Treesearch

    Robin Rose

    2002-01-01

    Slow release fertilizers have been in common use within the horticultural industry for decades. Probably the mostly commonly heard of product is Scott's Osmocote which has been around for a quite a long time. However, some time ago slow release fertilizers moved out of the potted greenhouse environment and onto golf courses, suburban lawns and bushes, and orchards...

  5. Proprioceptive ability at the lips and jaw measured using the same psychophysical discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Ellie; Coulson, Susan; Adams, Roger; Croxson, Glen; Waddington, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    In the human face, the muscles and joints that generate movement have different properties. Whereas the jaw is a conventional condyle joint, the facial musculature has neither distinct origin nor insertion points, and the muscles do not contain muscle spindle proprioceptors. This current study aims to compare the proprioceptive ability at the orofacial muscles with that of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in 21 neuro-typical people aged between 18 and 65 years. A novel psychophysical task was devised for use with both structures that involved a fixed 30.5 mm start separation followed by closure onto stimuli of 5, 6, 7, 8 mm diameter. The mean proprioceptive score when using the lips was 0.84 compared to 0.79 at the jaw (p < 0.001), and response error was lower by 0.1 mm. The greater accuracy in discrimination of lip movement is significant because, unlike the muscles controlling the TMJ, the orbicularis oris muscle controlling the lips inserts on to connective tissue and other muscle, and contains no muscle spindles, implying a different more effective, proprioceptive mechanism. Additionally, unlike the lack of correlation previously observed between joints in the upper and lower limbs, at the face the scores from performing the task with the two different structures were significantly correlated (r = 0.5, p = 0.018). These data extend the understanding of proprioception being correlated for the same left and right joints and correlated within the same structure (e.g. ankle dorsiflexion and inversion), to include use-dependant proprioception, with performance in different structures being correlated through extended coordinated use. At the lips and jaw, it is likely that this arises from extensive coordinated use. This informs clinical assessment and suggests a potential for coordinated post-injury training of the lips and jaw, as well as having the potential to predict premorbid function via measurement of the uninjured structure, when monitoring

  6. Effect of pain reduction on postural sway, proprioception, and quadriceps strength in subjects with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, B; Doherty, S; Mockett, S; Doherty, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether alleviation of knee pain influences quadriceps function, proprioceptive acuity, and postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A crossover, within-subject, double blind study design involving 68 subjects with painful knee OA. Each subject received an intra-articular injection into one or both knees (both if symptomatic) of either 5 ml 0.5% bupivacaine or 5 ml 0.9% saline. Two weeks later they received an injection of the alternative agent. Subjects and observer were unaware of the order of injection, which was randomly assigned. Knee pain (100 mm visual analogue scale), static postural sway, knee proprioceptive acuity, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and percentage activation of the quadriceps were assessed immediately before and one hour after each injection. Results: Significant pain reduction was achieved one hour post-bupivacaine (mean difference as a percentage change 56.85, 95% CI 31.01 to 73.65; p<0.001) and post-saline (mean difference as a percentage change 41.94, 95% CI 11.57 to 76.66; p< 0.001), with no significant difference between the two. Both MVC and activation increased significantly post-bupivacaine (mean percentage differences 18.83, 95% CI -31.79 to -0.26, and -11.90, 95% CI -39.53 to 2.97, respectively; both p<0.001) and post-saline (mean percentage differences -7.64, 95% CI -21.96 to 4.73, and -10.71, 95% CI -25.19 to 2.60 respectively; both p<0.001). Proprioception worsened after bupivacaine (mean percentage difference -28.15%, 95% CI -83.47 to 19.74; p=0.009), but there was no effect on postural sway; saline injection had no effects. There was no order effect, and comparison of median percentage changes showed no significant differences between injections for change in MVC, activation, proprioception, or sway. Conclusion: Reduction in knee pain through either peripheral (local anaesthetic) or central (placebo) mechanisms resulted in increased MVC. This increase, however, did

  7. Do people with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) have reduced joint proprioception? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Jerman, Emma; Easton, Victoria; Bacon, Holly; Armon, Kate; Poland, Fiona; Macgregor, Alex J

    2013-11-01

    Joint proprioceptive deficit is documented in a variety of musculoskeletal conditions including osteoarthritis, ligament and meniscal injuries, and individuals with increased joint hypermobility, such as those with Ehlers-Danlos. No systematic reviews have assessed joint proprioception in people with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). This study addresses this to determine whether people with BJHS exhibit reduced joint proprioception, and, if so, whether this is evident in all age groups. The search strategy was conducted on 31st January 2013. The published literature was assessed using the databases: AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Unpublished literature and trial registries were assessed including: OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, the UK National Research Register Archive. All studies comparing the proprioceptive capability of people with and without BJHS were included. Study methodological quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. Meta-analysis techniques were used when study homogeneity permitted. Five studies including 254 people were identified. People with BJHS demonstrated statistically significantly poorer lower limb joint position sense (JPS) (p < 0.001) and threshold detection to movement (p < 0.001) than those without BJHS. The evidence for upper limb proprioceptive difference was less clear, with no statistically significant difference between the cohorts for shoulder JPS (p = 0.10), but a statistically significant difference in finger JPS (p < 0.001). One study which assessed childhood BJHS reported reduced knee proprioceptive capability in those with BJHS (p < 0.001). To conclude, lower limb joint proprioception is reduced in those with BJHS compared to non-BJHS cohorts, whilst unclear in the upper limb.

  8. Proprioceptive performance of bilateral upper and lower limb joints: side-general and site-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2013-05-01

    Superiority of the left upper limb in proprioception tasks performed by right-handed individuals has been attributed to better utilization of proprioceptive information by a non-preferred arm/hemisphere system. However, it is undetermined whether this holds for multiple upper and lower limb joints. Accordingly, the present study tested active movement proprioception at four pairs of upper and lower limb joints, after selecting twelve participants with both strong right arm and right leg preference. A battery of versions of the active movement extent discrimination apparatus were employed to generate the stimuli for movements of different extents at the ankle, knee, shoulder and fingers on the right and left sides of the body, and discrimination scores were derived from participants' responses. Proprioceptive performance on the non-preferred left side was significantly better than the preferred right side at all four joints tested (overall F 1, 11 = 36.36, p < 0.001, partial η (2) = 0.77). In the 8 × 8 matrix formed by all joints, only correlations between the proprioceptive accuracy scores for the right and left sides at the same joint were significant (ankles 0.93, knees 0.89, shoulders 0.87, fingers 0.91, p ≤ 0.001; all others r ≤ 0.40, p ≥ 0.20). The results point to both a side-general effect and a site-specific effect in the integration of proprioceptive information during active movement tasks, whereby the non-preferred limb/hemisphere system is specialized in the utilization of the best proprioceptive sources available at each specific joint, but the combination of sources employed differs between body sites.

  9. Contribution of hip joint proprioception to static and dynamic balance in cerebral palsy: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Balance problems are common in cerebral palsy (CP) but etiology is often uncertain. The classic Romberg test compares ability to maintain standing with eyes open versus closed. Marked instability without vision is a positive test and generally indicates proprioceptive loss. From previous work showing diminished hip joint proprioception in CP, we hypothesized that static and dynamic balance without vision (positive Romberg) would be compromised in CP. Methods Force plate sway and gait velocity data were collected using 3D motion capture on 52 participants, 19 with diplegic CP, 13 with hemiplegic CP, and 20 without disability. Center of mass (COM) and center or pressure (COP) velocity, excursion, and differences between COM and COP in AP and ML directions were computed from static standing trials with eyes open and closed. Mean gait velocity with and without dribble glasses was compared. Hip joint proprioception was quantified as the root mean square of magnitude of limb positioning errors during a hip rotation task with and without view of the limb. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with condition as within-subject (EO, EC) and group as between-subject factors (hemiplegia, diplegia, controls). Sway characteristics and gait speed were correlated with proprioception values. Results Groups with CP had greater sway in standing with eyes open indicating that they had poorer balance than controls, with the deficit relatively greater in the ML compared to AP direction. Contrary to our hypothesis, the decrement with eyes closed did not differ from controls (negative Romberg); however, proprioception error was related to sway parameters particularly for the non-dominant leg. Gait speed was related to proprioception values such that those with worse proprioception tended to walk more slowly. Conclusions Postural instability is present even in those with mild CP and is yet another manifestation of their motor control disorder

  10. Triggering of balance corrections and compensatory strategies in a patient with total leg proprioceptive loss.

    PubMed

    Bloem, B R; Allum, J H J; Carpenter, M G; Verschuuren, J J G M; Honegger, F

    2002-01-01

    Triggering of balance corrections may depend on both leg and trunk proprioceptive inputs. To study this issue and to determine how a total proprioceptive loss in the legs (ToLPL) would affect postural reactions in different directions, we investigated the postural control of a patient with a long-standing dorsal root ganglionopathy. This patient had absent stretch reflexes at the ankle and knee joints, delayed reflexes at the hips, but normal muscle strength. Postural control was probed with support-surface movements driven by two different experimental protocols. The first protocol concentrated on leg muscle responses by varying ankle inputs during pitch plane perturbations. The second protocol focussed on the directional sensitivity of upper body responses using combined roll and pitch tilt perturbations. For both protocols, identical techniques were used to record ankle torques, angular velocities of the upper legs and trunk, and surface EMG from leg, hip and trunk muscles. For the first protocol, pitch plane stance perturbations with three different ankle inputs were imposed by a movable support surface. A simultaneous 4-cm rearward translation and 4-deg toe-up rotation produced an 80-deg/s "enhanced ankle input", a simple toe-up rotation gave a 40-deg/s "normal" ankle input and a simultaneous 4-cm rearward translation and 4-deg "toe-down" rotation yielding a 0-deg/s "nulled ankle input". Responses in the ToLPL patient were compared to those of healthy controls and those of patients with lower-leg proprioceptive loss (LLPL). Following normal and enhanced ankle input perturbations, stretch reflexes were absent in ankle and knee joint muscles of the ToLPL patient. Balance correcting responses in the lower legs were diminished and delayed by some 45 ms. In quadriceps, balance-correcting responses were larger than normal, peaked earlier and were not delayed. During the nulled ankle input condition, the ankle muscle responses in the ToLPL patient were again

  11. Surgical therapy of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (hyperreflexia) in paraplegic patients by sacral deafferentation and implant driven micturition by sacral anterior root stimulation: methods, indications, results, complications, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kutzenberger, J

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injured patients with a suprasacral lesion usually develop a spastic bladder. The neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and the overactive external sphincter cause incontinence and threaten these patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), renal failure and autonomic dysreflexia. All of these severe disturbances may be well managed by sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and implantation of a sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS). Since September 1986 to December 2002, 464 paraplegic patients (220 females, 244 males) received a SDAF-SARS. The SDAF was done intradurally in almost all cases, which means that we used a single operation field to do a two-stages procedure (SDAF and SARS). The results include data on 440 patients with a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (18 months to 18 years) until December 2004. The complete deafferentation was successful in 95.2%. Of these patients, 420 paraplegics use the SARS for voiding, (frequency 4.7 per day) and 401 for defecation (frequency 4.7 per week). Continence was achieved in 364 patients (83%). UTIs decreased from 6.3 per year preoperatively to 1.2 per year postoperatively. Kidney function remained stable. Early complications were 6 CSF leaks and 5 implant infections. Late compli cations included receiver or cable failures and required surgical repair in 44 patients. A step-by-step program for trouble-shooting distinguishes implant failure from myogenic or neurogenic failure. SDAF is able to restore the reservoir function of urinary bladder and makes the patient achieve continence. Autonomic dysreflexia disappeared in most cases. By accurate adjustment of stimulation parameters, it is possible for the patient to have a low resistance micturition. The microsurgical technique requires intensive education. In addition, the therapist should be able to manage late complications.

  12. The Influence of Tai Chi Exercise on Proprioception in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Anna; McAlindon, Timothy; Schmid, Christopher H.; Wang, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Previous long-term observational studies found that Tai Chi practitioners had better knee-joint proprioceptive acuity versus controls in an older population. We evaluated the effects of Tai Chi for knee-joint proprioception in knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods We randomized 40 eligible individuals (age > 55, BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2 with knee pain on most days of the previous month and tibiofemoral OA (K/L grade ≥2) to Tai Chi (10 modified forms from classical Yang style) or to an attention control (stretching and wellness education). The 60 minute intervention sessions occurred twice-weekly for 12 weeks. The knee joint proprioception was measured using a Biometrics™ electrogoniometer with an ADU301 angle display unit during each assessment visit. Three test angles (30, 45 and 60 degrees) were evaluated with each subject in a sitting position taken as neutral (0 degrees). The mean error (absolute angle error) between the actual and replicated angles was calculated for each of the three test angles. The Tai Chi and control groups were compared by intention-to-treat using t-tests. Results The participants had a mean age of 65 y (SD 7.8), a mean disease duration of 10 y (SD 7.6), a mean BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 (SD 4.8), and median K/L grade 4; 75% were female, 70% were white. The participants in the Tai Chi intervention exhibited significantly improved proprioception at 30 degrees, but not at 45 or 60 degrees, at 12 weeks. Patients who continued Tai Chi practice after 12 weeks also reported no significant improvements in knee proprioception at 24 and 48 weeks. Conclusion Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for knee proprioception in people with severe knee OA at a 30 degree test angle immediately following 12 weeks of practice. However, we were unable to demonstrate that Tai Chi has any long-term effects on knee proprioception, nor were we able to find any effects on proprioception at larger test angles (45 and 60 degrees). Standardized and

  13. Slow Earthquakes Triggered by Typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan experiences very high deformation rates, particularly along its eastern margins. To investigate this region, we have started (in 2003) to install several small networks of Sacks-Evertson strainmeters. The initial data from all sites show characteristics of good quality: tidal signals with very high signal to noise ratio and large (~10,000 counts on 24 bit ADC system) amplitudes; strains trending into contraction with rates that decrease exponentially with time and earthquakes clearly recorded. Additionally the instruments have recorded a number of slow strain changes with durations ranging from about an hour up to a few days; we interpret these signals in terms of slow earthquakes. All of the slow events identified to date occur at the times of typhoons passing over or very close to the study area, but not all typhoons are associated with slow strain events (9 typhoons in 2004 were accompanied by 5 slow events). Seismicity for the area deliniates a roughly north-south striking steeply dipping (to the west) zone with reverse slip; the shallowest extent of the zone is just inland. We look for source solutions consistent with that tectonic setting. The slow events exhibit a considerable range of amplitude and complexity; small, short amplitude events have a quite simple and smooth waveform; the longest (2 days) and largest (100 to 350 nanostrain at 3 sites) has waveforms with a lot of structure. The similarity among the stations (located in an ~isosceles triangular array with spacing ~10 km and 4 km) is indicative of rupture propagation of a slow slip source (equivalent magnitude about 5). We are able to match the essential character of the data with a very simple model of a downward propagating line source with uniform slip; the largest slow event appears to be comprised of 3 sub-events all starting at a depth of ~3 km with the final sub-event propagating to a depth ~10 km. Typhoon activity produces a large increase in short period (~sec) energy so it is not

  14. Vibrotactile stimulation of fast-adapting cutaneous afferents from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Mildren, Robyn L; Bent, Leah R

    2016-04-15

    It has previously been shown that cutaneous sensory input from across a broad region of skin can influence proprioception at joints of the hand. The present experiment tested whether cutaneous input from different skin regions across the foot can influence proprioception at the ankle joint. The ability to passively match ankle joint position (17° and 7° plantar flexion and 7° dorsiflexion) was measured while cutaneous vibration was applied to the sole (heel, distal metatarsals) or dorsum of the target foot. Vibration was applied at two different frequencies to preferentially activate Meissner's corpuscles (45 Hz, 80 μm) or Pacinian corpuscles (255 Hz, 10 μm) at amplitudes ∼3 dB above mean perceptual thresholds. Results indicated that cutaneous input from all skin regions across the foot could influence joint-matching error and variability, although the strongest effects were observed with heel vibration. Furthermore, the influence of cutaneous input from each region was modulated by joint angle; in general, vibration had a limited effect on matching in dorsiflexion compared with matching in plantar flexion. Unlike previous results in the upper limb, we found no evidence that Pacinian input exerted a stronger influence on proprioception compared with Meissner input. Findings from this study suggest that fast-adapting cutaneous input from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint in a passive joint-matching task. These results indicate that there is interplay between tactile and proprioceptive signals originating from the foot and ankle.

  15. Vibrotactile stimulation of fast-adapting cutaneous afferents from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    It has previously been shown that cutaneous sensory input from across a broad region of skin can influence proprioception at joints of the hand. The present experiment tested whether cutaneous input from different skin regions across the foot can influence proprioception at the ankle joint. The ability to passively match ankle joint position (17° and 7° plantar flexion and 7° dorsiflexion) was measured while cutaneous vibration was applied to the sole (heel, distal metatarsals) or dorsum of the target foot. Vibration was applied at two different frequencies to preferentially activate Meissner's corpuscles (45 Hz, 80 μm) or Pacinian corpuscles (255 Hz, 10 μm) at amplitudes ∼3 dB above mean perceptual thresholds. Results indicated that cutaneous input from all skin regions across the foot could influence joint-matching error and variability, although the strongest effects were observed with heel vibration. Furthermore, the influence of cutaneous input from each region was modulated by joint angle; in general, vibration had a limited effect on matching in dorsiflexion compared with matching in plantar flexion. Unlike previous results in the upper limb, we found no evidence that Pacinian input exerted a stronger influence on proprioception compared with Meissner input. Findings from this study suggest that fast-adapting cutaneous input from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint in a passive joint-matching task. These results indicate that there is interplay between tactile and proprioceptive signals originating from the foot and ankle. PMID:26823342

  16. Dynamic proprioceptive target matching behavior in the upper limb: effects of speed, task difficulty and arm/hemisphere asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2009-06-08

    Although proprioception consists of static (i.e. position) and dynamic (i.e. movement) components, most studies regarding the matching of proprioceptive targets have focused only on position. Further, these position-matching studies have recently indicated that proprioceptive ability is influenced by several factors including task difficulty and arm preference. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to quantify the matching of dynamic proprioceptive target arm movements under different matching conditions. Using torque motor-driven manipulanda, 11 blindfolded, right-handed adults experienced triangular velocity profiles at 2 different peak speeds (30 degrees /s or 60 degrees /s) with the preferred and non-preferred elbow. Subjects then matched the dynamics of these target movements with either the same (ipsilateral remembered) or opposite (contralateral remembered) elbow. Matching errors were generally larger for the more difficult, contralateral remembered versus ipsilateral remembered task, and for greater target speed conditions. One arm difference was found indicating a non-preferred arm advantage for the matching of average target acceleration in the ipsilateral remembered condition. Overall, these results demonstrate that dynamic proprioceptive feedback-matching performance is influenced by several factors including peak speed, task difficulty and limb preference.

  17. Ankle Proprioception-Associated Gait Patterns in Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Deshpande, Nandini; Studenski, Stephanie; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-11-01

    Ankle proprioception training has been found to improve balance-related gait disorders; however, the relationship between ankle proprioception and specific gait patterns in older adults with and without impaired balance has not been systematically examined. This study characterizes gait patterns of 230 older adults age 60-95 yr evaluated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging gait laboratory with (n = 82) and without impaired balance (inability to successfully complete a narrow walk) and examines ankle proprioception performance. Participants with impaired balance had a higher angle threshold for perceiving ankle movement than those without impaired balance even after controlling for the substantial age difference between groups (P = 0.017). Gait speed, stride length, hip and ankle range of motion, and mechanical work expenditure from the knee and ankle were associated with ankle proprioception performance (P < 0.050 for all) in the full sample, but these associations were evident only in participants with impaired balance in stratified analysis. Ankle proprioception in older persons with balance impairment may play a role in balance-related gait disorders and should be targeted for intervention.

  18. A realistic neural-network simulation of both slow and quick phase components of the guinea pig VOR.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Andrew D; Gilchrist, Darrin P D; Burgess, Ann M; Curthoys, Ian S

    2003-04-01

    A realistic neural-network model was constructed to simulate production of both the slow-phase and quick-phase components of vestibular nystagmus by incorporating a quick-phase pathway into a previous model of the slow phase. The neurons in the network were modelled by multicompartmental Hodgkin-Huxley-style spiking neurons based on known responses and projections of physiologically identified vestibular neurons. The modelling used the GENESIS software package. The slow-phase network consisted of ganglion and medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons; the latter were constructed using biophysical models of MVN type A and B neurons. The quick-phase network contained several types of bursting cells which have been shown to have major roles in the generation of the quick phase: burster-driver neurons, long-lead burst neurons, pause neurons, excitatory burst neurons and inhibitory burst neurons. Comparison of the output neural responses from the model with guinea pig behavioural responses from the companion paper showed consistency between model and animal data for neuron firing patterns, maximal firing rates, and timing, duration and number of quick phases. Comparisons were made for stable head input and for sinusoidal angular stimuli at a range of frequencies from 0.1 to 2 Hz. Except for data at 0.1 Hz, where the simulation produced one more quick phase per half cycle than the animal data, the number of quick phases was consistent between the model and the animal data. The model was also used to simulate the effects both of unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) and of vestibular compensation after UVD, and the responses in the modelled MVN neurons were affected in a way similar to those measured in guinea pig MVN neurons: the number of quick phases and their timing changed in a similar fashion to that observed in behavioural data.

  19. Perovskite photovoltaics: Slow recombination unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Jacques-E.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most salient features of hybrid lead halide perovskites is the extended lifetime of their photogenerated charge carriers. This property has now been shown experimentally to originate from a slow, thermally activated recombination process.

  20. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  1. Slow light in flight imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kali; Little, Bethany; Gariepy, Genevieve; Henderson, Robert; Howell, John; Faccio, Daniele

    2017-02-01

    Slow-light media are of interest in the context of quantum computing and enhanced measurement of quantum effects, with particular emphasis on using slow light with single photons. We use light-in-flight imaging with a single-photon avalanche diode camera array to image in situ pulse propagation through a slow-light medium consisting of heated rubidium vapor. Light-in-flight imaging of slow-light propagation enables direct visualization of a series of physical effects, including simultaneous observation of spatial pulse compression and temporal pulse dispersion. Additionally, the single-photon nature of the camera allows for observation of the group velocity of single photons with measured single-photon fractional delays greater than 1 over 1 cm of propagation.

  2. The Effect of Instability Training on Knee Joint Proprioception and Core Strength

    PubMed Central

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Ak, Emre; Özdemir, Recep Ali; Korkusuz, Feza; Behm, David G

    2012-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating increased trunk activation under unstable conditions, it is not known whether this increased activation would translate into meaningful trunk strength with a prolonged training program. Additionally, while balance-training programs have been shown to improve stability, their effect on specific joint proprioception is not clear. Thus the objective of this study was to examine training adaptations associated with a 10-week instability-training program. Participants were tested pre- and post-training for trunk extension and flexion strength and knee proprioception. Forty-three participants participated in either a 10-week (3 days per week) instability-training program using Swiss balls and body weight as resistance or a control group (n = 17). The trained group increased (p < 0. 05) trunk extension peak torque/body weight (23.6%) and total work output (20.1%) from pre- to post-training while the control group decreased by 6.8% and 6.7% respectively. The exercise group increased their trunk flexion peak torque/body weight ratios by 18.1% while the control group decreased by 0.4%. Knee proprioception (combined right and left joint repositioning) improved 44.7% from pre- to post-training (p = 0.0006) and persisted (21.5%) for 9 months post-training. In addition there was a side interaction with the position sense of the right knee at 9 months showing 32.1% (p = 0.03) less deviation from the reference angle than the right knee during pre-testing. An instability-training program using Swiss balls with body weight as resistance can provide prolonged improvements in joint proprioception and core strength in previously untrained individuals performing this novel training stress which would contribute to general health. Key pointsAlthough traditional free weight resistance exercises have been recommended as most beneficial for improving strength and power in athletes (Behm et al., 2010b), an IT program using Swiss balls and body

  3. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  4. Ankle joint proprioception and passive mechanical properties of the calf muscles after an Achilles tendon rupture: a comparison with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Larsen, Brian T; McNair, Peter J; Cronin, John

    2004-03-01

    To examine if ankle joint proprioception, passive stiffness, and torque relaxation responses of the involved and uninvolved limbs of persons with a previous history of an Achilles tendon rupture were different from matched controls. Quasi-experimental mixed design. The influence of an Achilles tendon rupture on the proprioceptive and kinetic performance of the involved and uninvolved ankle is not known. Twenty persons (mean age, 44.8 years) with a unilateral rupture and 20 matched controls (mean age, 44.2 years) volunteered. Proprioception was tested with a position-matching protocol from which absolute errors were quantified. A dynamometer was used to measure ankle joint angle and passive torque from which stiffness and torque relaxation were calculated. Proprioception absolute errors for the involved and uninvolved limbs of the experimental group were 27% and 31% greater respectively, than values for the control group. Torque relaxation values were greater in the involved limb versus the uninvolved limb or the control group (P=0.003-0.04). In conclusion, participants with a previous history of an Achilles tendon rupture display proprioception deficits in both limbs and greater torque relaxation in the involved limb in comparison to matched controls. Bilateral deficits in ankle joint proprioception, as reported in this study, suggest the uninvolved limb may not serve as an effective control and because proprioception deficits influence some functional tests, Achilles tendon rupture patients may benefit from proprioception training.

  5. Sensory-specific balance training in older adults: effect on proprioceptive reintegration and cognitive demands.

    PubMed

    Westlake, Kelly P; Culham, Elsie G

    2007-10-01

    Age-related changes in the ability to adjust to alterations in sensory information contribute to impaired postural stability. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of sensory-specific balance training on proprioceptive reintegration. The subjects of this study were 36 older participants who were healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to a balance exercise group (n=17) or a falls prevention education group (n=19). The primary outcome measure was the center-of-pressure (COP) velocity change score. This score represented the difference between COP velocity over 45 seconds of quiet standing and each of six 5-second intervals following proprioceptive perturbation through vibration with or without a secondary cognitive task. Clinical outcome measures included the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. Assessments were conducted at baseline, postintervention, and at an 8-week follow-up. Following the exercise intervention, there was less destabilization within the first 5 seconds following vibration with or without a secondary task than there was at baseline or in the falls prevention education group. These training effects were not maintained at the 8-week follow-up. Postintervention improvements also were seen on the FAB Scale and were maintained at follow-up. No changes in ABC Scale scores were identified in the balance exercise group, but ABC Scale scores indicated reduced balance confidence in the falls prevention education group postintervention. The results of this study support short-term enhanced postural responses to proprioceptive reintegration following a sensory-specific balance exercise program.

  6. On the contributions of vision and proprioception to the representation of hand-near targets.

    PubMed

    Brown, Liana E; Marlin, Matthew C; Morrow, Sarah

    2015-01-15

    Performance is often improved when targets are presented in space near the hands rather than far from the hands. Performance in hand-near space may be improved because participants can use proprioception from the nearby limb and hand to provide a narrower and more resolute frame of reference. An equally compelling alternative is that targets appearing near the hand fall within the receptive fields of visual-tactile bimodal cells, recruiting them to assist in the visual representation of targets that appear near but not far from the hand. We distinguished between these two alternatives by capitalizing on research showing that vision and proprioception have differential effects on the precision of target representation (van Beers RJ, Sittig AC, Denier van der Gon JJ. Exp Brain Res 122: 367-377, 1998). Participants performed an in-to-center reaching task to an array of central target locations with their right hand, while their left hand rested near (beneath) or far from the target array. Reaching end-point accuracy, variability, time, and speed were assessed. We predicted that if proprioception contributes to the representation of hand-near targets, then error variability in depth will be smaller in the hand-near condition than in the hand-far condition. By contrast, if vision contributes to the representation of hand-near targets, then error variability along the lateral dimension will be smaller in the hand-near than in the hand-far condition. Our results showed that the placement of the hand near the targets reduced end-point error variability along the lateral dimension only. The results suggest that hand-near targets are represented with greater visual resolution than far targets.

  7. Correlation study of knee joint proprioception test results using common test methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Li, Yan-Xia; Liu, Wei-Tong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To study the correlation of the results obtained from different proprioception test methods, namely, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method, and the force sense reproduction method, performed on the same subjects' knees. [Subjects and Methods] Different proprioception test methods, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method were used to test the knees of 30 healthy young men. [Results] Correlations were found in the following descending order from strong to weak: the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the force sense reproduction method (correlation coefficient of 0.41), the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the motion minimum threshold measurement method (correlation coefficient of 0.29), the correlation between the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduce method (correlation coefficient of 0.15). [Conclusion] No correlation was found among the results obtained using the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method. Therefore, no correlation was found among the position sense, the motion sense and the force sense represented by these methods. Using the results of only one of the test methods to represent proprioception is one-sided. Force sensation depends more on the sensory input of information from the Golgi tendon organs, motion sense depends more on the input information of the muscle spindles, and position sense relies on the double input information of the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs.

  8. Processing of proprioceptive and vestibular body signals and self-transcendence in Ashtanga yoga practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Francesca; David, Nicole; Aglioti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    In the rod and frame test (RFT), participants are asked to set a tilted visual linear marker (i.e., a rod), embedded in a square, to the subjective vertical, irrespective of the surrounding frame. People not influenced by the frame tilt are defined as field-independent, while people biased in their rod verticality perception are field-dependent. Performing RFT requires the integration of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals with the latter accounting for field-dependency. Studies indicate that motor experts in body-related, balance-improving disciplines tend to be field-independent, i.e., better at verticality perception, suggesting that proprioceptive and vestibular expertise acquired by such exercise may weaken the influence of irrelevant visual signals. What remains unknown is whether the effect of body-related expertise in weighting perceptual information might also be mediated by personality traits, in particular those indexing self-focusing abilities. To explore this issue, we tested field-dependency in a class of body experts, namely yoga practitioners and in non-expert participants. Moreover we explored any link between performance on RFT and self-transcendence (ST), a complex personality construct, which refers to tendency to experience spiritual feelings and ideas. As expected, yoga practitioners (i) were more accurate in assessing the rod's verticality on the RFT, and (ii) expressed significantly higher ST. Interestingly, the performance in these two tests was negatively correlated. More specifically, when asked to provide verticality judgments, highly self-transcendent yoga practitioners were significantly less influenced by a misleading visual context. Our results suggest that being highly self-transcendent may enable yoga practitioners to optimize verticality judgment tasks by relying more on internal (vestibular and proprioceptive) signals coming from their own body, rather than on exteroceptive, visual cues. PMID:25278866

  9. Haptic discrimination of object shape in humans: contribution of cutaneous and proprioceptive inputs.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Julien; Lamarre, Yves; Chapman, C Elaine

    2002-07-01

    Using two-dimensional (2D) angles composed of two straight, 8-cm-long arms that formed an angle, we investigated the importance of cutaneous feedback from the exploring index finger, and proprioceptive feedback from the shoulder (scanning movements made with the outstretched arm), to the human ability to discriminate small differences in the angles. Using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, subjects identified the larger angle in each pair explored (standard angle, 90 degrees; comparison angles, 91 degrees to 103 degrees). Subjects were tested under four experimental conditions: (1) active touch (reference condition); (2) active touch with digital anaesthesia; (3) passive touch (a computer-controlled device displaced the angle under the subject's immobile digit); and (4) passive touch with digital anaesthesia. When only proprioceptive feedback from the shoulder was available (condition 2), there was a significant increase in discrimination threshold, from 4.0 degrees in the reference condition (condition 1) to 7.2 degrees, indicating that cutaneous feedback from the exploring digit contributed to task performance. When only cutaneous feedback from the finger was available (condition 3), there was also a significant increase in threshold from 4.2 degrees in the active condition to 8.7 degrees. This suggested that proprioceptive feedback from the shoulder, potentially from a variety of deep (muscle and joint) but also cutaneous receptors, contributed to the ability to discriminate small changes in 2D angles. When both sources of feedback were eliminated (condition 4), subjects were unable to discriminate even the largest difference presented (13 degrees). The results suggest that this sensory task is truly an integrative task drawing on sensory information from two different submodalities and so, following the definition of Gibson, is haptic in nature. The results are discussed in relation to the potential neural mechanisms that might underlie a task that

  10. Neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture in pilots with and without neck pain history.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Clark, Nicholas C; Smalley, Brian W; Wirt, Michael D; Lephart, Scott M

    2014-05-01

    Neck pain (NP) is common among military helicopter pilots. Older age and more flight-hours have been associated with pilots with a history of NP. However, modifiable neuromuscular and musculoskeletal characteristics such as neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture have rarely been investigated in military helicopter pilots with a history of NP. The purpose of the study was to compare demographics, flight characteristics, physical fitness information, neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture between helicopter pilots with and without a history of NP. A total of 27 Army helicopter pilots with NP in the past 12 mo (pain group) were matched based on age with pilots without a history of NP (nonpain group). All pilots had flown at least 100 h in the past 12 mo and were cleared for flight and physical training. All pilots completed a battery of laboratory testing: neck proprioception, neck and scapular muscular strength, neck active range-of-motion (ROM), forward head and shoulder posture, and pectoralis minor length. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences between groups. The pain group had significantly less cervical extension (63.7 +/- 8.5 degrees) and rotation ROM (R rotation: 67.7 +/- 8.8 degrees; L rotation: 67.4 +/- 9.0 degrees) when compared to the nonpain group (extension: 68.3 +/- 7.4 degrees; R rotation: 73.4 +/- 7.4 degrees; L rotation: 72.9 +/- 6.8 degrees). No significant differences were found for other variables. The results demonstrate less neck active ROM in pilots with a history of NP. Operating a helicopter with limited neck ROM or NP may negatively impact flight safety and force readiness. Continued research is warranted.

  11. Experimental muscle pain produces central modulation of proprioceptive signals arising from jaw muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Capra, N F; Ro, J Y

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection with hypertonic saline, a well-established experimental model for muscle pain, on central processing of proprioceptive input from jaw muscle spindle afferents. Fifty-seven cells were recorded from the medial edge of the subnucleus interpolaris (Vi) and the adjacent parvicellular reticular formation from 11 adult cats. These cells were characterized as central units receiving jaw muscle spindle input based on their responses to electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, muscle palpation and jaw stretch. Forty-five cells, which were successfully tested with 5% hypertonic saline, were categorized as either dynamic-static (DS) (n=25) or static (S) (n=20) neurons based on their responses to different speeds and amplitudes of jaw movement. Seventy-six percent of the cells tested with an ipsilateral injection of hypertonic saline showed a significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during opening and/or holding phases. The most remarkable saline-induced change was a significant reduction of MFR during the hold phase in S units (100%, 18/18 modulated). Sixty-nine percent of the DS units (11/16 modulated) also showed significant changes in MFRs limited to the hold phase. However, in the DS neurons, the MFRs increased in seven units and decreased in four units. Finally, five DS neurons showed significant changes of MFRs during both opening and holding phases. Injections of isotonic saline into the ipsilateral masseter muscle had little effect, but hypertonic saline injections made into the contralateral masseter muscle produced similar results to ipsilateral injections with hypertonic saline. These results unequivocally demonstrate that intramuscular injection with an algesic substance, sufficient to produce muscle pain, produces significant changes in the proprioceptive properties of the jaw movement-related neurons. Potential mechanisms involved in saline-induced changes in the

  12. Processing of proprioceptive and vestibular body signals and self-transcendence in Ashtanga yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Francesca; David, Nicole; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    In the rod and frame test (RFT), participants are asked to set a tilted visual linear marker (i.e., a rod), embedded in a square, to the subjective vertical, irrespective of the surrounding frame. People not influenced by the frame tilt are defined as field-independent, while people biased in their rod verticality perception are field-dependent. Performing RFT requires the integration of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals with the latter accounting for field-dependency. Studies indicate that motor experts in body-related, balance-improving disciplines tend to be field-independent, i.e., better at verticality perception, suggesting that proprioceptive and vestibular expertise acquired by such exercise may weaken the influence of irrelevant visual signals. What remains unknown is whether the effect of body-related expertise in weighting perceptual information might also be mediated by personality traits, in particular those indexing self-focusing abilities. To explore this issue, we tested field-dependency in a class of body experts, namely yoga practitioners and in non-expert participants. Moreover we explored any link between performance on RFT and self-transcendence (ST), a complex personality construct, which refers to tendency to experience spiritual feelings and ideas. As expected, yoga practitioners (i) were more accurate in assessing the rod's verticality on the RFT, and (ii) expressed significantly higher ST. Interestingly, the performance in these two tests was negatively correlated. More specifically, when asked to provide verticality judgments, highly self-transcendent yoga practitioners were significantly less influenced by a misleading visual context. Our results suggest that being highly self-transcendent may enable yoga practitioners to optimize verticality judgment tasks by relying more on internal (vestibular and proprioceptive) signals coming from their own body, rather than on exteroceptive, visual cues.

  13. Impact of proprioception during the oral phase on initiating the swallowing reflex.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hikaru; Saitoh, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that proprioceptive signals during the oral phase play a pivotal role in the initiation of pharyngeal phase during volitional swallowing. Therefore, we tested if swallowing could be modified by changing the amount of proprioceptive feedback from a number of different receptors while holding a food bolus in the mouth and clenching. Basic research. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings of the masticatory muscles were obtained during volitional swallowing movements from seven healthy adults with no clinical history of swallowing difficulties. The swallowing procedure involved holding 5 ml of jelly on the tongue before swallowing it completely, according to visual cues on a computer display. Initiation of the swallowing reflex was detected by an anterior shift of the thyroid cartilage using a laser displacement sensor and by submental sEMG signals. To vary the proprioceptive input, the participants were instructed to occlude their teeth at various intensities (weak, intermediate, and strong) while holding the 5-ml jelly bolus on the tongue. Rectified and integrated sEMG (iEMG) signals obtained from the submental area showed two upward deflections. Contractile forces of the masseter muscles showed significant negative values for Pearson correlation coefficient against time intervals from the onset of the second submental iEMG deflection to the onset of the anterior shift of the thyroid cartilage in six of the seven participants (average -0.534, standard deviation 0.176). Contractile forces of the masseter muscles during occlusion tended to correlate negatively with electromechanical delays on suprahyoid muscle contraction. NA Laryngoscope, 126:1595-1599, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. On the contributions of vision and proprioception to the representation of hand-near targets

    PubMed Central

    Marlin, Matthew C.; Morrow, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Performance is often improved when targets are presented in space near the hands rather than far from the hands. Performance in hand-near space may be improved because participants can use proprioception from the nearby limb and hand to provide a narrower and more resolute frame of reference. An equally compelling alternative is that targets appearing near the hand fall within the receptive fields of visual-tactile bimodal cells, recruiting them to assist in the visual representation of targets that appear near but not far from the hand. We distinguished between these two alternatives by capitalizing on research showing that vision and proprioception have differential effects on the precision of target representation (van Beers RJ, Sittig AC, Denier van der Gon JJ. Exp Brain Res 122: 367–377, 1998). Participants performed an in-to-center reaching task to an array of central target locations with their right hand, while their left hand rested near (beneath) or far from the target array. Reaching end-point accuracy, variability, time, and speed were assessed. We predicted that if proprioception contributes to the representation of hand-near targets, then error variability in depth will be smaller in the hand-near condition than in the hand-far condition. By contrast, if vision contributes to the representation of hand-near targets, then error variability along the lateral dimension will be smaller in the hand-near than in the hand-far condition. Our results showed that the placement of the hand near the targets reduced end-point error variability along the lateral dimension only. The results suggest that hand-near targets are represented with greater visual resolution than far targets. PMID:25339706

  15. The combined effects of action observation and passive proprioceptive training on adaptive motor learning.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuming; Bao, Shancheng; Wang, Jinsung

    2016-09-07

    Sensorimotor adaptation can be induced by action observation, and also by passive training. Here, we investigated the effect of a protocol that combined action observation and passive training on visuomotor adaptation, by comparing it with the effect of action observation or passive training alone. Subjects were divided into five conditions during the training session: (1) action observation, in which the subjects watched a video of a model who adapted to a novel visuomotor rotation; (2) proprioceptive training, in which the subject's arm was moved passively to target locations that were associated with desired trajectories; (3) combined training, in which the subjects watched the video of a model during a half of the session and experienced passive movements during the other half; (4) active training, in which the subjects adapted actively to the rotation; and (5) a control condition, in which the subjects did not perform any task. Following that session, all subjects adapted to the same visuomotor rotation. Results showed that the subjects in the combined training condition adapted to the rotation significantly better than those in the observation or proprioceptive training condition, although their performance was not as good as that of those who adapted actively. These findings suggest that although a protocol that combines action observation and passive training consists of all the processes involved in active training (error detection and correction, effector-specific and proprioceptively based reaching movements), these processes in that protocol may work differently as compared to a protocol in which the same processes are engaged actively. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus in rat whisker pad proprioception

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trigeminal proprioception related to rodent macrovibrissae movements is believed to involve skin receptors on the whisker pad because pad muscles operate without muscle spindles. This study was aimed to investigate in rats whether the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu), which provides proprioceptive feedback for chewing muscles, may be also involved in whisker pad proprioception. Methods Two retrograde tracers, Dil and True Blue Chloride, were injected into the mystacial pad and the masseter muscle on the same side of deeply anesthetized rats to label the respective projecting sensory neurons. This double-labeling technique was used to assess the co-innervation of both structures by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu). In a separate group of anesthetized animals, the spontaneous electrical activities of TMnu neurons were analyzed by extracellular recordings during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrissae. Mesencephalic neurons (TMne) were previously identified by their responses to masseter muscle stretching. Changes in TMne spontaneous electrical activities, analyzed under baseline conditions and during whisking movements, were statistically evaluated using Student's t-test for paired observations. Results Neuroanatomical experiments revealed different subpopulations of trigeminal mesencephalic neurons: i) those innervating the neuromuscular spindles of the masseter muscle, ii) those innervating the mystacial pad, and iii) those innervating both structures. Extracellular recordings made during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrisae showed that whisking neurons similar to those observed in the trigeminal ganglion were located in the TMnu. These neurons had different patterns of activation, which were dependent on the type of spontaneous macrovibrissae movement. In particular, their spiking activity tonically increased during fan-like movements of the vibrissae and showed phasic bursting during rhythmic whisking. Furthermore, the same

  17. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

  18. Can pain influence the proprioception and the motor behavior in subjects with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela C Silveira; Barboza, Saulo Delfino; da Costa, Franciele Dias; Cabral, Monnique Ponciano; Silva, Vanessa Martins Pereira; Dionisio, Valdeci Carlos

    2014-09-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease, usually characterized by pain, which is associated with reduced muscle strength, disability and progressive loss of function. However, the pain influence over proprioception and motor behaviour remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of the study was to identify the levels of pain, the proprioceptive acuity and the pattern of muscle recruitment during stair ascent and descent in elderly patients with mild and moderate osteoarthritis (OA) compared to healthy subjects. The study participants included 11 healthy elderly subjects (7 women and 4 men) and 31 elderly patients with knee OA (19 women