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Sample records for propulsion laboratory pasadena

  1. Public health assessment for Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA), Pasadena, Los Angeles County, California, Region 9: CERCLIS number CA9800013030. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-05

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located in Pasadena, California, northeast of Interstate 210. As a result of former site activities, chemicals, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOC) and perchlorate (a component of solid rocket fuel), used at JPL have been released to soil and groundwater. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted site visits in 1997 to assess the potential for public health hazards. During these visits, ATSDR identified two pathways where people could potentially be exposed to site-related contaminants: (1) exposure to contaminated groundwater and (2) exposure to contaminated soil. ATSDR also identified the following primary community concerns: (1) future groundwater and drinking water quality and (2) increased incidence of Hodgkin`s disease. ATSDR determined that VOC-contaminated groundwater does not present a past, present, or future public health to JPL employees or nearby residents. ATSDR also determined that exposure, if any, to contaminated soils associated with the JPL site and in the Arroyo Secco near the JPL boundary is unlikely to cause either short-term or long-term adverse health effects to employees and the public.

  2. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  3. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  4. Establishing The Pasadena Seismological Laboratory: An Adventure in Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, M. H.

    2002-05-01

    The 1906 San Francisco earthquake jolted Berkeley geologist Harry O. Wood (1879-1958) into a lifetime of seismological research that included the establishment of a seismic monitoring network in southern California, the co-invention of a seismograph capable of measuring short-period earthquakes, and the implementation of a public-safety campaign. None of these initiatives would have been possible without the support of the Carnegie Institution, a Washington DC-based research organization that supported not only exceptional individuals (as founder Andrew Carnegie had stipulated), but also large-scale, collaborative investigations. Wood published his plan for a "western United States" earthquake research program in 1916, but it was not until he moved to Washington during World War I that he made contacts that transformed his dream into a reality. While working at the National Research Council, Wood shared his vision with astronomer George Ellery Hale, geologist Arthur L. Day and, finally, Carnegie president John C. Merriam. Merriam was a Californian, a geologist, and a strong proponent of collaborative science. In 1921, the Carnegie Advisory Committee on Seismology - the first organization "of this magnitude" in American research - was formed. Initially, the program operated from an office at the Mount Wilson Observatory, where Wood was in charge of the daily operations. Then, in 1926, a joint venture with the California Institute of Technology was launched. Located in the mountains west of Pasadena, the Seismological Laboratory coordinated a range of scientific efforts. By 1930, thirteen American cities had Wood-Anderson seismographs in place, quantities of data had been acquired, new fault zones had been identified, and Beno Gutenberg and Charles F. Richter had been attracted to the program. Over the years, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and other government agencies also contributed to the effort. In the mid-1930s, the Carnegie Institution transferred the

  5. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  6. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  7. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, located in the foothills near Pasadena, California, is the nation's lead center for the robotic exploration of space. Intense activity in space missions was the hallmark of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a new generation of smaller, less expensive spacecraft were sent out from Earth. From late 1998 to mid-1999, JPL launched a craft testing a futuristic ion engine, an orbiter and lander bound for Mars, a mission to fly by a comet and return a sample of its dust to Earth, a small infrared telescope, and an Earth-circling satellite that uses radar to gauge winds over the oceans. This unprecedented schedule resulted in spectacular achievements, tempered by highly visible mission losses. Weighed together, the successes and failures dramatically underscored the difficulty and risk involved in the unique business of space science and exploration. Among the achievements, the ion-engine-powered Deep Space 1, comet-bound Stardust and Earth-orbiting SeaWinds were joined by such ongoing missions as Mars Global Surveyor, Galileo and Cassini in delivering on their promise and, in some cases, providing surprising new views of space and Earth. At the same time, mission teams were disappointed by the losses of an orbiter and lander at Mars, as well as a small infrared telescope. JPL worked closely with NASA to learn from these experiences and build successful future missions. The Laboratory also achieved a key goal by winning the International Organization of Standards' 'ISO 9001' certification - a standard shared by the world's best engineering organizations. As the year rolled to a close, clocks rolled over from 1999 to 2000. Operations teams at JPL and NASA watched with satisfaction as a major campaign of Year 2000 readiness paid off with no problems among the thousands of computer systems that support the Laboratory's missions. With that auspicious beginning, JPL was positioned to step into the 21st century and embark on even yet unimagined

  8. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, located in the foothills near Pasadena, California, is the nation's lead center for the robotic exploration of space. Intense activity in space missions was the hallmark of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a new generation of smaller, less expensive spacecraft were sent out from Earth. From late 1998 to mid-1999, JPL launched a craft testing a futuristic ion engine, an orbiter and lander bound for Mars, a mission to fly by a comet and return a sample of its dust to Earth, a small infrared telescope, and an Earth-circling satellite that uses radar to gauge winds over the oceans. This unprecedented schedule resulted in spectacular achievements, tempered by highly visible mission losses. Weighed together, the successes and failures dramatically underscored the difficulty and risk involved in the unique business of space science and exploration. Among the achievements, the ion-engine-powered Deep Space 1, comet-bound Stardust and Earth-orbiting SeaWinds were joined by such ongoing missions as Mars Global Surveyor, Galileo and Cassini in delivering on their promise and, in some cases, providing surprising new views of space and Earth. At the same time, mission teams were disappointed by the losses of an orbiter and lander at Mars, as well as a small infrared telescope. JPL worked closely with NASA to learn from these experiences and build successful future missions. The Laboratory also achieved a key goal by winning the International Organization of Standards' 'ISO 9001' certification - a standard shared by the world's best engineering organizations. As the year rolled to a close, clocks rolled over from 1999 to 2000. Operations teams at JPL and NASA watched with satisfaction as a major campaign of Year 2000 readiness paid off with no problems among the thousands of computer systems that support the Laboratory's missions. With that auspicious beginning, JPL was positioned to step into the 21st century and embark on even yet unimagined

  9. Electric Propulsion Laboratory Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-21

    Engineer Paul Reader and his colleagues take environmental measurements during testing of a 20-inch diameter ion engine in a vacuum tank at the Electric Propulsion Laboratory (EPL). Researchers at the Lewis Research Center were investigating the use of a permanent-magnet circuit to create the magnetic field required power electron bombardment ion engines. Typical ion engines use a solenoid coil to create this magnetic field. It was thought that the substitution of a permanent magnet would create a comparable magnetic field with a lower weight. Testing of the magnet system in the EPL vacuum tanks revealed no significant operational problems. Reader found the weight of the two systems was similar, but that the thruster’s efficiency increased with the magnet. The EPL contained a series of large vacuum tanks that could be used to simulate conditions in space. Large vacuum pumps reduced the internal air pressure, and a refrigeration system created the cryogenic temperatures found in space.

  10. Artist's Concept of NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  11. Artist's Concept of NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  12. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown. The cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains, is the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.

    The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation, U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail, and the Landsat Thematic Mapper provided the color. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data and the aerial photography. The image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  13. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown. The cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains, is the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.

    The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation, U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail, and the Landsat Thematic Mapper provided the color. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data and the aerial photography. The image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  14. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) bibliography 39-26 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1984, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications (82-, 83-, 84-series, etc.), in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Program Report (42-series); and (3) articles published in the open literature.

  15. Activities of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Work accomplished by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under contract to NASA in 1985 is described. The work took place in the areas of flight projects, space science, geodynamics, materials science, advanced technology, defense and civil programs, telecommunications systems, and institutional activities.

  16. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Over 500 externally distributed technical reports released during 1981 that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory are listed by primary author. Of the total number of entries, 311 are from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report, and its successor, the Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report.

  17. NDE Activity at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    None, This is a viewgraph outline from an oral presentation. From Intro.: Our speaker will review the NDE technology under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Emphasis will be given to Ultrasonics and application of sensors to space technology. Further, the efforts of JPL in technology transfer to the industry in the area of NDE will be covered.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  19. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Jet propulsion Laboratory (JPL) bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1983, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included. JPL Publication (81-,82-,83-series, etc.), in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment, articles published in the open literature, and articles from the quarterly telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (42-series) are included. Each collection of articles in this class of publication presents a periodic survey of current accomplishments by the Deep Space Network as well as other developments in Earth-based radio technology.

  20. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1988, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report; and articles published in the open literature.

  1. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calender year 1985, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplisment; Articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report; and article published in the open literature.

  2. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 958 externally distributed technical papers released during calendar year 1978, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The publications are indexed by author, subject, publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  3. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    JPL Bibliography 39-28 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calender year 1986, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment, (2) Articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report, and (3) Articles published in the open literature.

  4. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  5. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography includes 1004 technical reports, released during calendar year 1979, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications; (2) articles published in the open literature; and (3) articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report. The publications are indexed by: (1) author, (2) subject, and (3) publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first listed) author. Unless designated otherwise, all publications listed are unclassified.

  6. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    JPL Bibliography 39-33 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1992, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed or managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publication (92-series) in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (42-series) (each collection of articles in this class of publication presents a periodic survey of current accomplishments by the Deep Space Network as well as other developments in Earth-based radio technology); and (3) articles published in the open literature.

  7. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  8. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography cites by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1980, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications (77-, 78-, 79-series, etc.), in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment and can e tailored to wide or limited audiences and be presented in an established standard format or special format to meet unique requirements; (2) articles published in the open literature; and (3) articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network (DSN) Progress Repot (42-series) and its successor, the Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (also 42-series).

  9. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The formalized technical reporting, released January through December 1975, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described and indexed. The following classes of publications are included: (1) technical reports; (2) technical memorandums; (3) articles from bi-monthly Deep Space Network (DSN) progress report; (4) special publications; and (5) articles published in the open literature. The publications are indexed by: (1) author, (2) subject, and (3) publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author. Unless designated otherwise, all publications listed are unclassified.

  10. Refan Engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-10-21

    A refanned Pratt and Whitney JT-8D-109 turbofan engine installed in Cell 4 of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. NASA Lewis’ Refan Program sought to demonstrate that noise reduction modifications could be applied to existing aircraft engines with minimal costs and without diminishing the engine’s performance or integrity. At the time, Pratt and Whitney’s JT-8D turbofans were one of the most widely used engines in the commercial airline industry. The engines powered Boeing’s 727 and 737 and McDonnell Douglas’ DC-9 aircraft. Pratt and Whitney worked with the airline manufacturers on a preliminary study that verified feasibility of replacing the JT-8D’s two-stage fan with a larger single-stage fan. The new fan slowed the engine’s exhaust, which significantly reduced the amount of noise it generated. Booster stages were added to maintain the proper level of airflow through the engine. Pratt and Whitney produced six of the modified engines, designated JT-8D-109, and performed the initial testing. One of the JT-8D-109 engines, seen here, was tested in simulated altitude conditions in NASA Lewis’ Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The Refan engine was ground-tested on an actual aircraft before making a series of flight tests on 727 and DC-9 aircraft in early 1976. The Refan Program reduced the JT-8D’s noise by 50 percent while increasing the fuel efficiency. The retro-fit kits were estimated to cost between $1 million and $1.7 million per aircraft.

  11. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Year 2000 began with an intense period of self-examination for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Late in the previous year, two Mars-bound missions failed as they were arriving at the red planet, disappointing engineers, scientists and the public at large. After a probing series of internal and external reviews, a redesigned Mars program emerged that is intended to be more robust and more tightly coupled to the questions that scientists are attempting to answer. NASA expressed a significant vote of confidence in JPL by assigning an ambitious project to the Laboratory - to design, build and fly twin rovers to Mars in 2003. Among other missions and research programs, the news was more gratifying. Another Mars orbiter completed its first year of mapping operations, gathering more pictures than those collected over the entire missions of the two Viking orbiters. Stalwart spacecraft such as Galileo continued to deliver scientific discoveries, while a new generation of smaller solar system exploration missions got under way. In Earth sciences, a growing array of spaceborne instruments and satellites gave us new perspectives on the home planet, including an imaging radar mission on the Space Shuttle and two JPL instruments that began science operations after their launch on NASA's Terra orbiter in late 1999. In astronomy and physics, a JPL-built camera continued to perform flawlessly on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, offering previously unglimpsed views of the deep universe.

  12. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    If you stepped outdoors on the final evening of 2003 and looked up into the night sky, many celestial events were taking place. A hundred million miles away from Earth, a dust storm swirled across the terracotta peaks and gullies of Mars, as two six-wheeled robots bore down on the planet. They were soon to join two orbital sentries already stationed there. A few hops across the inner solar system, another spacecraft was closing in on a ball of ice and rock spewing forth a hailstorm of dust grains, heated as it swung in toward the Sun. Closer in, two newly lofted space telescopes scanned the skies, their mirrors gathering photons that had crossed the empty vastness of space for billions of years, recording ancient events in unimaginably distant galaxies. And streaking overhead every few minutes directly above our home planet, a handful of satellites was recording the unfolding events of a tropical cyclone off the east coast of Africa and a blizzard that carpeted the northwestern United States. As 2003 drew to a close, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was on the cusp of an extraordinarily busy period, a time when JPL will execute more fly-bys, landings, sample returns and other milestones than at any other time in its history. The exploration we undertake is important for its own sake. And it serves other purposes, none more important than inspiring the next generation of explorers. If the United States wishes to retain its status as a world leader, it must maintain the technological edge of its workforce. What we do here is the stuff of dreams that will inspire a new generation to continue the American legacy of exploration.

  13. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    If you stepped outdoors on the final evening of 2003 and looked up into the night sky, many celestial events were taking place. A hundred million miles away from Earth, a dust storm swirled across the terracotta peaks and gullies of Mars, as two six-wheeled robots bore down on the planet. They were soon to join two orbital sentries already stationed there. A few hops across the inner solar system, another spacecraft was closing in on a ball of ice and rock spewing forth a hailstorm of dust grains, heated as it swung in toward the Sun. Closer in, two newly lofted space telescopes scanned the skies, their mirrors gathering photons that had crossed the empty vastness of space for billions of years, recording ancient events in unimaginably distant galaxies. And streaking overhead every few minutes directly above our home planet, a handful of satellites was recording the unfolding events of a tropical cyclone off the east coast of Africa and a blizzard that carpeted the northwestern United States. As 2003 drew to a close, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was on the cusp of an extraordinarily busy period, a time when JPL will execute more fly-bys, landings, sample returns and other milestones than at any other time in its history. The exploration we undertake is important for its own sake. And it serves other purposes, none more important than inspiring the next generation of explorers. If the United States wishes to retain its status as a world leader, it must maintain the technological edge of its workforce. What we do here is the stuff of dreams that will inspire a new generation to continue the American legacy of exploration.

  14. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Many milestones are celebrated in the business of space exploration, but one of them that arrived this year has particular meaning for us. Half a century ago, on January 31, 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was responsible for creating America's first satellite, Explorer 1, and joined with the Army to launch it into orbit. That makes 2007 the 50th year we have been sending robotic craft from Earth to explore space. No other event before or since has had such a profound effect on JPL's basic identity, setting it on the path to become the world's leader in robotic solar system exploration. It is not lost on historians that Explorer 1, besides being America's first satellite, was also the first spacecraft from any country to deliver scientific results in its case, the discovery of the Van Allen Radiation Belts that surround Earth. Science, of course, has been the prime motivator for all the dozens of missions that we have lofted into space in the half-century since then. JPL has sent spacecraft to every planet in the solar system from Mercury to Neptune, some of them very sophisticated machines. But in one way or another, they all owe their heritage to the 31-pound bullet-shaped probe JPL shot into space in 1958. Although we have ranged far and wide across the solar system, we have a very strong contingent of satellites and instruments dedicated, like Explorer, to the environment of our home planet. JPL missions have been providing much of the data to establish the facts of global warming - most especially, the melting of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past year, JPL and our parent organization, the California Institute of Technology, have created a task force to focus the special capabilities of the Laboratory and campus on ways to better understand the physics of global change. While Earth is a chaotic and dynamic system capable of large natural variations, evidence is mounting that human activities are playing an increasingly important role

  15. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    2009 was truly the year of astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. While the world at large was celebrating the International Year of Astronomy, we were sending more telescopes into space than in any other year, ever. As these missions unfold, the astronomers are sure to change the way we see the universe. One of the newly lofted observatories is on a quest to find planets like our own Earth orbiting other stars. Another is a telescope that gathers infrared light to help discover objects ranging from near-Earth asteroids to galaxies in the deepest universe. We also contributed critical enabling technologies to yet two other telescopes sent into space by our partners in Europe. And astronauts returned to Earth with a JPL-built camera that had captured the Hubble Space Telescope's most memorable pictures over many years. And while it was an epic time for these missions, we were no less busy in our other research specialties. Earth's moon drew much attention from our scientists and engineers, with two JPL instruments riding on lunar orbiters; previously unseen views of shadowed craters were provided by radar imaging conducted with the giant dish antennas of the Deep Space Network, our worldwide communication portal to spacecraft around the solar system. At Mars, our rovers and orbiters were highly productive, as were missions targeting Saturn, comets and the asteroid belt. Here at our home planet, satellites and instruments continued to serve up important information on global climate change. But our main business is, of course, exploring. Many initiatives will keep us busy for years. In 2009, NASA gave approval to start planning a major flagship mission to Jupiter's moon Europa in search of conditions that could host life, working with our partners in Europe. In addition to our prospective Earth science projects, we have full slates of missions in Mars exploration, planetary exploration and space-based astronomy. This year's annual report continues our recent

  16. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Many milestones are celebrated in the business of space exploration, but one of them that arrived this year has particular meaning for us. Half a century ago, on January 31, 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was responsible for creating America's first satellite, Explorer 1, and joined with the Army to launch it into orbit. That makes 2007 the 50th year we have been sending robotic craft from Earth to explore space. No other event before or since has had such a profound effect on JPL's basic identity, setting it on the path to become the world's leader in robotic solar system exploration. It is not lost on historians that Explorer 1, besides being America's first satellite, was also the first spacecraft from any country to deliver scientific results in its case, the discovery of the Van Allen Radiation Belts that surround Earth. Science, of course, has been the prime motivator for all the dozens of missions that we have lofted into space in the half-century since then. JPL has sent spacecraft to every planet in the solar system from Mercury to Neptune, some of them very sophisticated machines. But in one way or another, they all owe their heritage to the 31-pound bullet-shaped probe JPL shot into space in 1958. Although we have ranged far and wide across the solar system, we have a very strong contingent of satellites and instruments dedicated, like Explorer, to the environment of our home planet. JPL missions have been providing much of the data to establish the facts of global warming - most especially, the melting of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past year, JPL and our parent organization, the California Institute of Technology, have created a task force to focus the special capabilities of the Laboratory and campus on ways to better understand the physics of global change. While Earth is a chaotic and dynamic system capable of large natural variations, evidence is mounting that human activities are playing an increasingly important role

  17. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    2009 was truly the year of astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. While the world at large was celebrating the International Year of Astronomy, we were sending more telescopes into space than in any other year, ever. As these missions unfold, the astronomers are sure to change the way we see the universe. One of the newly lofted observatories is on a quest to find planets like our own Earth orbiting other stars. Another is a telescope that gathers infrared light to help discover objects ranging from near-Earth asteroids to galaxies in the deepest universe. We also contributed critical enabling technologies to yet two other telescopes sent into space by our partners in Europe. And astronauts returned to Earth with a JPL-built camera that had captured the Hubble Space Telescope's most memorable pictures over many years. And while it was an epic time for these missions, we were no less busy in our other research specialties. Earth's moon drew much attention from our scientists and engineers, with two JPL instruments riding on lunar orbiters; previously unseen views of shadowed craters were provided by radar imaging conducted with the giant dish antennas of the Deep Space Network, our worldwide communication portal to spacecraft around the solar system. At Mars, our rovers and orbiters were highly productive, as were missions targeting Saturn, comets and the asteroid belt. Here at our home planet, satellites and instruments continued to serve up important information on global climate change. But our main business is, of course, exploring. Many initiatives will keep us busy for years. In 2009, NASA gave approval to start planning a major flagship mission to Jupiter's moon Europa in search of conditions that could host life, working with our partners in Europe. In addition to our prospective Earth science projects, we have full slates of missions in Mars exploration, planetary exploration and space-based astronomy. This year's annual report continues our recent

  18. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  19. Supreme Court Hears Privacy Case Between NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    After NASA put into practice the 2004 Homeland Security Presidential Directive-12, known as HSPD-12, Dennis Byrnes talked to then-NASA administrator Michael Griffin. Byrnes recalls that Griffin told him in 2007 that if he didn’t like the agency's implementation of HSPD-12, he should go to court. That's exactly what Byrnes, an employee of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) working as a senior engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., did. Concerned about prying and open-ended background investigations of federal contractors through NASA's implementation of HSPD-12, he, along with lead plaintiff Robert Nelson and 26 other Caltech employees working at JPL, sued NASA. Following several lower court decisions, including an injunction issued by a U.S. federal appeals court in response to a plaintiff motion, the case made it all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which heard oral arguments on 5 October.

  20. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G; Manatt, Kenneth S; Mowrey, Victoria S; Jackson, Shannon P; Kisor, Adam K; Shevade, Abhijit V; Homer, Margie L

    2004-06-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  1. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  2. Tree Topping Ceremony at NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications. This photo depicts construction workers taking part in a tree topping ceremony as the the final height of the laboratory is framed. The ceremony is an old German custom of paying homage to the trees that gave their lives in preparation of the building site.

  3. Tree Topping Ceremony at NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications. This photo depicts construction workers taking part in a tree topping ceremony as the the final height of the laboratory is framed. The ceremony is an old German custom of paying homage to the trees that gave their lives in preparation of the building site.

  4. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Once or twice in an age, a year comes along that the historians proclaim as an Annus Mirabilis - a year of wonders. For the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2004 was just that sort of time. From beginning to end, it was a nonstop experience of wondrous events in space. Imagine that two robot rovers embark on cross-country rambles across Mars, scrutinizing rocks for signs of past water on the now-arid world. A flagship spacecraft brakes into orbit at Saturn to begin longterm surveillance of the ringed world, preparing to drop a sophisticated probe to the surface of its haze-shrouded largest moon. Another craft makes the closest-ever pass by the nucleus of a comet, collecting sample particles as it goes. Two new space telescopes peer into the depths of the universe far beyond our solar system, viewing stars, nebulas and galaxies in invisible light beyond the spectrum our eyes can see. A pair of instruments is lofted on a NASA Earth-orbiting satellite to monitor air quality and the protective layer of ozone blanketing our home planet. A small probe brings samples of the solar wind to Earth for in-depth study. While JPL was absorbed with all of these ventures on other worlds, NASA and the White House unveiled an ambitious new plan of space exploration. The Vision for Space Exploration announced in January foresees a program of robotic and astronaut missions leading to a human return to the Moon by 2020, and eventual crewed expeditions to Mars. The vision also calls for more robotic missions to the moons of the outer planets; spaceborne observatories that will search for Earth-like planets around other stars and explore the formation and evolution of the universe; and continued study of our home planet. In order to accomplish all of this, NASA must perfect many as-yet-uninvented technologies and space transportation capabilities. JPL has a great deal to bring to this vision. Robotic exploration of Mars will lead the way for missions that will carry women and men to the red

  5. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Once or twice in an age, a year comes along that the historians proclaim as an Annus Mirabilis - a year of wonders. For the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2004 was just that sort of time. From beginning to end, it was a nonstop experience of wondrous events in space. Imagine that two robot rovers embark on cross-country rambles across Mars, scrutinizing rocks for signs of past water on the now-arid world. A flagship spacecraft brakes into orbit at Saturn to begin longterm surveillance of the ringed world, preparing to drop a sophisticated probe to the surface of its haze-shrouded largest moon. Another craft makes the closest-ever pass by the nucleus of a comet, collecting sample particles as it goes. Two new space telescopes peer into the depths of the universe far beyond our solar system, viewing stars, nebulas and galaxies in invisible light beyond the spectrum our eyes can see. A pair of instruments is lofted on a NASA Earth-orbiting satellite to monitor air quality and the protective layer of ozone blanketing our home planet. A small probe brings samples of the solar wind to Earth for in-depth study. While JPL was absorbed with all of these ventures on other worlds, NASA and the White House unveiled an ambitious new plan of space exploration. The Vision for Space Exploration announced in January foresees a program of robotic and astronaut missions leading to a human return to the Moon by 2020, and eventual crewed expeditions to Mars. The vision also calls for more robotic missions to the moons of the outer planets; spaceborne observatories that will search for Earth-like planets around other stars and explore the formation and evolution of the universe; and continued study of our home planet. In order to accomplish all of this, NASA must perfect many as-yet-uninvented technologies and space transportation capabilities. JPL has a great deal to bring to this vision. Robotic exploration of Mars will lead the way for missions that will carry women and men to the red

  6. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The year 2002 brought advances on many fronts in our space exploration ventures. A new orbiter settled in at Mars and delivered tantalizing science results suggesting a vast store of water ice under the planet's surface, a discovery that may have profound consequences for exploring Mars. A long-lived spacecraft made its final fly-bys of Jupiter's moons, while another started its final approach toward Saturn and yet another flew by an asteroid on its way to a comet. A new ocean satellite began science observations, joined in Earth orbit by a pair of spacecraft measuring our home planets gravity field, as well as JPL instruments on NASA and Japanese satellites. A major new infrared observatory and a pair of Mars rovers were readied for launch. All told, JPL is now communicating with 14 spacecraft cast like gems across the velvet expanses of the solar system. It is a far cry from the early 1960's, when JPL engineers made prodigious efforts to get the first planetary explorers off the ground and into space - an achievement of which we were especially mindful this year, as 2002 marked the 40th anniversary of the first successful planetary mission, Mariner 2, which barely reached our closest planetary neighbor, Venus. Added to this anniversary were celebrations surrounding the 25th anniversaries of the launches of Voyagers 1 and 2, two remarkable spacecraft that are still flying and are actively probing the outer realms of the solar system. These events of the past and present provide an occasion for reflection on the remarkable era of exploration that we at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are privileged to be a part of. As 2002 neared its end, the Laboratory had yet another reason for celebration, as a new five-year management contract between NASA and the California Institute of Technology was signed that calls for a closer working relationship with NASA and other NASA centers as a member of the 'One NASA' team. There is a strong emphasis on cost control and management

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Mission Curiosity Rover Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    This stereo image of NASA Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rovert was taken May 26, 2011, in Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  8. CAP - JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CONTAMINATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) is a generalized transient executive analysis computer code which solves realistic mass transport problems in the free molecular flow environment. These transport problems involve mass flux from surface source emission and re-emission, venting, and engine emission. CAP solution capability allows for one-bounce mass reflections if required. CAP was developed to solve thin-film contamination problems in the free molecular flow environment, the intent being to provide a powerful analytic tool for evaluating spacecraft contamination problems. The solution procedure uses an enclosure method based on a lumped-parameter multinodal approach with mass exchange between nodes. Transient solutions are computed by the finite difference Euler method. First-order rate theory is used to represent surface emission and reemission (user care must be taken to insure the problem is appropriate for such behavior), and all surface emission and reflections are assumed diffuse. CAP does not include the effects of post-deposition chemistry or interaction with the ambient atmosphere. CAP reads in a model represented by a multiple-block data stream. CAP allows the user to edit the input data stream and stack sequential editing operations (or cases) in order to make complex changes in behavior (surface temperatures, engine start-up and shut-down, etc.) in a single run if desired. The eight data blocks which make up the input data stream consist of problem control parameters, nodal data (area, temperature, mass, etc.), engine or vent distribution factors (based upon plume definitions), geometric configuration factors (diffuse surface emission), surface capture coefficient tables, source emission rate constant tables, reemission rate constant tables, and partial node to body collapse capability (for deposition rates only). The user must generate this data stream, since neither the problem-specific geometric relationships, the

  9. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A bibliography is presented which describes and indexes by author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during the calender year 1987, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Lab. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) Articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report; and (3) Articles published in the open literature.

  10. Entrance to the NACA's Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1948-08-21

    The sign near the entrance of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory. The name was changed several weeks later to the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in honor of the NACA’s former Director of Aeronautical Research, George W. Lewis. The research laboratory has had five different names since its inception in 1941. The Cleveland laboratory was originally known as the NACA Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory. In 1947 it was renamed the NACA Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory to reflect the expansion of the research activities beyond just engines. Following the death of George Lewis, the name was changed to the NACA Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in September 1948. On October 1, 1958, the lab was incorporated into the new NASA space agency, and it was renamed the NASA Lewis Research Center. Following John Glenn’s flight on the space shuttle, the name was changed again to the NASA Glenn Research Center on March 1, 1999. From his office in Washington DC, George Lewis managed the aeronautical research conducted at the NACA for over 20 years. His most important accomplishment, however, may have been an investigative tour of German research facilities in the fall of 1936. The visit resulted in the broadening of the scope of the NACA’s research and the physical expansion that included the new engine laboratory in Cleveland.

  11. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-10

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown.

  12. III-V Infrared Research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Soibel, A.; Liu, John; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Nguyen, J.; Bandara, S. V.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA, DoD, and commercial applications. Currently, we are working on multi-band Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs), Superlattice detectors, and Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). In addition, we will present the latest advances in QDIPs and Superlattice infrared detectors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations. Part 1; History of JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation briefly reviews the history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from its founding by Dr von Karman in 1936 for research in rocketry through the post-Sputnik shift to unmanned space exploration in 1957. The presentation also reviews the major JPL missions with views of the spacecraft.

  14. Primary Exhaust Cooler at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-09-21

    One of the two primary coolers at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. Engines could be run in simulated altitude conditions inside the facility’s two 14-foot-diameter and 24-foot-long test chambers. The Propulsion Systems Laboratory was the nation’s only facility that could run large full-size engine systems in controlled altitude conditions. At the time of this photograph, construction of the facility had recently been completed. Although not a wind tunnel, the Propulsion Systems Laboratory generated high-speed airflow through the interior of the engine. The air flow was pushed through the system by large compressors, adjusted by heating or refrigerating equipment, and de-moisturized by air dryers. The exhaust system served two roles: reducing the density of the air in the test chambers to simulate high altitudes and removing hot gases exhausted by the engines being tested. It was necessary to reduce the temperature of the extremely hot engine exhaust before the air reached the exhauster equipment. As the air flow exited through exhaust section of the test chamber, it entered into the giant primary cooler seen in this photograph. Narrow fins or vanes inside the cooler were filled with water. As the air flow passed between the vanes, its heat was transferred to the cooling water. The cooling water was cycled out of the system, carrying with it much of the exhaust heat.

  15. Construction of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory No. 1 and 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-01-21

    Construction of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory No. 1 and 2 at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. When it began operation in late 1952, the Propulsion Systems Laboratory was the NACA’s most powerful facility for testing full-scale engines at simulated flight altitudes. The facility contained two altitude simulating test chambers which were a technological combination of the static sea-level test stands and the complex Altitude Wind Tunnel, which recreated actual flight conditions on a larger scale. NACA Lewis began designing the new facility in 1947 as part of a comprehensive plan to improve the altitude testing capabilities across the lab. The exhaust, refrigeration, and combustion air systems from all the major test facilities were linked. In this way, different facilities could be used to complement the capabilities of one another. Propulsion Systems Laboratory construction began in late summer 1949 with the installation of an overhead exhaust pipe connecting the facility to the Altitude Wind Tunnel and Engine Research Building. The large test section pieces arriving in early 1951, when this photograph was taken. The two primary coolers for the altitude exhaust are in place within the framework near the center of the photograph.

  16. Descent Stage of Mars Science Laboratory During Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-19

    This image from early October 2008 shows personnel working on the descent stage of NASA Mars Science Laboratory inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  17. Space Electric Research Test in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-21

    Technicians prepare the Space Electric Research Test (SERT-I) payload for a test in Tank Number 5 of the Electric Propulsion Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis researchers had been studying different methods of electric rocket propulsion since the mid-1950s. Harold Kaufman created the first successful engine, the electron bombardment ion engine, in the early 1960s. These electric engines created and accelerated small particles of propellant material to high exhaust velocities. Electric engines have a very small amount of thrust, but once lofted into orbit by workhorse chemical rockets, they are capable of small, continuous thrust for periods up to several years. The electron bombardment thruster operated at a 90-percent efficiency during testing in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory. The package was rapidly rotated in a vacuum to simulate its behavior in space. The SERT-I mission, launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, was the first flight test of Kaufman’s ion engine. SERT-I had one cesium engine and one mercury engine. The suborbital flight was only 50 minutes in duration but proved that the ion engine could operate in space. The Electric Propulsion Laboratory included two large space simulation chambers, one of which is seen here. Each uses twenty 2.6-foot diameter diffusion pumps, blowers, and roughing pumps to remove the air inside the tank to create the thin atmosphere. A helium refrigeration system simulates the cold temperatures of space.

  18. Engines and innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia Parker

    1991-01-01

    This book is an institutional history of the NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1940, when Congress authorized funding for a third laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, through the 1980s. The history of the laboratory is discussed in relation to the development of American propulsion technology, with particular focus on the transition in the 1940s from the use of piston engines in airplanes to jet propulsion and that from air-breathing engines to rocket technology when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958. The personalities and research philosophies of the people who shaped the history of the laboratory are discussed, as is the relationship of Lewis Research Center to the Case Institute of Technology.

  19. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nothing is as gratifying in space exploration as when we are surprised by the unexpected. Much of our work progresses in an orderly way, from concept to plan to creation to finding. But now and then we are caught off-guard by something startlingly new, and it is these moments that make our hearts race and leave us with many of our most compelling memories. And 2006 was an exceptional year for the unforeseen. One of our orbiters shocked many with stark proof that liquid water, the seemingly long-gone force that reshaped so much of the scenery of Mars, still flows there today,at least in occasional bursts. Another spacecraft caught us by surprise with photos of Yellowstone-like geysers on one of Saturn's seemingly nondescript moons, Enceladus. A spaceborne observatory created to plumb the life histories of stars and galaxies showed off a completely unexpected talent when it revealed the day and night faces of a fire and ice planet far beyond our solar system 40 light-years away. A newly launched Earth observer revealed that the clouds that decorate our own planet are not what we thought them to be in many ways. Of course, not all of the high points of the year arrived on our doorstep in such unexpected ways. There was also great drama when missions came off exactly as planned, such as when Stardust's sample return capsule made a flawless landing in the Utah desert, bringing home samples of cometary and interstellar dust. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter slipped into orbit around the red planet exactly as planned. Numerous other missions and technology programs likewise made great achievements during the year. In all, 17 spacecraft and six instruments were stationed across the solar system, studying our own world, other planets, comets and the deeper universe. All of these achievements were enabled by many teams and systems at the Laboratory. The Deep Space Network of communications complexes across three continents supported all of NASA's solar system missions, and

  20. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nothing is as gratifying in space exploration as when we are surprised by the unexpected. Much of our work progresses in an orderly way, from concept to plan to creation to finding. But now and then we are caught off-guard by something startlingly new, and it is these moments that make our hearts race and leave us with many of our most compelling memories. And 2006 was an exceptional year for the unforeseen. One of our orbiters shocked many with stark proof that liquid water, the seemingly long-gone force that reshaped so much of the scenery of Mars, still flows there today,at least in occasional bursts. Another spacecraft caught us by surprise with photos of Yellowstone-like geysers on one of Saturn's seemingly nondescript moons, Enceladus. A spaceborne observatory created to plumb the life histories of stars and galaxies showed off a completely unexpected talent when it revealed the day and night faces of a fire and ice planet far beyond our solar system 40 light-years away. A newly launched Earth observer revealed that the clouds that decorate our own planet are not what we thought them to be in many ways. Of course, not all of the high points of the year arrived on our doorstep in such unexpected ways. There was also great drama when missions came off exactly as planned, such as when Stardust's sample return capsule made a flawless landing in the Utah desert, bringing home samples of cometary and interstellar dust. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter slipped into orbit around the red planet exactly as planned. Numerous other missions and technology programs likewise made great achievements during the year. In all, 17 spacecraft and six instruments were stationed across the solar system, studying our own world, other planets, comets and the deeper universe. All of these achievements were enabled by many teams and systems at the Laboratory. The Deep Space Network of communications complexes across three continents supported all of NASA's solar system missions, and

  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Nothing is more exciting than when science mines the far end of our knowledge for the new and the unexpected. In 2008, the world was taken by surprise when JPL astronomers announced the discovery of organic compounds on a planet orbiting another star. We were equally excited to learn from the Spitzer Space Telescope that many, if not most, sun-like stars have rocky planets roughly similar to Earth. Together these are very intriguing clues in our quest to learn if there is life elsewhere in the universe, which certainly has to be one of the most profound mysteries of our age.There are times when, dealing with unknowns, we are reminded to be humble. Very impressive progress is being made by the team developing our next flagship mission, Mars Science Laboratory. Ther conclusion, however, is that it would not be safe to try to fly during the Mars launch window in 2009, and reset for the next opportunity in 2011. We are lucky to have valuable assets that support us as we venture into the unknown. One is the global Deep Space Network, which functions both as our communication gateway to our spacecraft across the solar system as well as a research tool itself in conducting radar astronomy. Our successes depend on our entire team, administrators and business specialists as much as technical people. There are those who help share our missions with the public, finding imaginative venues such as sending out dispatches on the Internet's Twitter.com during the Phoenix mission. We also benefit greatly from the intellectual infusion that comes from our unique identity as a division of the California Institute of Technology and a member of the NASA family.

  2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Nothing is more exciting than when science mines the far end of our knowledge for the new and the unexpected. In 2008, the world was taken by surprise when JPL astronomers announced the discovery of organic compounds on a planet orbiting another star. We were equally excited to learn from the Spitzer Space Telescope that many, if not most, sun-like stars have rocky planets roughly similar to Earth. Together these are very intriguing clues in our quest to learn if there is life elsewhere in the universe, which certainly has to be one of the most profound mysteries of our age.There are times when, dealing with unknowns, we are reminded to be humble. Very impressive progress is being made by the team developing our next flagship mission, Mars Science Laboratory. Ther conclusion, however, is that it would not be safe to try to fly during the Mars launch window in 2009, and reset for the next opportunity in 2011. We are lucky to have valuable assets that support us as we venture into the unknown. One is the global Deep Space Network, which functions both as our communication gateway to our spacecraft across the solar system as well as a research tool itself in conducting radar astronomy. Our successes depend on our entire team, administrators and business specialists as much as technical people. There are those who help share our missions with the public, finding imaginative venues such as sending out dispatches on the Internet's Twitter.com during the Phoenix mission. We also benefit greatly from the intellectual infusion that comes from our unique identity as a division of the California Institute of Technology and a member of the NASA family.

  3. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  4. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows a perspective view of the area around Pasadena, California, just north of Los Angeles. The cluster of hills surrounded by freeways on the left is the Verdugo Hills, which lie between the San Gabriel Valley in the foreground and the San Fernando Valley in the upper left. The San Gabriel Mountains are seen across the top of the image, and parts of the high desert near the city of Palmdale are visible along the horizon on the right. Several urban features can be seen in the image. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is the bright cluster of buildings just right of center; the flat tan area to the right of JPL at the foot of the mountains is a new housing development devoid of vegetation. Two freeways (the 210 and the 134) cross near the southeastern end of the Verdugo Hills near a white circular feature, the Rose Bowl. The commercial and residential areas of the city of Pasadena are the bright areas clustered around the freeway. These data will be used for a variety of applications including urban planning and natural hazard risk analysis.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  5. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-05

    PROPULSION LABORATORY Executive Summary The Center for Aerospace Research (CAR) was formed in 1992 at North Carolina A&T State University (NCAT) to...from the Department of Defense (DOD). NCAT provided the laboratory space. CAR, on the other hand, was organized in 1992 through the use of the funds it...at NCAT in 1992 , it was given formal approved to plan and establish in 1995 by the President of the UNC Board of Governors. I.D. Internet Home Page URL

  6. Apollo Contour Rocket Nozzle in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-07-21

    Bill Harrison and Bud Meilander check the setup of an Apollo Contour rocket nozzle in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The Propulsion Systems Laboratory contained two 14-foot diameter test chambers that could simulate conditions found at very high altitudes. The facility was used in the 1960s to study complex rocket engines such as the Pratt and Whitney RL-10 and rocket components such as the Apollo Contour nozzle, seen here. Meilander oversaw the facility’s mechanics and the installation of test articles into the chambers. Harrison was head of the Supersonic Tunnels Branch in the Test Installations Division. Researchers sought to determine the impulse value of the storable propellant mix, classify and improve the internal engine performance, and compare the results with analytical tools. A special setup was installed in the chamber that included a device to measure the thrust load and a calibration stand. Both cylindrical and conical combustion chambers were examined with the conical large area ratio nozzles. In addition, two contour nozzles were tested, one based on the Apollo Service Propulsion System and the other on the Air Force’s Titan transtage engine. Three types of injectors were investigated, including a Lewis-designed model that produced 98-percent efficiency. It was determined that combustion instability did not affect the nozzle performance. Although much valuable information was obtained during the tests, attempts to improve the engine performance were not successful.

  7. Interior of Vacuum Tank at the Electric Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-08-21

    Interior of the 20-foot diameter vacuum tank at the NASA Lewis Research Center’s Electric Propulsion Laboratory. Lewis researchers had been studying different electric rocket propulsion methods since the mid-1950s. Harold Kaufman created the first successful ion engine, the electron bombardment ion engine, in the early 1960s. These engines used electric power to create and accelerate small particles of propellant material to high exhaust velocities. Electric engines have a very small thrust, but can operate for long periods of time. The ion engines are often clustered together to provide higher levels of thrust. The Electric Propulsion Laboratory, which began operation in 1961, contained two large vacuum tanks capable of simulating a space environment. The tanks were designed especially for testing ion and plasma thrusters and spacecraft. The larger 25-foot diameter tank included a 10-foot diameter test compartment to test electric thrusters with condensable propellants. The portals along the chamber floor lead to the massive exhauster equipment that pumped out the air to simulate the low pressures found in space.

  8. Engine Propeller Research Building at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-02-21

    The Engine Propeller Research Building, referred to as the Prop House, emits steam from its acoustic silencers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. In 1942 the Prop House became the first completed test facility at the new NACA laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. It contained four test cells designed to study large reciprocating engines. After World War II, the facility was modified to study turbojet engines. Two of the test cells were divided into smaller test chambers, resulting in a total of six engine stands. During this period the NACA Lewis Materials and Thermodynamics Division used four of the test cells to investigate jet engines constructed with alloys and other high temperature materials. The researchers operated the engines at higher temperatures to study stress, fatigue, rupture, and thermal shock. The Compressor and Turbine Division utilized another test cell to study a NACA-designed compressor installed on a full-scale engine. This design sought to increase engine thrust by increasing its airflow capacity. The higher stage pressure ratio resulted in a reduction of the number of required compressor stages. The last test cell was used at the time by the Engine Research Division to study the effect of high inlet densities on a jet engine. Within a couple years of this photograph the Prop House was significantly altered again. By 1960 the facility was renamed the Electric Propulsion Research Building to better describe its new role in electric propulsion.

  9. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory: 1990 and 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    JPL Bibliography 39-32 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar years 1990 and 1991, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed or managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL publications (90- and 91-series) in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (42-series); and (3) articles published in the open literature.

  10. Despin System for Hydrogen Tank in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-04-21

    Mechanic Howard Wine inspects the setup of a spin isolator in Cell 2 of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Photographer Al Jecko filmed the proceedings. This test was unique in that the chamber’s altitude system was used, but not its inlet air flow. The test was in preparation for an upcoming launch of modified liquid hydrogen propellant tank on a sounding rocket. This Weightlessness Analysis Sounding Probe (WASP) was part of Lewis investigation into methods for controlling partially filled liquid hydrogen fuel tanks during flight. Second-stage rockets, the Centaur in particular, were designed to stop their engines and coast, then restart them when needed. During this coast period, the propellant often shifted inside the tank. This movement could throw the rocket off course or result in the sloshing of fuel away from the fuel pump. Wine was one of only three journeymen mechanics at Lewis when he was hired in January 1954. He spent his first decade in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory and was soon named a section head. Wine went on to serve as Assistant Division Chief and later served as an assistant to the director. Jecko joined the center in 1947 as a photographer and artist. He studied at the Cleveland School or Art and was known for his cartoon drawing. He worked at the center for 26 years.

  11. Construction of Cooler for New Propulsion Systems Laboratory Test Cells

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-21

    The 50-foot diameter primary cooler for the new Propulsion Systems Laboratory No. 3 and 4 facility constructed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. In 1968, 20 years after planning began for the original Propulsion Systems Laboratory test chambers, No. 1 and 2, NASA Lewis began preparations to add two additional and more powerful chambers. The move coincided with the center’s renewed focus on aeronautics in 1966. The new 40-foot long and 24-foot diameter chambers were capable of testing engines twice as powerful any then in existence and significantly larger than those in the original two test chambers. After exiting the engine nozzle, the hot exhaust air passed through a 17-foot diameter water exhaust duct and the 50-foot diameter primary cooler. Twenty-seven hundred water-filled tubes inside the cooler reduced the temperature of the air flow as it passed between the tubes from 3000 to 600 °F. A spray cooler further reduced the temperature of the gases to 150 °F before they were sent to the Central Air Building. Excavations for the new facility were completed by October 1967, and the shell of the building was completed a year later. In September 1968, work began on the new test chambers and associated infrastructure. Construction was completed in late 1972, and the first test was scheduled for February 1973.

  12. SPHINX Satellite Testing in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-21

    Researchers examine the Space Plasma-High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) satellite in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis’ Spacecraft Technology Division designed SPHINX to study the electrical interaction of its experimental surfaces with space plasma. They sought to determine if higher orbits would improve the transmission quality of communications satellites. Robert Lovell, the Project Manager, oversaw vibrational and plasma simulation testing of the satellite in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory, seen here. SPHINX was an add-on payload for the first Titan/Centaur proof launch in early 1974. Lewis successfully managed the Centaur Program since 1962, but this would be the first Centaur launch with a Titan booster. Since the proof test did not have a scheduled payload, the Lewis-designed SPHINX received a free ride. The February 11, 1974 launch, however, proved to be one of the Launch Vehicle Division’s lowest days. Twelve minutes after the vehicle departed the launch pad, the booster and Centaur separated as designed, but Centaur’s two RL-10 engines failed to ignite. The launch pad safety officer destroyed the vehicle, and SPHINX never made it into orbit. Overall Centaur has an excellent success rate, but the failed SPHINX launch attempt caused deep disappointment across the center.

  13. Arrival of Equipment for the New Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-01-21

    A caravan of large steel castings arrived at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in January 1951. These pieces would serve as the two 14-foot diameter test chambers in the new Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). NACA Lewis specialized in aircraft engines and offered many engine test facilities. In the late 1940s, however, the NACA realized a larger facility was required to test the newest jet engines. When completed in October 1952, PSL became the nation’s most powerful facility for testing full-scale engines at simulated flight altitudes. NACA engineers began designing the PSL in 1947, and excavations commenced in September 1949. In the spring of 1950, the facility’s supports were erected, and the two large exhaust gas coolers were installed. Work on the Access Building began in early 1951 with the arrival of the large test section pieces, seen in this photograph. The massive pieces were delivered to the area from the Henry Pratt Company by rail and then loaded on a series of flatbed trucks that transported them to Lewis. The nearest vehicle has one of the clamshell access hatches. PSL was initially used to study the jet engines of the early 1950s and ramjets for missile programs such as Navaho and Bomarc. With the advent of the space program in the late 1950s, the facility was used to investigate complex rocket engines, including the Pratt and Whitney RL-10.

  14. Laboratory Demonstrations for PDE and Metals Combustion at NASA MSFC's Advanced Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Report provides status reporting on activities under order no. H-30549 for the period December 1 through December 31, 1999. Details the activities of the contract in the coordination of planned conduct of experiments at the MSFC Advanced Propulsion Laboratory in pulse detonation MHD power production and metals combustion.

  15. New Exhauster Equipment at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-04-21

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory’s exhaust system was expanded in 1955 at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The facility contained two altitude chambers that were first used to study the increasingly-powerful jet engines of the early 1950s and the ramjets for missile programs such as Navaho and Bomarc. Later, the facility tested large rocket engines and a variety of turbofan engines. The exhaust system served two roles: reducing the density of the air in the test chambers to simulate high altitudes and removing the hot gases exhausted by the engines being tested. These tasks were accomplished by large Roots-Connersville exhauster equipment in the Equipment Building. The original configuration could exhaust the 3500° F gases at a rate of 100 pounds per second when the simulated altitude was 50,000 feet. In 1955, three years after operation started, a fourth line of exhausters was added. There were three centrifugal exhausters capable of supplying 166 pounds of air per second at the test chamber altitude of 50,000 feet or 384 pounds per second at 32,000 feet. These exhausters had two first-stage castings driven by a 10,000-horsepower motor; one second; one third; and one fourth-stage casting driven by a 16,500-horsepower motor. The total inlet volume of the exhausters is 1,650,000 cubic feet of gas per minute. The exhausters were continually improved and upgraded over the years.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Propulsive Maneuver Design and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Mau C.; Kangas, Julie A.; Ballard, Christopher G.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, was launched on November 26, 2011 and successfully landed at the Gale Crater on Mars. For the 8-month interplanetary trajectory from Earth to Mars, five nominal and two contingency trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM) were planned. The goal of these TCMs was to accurately deliver the spacecraft to the desired atmospheric entry aimpoint in Martian atmosphere so as to ensure a high probability of successful landing on the Mars surface. The primary mission requirements on maneuver performance were the total mission propellant usage and the entry flight path angle (EFPA) delivery accuracy. They were comfortably met in this mission. In this paper we will describe the spacecraft propulsion system, TCM constraints and requirements, TCM design processes, and their implementation and verification.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Propulsive Maneuver Design and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Mau C.; Kangas, Julie A.; Ballard, Christopher G.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, was launched on November 26, 2011 and successfully landed at the Gale Crater on Mars. For the 8-month interplanetary trajectory from Earth to Mars, five nominal and two contingency trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM) were planned. The goal of these TCMs was to accurately deliver the spacecraft to the desired atmospheric entry aimpoint in Martian atmosphere so as to ensure a high probability of successful landing on the Mars surface. The primary mission requirements on maneuver performance were the total mission propellant usage and the entry flight path angle (EFPA) delivery accuracy. They were comfortably met in this mission. In this paper we will describe the spacecraft propulsion system, TCM constraints and requirements, TCM design processes, and their implementation and verification.

  18. NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory Customer Guide Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Lewis Research Center. The PSL complex supports two large engine test cells (PSL-3 and PSL-4) that are capable of providing flight simulation to altitudes of 70,000 ft. Facility variables at the engine or test-article inlet, such as pressure, temperature, and Mach number (up to 3.0 for PSL-3 and up to 6.0 planned for PSL-4), are discussed. Support systems such as the heated and cooled combustion air systems; the altitude exhaust system; the hydraulic system; the nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen systems; hydrogen burners; rotating screen assemblies; the engine exhaust gas-sampling system; the infrared imaging system; and single- and multiple-axis thrust stands are addressed. Facility safety procedures are also stated.

  19. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Space Exploration: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette

    1993-01-01

    The most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are discussed. To aid understanding of these results, a brief background of JPL's history is presented, followed by a description of the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft. The results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are described. The atmosphere, rings, satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are discussed with particular emphasis on novelty of the discoveries and the challenges encountered in explaining them. A brief discussion of the impact of spray research upon space exploration follows. This is because most recently launched missions used liquid fueled rockets to escape Earth's gravity. A summary of future missions and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's new policies is presented in the conclusion.

  20. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration: Past, present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette

    1993-01-01

    The most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are discussed. To aid understanding of these results, a brief background of JPL's history is presented, followed by a description of the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft. The results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are described. The atmosphere, rings, satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are discussed with particular emphasis on novelty of the discoveries and the challenges encountered in explaining them. A brief discussion of the impact of spray research upon space exploration follows. This is because most recently launched missions used liquid fueled rockets to escape Earth's gravity. A summary of future missions and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's new policies is presented in the conclusion.

  1. Mass spectrometry technology at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of mass spectrometry taking place at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory are highlighted. The pertinent research and development is aimed at producing an ultrahigh sensitivity mass spectrograph for both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. The unique aspect of the JPL developed technology is an integrating focal plane ion detector that obviates the need for spectral scanning since all ions over a wide mass range are monitored simultaneously. The ion detector utilizes electro-optical technology and is therefore referred to as an Electro-Optical Ion Detector (EOID). A technical description of the JPL MS/EOID, some of the current applications, and its potential benefits for internal contamination analysis are discussed.

  2. General Dwight Eisenhower Visits the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1946-04-21

    General Dwight Eisenhower addressed the staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory during an April 11, 1946 visit to Cleveland. The former supreme commander of Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe was on a tour of several US cities in the months following the end of World War II. The general arrived in Cleveland on his Douglas C-54 Skymaster, the 'Sunflower II'. Eisenhower employed this aircraft while leading forces during the war. Skymasters, the military version of the DC–4 transport aircraft, were used extensively by both the army and navy throughout the war years. NACA Secretary John Victory, Lewis Director Raymond Sharp, and local politicians formally greeted Eisenhower as he deplaned at the NACA hangar. After patiently posing for the press photographers, Eisenhower accompanied Victory and Sharp to the Administration Building for a press conference. The general made a point of downplaying the prospects for another imminent war. Afterwards Eisenhower was given a tour of the laboratory and addressed the NACA Lewis staff assembled outside the Administration Building on the importance of research and development. Eisenhower left the laboratory in a motorcade for a banquet being held in his honor downtown with the Cleveland Aviation Club.

  3. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  4. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  5. NACA Computer at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-02-21

    A female computer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory with a slide rule and Friden adding machine to make computations. The computer staff was introduced during World War II to relieve short-handed research engineers of some of the tedious computational work. The Computing Section was staffed by “computers,” young female employees, who often worked overnight when most of the tests were run. The computers obtained test data from the manometers and other instruments, made the initial computations, and plotted the data graphically. Researchers then analyzed the data and summarized the findings in a report or made modifications and ran the test again. There were over 400 female employees at the laboratory in 1944, including 100 computers. The use of computers was originally planned only for the duration of the war. The system was so successful that it was extended into the 1960s. The computers and analysts were located in the Altitude Wind Tunnel Shop and Office Building office wing during the 1940s and transferred to the new 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel in 1948.

  6. Joint Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory CSI experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neat, Gregory W.; O'Brien, John F.; Lurie, Boris J.; Garnica, Angel; Belvin, W. K.; Sulla, Jeff; Won, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Control Structure Interaction (CSI) experiment in which Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) damping devices were incorporated into the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Phase 0 Testbed. The goals of the effort were twofold: (1) test the effectiveness of the JPL structural damping methods in a new structure and (2) assess the feasibility of combining JPL local control methods with the LaRC multiple input multiple output global control methods. Six dampers (2 piezoelectric active members, 4 viscous dampers), placed in three different regions of the structure, produced up to 26 dB attenuation in target modes. The combined control strategy in which the JPL damping methods contributed local control action and the LaRC control scheme provided global control action, produced and overall control scheme with increased stability margins and improved performance. This paper presents an overview of the technologies contributed from the two centers, the strategies used to combine them, and results demonstrating the success of the damping and cooperative control efforts.

  7. Apprentices at the NACA’s Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-10-21

    A group of apprentices takes a break from their studies to pose for a photograph at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. To facilitate the close interaction of the lab’s engineers, mechanics, technicians, and scientists, Lewis Director Ray Sharp established a four-year apprentice program to train craftsmen on a particular trade and basic scientific principles. The apprentice school covered a variety of trades, from aircraft mechanic to electronic instrumentation, machinist, and altitude systems mechanic. The school was established in 1942, but faltered when over 90 percent of its students entered the military. After World War II, 40 of the original members returned to the NACA lab. In some cases they were bumped to journeymen positions because of training received in the military. The honorary first class in 1949 had only 15 graduates, but the number steadily increased to 45 with the next class in 1952 and to 110 in 1957. There were over 600 graduates by 1969, and the program remained strong for decades. Many of the laboratory’s future managers began their careers as apprentices. The program, which was certified by both the Department of Labor and the State of Ohio, included classroom lectures, the study of models, and hands-on work. The apprentices rotated through the various shops and facilities to provide them with a well-rounded understanding of the work at the lab.

  8. Duke of Windsor Visits the Lewis Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-05-21

    Edward Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the Duke of Windsor, visits the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. He is seen in this photograph shaking hands with Associate Director Abe Silverstein. Lewis Director Ray Sharp is in the background. Cleveland mayor Thomas Burke and other local officials were also on hand to greet Edward. Silverstein led the group on a tour of Lewis’ new 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel where the Duke inquired about the operation of the facility’s flexible walls, the types of components tested, and the generation of airflow. The Duke was in town in 1951 to promote his new autobiography, A King’s Story, at the American Booksellers Convention. Edward had assumed the British throne in January 1936, only to renounce the position less than a year later to controversially marry Wallis Simpson. Ongoing concerns over the couple’s relationship to the German government resulted in his World War II assignment to the Bahamas. Edward spent the remainder of his life in France.

  9. German Jumo 004 Engine at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1946-03-21

    Researcher Robert Miller led an investigation into the combustor performance of a German Jumo 004 engine at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Jumo 004 powered the world's first operational jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262, beginning in 1942. The Me 262 was the only jet aircraft used in combat during World War II. The eight-stage axial-flow compressor Jumo 004 produced 2000 pounds of thrust. The US Army Air Forces provided the NACA with a Jumo 004 engine in 1945 to study the compressor’s design and performance. Conveniently the engine’s designer Anselm Franz had recently arrived at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in nearby Dayton, Ohio as part of Project Paperclip. The Lewis researchers used a test rig in the Engine Research Building to analyze one of the six combustion chambers. It was difficult to isolate a single combustor’s performance when testing an entire engine. The combustion efficiency, outlet-temperature distribution, and total pressure drop were measured. The researchers determined the Jumo 004’s maximum performance was 5000 revolutions per minute at a 27,000 foot altitude and 11,000 revolutions per minute at a 45,000 foot altitude. The setup in this photograph was created for a tour of NACA Lewis by members of the Institute of Aeronautical Science on March 22, 1945.

  10. Dr. Igor Sikorsky Visits the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-06-21

    Dr. Igor Sikorsky, fourth from the left, visits the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The legendary Russian-born aviation pioneer visited NACA Lewis several times during the 1940s and 1950s. In 1946 Sikorsky arrived at Lewis for the 1946 National Air Races, which included demonstrations by five of his helicopters. NACA flight mechanic Joseph Sikosky personally escorted Sikorsky during the visit. Sikorsky frequently addressed local professional organizations, such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, during his visits. Sikorsky built and flew the first multi-engine aircraft as a youth in Russia. In his mid-20s Sikorsky designed and oversaw the manufacturing of 75 four-engine bombers. During the Bolshevik Revolution he fled to New York City where he worked jobs outside of aviation. In 1923 Sikorsky obtained funding to build a twin-engine water aircraft. This aircraft was the first US twin-engine flying machine and a world-wide success. In 1939 Sikorsky designed the first successful US helicopter. He then put all of his efforts into helicopters, and built some of the most successful helicopters in use today. Sikorsky passed away in 1972. From left to right: unknown; John Collins, Chief of the Engine Performance and Materials Division; Abe Silverstein, Chief of Research; Sikorsky; lab Director Ray Sharp; and Executive Officer Robert Sessions.

  11. Boeing B-29 Superfortress at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1947-05-21

    The NACA’s Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory used a Boeing B-29 Superfortress as a testbed for ramjet investigations in the late 1940s. NACA Lewis conducted a wide variety of studies on ramjets to determine basic operational data necessary to design missiles. This information included the relationship between combustion chamber and inlet pressure and temperature, velocity of the fuel-air ratio to the ignition characteristics, and combustion efficiency. Although wind tunnel and test stand studies were important first steps in determining these factors, actual flight tests were required. Lewis engineers modified the B-29 so that the ramjet could be stored in the bomb bay. Once the aircraft reached the desired altitude and speed the ramjet was suspended 52 inches below the bomb bay. The ramjet’s angle-of-attack could be independently adjusted, and a periscope permitted a view of the test article from inside the aircraft. Measurements were taken in free-stream conditions between 5,000 and 30,000 feet. The test flights, which began in April 1947, were flown at speeds up to Mach 0.51 and altitudes of 5,000 to 30,000 feet. The researchers first determined that 14,000 feet was the maximum altitude at which the engine could be ignited by spark. Flares were used to start the engine at altitudes up to 30,000 feet. Overall the ramjet operated well at all speeds and altitudes. Significant changes in fuel flow were successful at lower altitudes, but produced combustion blowout above 20,000 feet.

  12. A Strategy for an Enterprise-Wide Data Management Capability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhrman, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a Federally Research and Development Center (FFRDC) operated by the California Institute of Technology that is engaged in the quest for knowledge about the solar system, the universe, and the Earth.

  13. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  15. A Strategy for an Enterprise-Wide Data Management Capability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhrman, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a Federally Research and Development Center (FFRDC) operated by the California Institute of Technology that is engaged in the quest for knowledge about the solar system, the universe, and the Earth.

  16. Anaglyph of Perspective View with Aerial Photo Overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from two datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires can strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  17. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

    This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation

  18. Anaglyph of Perspective View with Aerial Photo Overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from two datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires can strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  19. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

    This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation

  20. Staff Handbook: MGM Pasadena Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Unified School District, CA.

    The handbook describes the program of the Pasadena Unified School District for Mentally Gifted Minors (MGM). The legal requirements for admission to the program are cited and characteristics (intellectual, physical, and social/emotional) of gifted students are outlined along with possible problems stemming from the identified characteristic. The…

  1. Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galvão, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; dos Santos Assenção, José Adeildo; dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2011-11-01

    Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground—or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in São José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

  2. GPS Data Analysis for Earth Orientation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J.; Webb, F.; Lindqwister, U.; Lichten, S.; Jefferson, D.; Ibanez-Meier, R.; Heflin, M.; Freedman, A.; Blewitt, G.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning June 1992 and continuing indefinitely as part of our contribution to FLINN (Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Science Network), DOSE (NASA's Dynamics of the Solid Earth Program), and the IGS (International GPS Geodynamics Service), analysts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have routinely been reducing data from a globally-distributed network of Rogue Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.

  3. GPS Data Analysis for Earth Orientation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J.; Webb, F.; Lindqwister, U.; Lichten, S.; Jefferson, D.; Ibanez-Meier, R.; Heflin, M.; Freedman, A.; Blewitt, G.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning June 1992 and continuing indefinitely as part of our contribution to FLINN (Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Science Network), DOSE (NASA's Dynamics of the Solid Earth Program), and the IGS (International GPS Geodynamics Service), analysts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have routinely been reducing data from a globally-distributed network of Rogue Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.

  4. 2014 Summer Series - Harold (Sonny) White - Eaglework Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-12

    Human space exploration is currently still in Low Earth Orbit. Although this is much further in the future, we still can ask what would it eventually take for humans to explore the outer solar system? How hard is interstellar flight? We will open with a brief discussion on the types of things we have been thinking about for the next endeavor for human space exploration, and then lean forward and discuss a couple of advanced propulsion concepts that may one day be useful for helping us reach the stars.

  5. The Regional Geology of Conamara Chaos: Stratigraphic Relations and Implications for Future Exploration. D. A. Senske, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the previous geologic analysis of the Conamara Chaos region has focused on the history and reconstruction of the crustal blocks within the chaos itself. To better understand the geologic context of this relatively young outcrop of disrupted crust, its relation to regional geologic events, and the evolution of the entire area over time, we have performed comprehensive geologic mapping. Using image data centered at 10°N, 271°W with a resolution of 180 m/pixel and covering an area of approximately 90,000 km2, the interrelation between tectonic structures (arrays of bands, ridges, and fractures) and cryovolcanic units is established. Our analysis shows that in addition to the major outcrop of chaos (~75x100 km), there are approximately 80 additional smaller (10's of km across) areas of chaos or lenticulae. By identifying key cross cutting and superposition relations, it is possible to identify a set of distinct trends in the formation of tectonic features. The tectonic stratigraphy shows an alternating and cyclical pattern with one set of ~N20°W tectonic features subsequently superposed by ~N30°E bands and ridges. This sequence appears to repeat three times over the history of the region. The identification of a fracture that cross cuts older regional units but is preserved in some of the larger crustal blocks within Conamara indicates that the chaos postdates both the adjacent Astenus and Agave Lineae. The mapping shows little or no emplacement of cryovolcanic deposits in the earliest history of this region. Instead, volcanic processes appear to be a part of later geologic activity. Regional geologic mapping reveals tectonic patterns that are consistent with those mapped over a more limited area [Spaun et al., 2003]. The restriction of cryovolcanism to the latter part of the history, suggests a change in geologic setting and possibly crustal structure with time. Data to be collected by the Europa mission now in formulation will allow: (1) the mapped contact relations to be examined in greater detail, providing higher clarity of geologic relations; (2) the extension of regional-scale mapping to adjacent unimaged parts of Europa, through a global map at regional scale and; (3) insight into the structure of the crust (through radar sounding) to aid in better understanding cryovolcanic processes.

  6. A laboratory facility for electric vehicle propulsion system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The road load simulator facility located at the NASA Lewis Research Center enables a propulsion system or any of its components to be evaluated under a realistic vehicle inertia and road loads. The load is applied to the system under test according to the road load equation: F(net)=K1F1+K2F2V+K3 sq V+K4(dv/dt)+K5 sin theta. The coefficient of each term in the equation can be varied over a wide range with vehicle inertial representative of vehicles up to 7500 pounds simulated by means of flywheels. The required torque is applied by the flywheels, a hydroviscous absorber and clutch, and a drive motor integrated by a closed loop control system to produce a smooth, continuous load up to 150 horsepower.

  7. FJ44 Turbofan Engine Test at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Joel T.; McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Harley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. This report presents the test set-up and documents the test conditions. Farfield directivity, in-duct unsteady pressures, duct mode data, and phased-array data were taken and are reported separately.

  8. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  9. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO{sub 2} TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-08

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO{sub 2} lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 {mu}s); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  10. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  11. Engineer Examines Cluster of Ion Engines in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-01-21

    New staff member Paul Margosian inspects a cluster of ion engines in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory’s 25-foot diameter vacuum tank at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis researchers had been studying different methods of electric rocket propulsion since the mid-1950s. Harold Kaufman created the first successful engine, the electron bombardment ion engine, in the early 1960s. These engines used electric power to create and accelerate small particles of propellant material to high exhaust velocities. Electric engines have a very small thrust, and but can operate for long periods of time. The ion engines are often clustered together to provide higher levels of thrust. The Electric Propulsion Laboratory contained two large vacuum tanks capable of simulating the space environment. The tanks were designed especially for testing ion and plasma thrusters and spacecraft. The larger 25-foot diameter tank was intended for testing electric thrusters with condensable propellants. The tank’s test compartment, seen here, was 10 feet in diameter. Margosian joined Lewis in late 1962 during a major NASA hiring phase. The Agency reorganized in 1961 and began expanding its ranks through a massive recruiting effort. Lewis personnel increased from approximately 2,700 in 1961 to over 4,800 in 1966. Margosian, who worked with Bill Kerslake in the Electromagnetic Propulsion Division’s Propulsion Systems Section, wrote eight technical reports on mercury and electron bombardment thrusters, thermoelectrostatic generators, and a high voltage insulator.

  12. Architectures for mission control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Reger A.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    JPL is currently converting to an innovative control center data system which is a distributed, open architecture for telemetry delivery and which is enabling advancement towards improved automation and operability, as well as new technology, in mission operations at JPL. The scope of mission control within mission operations is examined. The concepts of a mission control center and how operability can affect the design of a control center data system are discussed. Examples of JPL's mission control architecture, data system development, and prototype efforts at the JPL Operations Engineering Laboratory are provided. Strategies for the future of mission control architectures are outlined.

  13. Activities of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    There are many facets to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for JPL is an organization of multiple responsibilities and broad scope, of diverse talents and great enterprise. The Laboratory's philosophy, mission, and goals have been shaped by its ties to the California Institute of Technology (JPL's parent organization) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (JPL's principal sponsor). JPL's activities for NASA in planetary, Earth, and space sciences currently account for almost 75 percent of the Laboratory's overall effort. JPL Research activities in the following areas are discussed: (1) deep space exploration; (2) telecommunications systems; (3) Earth observations; (4) advanced technology; (5) defense programs; and (6) energy and technology applications.

  14. Craftsmen in the Wood Model Shop at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1953-01-21

    Craftsmen work in the wood model shop at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Fabrication Division created almost all of the equipment and models used at the laboratory. The Fabrication Shop building contained a number of specialized shops in the 1940s and 1950s. These included a Machine Shop, Sheet Metal Shop, Wood Model and Pattern Shop, Instrument Shop, Thermocouple Shop, Heat Treating Shop, Metallurgical Laboratory, and Fabrication Office. The Wood Model and Pattern Shop created everything from control panels and cabinets to aircraft models molds for sheet metal work.

  15. Containerless processing technologies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Trinh, E.; Rhim, W.-K.; Kerrisk, D.; Barmatz, M.; Elleman, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic and electrostatic levitation (EL) techniques for maintaining sample-wall distance in order to ensure contamination-free conditions during microgravity materials science experiments on board the Shuttle are examined. A laboratory model for acoustic containerless (AC) processing is described, noting the use of three commercially available drivers for sample levitation. The arrangement of the speakers results in a point node to which a liquid drop sample migrates. Varying the field through manipulation of the dB levels and phase of the drivers' outputs permits control of sample position and movement. Rotation of a styrofoam ball at 2000 rpm has been achieved. Oscillations can also be induced. An advanced version of the AC system is analytically defined, with further studies mentioned for stable levitation modes using a cylindrical chamber and optimizing acoustic power transfer between hot and cold regions. A tetrahedral EL system has proven to work in a reduced gravity environment. El involves imparting an electrical charge to an object and then positioning and maintaining it through use of EM fields. The presence of human operators to perform the processing on the Shuttle is mentioned as offering real-time capability of altering the experimental conditions.

  16. The Astronautics Laboratory of the Air Force Systems Command electric propulsion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sanks, T.M.; Andrews, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Ongoing projects at the Astronautics Laboratory (AL) of the USAF Systems Command are described. Particular attention is given to experiments with arcjets, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, ion engines, and the Electric Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE). ELITE involves the integration of high-power ammonia arcjets, low-power xenon ion thrusters, advanced photovoltaic solar arrays, and an autononomous flight control system. It is believed that electric propulsion will become a dominant element in the military and industrial use of space. 6 refs.

  17. Wright XRJ47-W-5 Ramjet in the New Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-10-21

    A Wright Aeronautical XRJ47-W-5 ramjet installed in a test chamber of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics’ (NACA) new Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. Construction of the facility had only recently been completed, and NACA engineers were still testing the various operating systems. The Propulsion Systems Laboratory was the NACA’s most powerful facility for testing full-scale engines in simulated flight altitudes. It contained two 14-foot diameter and 100-foot-long altitude chambers that ran parallel to one another with a control room in between. The engine being tested was installed inside the test section of one of the chambers, seen in this photograph. Extensive instrumentation was fitted onto the engine prior to the test. Once the chamber was sealed, the altitude conditions were introduced, and the engine was ignited. Operators in the control room could run the engine at the various speeds and adjust the altitude conditions to the desired levels. The engine’s exhaust was ejected into the cooling equipment. Two 48-inch diameter XRJ47-W-5 ramjets were used to power the North American Aviation Navaho Missile. The Navaho was a winged missile that was intended to travel up to 3000 miles carrying a nuclear warhead. It was launched using rocket booster engines that were ejected after the missile’s ramjet engines were ignited.

  18. Workstation technology for engineering mission operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1990-10-01

    The Operations Engineering Laboratory (OEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been developing graphics tools to automate document preparation in support of space flight mission operations. One such tool, which generates a daily Space Flight Operations Schedule (SFOS), a timeline display of the schedule of spacecraft activities for the Voyager mission is described. The tool consists of two parts: a series of programs that preprocess various command files and a graphics editor. The code of the graphics editor was developed with reusability as a primary objective and has since served as the basis for the generation of other automation tools.

  19. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Iroquois Engine for the Avro Arrow in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-08-21

    A researcher examines the Orenda Iroquois PS.13 turbojet in a Propulsion Systems Laboratory test chamber at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Iroquois was being developed to power the CF-105 Arrow fighter designed by the Avro Canada Company. Avro began design work on the Arrow jet fighter in 1952. The company’s Orenda branch suggested building a titanium-based PS.13 Iroquois engine after development problems arose with the British engines that Avro had originally intended to use. The 10-stage, 20,000-pound-thrust Iroquois would prove to be more powerful than any contemporary US or British turbojet. It was also significantly lighter and more fuel efficient. An Iroquois was sent to Cleveland in April 1957 so that Lewis researchers could study the engine’s basic performance for the air force in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The tests were run over a wide range of speeds and altitudes with variations in exhaust-nozzle area. Initial studies determined the Iroquois’s windmilling and ignition characteristics at high altitude. After operating for 64 minutes, the engine was reignited at altitudes up to the 63,000-foot limit of the facility. Various modifications were attempted to reduce the occurrence of stall but did not totally eradicate the problem. The Arrow jet fighter made its initial flight in March 1958 powered by a substitute engine. In February 1959, however, both the engine and the aircraft programs were cancelled. The world’s superpowers had quickly transitioned from bombers to ballistic missiles which rendered the Avro Arrow prematurely obsolete.

  2. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1977. [NASA research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 900 externally distributed technical reports released during calendar year 1977, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Report topics cover 81 subject areas related in some way to the various NASA programs. The publications are indexed by: (1) author, (2) subject, and (3) publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  3. Long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) research at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Liu, John K.; Sundaram, Mani; Bandara, Sumith V.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, Theodore R.; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1996-06-01

    One of the simplest device realizations of the classic particle-in-a-box problem of basic quantum mechanics is the quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). Optimization of the detector design and material growth and processing have culminated in the realization of a 15 micrometer cutoff 128 by 128 focal plane array camera and a camera with large (256 by 256 pixel) focal plane array of QWIPs which can see at 8.5 micrometer, holding forth great promise for a variety of applications in the 6 - 25 micrometer wavelength range. This paper discusses the physics of the QWIP and QWIP technology development at Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  4. Empirical and Face Validity of Software Maintenance Defect Models Used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taber, William; Port, Dan

    2014-01-01

    At the Mission Design and Navigation Software Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory we make use of finite exponential based defect models to aid in maintenance planning and management for our widely used critical systems. However a number of pragmatic issues arise when applying defect models for a post-release system in continuous use. These include: how to utilize information from problem reports rather than testing to drive defect discovery and removal effort, practical model calibration, and alignment of model assumptions with our environment.

  5. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Recognizing a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objectives of this effort are to ensure that all flight projects adequately cope with information flow problems at an early stage of system design, and that cost-effective, multi-mission capabilities are developed when capital investments are made in supporting elements. The paper reviews the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the Laboratory, and notes the ties to the NASA End-to-End Data System program.

  6. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Recognizing a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objectives of this effort are to ensure that all flight projects adequately cope with information flow problems at an early stage of system design, and that cost-effective, multi-mission capabilities are developed when capital investments are made in supporting elements. The paper reviews the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the Laboratory, and notes the ties to the NASA End-to-End Data System program.

  7. 76 FR 1150 - City of Pasadena, CA; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Pasadena, CA; Notice of Filing December 30, 2010. Take notice that on December 22, 2010, the City of Pasadena, California (Pasadena) filed its annual revisions to is Transmission Revenue Balancing Account Adjustment and a related modification to Appendix I to Pasadena's...

  8. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory. Electric and hybrid propulsion systems, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-12-31

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during FY 1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass six battery technologies [Na/S, Li/FeS, Ni/Metal-Hydride, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and lie evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  9. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    The research design is presented for an evaluation of a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. The plan described is for the Pasadena City College field test--a…

  10. Pasadena City College SIGI Project. Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A research study at Pasadena City College in 1975-76 evaluated a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. Students identified as desiring aid in career guidance were…

  11. Pasadena City College SIGI Project. Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A research study at Pasadena City College in 1975-76 evaluated a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. Students identified as desiring aid in career guidance were…

  12. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    The research design is presented for an evaluation of a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. The plan described is for the Pasadena City College field test--a…

  13. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-21

    This image shows a perspective view of the area around Pasadena, California, just north of Los Angeles. The cluster of hills surrounded by freeways on the left is the Verdugo Hills, which lie between the San Gabriel Valley and the San Fernando Valley.

  14. A slow seismic event recorded in Pasadena

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Hiroo )

    1989-12-01

    A prominent long-period wave with a duration of 2,000 sec or longer was recorded with a very-broadband system in Pasadena on June 18, 1988. This wave was not observed elsewhere, and is considered of local origin. The acceleration amplitude is 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/sec{sup 2} in the northwest direction, with the vertical component less than 10% of the horizontal. The horizontal acceleration can be interpreted as due to a tilt of the ground of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} radians to the radians to the northwest. A slowly propagating pressure wave with an amplitude of about 15 mbars could be the cause of the tilt; however, there were no reports suggesting such pressure changes. A more likely cause is a slow tectonic event near Pasadena. The required magnitude of such a slow event is M{sub w} = 0, 2, and 4, for a distance of 0.1, 1, and 10 km respectively. This event could be part of a tectonic episode associated with the larger earthquakes which occurred in southern California around this time, especially the December 3, 1988, Pasadena earthquake (M{sub L} = 4.9) which occurred six months later within 4 km of the Pasadena station.

  15. Current results and developments in astrometric VLBI at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Cohen, E. J.; Fanselow, J. L.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Thomas, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's program of astrometric VLBI as one element of a navigation system for interplanetary spacecraft includes developing a radioastrometric source catalog, and a catalog of positions of compact extragalactic radio sources correct to about 0.01 arc sec. The three (64 m) antenna complexes of the Deep Space Network in Spain, Australia, and the U.S. are involved, each equipped to receive simultaneously at wavelengths of 13 and 3.6 cm with total system temperatures of about 20-25 K at both wavelengths. The program is to provide precise values of parameters used in navigational computations, including UT1 accurate to about 0.001s, and current values of polar motion to 30 cm. Bandwidth synthesis methods were applied to measure delays as well as rates regarding source positions derived from observations using the Mark II VLBI recording system which has a sampling rate of four million bits per second.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Mixed-Phase Icing Cloud Simulations in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Struk, Peter; Van Zante, Judith

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of a numerical model that couples the thermal interaction between ice particles, water droplets, and the flowing gas of an icing wind tunnel for simulation of NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The ultimate goal of the model is to better understand the complex interactions between the test parameters and have greater confidence in the conditions at the test section of the PSL tunnel. The model attempts to explain the observed changes in test conditions by coupling the conservation of mass and energy equations for both the cloud particles and flowing gas mass. Model predictions were compared to measurements taken during May 2015 testing at PSL, where test conditions varied gas temperature, pressure, velocity and humidity levels, as well as the cloud total water content, particle initial temperature, and particle size distribution.

  17. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  18. From Mars to man - Biomedical research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckenbach, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of the unmanned exploration of the solar system, which the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has managed for NASA, major advances in computerized image processing, materials research, and miniature electronics design have been accomplished. This presentation shows some of the imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Among other topics, the use of polymeric microspheres in cancer therapy is discussed. Also included are ceramic applications to prosthesis development, laser applications in the treatment of coronary artery disease, multispectral imaging as used in the diagnosis of thermal burn injury, and some examples of telemetry systems as they can be involved in biological systems.

  19. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  20. From Mars to man - Biomedical research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckenbach, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of the unmanned exploration of the solar system, which the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has managed for NASA, major advances in computerized image processing, materials research, and miniature electronics design have been accomplished. This presentation shows some of the imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Among other topics, the use of polymeric microspheres in cancer therapy is discussed. Also included are ceramic applications to prosthesis development, laser applications in the treatment of coronary artery disease, multispectral imaging as used in the diagnosis of thermal burn injury, and some examples of telemetry systems as they can be involved in biological systems.

  1. Experience with Data Science as an Intern with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittell, J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Whitehall, K. D.; Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Boustani, M.; Hart, A. F.; Kim, J.; Waliser, D. E.; Joyce, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES, http://rcmes.jpl.nasa.gov) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory seeks to improve regional climate model output by comparing past model predictions with Earth-orbiting satellite data (Mattmann et al. 2013). RCMES ingests satellite and RCM data and processes these data into a common format; as needed, the software queries the RCMES database for these datasets, on which it runs a series of statistical metrics including model-satellite comparisons. The development of the RCMES software relies on collaboration between climatologists and computer scientists, as evinced by RCMES longstanding work with CORDEX (Kim et al. 2012). Over a total of 17 weeks in 2011, 2012, and 2013, I worked as an intern at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in a supportive capacity for RCMES. A high school student, I had no formal background in either Earth science or computer technology, but was immersed in both fields. In 2011, I researched three earth-science data management projects, producing a high-level explanation of these endeavors. The following year, I studied Python, contributing a command-line user interface to the RCMES project code. In 2013, I assisted with data acquisition, wrote a file header information plugin, and the visualization tool GrADS. The experience demonstrated the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to data processing: to streamline data ingestion and processing, scientists must understand, at least on a high-level, any programs they might utilize while to best serve the needs of earth scientists, software engineers must understand the science behind the data they handle.

  2. General Electric I-40 Engine at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1946-08-21

    A mechanic works on a General Electric I-40 turbojet at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The military selected General Electric’s West Lynn facility in 1941 to secretly replicate the centrifugal turbojet engine designed by British engineer Frank Whittle. General Electric’s first attempt, the I-A, was fraught with problems. The design was improved somewhat with the subsequent I-16 engine. It was not until the engine's next reincarnation as the I-40 in 1943 that General Electric’s efforts paid off. The 4000-pound thrust I-40 was incorporated into the Lockheed Shooting Star airframe and successfully flown in June 1944. The Shooting Star became the US’s first successful jet aircraft and the first US aircraft to reach 500 miles per hour. The NACA’s Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory studied all of General Electric’s centrifugal turbojets both during World War II and afterwards. The entire Shooting Star aircraft was investigated in the Altitude Wind Tunnel during 1945. The researchers studied the engine compressor performance, thrust augmentation using a water injection, and compared different fuel blends in a single combustor. The mechanic in this photograph is inserting a combustion liner into one of the 14 combustor cans. The compressor, which is not yet installed in this photograph, pushed high pressure air into these combustors. There the air mixed with the fuel and was heated. The hot air was then forced through a rotating turbine that powered the engine before being expelled out the nozzle to produce thrust.

  3. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January through December 1974. [deep space network, Apollo project, information theory, and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formalized technical reporting is described and indexed, which resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The five classes of publications included are technical reports, technical memorandums, articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report, special publications, and articles published in the open literature. The publications are indexed by author, subject, and publication type and number.

  4. Space Shuttle 750 psi Helium Regulator Application on Mars Science Laboratory Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Yankura, George; Rust, Thomas; Anderson, John R.; Dien, Anthony; Garda, Hoshang; Bezer, Mary Ann; Johnson, David; Arndt, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is NASA's next major mission to Mars, to be launched in September 2009. It is a nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. The descent and landing uses a unique 'skycrane' concept, where a rocket-powered descent stage decelerates the vehicle, hovers over the ground, lowers the rover to the ground on a bridle, then flies a safe distance away for disposal. This descent stage uses a regulated hydrazine propulsion system. Performance requirements for the pressure regulator were very demanding, with a wide range of flow rates and tight regulated pressure band. These indicated that a piloted regulator would be needed, which are notoriously complex, and time available for development was short. Coincidentally, it was found that the helium regulator used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter main propulsion system came very close to meeting MSL requirements. However, the type was out of production, and fabricating new units would incur long lead times and technical risk. Therefore, the Space Shuttle program graciously furnished three units for use by MSL. Minor modifications were made, and the units were carefully tuned to MSL requirements. Some of the personnel involved had built and tested the original shuttle units. Delta qualification for MSL application was successfully conducted on one of the units. A pyrovalve slam start and shock test was conducted. Dynamic performance analyses for the new application were conducted, using sophisticated tools developed for Shuttle. Because the MSL regulator is a refurbished Shuttle flight regulator, it will be the only part of MSL which has physically already been in space.

  5. Space Shuttle 750 psi Helium Regulator Application on Mars Science Laboratory Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Yankura, George; Rust, Thomas; Anderson, John R.; Dien, Anthony; Garda, Hoshang; Bezer, Mary Ann; Johnson, David; Arndt, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is NASA's next major mission to Mars, to be launched in September 2009. It is a nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. The descent and landing uses a unique 'skycrane' concept, where a rocket-powered descent stage decelerates the vehicle, hovers over the ground, lowers the rover to the ground on a bridle, then flies a safe distance away for disposal. This descent stage uses a regulated hydrazine propulsion system. Performance requirements for the pressure regulator were very demanding, with a wide range of flow rates and tight regulated pressure band. These indicated that a piloted regulator would be needed, which are notoriously complex, and time available for development was short. Coincidentally, it was found that the helium regulator used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter main propulsion system came very close to meeting MSL requirements. However, the type was out of production, and fabricating new units would incur long lead times and technical risk. Therefore, the Space Shuttle program graciously furnished three units for use by MSL. Minor modifications were made, and the units were carefully tuned to MSL requirements. Some of the personnel involved had built and tested the original shuttle units. Delta qualification for MSL application was successfully conducted on one of the units. A pyrovalve slam start and shock test was conducted. Dynamic performance analyses for the new application were conducted, using sophisticated tools developed for Shuttle. Because the MSL regulator is a refurbished Shuttle flight regulator, it will be the only part of MSL which has physically already been in space.

  6. Geodetic and Atmospheric Measurements GPS Data Analysis for Earth Orientation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, J.; Webb, F.; Lindqwister, U.; Lichten, S.; Jefferson, D.; Ibanez-Meier, R.; Heflin, M.; Freedman, A.; Blewitt, G.

    1994-09-01

    Beginning in June 1992 and continuing indefinitely as part of our contribution to FLINN (Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Science Network), DOSE (NASA's Dynamics of the Solid Earth Program), and the IGS (International GPS Geodynamics Service), analysts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have routinely been reducing data from a globally-distributed network of Rogue Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Three products are produced and distributed weekly: (i) precise GPS satellite ephemerides, (ii) estimates of daily polar motion and length-of-day, and (iii) a descriptive narrative of the analysis for the week. These are typically made available to the public approximately two wecks following the data recording. In addition, more sophisticated data reduction techniques have been developed for non-routine, research-oriented GPS data analysis. These have been successfully utilized to measure subdaily Earth orientation fluctuations. Based on comparisons of our earth orientation parameters with independent techniques, we estimate daily pole position accuracies (la) of ±0.6 milliarcseconds and length-ofday accuracies of ±0.13 msec. Ongoing work at JPL is aimed at continuing the trend of producing more and higher-quality results at lower cost.

  7. NASA Lewis Research Center replaces the NACA Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-10-21

    A security guard examines the new sign near the entrance to the Lewis Research Center one day after the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was officially established. NASA came into being on October 1, 1958, and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory became the NASA Lewis Research Center. Lewis underwent a major reorganization and began concentrating its efforts almost exclusively on the space program. NACA Lewis researchers had been advocating further space research for years. As early as 1955, Lewis management urged the NACA expand its rocket engine research as a logical extension of its aircraft engine work. Lewis management claimed that space exploration was imperative for the nation’s survival during the Cold War. They called for an annual 25-percent increase in the NACA’s staff, a new space laboratory, a launching center, communications center, and other facilities. They were basically outlining what would be needed for the new space agency. During NASA’s first two years of existence, Lewis refocused its efforts almost completely on the space program. Less than 10 percent of the annual budget was dedicated to aeronautics. In the aftermath that followed President Kennedy’s April 1961 “Urgent Needs” address to Congress, NASA was given a seemingly unlimited budget. The Agency reorganized and began swelling its ranks through a massive recruiting effort to accomplish the accelerated lunar landing mission. Lewis personnel increased from approximately 2,700 in 1961 to over 4,800 in 1966.

  8. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. LOOKING 238°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT AT ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM CARLOTA BOULEVARD. LOOKING 218°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE, ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 78 FR 2983 - City of Pasadena, CA; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Pasadena, CA; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 19, 2012, City of Pasadena, California submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Pasadena 2013 TRBAA Update to be...

  13. 36. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: FREMONT AVENUE BRIDGE; AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE; AND FAIR OAKS AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE BIG CURVE AS PARKWAY ENDS IN PASADENA. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for the past 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. A travel allowance is paid to those fellows outside the 50-mile radius of JPL.

  15. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for the past 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. A travel allowance is paid to those fellows outside the 50-mile radius of JPL.

  16. 1st ACT global trajectory optimisation competition: Results found at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Finlayson, Paul A.; Whiffen, Gregory J.; Sims, Jon A.

    2007-11-01

    Results obtained at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the 1st ACT global trajectory optimisation competition are presented and the methods used to obtain them are described. The search for the globally optimal, low-thrust, gravity-assist trajectory for maximally deflecting an asteroid is performed in two steps. The first step involves a rough global search of the global search space, which has, however, been somewhat bounded based on prior mission-design experience, intuition, and energy arguments. A shape-based method is used to represent the low-thrust arcs, while the ballistic portions are searched almost exhaustively. The second step involves local optimisation of trajectories which stand out from the rough global search. The low-thrust optimisation problem is turned into a parameter optimisation problem by approximating the continuous thrusting as a series of impulsive manoeuvres. Of the many trajectories found, three optimal trajectories are reported and compared, including the one submitted for the competition. The best one employed a double-Venus, quadruple-Earth, Jupiter Saturn Jupiter gravity-assist sequence. The trajectory submitted for the competition used one less Venus flyby and one less Earth flyby.

  17. Aircraft Fleet on the Tarmac at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1946-04-21

    This fleet of military aircraft was used in the 1940s for research at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The NACA Lewis flight research program was established in March 1943 to augment the lab’s wartime research efforts. NACA Lewis possessed a host of wind tunnels, test stands, and other ground facilities designed to replicate flight conditions, but actual flight tests remained an integral research tool. The military loaned NACA Lewis 15 different aircraft during World War II and six others in the six months following the end of hostilities. During the war these aircraft supported three main efforts: the improved performance of reciprocating engines, better fuel additives and mixtures, and deicing systems. The wartime researchers used the types of aircraft which the studies were intended to improve. After the war the research aircraft served as test beds to investigate engines or systems that often had little to do with the research aircraft. During the war, NACA Lewis’ three pilots were supported by 16 flight engineers, 36 mechanics, and 10 instrumentation specialists. The visible aircraft, from left to right, are a Boeing B-29 Superfortress, a Martin B-26A Marauder, two Consolidated B-24 Liberators, a Cessna UC-78 Bobcat, and a Northrop P-61 Black Widow. Partially obscured are a North American P-51 Mustang, a Bell P-63 King Cobra, a North American AT-6 Texan, and a Lockheed RA-29 Hudson.

  18. Traversing Microphone Track Installed in NASA Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory Dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Steven W.; Perusek, Gail P.

    1999-01-01

    The Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory is an acoustically treated, 65-ft-tall dome located at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Inside this laboratory is the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig (NATR), which is used in support of Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) and High Speed Research (HSR) to test engine exhaust nozzles for thrust and acoustic performance under simulated takeoff conditions. Acoustic measurements had been gathered by a far-field array of microphones located along the dome wall and 10-ft above the floor. Recently, it became desirable to collect acoustic data for engine certifications (as specified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)) that would simulate the noise of an aircraft taking off as heard from an offset ground location. Since nozzles for the High-Speed Civil Transport have straight sides that cause their noise signature to vary radially, an additional plane of acoustic measurement was required. Desired was an arched array of 24 microphones, equally spaced from the nozzle and each other, in a 25 off-vertical plane. The various research requirements made this a challenging task. The microphones needed to be aimed at the nozzle accurately and held firmly in place during testing, but it was also essential that they be easily and routinely lowered to the floor for calibration and servicing. Once serviced, the microphones would have to be returned to their previous location near the ceiling. In addition, there could be no structure could between the microphones and the nozzle, and any structure near the microphones would have to be designed to minimize noise reflections. After many concepts were considered, a single arched truss structure was selected that would be permanently affixed to the dome ceiling and to one end of the dome floor.

  19. Multibody system applications and simulations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [emphasizing attitude and science platform articulation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The historical development of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of generic computer programs for solving the H-M-H equations of motion of point-connected sets of rigid bodies in a topological tree is traced, as well as the application of these programs and the multibody modelling approach to the design of spacecraft control systems. These include thrust vector control and science instrument articulation on such vehicles as Mariner 9, Mariner 10, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager.

  20. Multibody system applications and simulations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [emphasizing attitude and science platform articulation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The historical development of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of generic computer programs for solving the H-M-H equations of motion of point-connected sets of rigid bodies in a topological tree is traced, as well as the application of these programs and the multibody modelling approach to the design of spacecraft control systems. These include thrust vector control and science instrument articulation on such vehicles as Mariner 9, Mariner 10, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager.

  1. Nuclear Blast Response of Airbreathing Propulsion Systems. Laboratory Measurements with an Operational J-85-5 Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    27 I.1 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page TABLE 1 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR WHICH DATA ARE AVAILABLE Figure No. 1 LUDWIEG-TUBE FACILITY...pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and fuel/ air ratio) and the engine control system (measurement parameters or response characteristics...obtained under con- trolled laboratory conditions . At the present time, the major portion of the United States airbreathing propulsion system inventory

  2. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL): Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) Facility in February 2013. Honeywell Engines supplied the test article, an obsolete, unmodified Lycoming ALF502-R5 turbofan engine serial number LF01 that experienced an un-commanded loss of thrust event while operating at certain high altitude ice crystal icing conditions. These known conditions were duplicated in the PSL for this testing.

  3. Advanced Optical Diagnostics for Ice Crystal Cloud Measurements in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.; Fagan, Amy; Van Zante, Judith F.; Kirkegaard, Jonathan P.; Rohler, David P.; Maniyedath, Arjun; Izen, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    A light extinction tomography technique has been developed to monitor ice water clouds upstream of a direct connected engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The system consists of 60 laser diodes with sheet generating optics and 120 detectors mounted around a 36-inch diameter ring. The sources are pulsed sequentially while the detectors acquire line-of-sight extinction data for each laser pulse. Using computed tomography algorithms, the extinction data are analyzed to produce a plot of the relative water content in the measurement plane. To target the low-spatial-frequency nature of ice water clouds, unique tomography algorithms were developed using filtered back-projection methods and direct inversion methods that use Gaussian basis functions. With the availability of a priori knowledge of the mean droplet size and the total water content at some point in the measurement plane, the tomography system can provide near real-time in-situ quantitative full-field total water content data at a measurement plane approximately 5 feet upstream of the engine inlet. Results from ice crystal clouds in the PSL are presented. In addition to the optical tomography technique, laser sheet imaging has also been applied in the PSL to provide planar ice cloud uniformity and relative water content data during facility calibration before the tomography system was available and also as validation data for the tomography system. A comparison between the laser sheet system and light extinction tomography resulting data are also presented. Very good agreement of imaged intensity and water content is demonstrated for both techniques. Also, comparative studies between the two techniques show excellent agreement in calculation of bulk total water content averaged over the center of the pipe.

  4. Mid and thermal infrared remote sensing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.

    2016-05-01

    The mid and thermal infrared (MTIR) for the Earth surface is defined between 3 and 14µm. In the outer solar system, objects are colder and their Planck response shifts towards longer wavelengths. Hence for these objects (e.g. icy moons, polar caps, comets, Europa), the thermal IR definition usually stretches out to 50µm and beyond. Spectroscopy has been a key part of this scientific exploration because of its ability to remotely determine elemental and mineralogical composition. Many key gas species such as methane, ammonia, sulfur, etc. also have vibrational bands which show up in the thermal infrared spectrum above the background response. Over the past few decades, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been building up a portfolio of technology to capture the MTIR for various scientific applications. Three recent sensors are briefly reviewed: The airborne Hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer (HyTES), the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS)/DIVINER. Each of these sensors utilize a different technology to provide a remote sensing product based on MTIR science. For example, HyTES is a push-brooming hyperspectral imager which utilizes a large format quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The goal is to transition this to a new complementary barrier infrared photodetector (CBIRD) with a similar long wave cut-off and increased sensitivity. ECOSTRESS is a push-whisk Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) based high speed, multi-band, imager which will eventually observe and characterize plant/vegetation functionality and stress index from the International Space Station (ISS) across the contiguous United States (CONUS). MCS/DIVINER utilizes thermopile technology to capture the thermal emission from the polar caps and shadow regions of the moon. Each sensor utilizes specific JPL technology to capture unique science.

  5. Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Kennedy Space Center telerobotic inspection and manipulation demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Davis, Leon

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this effort is to demonstrate telerobotic inspection and mainpulation of space shuttle payloads in the presence of substantial communications time delays between the operator station and the robotic work space. The processing of space shuttle payloads provides a variety of tasks which are typical of both space shuttle ground operations and Space Station in-flight operations, and communications time delays are inevitable in space operations where the operator station will be light-seconds away from the telerobot. With this demonstration we hope to show the efficacy and safety of robotic technology for ground and space operations. Our approach is to develop an experimental telerobotic system with the remote sensing, actuation and reflex portions located at KSC in Florida, while the operator control station will be located at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California. The JPL portion of the system includes a high-level operator interface, intelligent spatial planning and machine vision, while the KSC portion includes the robot arm, end effectors, cameras and proximity sensors, and the necessary control and communications computers and software. The communications between JPL and KSC are over a limited-bandwidth network channel (19200 baud) with unpredictable and unrepeatable time delays. In FY89 we integrated a basic version of the robotic, communications, and computer hardware, and we developed the software to perform an operator-supervised inspection of a PAM-D satellite upper stage rocket motor and its shuttle support cradle. The demonstration, though severely limited by the bulk of the available computer arm, showed the potential of telerobotics for inspection tasks. In the future, we plan to develop additional capabilities which will allow manipulation tasks to be performed, including removal of dust covers and lens caps, insertion of connectors and batteries, and installation of payload objects.

  6. Mixing Process in Ejector Nozzles Studied at Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been studying mixing processes in ejector nozzles for its High Speed Research (HSR) Program. This work is directed at finding ways to minimize the noise of a future supersonic airliner. Much of the noise such an airplane would generate would come from the nozzle, where a hot, high-speed jet exits the engine. Several different nozzle configurations were used to produce nozzle systems with different acoustical and aerodynamic characteristics. The acoustical properties were measured by an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber, and the aerodynamics were measured by traditional pressure and temperature instruments as well as by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), a technique for visualizing the airflow pattern without disturbing it. These measurements were put together and compared for different configurations to examine the relationships between mixing and noise generation. The mixer-ejector nozzle with the installed flow-visualization windows (foreground), the optical equipment and the supporting structure for the Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow visualization (midfield), and the sound-absorbing wedges used to create an anechoic environment for acoustic testing (background) is shown. The High Speed Research Program is a NASA-funded effort, in cooperation with the U.S. aerospace industry, to develop enabling technologies for a future supersonic airliner. One of the technological barriers being addressed is noise generated during near-airport operation. The mixer-ejector nozzle concept is being examined as a way to reduce jet noise while maintaining thrust. Ambient air is mixed with the high-velocity engine exhaust to reduce the jet velocity and hence the noise generated by the jet. The model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney under NASA contract. The test, completed in June 1995, was conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory.

  7. Technology Development for Large Radio Arrays at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Preston, R.; Navarro, R.; Wagstaff, K.; Mattmann, C.; D'Addario, L.; Thompson, D.; Majid, W.; Lazio, J.

    2011-05-01

    Future radio arrays are likely to include far more antennas than current arrays, ultimately culminating in the Square Kilometre Array. During the past 1.5 years JPL personnel have been working on technologies to address the challenges of such large arrays, including lower power digital signal processing, real-time data adaptive algorithms, and large-scale data archiving and mining. Power consumption by digital electronics may be a dominant component of the operating costs of large arrays. The choice of architecture for cross-correlation of thousands of antennas can have an orders-of-magnitude impact on power consumption. A power efficient architecture for a very-large-N array has been found. A second area of development at JPL is adaptive algorithms to perform real-time processing of data in high volume data flows, when storage of raw data for later processing is not an option. Algorithms to enable real-time detection of fast radio transients are being tested on the VLBA, and will be deployed as part of the CRAFT collaboration on ASKAP and potentially at other observatories. Finally, large radio arrays will produce extremely large data archives. We are working on applying a scalable framework for managing and mining large data archives to radio array needs. This framework is JPL's open source Process Control System, initially built for archiving data from NASA Earth Science missions and now used in a number of applications outside of astronomy. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Bell P-59B Airacomet at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1947-03-21

    A Bell P-59B Airacomet sits beside the hangar at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. In 1942 the Bell XP-59A Airacomet became the first jet aircraft in the US. The Airacomet incorporated centrifugal turbojet engines that were based on British plans secretly brought to the US in 1941. A Bell test pilot flew the XP-59A for the first time at Muroc Lake, California in October 1942. The General Electric I-16 engines proved to be problematic. In an effort to increase the engine performance, an Airacomet was secretly brought to Cleveland in early 1944 for testing in the Altitude Wind Tunnel. A series of tunnel investigations in February and March resulted in a 25-percent increase in the I-16 engine’s performance. Nonetheless, Bell’s 66 Airacomets never made it into combat. A second, slightly improved Airacomet, a P-59B, was transferred to NACA Lewis just after the war in September 1945. The P-59B was used over the next three years to study general jet thrust performance and thrust augmentation devices such as afterburners and water/alcohol injection. The P-59B flights determined the proper alcohol and water mixture and injection rate to produce a 21-percent increase in thrust. Since the extra boost would be most useful for takeoffs, a series of ground-based tests with the aircraft ensued. It was determined that the runway length for takeoffs could be reduced by as much as 15 percent. The P-59B used for the tests is now on display at the Air Force Museum at Wright Patterson.

  9. AFRPL (Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory) Technical Objective Document FY 85.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    make to survive an expanding enemy anti- satellite ( ASAT ) threat. In both cases, improved propulsion will be critical. Improved propulsion will also be...technology to upgrade the lower stage of the air-launched ASAT to achieve an increase in altitude/range capability. The other, Pulsed Plasma Flight Test...enabling technologies to permit high-power space-based directed energy weapons, to provide enhancement of current ASAT systems, to locate enemy assets in

  10. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-28

    SUSTAINED ARGON PLASMAS FOR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION, JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER, 6, 1990, 38 39. JONES, RA; MYRABO, LN; NAGAMATSU, HT; MINUCCI...constant pressure (200000, 2000, 200 bar), followed by expansion with expansion ratios of ε = 1, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, using NASA CEA code, chemical...ZEITSCHRIFT FUR FLUGWISSENSCHAFTEN UND WELTRAUMFORSCHUNG, 10, 1986, 393 30. MAZUMDER, J; ROCKSTROH, TJ; KRIER, H, SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF PLASMA DURING

  11. America's first long-range-missile and space exploration program: The ORDCIT project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1943 - 1946: A memoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Research and achievements of the wartime Jet Propulsion Laboratory are outlined. Accomplishments included development of the solid-propellant Private A and private R rockets and the liquid-propellant nitric acid-aniline WAC Corporal rocket.

  12. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Wheels and Suspension on Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from August 2008 shows NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover in the course of its assembly, before additions of its arm, mast, laboratory instruments and other equipment.

    The six wheels are half a meter (20 inches) in diameter. The deck is 1.1 meter (3.6 feet) above the ground.

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory at Work, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like when examining a rock outcrop on Mars. The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments close to selected targets and also to collect samples for onboard analysis by other instruments.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  16. Computing and information services at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - A management approach to a diversity of needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felberg, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a research and development organization with about 5,000 employees, presents a complicated set of requirements for an institutional system of computing and informational services. The approach taken by JPL in meeting this challenge is one of controlled flexibility. A central communications network is provided, together with selected computing facilities for common use. At the same time, staff members are given considerable discretion in choosing the mini- and microcomputers that they believe will best serve their needs. Consultation services, computer education, and other support functions are also provided.

  17. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-21

    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System.

  18. Computing and information services at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - A management approach to a diversity of needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felberg, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a research and development organization with about 5,000 employees, presents a complicated set of requirements for an institutional system of computing and informational services. The approach taken by JPL in meeting this challenge is one of controlled flexibility. A central communications network is provided, together with selected computing facilities for common use. At the same time, staff members are given considerable discretion in choosing the mini- and microcomputers that they believe will best serve their needs. Consultation services, computer education, and other support functions are also provided.

  19. Particle Size Measurements from the first Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics Test in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael C.; Bachalo, William; Kurek, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This presentation shows particle measurements by the Artium Technologies, Inc. Phase Doppler Interferometer and High Speed Imaging instruments from the first Fundamental Ice Crystal Icing Physics test conducted in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The work focuses on humidity sweeps at a larger and a smaller median volumetric diameter. The particle size distribution, number density, and water content measured by the Phase Doppler Interferometer and High Speed Imaging instruments from the sweeps are presented and compared. The current capability for these two instruments to measure and discriminate ICI conditions is examined.

  20. Particle Size Measurements From the First Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics Test in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael C.; Bachalo, William; Kurek, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents particle measurements by the Artium Technologies, Inc. Phase Doppler Interferometer and High Speed Imaging instruments from the first Fundamental Ice Crystal Icing Physics test conducted in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The work focuses on humidity sweeps at a larger and a smaller median volumetric diameter. The particle size distribution, number density, and water content measured by the Phase Doppler Interferometer and High Speed Imaging instruments from the sweeps are presented and compared. The current capability for these two instruments to measure and discriminate ICI conditions is examined.

  1. Comparisons of Mixed-Phase Icing Cloud Simulations with Experiments Conducted at the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Struk, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on previous work that compares numerical simulations of mixed-phase icing clouds with experimental data. The model couples the thermal interaction between ice particles and water droplets of the icing cloud with the flowing air of an icing wind tunnel for simulation of NASA Glenn Research Centers (GRC) Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). Measurements were taken during the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics Tests at the PSL tunnel in March 2016. The tests simulated ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines.

  2. 3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING WALL AT RIGHT. RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING 238°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 75 FR 2136 - City of Pasadena, CA; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Pasadena, CA; Notice of Filing January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, City of Pasadena, California filed its fifth annual revision to its Transmission Revenue...

  4. 77 FR 1484 - Notice of Filing; City of Pasadena, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Filing; City of Pasadena, CA Take notice that on December 14, 2011, City of Pasadena, California submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): 2012 TRBAA Update Filing, to be...

  5. 78 FR 77447 - City of Pasadena, California; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Pasadena, California; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 11, 2013, City of Pasadena, California submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): 2014 Transmission...

  6. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Clevleand, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSLthe first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal icing

  7. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  8. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and his or her JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for more than 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. The American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) contracts with NASA and manages program recruitment. Over the past several years, we have made attempts to increase the diversity of the participants in the NFFP Program. A great deal of attention has been given to candidates from minority-serving institutions. There were approximately 100 applicants for the 34 positions in 2002. JPL was the first-choice location for more than half of them. Faculty from 16 minority-serving institutions participated as well as four women. The summer began with an orientation meeting that included introduction of key program personnel, and introduction of the fellows to each other. During this welcome, the fellows were briefed on their obligations to the program and to their JPL colleagues. They were also given a short historical perspective on JPL and its relationship to Caltech and NASA. All fellows received a package, which included information on administrative procedures, roster of fellows, seminar program, housing questionnaire, directions to JPL, maps of

  9. Modeling of a Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.; Nili, Samaun

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the turbine engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has been used to test a highly instrumented Honeywell ALF502R-5A (LF11) turbofan engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. Test data analysis with an engine cycle code and a compressor flow code was conducted to determine the values of key icing parameters, that can indicate the risk of ice accretion, which can lead to engine rollback (un-commanded loss of engine thrust). The full engine aerothermodynamic performance was modeled with the Honeywell Customer Deck specifically created for the ALF502R-5A engine. The mean-line compressor flow analysis code, which includes a code that models the state of the ice crystal, was used to model the air flow through the fan-core and low pressure compressor. The results of the compressor flow analyses included calculations of the ice-water flow rate to air flow rate ratio (IWAR), the local static wet bulb temperature, and the particle melt ratio throughout the flow field. It was found that the assumed particle size had a large effect on the particle melt ratio, and on the local wet bulb temperature. In this study the particle size was varied parametrically to produce a non-zero calculated melt ratio in the exit guide vane (EGV) region of the low pressure compressor (LPC) for the data points that experienced a growth of blockage there, and a subsequent engine called rollback (CRB). At data points where the engine experienced a CRB having the lowest wet bulb temperature of 492 degrees Rankine at the EGV trailing edge, the smallest particle size that produced a non-zero melt ratio (between 3 percent - 4 percent) was on the order of 1 micron. This value of melt ratio was utilized as the target for all other subsequent data points analyzed, while the particle size was varied from 1 micron - 9

  10. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and his or her JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for more than 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. The American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) contracts with NASA and manages program recruitment. Over the past several years, we have made attempts to increase the diversity of the participants in the NFFP Program. A great deal of attention has been given to candidates from minority-serving institutions. There were approximately 100 applicants for the 34 positions in 2002. JPL was the first-choice location for more than half of them. Faculty from 16 minority-serving institutions participated as well as four women. The summer began with an orientation meeting that included introduction of key program personnel, and introduction of the fellows to each other. During this welcome, the fellows were briefed on their obligations to the program and to their JPL colleagues. They were also given a short historical perspective on JPL and its relationship to Caltech and NASA. All fellows received a package, which included information on administrative procedures, roster of fellows, seminar program, housing questionnaire, directions to JPL, maps of

  11. The Pasadena Community and Its Information Needs: A Program for Pasadena Public Library Services. "... Essential to an Informed Citizenry ..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Anne; Zorbas, Elaine

    In April 1981 the staff of the Pasadena Public Library in California began a 2-year study of the Pasadena community and its library operations in order to develop long and short range plans that match library services with changing community information needs. A 5-year plan was compiled with nine major goals related to developing a user-oriented…

  12. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-28

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in {approx}10 cm{sup 2} spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  13. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  14. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  15. Integration and diagnostics for the US air force phillips laboratory Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, J. R.; Sutton, A. M.; Bromaghim, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) comprises a 30 kW ammonia arcjet system, on-board diagnostics, and a remote observations program. A scientific plan encompassing implementation, operation, and data analysis has been developed. Onboard instruments will provide accurate measurements of spacecraft acceleration, thruster operating characteristics, performance, radiated thermal loads, and will document arcjet operation through filtered imagery. Instruments will also provide upper limits for spacecraft contamination and communications band electromagnetic interference. Remote observations will accurately characterize high-rate communications links and will determine the arcjet optical and RF signatures.

  16. The Air Force Research Laboratory’s In-Space Propulsion Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RQRS 1 Ara...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RQR 5 Pollux Drive 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Edwards AFB CA 93524-7048 NUMBER(S) AFRL ...illustrate the rationale behind AFRL’s technology development strategy. INTRODUCTION The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) is the technology

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    Michael Watkins (third from left), mission manager and project engineer, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, Calif., speaks at a press conference at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum on Friday, July 22, 2011 in Washington. From left to right, Watkins is joined by Dwayne Brown, NASA Headquarters public affairs officer; Michael Meyer, lead scientist Mars Exploration Program, NASA Headquarters; Watkins; John Grant, geologist, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington; Dawn Sumner, geologist, University of California, Davis and John Grotzinger, MSL project scientist, JPL. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    John Grotzinger, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project scientist, Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., answers a reporter's question at a press conference at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum on Friday, July 22, 2011 in Washington. The MSL is scheduled to launch late this year from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida and land in August 2012. Curiosity is twice as long and more than five times as heavy as previous Mars rovers. The rover will study whether the landing region at Gale crater had favorable environmental conditions for supporting microbial life and for preserving clues about whether life ever existed. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    John Grotzinger, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project scientist, Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., holds up a model of the MSL, or Curiosity, at a press conference at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum on Friday, July 22, 2011 in Washington. The MSL is scheduled to launch late this year from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida and land in August 2012. Curiosity is twice as long and more than five times as heavy as previous Mars rovers. The rover will study whether the landing region at Gale crater had favorable environmental conditions for supporting microbial life and for preserving clues about whether life ever existed. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Power and Propulsion for the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kevin S.; Cockfield, Robert D.

    2005-02-01

    Lockheed Martin contributions to the Cassini mission included power and propulsion for the spacecraft, the Descent Imager / Spectral Radiometer, DISR instrument for the Huygens Probe, as well as the Titan IVB launch vehicle. Cassini is currently in orbit around Saturn performing its primary science mission, investigating Saturn, its many moons, and its complex and beautiful ring system. The Space Power Programs organization in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, an offsite of Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, provided the three General Purpose Heat Source - Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (GPHS-RTGs) used to provide electric power to the spacecraft during its mission to Saturn and its moons. The RTGs were the same design as those used to power the Galileo spacecraft on its mission to Jupiter and its moons, and the ESA Ulysses spacecraft on its mission to explore the Sun. Three RTGS provided 880 Watts of electrical power to the spacecraft at the beginning of mission, shortly after launch, 50% more than the power available for the Galileo mission. Other papers will describe the extensive science instrumentation made possible by the abundance of continuous, reliable, and long-lived power, unprecedented for a deep space planetary mission. The Cassini Propulsion Module Subsystem is the largest interplanetary propulsion system ever to successfully enter orbit around another planet. The propulsion system was designed to be fully redundant for this critical, 11-year scientific mission to Saturn. The system was designed, assembled and tested at Lockheed Martin's Space Exploration Systems Company in Littleton, Colorado, before being delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL in Pasadena California for integration and testing with the spacecraft. The bi-propellant system design holds 3,000 kg of Monomethyl Hydrazine, MMH and Nitrogen Tetroxide, NTO and uses 132 kg of High Purity Grade Hydrazine for 3-axis attitude control and Reaction Wheel Assembly, RWA

  1. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-18

    This perspective view, acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM in Feb. 2000, shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains.

  2. Mars 2020 MOXIE Laboratory and Principal Investigator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-15

    One investigation on NASA's Mars 2020 rover will extract oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. It is called MOXIE, for Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment. In this image, MOXIE Principal Investigator Michael Hecht, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, is in the MOXIE development laboratory at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Mars' atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide. Demonstration of the capability for extracting oxygen from it, under Martian environmental conditions, will be a pioneering step toward how humans on Mars will use the Red Planet's natural resources. Oxygen can be used in the rocket http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20761

  3. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project, 1977-1984: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D.; Roan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The JPL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project was established in the spring of 1977. Originally administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and later by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the overall Program objective was to decrease this nation's dependence on foreign petroleum sources by developing the technologies and incentives necessary to bring electric and hybrid vehicles successfully into the marketplace. The ERDA/DOE Program structure was divided into two major elements: (1) technology research and system development and (2) field demonstration and market development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been one of several field centers supporting the former Program element. In that capacity, the specific historical areas of responsibility have been: (1) Vehicle system developments (2) System integration and test (3) Supporting subsystem development (4) System assessments (5) Simulation tool development.

  4. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2016-01-01

    This presentation accompanies the paper titled Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory. NASA is evaluating whether PSL, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This presentation (and accompanying paper) presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  5. Maintenance of time and frequency in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Borutzki, S. E.; Kirk, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, must maintain time and frequency within specified limits in order to accurately track the spacecraft engaged in deep space exploration. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes. These methods include Loran-C, TV Line 10, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. These data are analyzed and used to monitor the performance of the hydrogen masers that provide the reference frequencies for the DSN Frequency and Timing System (DFT). Areas of discussion are: (1) a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, (2) a description of the data and information flow, (3) data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and (4) a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data.

  6. Nuclear blast response of airbreathing propulsion systems: laboratory measurements with an operational J-85-5 turbojet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.G.; Rafferty, J.M.

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental technique for controlled laboratory measurements of the nuclear blast response of airbreathing propulsion systems. The experiments utilize an available G.E. J-855 turbojet engine located in the test section of the Calspan Ludwieg-tube facility. Significant modifications were made to this facility in order to adapt it to the desired configuration. The J-85 engine had previously been used at Calspan for other purposes and thus came equipped with eight pressure transducers at four axial locations along the compressor section. These transducers have a frequency response on the order of 40 KHz. Pressure histories obtained at several circumferential and axial locations along the compressor are presented for blastwave equivalent overpressures up to 17.2 kPa (2.5 psi) at corrected engine speeds on the order of 94 percent of maximum speed.

  7. Minority University System Engineering: A Small Satellite Design Experience Held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory During the Summer of 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Miguel Angel

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), North Carolina A&T and California State University of Los Angeles participated during the summer of 1996 in a prototype program known as Minority University Systems Engineering (MUSE). The program consisted of a ten week internship at JPL for students and professors of the three universities. The purpose of MUSE as set forth in the MUSE program review August 5, 1996 was for the participants to gain experience in the following areas: 1) Gain experience in a multi-disciplinary project; 2) Gain experience working in a culturally diverse atmosphere; 3) Provide field experience for students to reinforce book learning; and 4) Streamline the design process in two areas: make it more financially feasible; and make it faster.

  8. Hydrogen maser implementation in the Deep Space Network at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnle, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    The Frequency Standard Test Laboratory and its activities are described. The test laboratory has the capability to measure the frequency stability of five frequency standards including environmental parameters. Nine frequency standards may be evaluated simultaneously upon completion of the current instrumentation expansion program. Frequency stability measurements and environmental data on five H-masers are presented.

  9. Modeling of Highly Instrumented Honeywell Turbofan Engine Tested with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL), an altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, has been used to test a highly instrumented turbine engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. This is a continuation of the PSL testing that successfully duplicated the icing events that were experienced in a previous engine (serial LF01) during flight through ice crystal clouds, which was the first turbofan engine tested in PSL. This second model of the ALF502R-5A serial number LF11 is a highly instrumented version of the previous engine. The PSL facility provides a continuous cloud of ice crystals with controlled characteristics of size and concentration, which are ingested by the engine during operation at simulated altitudes. Several of the previous operating points tested in the LF01 engine were duplicated to confirm repeatability in LF11. The instrumentation included video cameras to visually illustrate the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor (LPC) exit guide vane region in order to confirm the ice accretion, which was suspected during the testing of the LF01. Traditional instrumentation included static pressure taps in the low pressure compressor inner and outer flow path walls, as well as total pressure and temperature rakes in the low pressure compressor region. The test data was utilized to determine the losses and blockages due to accretion in the exit guide vane region of the LPC. Multiple data points were analyzed with the Honeywell Customer Deck. A full engine roll back point was modeled with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. The mean line compressor flow analysis code with ice crystal modeling was utilized to estimate the parameters that indicate the risk of accretion, as well as to estimate the degree of blockage and losses caused by accretion during a full engine roll back point. The analysis provided additional validation of the icing risk parameters within the LPC, as well as the creation of models for

  10. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  11. Mars Science Laboratory's Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This portion of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, called the descent stage, does its main work during the final few minutes before touchdown on Mars.

    The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground.

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory at Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a canyon on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  13. Mars Science Laboratory at Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    Sunset on Mars catches NASA's Mars Science Laboratory in the foreground in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  14. Mars Science Laboratory at Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a canyon on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  15. LABVIEW graphical user interface for precision multichannel alignment of Raman lidar at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility.

    PubMed

    Aspey, R A; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Howe, J W; Walsh, T D

    2008-09-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory operates lidar systems at Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California (34.4 degrees N, 117.7 degrees W) and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (19.5 degrees N, 155.6 degrees W) under the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. To complement these systems a new Raman lidar has been developed at TMF with particular attention given to optimizing water vapor profile measurements up to the tropopause and lower stratosphere. The lidar has been designed for accuracies of 5% up to 12 km in the free troposphere and a detection capability of <5 ppmv. One important feature of the lidar is a precision alignment system using range resolved data from eight Licel transient recorders, allowing fully configurable alignment via a LABVIEW/C++ graphical user interface (GUI). This allows the lidar to be aligned on any channel while simultaneously displaying signals from other channels at configurable altitude/bin combinations. The general lidar instrumental setup and the details of the alignment control system, data acquisition, and GUI alignment software are described. Preliminary validation results using radiosonde and lidar intercomparisons are briefly presented.

  16. Comparisons of Mixed-Phase Icing Cloud Simulations with Experiments Conducted at the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Struk, Peter M.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on previous work that compares numerical simulations of mixed-phase icing clouds with experimental data. The model couples the thermal interaction between ice particles and water droplets of the icing cloud with the flowing air of an icing wind tunnel for simulation of NASA Glenn Research Centers (GRC) Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). Measurements were taken during the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics Tests at the PSL tunnel in March 2016. The tests simulated ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines. Experimentally measured air temperature, humidity, total water content, liquid and ice water content, as well as cloud particle size, are compared with model predictions. The model showed good trend agreement with experimentally measured values, but often over-predicted aero-thermodynamic changes. This discrepancy is likely attributed to radial variations that this one-dimensional model does not address. One of the key findings of this work is that greater aero-thermodynamic changes occur when humidity conditions are low. In addition a range of mixed-phase clouds can be achieved by varying only the tunnel humidity conditions, but the range of humidities to generate a mixed-phase cloud becomes smaller when clouds are composed of smaller particles. In general, the model predicted melt fraction well, in particular with clouds composed of larger particle sizes.

  17. Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility.

    PubMed

    McDermid, Stuart; Beyerle, Georg; Haner, David A; Leblanc, Thierry

    2002-12-20

    Improvements to the tropospheric ozone lidar at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility for measurements of ozone profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, between approximately 5-and 20-km altitude, are described. The changes were primarily related to the receiver optical subsystems and the data-acquisition system. The original 40-cm Cassegrain telescope was replaced with a faster (f/3) 91-cm Newtonian mirror. In the focal plane of this mirror, the lidar signal is divided into two parts by use of two separate optical fibers as field stops corresponding to different but neighboring 0.6-mrad fields of view. We then separate the two received wavelengths by aligning each transmitted beam to one of the fibers. In addition, two 50-mm telescopes are used for the collection of near-range returns. The four optical signals are brought to a chopper wheel for independent signal selection in the time and range domain. For each channel, an interference filter is used for skylight rejection and additional cross-talk prevention. The signals are detected with miniature photomultiplier tubes and input to a fast photon-counting system. The goals of these modifications were to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of the lidar, to extend the altitude range covered, to improve the quality of the raw data, and to enable regular and routine operation of the system for long-term measurements.

  18. Basic Skills Education: Pasadena City College's Teaching and Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kay

    2009-01-01

    This article features Pasadena City College's (PCC) Teaching and Learning Center (TLC), an eight-year-old holistic approach to guiding underprepared students through math, English, and other challenges of college. TLC aims to revolutionize the way faculty look at their students and teach them. The center's approach is one that is spreading through…

  19. Basic Skills Education: Pasadena City College's Teaching and Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kay

    2009-01-01

    This article features Pasadena City College's (PCC) Teaching and Learning Center (TLC), an eight-year-old holistic approach to guiding underprepared students through math, English, and other challenges of college. TLC aims to revolutionize the way faculty look at their students and teach them. The center's approach is one that is spreading through…

  20. PASADENA hyperpolarization of 13C biomolecules: equipment design and installation

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Harris, Kent C.; Perman, William H.; Robertson, Larry W.; Bhattacharya, Pratip

    2009-01-01

    Object The PASADENA method has achieved hyperpolarization of 16–20% (exceeding 40,000-fold signal enhancement at 4.7 T), in liquid samples of biological molecules relevant to in vivo MRI and MRS. However, there exists no commercial apparatus to perform this experiment conveniently and reproducibly on the routine basis necessary for translation of PASADENA to questions of biomedical importance. The present paper describes equipment designed for rapid production of six to eight liquid samples per hour with high reproducibility of hyperpolarization. Materials and methods Drawing on an earlier, but unpublished, prototype, we provide diagrams of a delivery circuit, a laminar-flow reaction chamber within a low field NMR contained in a compact, movable housing. Assembly instructions are provided from which a computer driven, semiautomated PASADENA polarizer can be constructed. Results Together with an available parahydrogen generator, the polarizer, which can be operated by a single investigator, completes one cycle of hyperpolarization each 52 s. Evidence of efficacy is presented. In contrast to competing, commercially available devices for dynamic nuclear polarization which characteristically require 90 min per cycle, PASADENA provides a low-cost alternative for high throughput. Conclusions This equipment is suited to investigators who have an established small animal NMR and wish to explore the potential of heteronuclear (13C and 15N) MRI, MRS, which harnesses the enormous sensitivity gain offered by hyperpolarization. PMID:19067008

  1. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  2. Pasadena City College Profile in Productivity, 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Coll., CA.

    Focusing on the 5-year period from 1987 through 1991, this report provides data on Pasadena City College (PCC) in California, reviewing efforts and achievements in improving institutional productivity. Following a brief opening section discussing productivity trends and issues in the American workforce and in higher education, discussions are…

  3. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  4. Quality assurance of PASADENA hyperpolarization for 13C biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Harris, Kent C.; Perman, William H.; Tran, Thao T.; Bhattacharya, Pratip

    2009-01-01

    Object Define MR quality assurance procedures for maximal PASADENA hyperpolarization of a biological 13C molecular imaging reagent. Materials and methods An automated PASADENA polarizer and a parahydrogen generator were installed. 13C enriched hydroxyethyl acrylate, 1-13C, 2,3,3-d3 (HEA), was converted to hyperpolarized hydroxyethyl propionate, 1-13C, 2,3,3-d3 (HEP) and fumaric acid, 1-13C, 2,3-d2 (FUM) to hyperpolarized succinic acid, 1-13C, 2,3-d2 (SUC), by reaction with parahydrogen and norbornadiene rhodium catalyst. Incremental optimization of successive steps in PASADENA was implemented. MR spectra and in vivo images of hyperpolarized 13C imaging agents were acquired at 1.5 and 4.7 T. Results Application of quality assurance (QA) criteria resulted in incremental optimization of the individual steps in PASADENA implementation. Optimal hyperpolarization of HEP of P = 20% was achieved by calibration of the NMR unit of the polarizer (B0 field strength ± 0.002 mT). Mean hyperpolarization of SUC, P = [15.3 ± 1.9]% (N = 16) in D2O, and P = [12.8 ± 3.1]% (N = 12) in H2O, was achieved every 5–8 min (range 13–20%). An in vivo 13C succinate image of a rat was produced. Conclusion PASADENA spin hyperpolarization of SUC to 15.3% in average was demonstrated (37,400 fold signal enhancement at 4.7 T). The biological fate of 13C succinate, a normally occurring cellular intermediate, might be monitored with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:19067009

  5. F100 Engine Emissions Tested in NASA Lewis' Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in atmospheric sciences have shown that the chemical composition of the entire atmosphere of the planet (gases and airborne particles) has been changed due to human activity and that these changes have changed the heat balance of the planet. National Research Council findings indicate that anthropogenic aerosols1 reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Atmospheric global models suggest that sulfate aerosols change the energy balance of the Northern Hemisphere as much as anthropogenic greenhouse gases have. In response to these findings, NASA initiated the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) to advance the research needed to define present and future aircraft emissions and their effects on the Earth's atmosphere. Although the importance of aerosols and their precursors is now well recognized, the characterization of current subsonic engines for these emissions is far from complete. Furthermore, since the relationship of engine operating parameters to aerosol emissions is not known, extrapolation to untested and unbuilt engines necessarily remains highly uncertain. Tests in 1997-an engine test at the NASA Lewis Research Center and the corresponding flight measurement test at the NASA Langley Research Center-attempted to address both issues by measuring emissions when fuels containing different levels of sulfur were burned. Measurement systems from four research groups were involved in the Lewis engine test: A Lewis gas analyzer suite to measure the concentration of gaseous species 1. including NO, NOx, CO, CO2, O2, THC, and SO2 as well as the smoke number; 2. A University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System to measure aerosol and particulate properties including the total concentration, size distribution, volatility, and hydration property; 3. An Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer to measure the concentration of SO2 and SO3/H2SO4; and 4. An Aerodyne Research Inc

  6. System Software and Tools for High Performance Computing Environments: A report on the findings of the Pasadena Workshop, April 14--16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, T.; Messina, P.; Chen, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Pasadena Workshop on System Software and Tools for High Performance Computing Environments was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from April 14 through April 16, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by a number of Federal agencies committed to the advancement of high performance computing (HPC) both as a means to advance their respective missions and as a national resource to enhance American productivity and competitiveness. Over a hundred experts in related fields from industry, academia, and government were invited to participate in this effort to assess the current status of software technology in support of HPC systems. The overall objectives of the workshop were to understand the requirements and current limitations of HPC software technology and to contribute to a basis for establishing new directions in research and development for software technology in HPC environments. This report includes reports written by the participants of the workshop`s seven working groups. Materials presented at the workshop are reproduced in appendices. Additional chapters summarize the findings and analyze their implications for future directions in HPC software technology development.

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Taking Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken in August 2008 in a clean room at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., shows NASA's next Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory, in the course of its assembly, before additions of its arm, mast, laboratory instruments and other equipment.

    The rover is about 9 feet wide and 10 feet long.

    Viewing progress on the assembly are, from left: NASA Associate Administrator for Science Ed Weiler, California Institute of Technology President Jean-Lou Chameau, JPL Director Charles Elachi, and JPL Associate Director for Flight Projects and Mission Success Tom Gavin.

    JPL, a division of Caltech, manages the Mars Science Laboratory project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft Assembled for Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The major components of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft cruise stage atop the aeroshell, which has the descent stage and rover inside were connected together in October 2008 for several weeks of system testing, including simulation of launch vibrations and deep-space environmental conditions.

    These components will be taken apart again, for further work on each of them, after the environmental testing. The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Taking Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken in August 2008 in a clean room at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., shows NASA's next Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory, in the course of its assembly, before additions of its arm, mast, laboratory instruments and other equipment.

    The rover is about 9 feet wide and 10 feet long.

    Viewing progress on the assembly are, from left: NASA Associate Administrator for Science Ed Weiler, California Institute of Technology President Jean-Lou Chameau, JPL Director Charles Elachi, and JPL Associate Director for Flight Projects and Mission Success Tom Gavin.

    JPL, a division of Caltech, manages the Mars Science Laboratory project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft Assembled for Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The major components of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft cruise stage atop the aeroshell, which has the descent stage and rover inside were connected together in October 2008 for several weeks of system testing, including simulation of launch vibrations and deep-space environmental conditions.

    These components will be taken apart again, for further work on each of them, after the environmental testing. The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  11. A Conceptual Model of the Pasadena Housing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, Alan S.; Barber, Thomas A.

    1971-01-01

    During the last 5 years, there have been several attempts at applying systems analysis to complex urban problems. This paper describes one such attempt by a multidisciplinary team of students, engineers, professors, and community representatives. The Project organization is discussed and the interaction of the different disciplines (the process) described. The two fundamental analysis questions posed by the Project were: "Why do houses deteriorate?" and "Why do people move?" The analysis of these questions led to the development of a conceptual system model of housing in Pasadena. The major elements of this model are described, and several conclusions drawn from it are presented.

  12. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-13

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 21 September 2015 – 13 October 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion 5a...Research Laboratory 68th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference LASER DIAGNOSTICS FOR SPACECRAFT PROPULSION GEC15-2015-000599 Tuesday, October 13, 2015...Natalia MacDonald-Tenenbaum In-Space Propulsion Branch Air Force Research Laboratory Edwards AFB, CA natalia.macdonald@us.af.mil DISTRIBUTION A

  13. George Ellery Hale's Later Solar Research at Mount Wilson and Pasadena, 1905-1938

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. W.

    1999-05-01

    This presentation will briefly review Hale's most significant discoveries starting with his arrival in Pasadena and his installation of the Snow horizontal telescope. Details of a number of his important instruments will be illustrated with recent slides. The Snow telescope began at Mount Wilson as an expedition from the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago. Funded at the start with the help of the Hale family fortune, the effort evolved quickly into the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, which was supported by the Carnegie Institution from late 1904 on. Thereafter Hale continued with the development of the 60- and 150-foot solar tower telescopes and eventually the all-reflecting instrument at his remarkable solar laboratory in Pasadena. At the 60-foot, Hale and his collaborators found that magnetic fields were associated with sunspots; this achievement is regarded as Hale's greatest discovery. In later years, he took special delight in the invention of a new form of the spectroheliograph -- the spectrohelioscope -- which allowed visual solar flare patrol. Perhaps the most beautiful of Hale's solar telescopes is, in fact, the most obscure one -- a small instrument built into the new National Academy of Sciences facility in Washington, D.C., in 1924. His personal involvement with the installation of this telescope illustrates the youthful enthusiasm characteristic of much of his approach to science.

  14. The Propulsion Center at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. Our mission is to move the nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft like access to earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space. Current efforts cover a wide range of exciting areas, including high-energy plasma thrusters, advanced fission and fusion engines, antimatter propulsion systems, beamed energy rockets and sails, and fundamental motive physics. Activities involve concept investigation, proof-of-concept demonstration, and breadboard validation of new propulsion systems. The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC provides an environment where NASA, national laboratories, universities, and industry researchers can pool their skills together to perform landmark propulsion achievements. We offer excellent educational opportunities to students and young researchers-fostering a wellspring of innovation that will revolutionize space transportation.

  15. The Propulsion Center at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. Our mission is to move the nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft like access to earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space. Current efforts cover a wide range of exciting areas, including high-energy plasma thrusters, advanced fission and fusion engines, antimatter propulsion systems, beamed energy rockets and sails, and fundamental motive physics. Activities involve concept investigation, proof-of-concept demonstration, and breadboard validation of new propulsion systems. The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC provides an environment where NASA, national laboratories, universities, and industry researchers can pool their skills together to perform landmark propulsion achievements. We offer excellent educational opportunities to students and young researchers-fostering a wellspring of innovation that will revolutionize space transportation.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    Michael Watkins (right), mission manager and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) engineer, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, Calif., speaks at a press conference, as Michael Meyer, Mars Exploration Program lead scientist looks on, at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum on Friday, July 22, 2011 in Washington. The MSL, or Curiosity, is scheduled to launch late this year from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida and land in August 2012. Curiosity is twice as long and more than five times as heavy as previous Mars rovers. The rover will study whether the landing region at Gale crater had favorable environmental conditions for supporting microbial life and for preserving clues about whether life ever existed. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Soil Fills Phoenix Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four of the eight cells in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. TEGA's ovens, located underneath the cells, heat soil samples so the released gases can be analyzed.

    Left to right, the cells are numbered 7, 6, 5 and 4. Phoenix's Robotic Arm delivered soil most recently to cell 6 on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 3:03 p.m. local solar time on Sol 138 (Oct. 14, 2008).

    Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Using Laser Instrument, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars.

    ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France.

    Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  19. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  20. Delivery to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This portion of a picture acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera documents the delivery of soil to one of four Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cells on the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Approximately one cubic centimeter of this soil was then introduced into the cell and mixed with water for chemical analysis. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Rover and Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In this February 17, 2009, image, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover is attached to the spacecraft's descent stage. The image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    This is the way the spacecraft will look after it comes out of its protective aeroshell and is descending to the Martian surface in 2012. Here, the descent stage sits on top of the rover, with its eight main engines straddling the rover structure. The rover is the big white box below the descent stage. At this point, the rover lacks its appendages (robotic arm, mast and most wheels), as these elements are still being assembled and were not needed for space-simulation testing of the spacecraft in late 2008.

  2. Delivery to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This portion of a picture acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera documents the delivery of soil to one of four Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cells on the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Approximately one cubic centimeter of this soil was then introduced into the cell and mixed with water for chemical analysis. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Philip W.

    1992-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) is an attractive option for unmanned orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's). Vehicles with solar electric propulsion (SEP) could be used routinely to transport cargo between nodes in Earth, lunar, and Mars orbit. Electric propulsion systems are low-thrust, high-specific-impulse systems with fuel efficiencies 2 to 10 times the efficiencies of systems using chemical propellants. The payoff for this performance can be high, since a principal cost for a space transportation system is that of launching to low Earth orbit (LEO) the propellant required for operations between LEO and other nodes. Several aspects of electric propulsion, including candidate systems and the impact of using nonterrestrial materials, are discussed.

  4. Electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Philip W.

    Electric propulsion (EP) is an attractive option for unmanned orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's). Vehicles with solar electric propulsion (SEP) could be used routinely to transport cargo between nodes in Earth, lunar, and Mars orbit. Electric propulsion systems are low-thrust, high-specific-impulse systems with fuel efficiencies 2 to 10 times the efficiencies of systems using chemical propellants. The payoff for this performance can be high, since a principal cost for a space transportation system is that of launching to low Earth orbit (LEO) the propellant required for operations between LEO and other nodes. Several aspects of electric propulsion, including candidate systems and the impact of using nonterrestrial materials, are discussed.

  5. Pasadena Area Community College District Community Needs Assessment Study: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Peter

    A needs assessment of local residents was conducted in the Pasadena Area Community College District to provide information for college planning. Telephone interviews solicited information on residents' characteristics, knowledge of Pasadena City College (PCC), attitudes toward the college, and past and anticipated participation in college…

  6. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  7. Propulsion for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  8. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    system with a low initial development and infrastructure cost and a high operating cost. Note however that this has resulted in a 'Catch 22' standoff between the need for large initial investment that is amortized over many launches to reduce costs, and the limited number of launches possible at today's launch costs. Some examples of missions enabled (either in cost or capability) by advanced propulsion include long-life station-keeping or micro-spacecraft applications using electric propulsion or BMDO-derived micro-thrusters, low-cost orbit raising (LEO to GEO or Lunar orbit) using electric propulsion, robotic planetary missions using aerobraking or electric propulsion, piloted Mars missions using aerobraking and/or propellant production from Martian resources, very fast (100-day round-trip) piloted Mars missions using fission or fusion propulsion, and, finally, interstellar missions using fusion, antimatter, or beamed energy. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Technology program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is aimed at assessing the feasibility of a range of near-term to far term advanced propulsion technologies that have the potential to reduce costs and/or enable future space activities. The program includes cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; and directly supported independent research at universities and industry. The cooperative program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry-supported research includes modeling and proof-of-concept experiments in advanced, high-lsp, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion.

  9. An Initial Study of the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Van Zante, Judith F.; King, Michael C.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an initial study of the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL). Ice accretion due to the ingestion of ice-crystals is being attributed to numerous jet-engine power-loss events. The NASA PSL is an altitude jet-engine test facility which has recently added a capability to inject ice particles into the flow. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. The present study utilized a NACA0012 airfoil. The mixed-phase conditions were generated by partially freezing the liquid-water droplets ejected from the spray bars. This paper presents data regarding (1) the freeze out characteristics of the cloud, (2) changes in aerothermal conditions due to the presence of the cloud, and (3) the ice accretion characteristics observed on the airfoil model. The primary variable in this test was the PSL plenum humidity which was systematically varied for two duct-exit-plane velocities (85 and 135 ms) as well as two particle size clouds (15 and 50 m MVDi). The observed clouds ranged from fully glaciated to fully liquid, where the liquid clouds were at least partially supercooled. The air total temperature decreased at the test section when the cloud was activated due to evaporation. The ice accretions observed ranged from sharp arrow-like accretions, characteristic of ice-crystal erosion, to cases with double-horn shapes, characteristic of supercooled water accretions.

  10. An Initial Study of the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Bartkus, Tadas; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bencic, Timothy; King, Michael; Ratvasky, Thomas; Van Zante, Judith

    2017-01-01

    This presentation shows results from an initial study of the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL). Ice accretion due to the ingestion of ice-crystals is being attributed to numerous jet-engine power-loss events. The NASA PSL is an altitude jet-engine test facility which has recently added a capability to inject ice particles into the flow. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. The present study utilized a NACA0012 airfoil. The mixed-phase conditions were generated by partially freezing the liquid-water droplets ejected from the spray bars. This presentation shows data regarding (1) the freeze out characteristics of the cloud, (2) changes in aerothermal conditions due to the presence of the cloud, and (3) the ice accretion characteristics observed on the airfoil model. The primary variable in this test was the PSL plenum humidity which was systematically varied for two duct-exit-plane velocities (85 and 135 ms) as well as two particle size clouds (15 and 50 m MVDi). The observed clouds ranged from fully glaciated to fully liquid, where the liquid clouds were at least partially supercooled. The air total temperature decreased at the test section when the cloud was activated due to evaporation. The ice accretions observed ranged from sharp arrow-like accretions, characteristic of ice-crystal erosion, to cases with double-horn shapes, characteristic of supercooled water accretions.

  11. Descent Stage of Mars Science Laboratory During Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from early October 2008 shows personnel working on the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground. The larger three of the orange spheres in the descent stage are fuel tanks. The smaller two are tanks for pressurant gas used for pushing the fuel to the rocket engines.

    JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  12. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  13. Prediction of Masked Chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae, Capture in Light Traps Using a Degree-Day Model

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos A.; Hernández, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the biology of the masked chafer Cyclocephala pasadenae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and to determine the date when 50% of the population is captured in light traps, field data were obtained during 4 years in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Capture of the 50% of the masked chafer population occurred approximately during the third week of July, of this one-generation per year insect. To reduce the need for intensive sampling and to obtain a predictable model for the capture of this pest, data were analyzed using trapezoidal numerical integration to estimate both a lower threshold and degree-days to predict the 50% capture date. A mathematical model based on field data accounted for the influence of natural environmental conditions on development, and predicted 50% capture dates within 1–4 days of what was actually observed from the field. The difference between predictions from field data is smaller than using estimates from laboratory-controlled experiments. The model presented here could serve as an accurate estimator of the appropriate timing to implement control measures of this important turfgrass pest.

  14. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  15. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  16. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  17. Training a Data Scientist: A Multi-year, Multi-Project View from the Trenches of the Regional Climate Model Evaluation System at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittell, J.

    2013-12-01

    Society and technology growth has lead to an age of voluminous, heterogeneous data that requires timely analysis. There are many instruments, models and experiments that generate large amounts of data in various formats, resolutions and location. The answers to the questions posed are embedded in these big data that require the formidable task of data handling, manipulation, visualization and storage. To navigate this space persons with experience handling these data and also with some (high-level or deeper) knowledge of the science that these data represent are necessary. Persons with this unique set of skills are data scientists. Most data scientists possess a cross-disciplinary approach to their research/work, but few actually possess a true inter-disciplinary background and expertise that is demanded of the profession. This poster outlines a method in which a young person was introduced to data science from an inter-disciplinary perspective within the STEM disciplines. The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES, http://rcmes.jpl.nasa.gov) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory seeks to improve regional climate model evaluation by comparing past model predictions with observation datasets including those originating from Earth-orbiting satellite data. The successful development of the RCMES software package relies on collaboration between climate scientists and computer scientists, as evidenced by the RCMES team's longstanding work with the International Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), a large, multidisciplinary modeling group focused on regional downscaling. Over a total of 17 weeks during the summers of 2011, 2012, and 2013, a high school student, with no formal background in either the earth sciences or computer technology, was immersed (interned) with the RCMES team. This student successfully provided support on both disciplines of the project and developed their 'data scientist toolkit' through learning about the science involved

  18. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Joins Propulsion Park Display

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A crane lifts a space shuttle solid rocket booster into its final position in the “propulsion park” outside Building 4205, the Propulsion Research & Development Laboratory at the Marshall Cente...

  19. Propulsion controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkney, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Increased system requirements and functional integration with the aircraft have placed an increased demand on control system capability and reliability. To provide these at an affordable cost and weight and because of the rapid advances in electronic technology, hydromechanical systems are being phased out in favor of digital electronic systems. The transition is expected to be orderly from electronic trimming of hydromechanical controls to full authority digital electronic control. Future propulsion system controls will be highly reliable full authority digital electronic with selected component and circuit redundancy to provide the required safety and reliability. Redundancy may include a complete backup control of a different technology for single engine applications. The propulsion control will be required to communicate rapidly with the various flight and fire control avionics as part of an integrated control concept.

  20. Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    6. Conduct Trade Studies Choose a baseline propulsion system Document trade results and the reasons for those results. Iterate the process as...control of electrical power (typically 1-5 kW, but modules of 30 kW have been flown [Cassidy, 2002]) is expensive. The regular obsolescence of...has long focused on MPD thrusters, which scale best for power levels above 100 kW. Metal propellants such as lithium have been proposed [ Tikhonov

  1. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) program are presented. The objective of the research is to develop advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology based on the particle bed reactor concept. A strong philosophical commitment exists in the industry/national laboratory team to emphasize testing in development activities. Nuclear testing currently underway to support development of SNTP technology is addressed.

  2. [Notes on Busing and School Integration in White Plains, Pasadena, and Harrisburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Riverside. Western Regional School Desegregation Projects.

    This document includes five articles: (1) "Supt. Hornbeck blasts ten school busing myths, sells system to area realtors," by Tom Livingston and reprinted from the Pasadena "Star-News," Nov. 17, 1971. (2) "How can transportation be assigned so as to limit the burden of busing?", including an introduction by Kathleen…

  3. Education for a Global Society: Report of Seminar (Pasadena, California, January 20, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Walker, Ed.; Stockemer, Anne

    A seminar is described which explored ways in which education could contribute to building the kind of global society that 1979's children might be able and willing to inherit. The year 1979 which was proclaimed "International Year of the Child" by the United Nations opened in Pasadena, California, with a week long International Cooperation…

  4. Organic Aerosol Composition and Sources in Pasadena, California during the 2010 CalNex Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) ...

  5. GUIDELINES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN OFFICE FOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AT PASADENA CITY COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICHAELS, JOSEPH

    THIS PROPOSAL FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN OFFICE OF INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AT PASADENA CITY COLLEGE WAS BASED ON DATA COLLECTED FROM (1) A REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE, (2) CONSULTATION WITH RESEARCH PERSONNEL AT OTHER INSTITUTIONS, (3) INTERVIEWS WITH LOCAL PERSONNEL, AND (4) PARTICIPATION IN CONFERENCES OF RESEARCH WORKERS.…

  6. Organic Aerosol Composition and Sources in Pasadena, California during the 2010 CalNex Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) ...

  7. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Putre, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of an earth-based high-power laser beam to provide energy for earth-launched rocket vehicle is investigated. The laser beam energy is absorbed in an opaque propellant gas and is converted to high-specific-impulse thrust by expanding the heated propellant to space by means of a nozzle. This laser propulsion scheme can produce specific impulses of several thousand seconds. Payload to gross-weight fractions about an order of magnitude higher than those for conventional chemical earth-launched vehicles appear possible. There is a potential for a significant reduction in cost per payload mass in earth orbit.

  8. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  9. Parachute Testing for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The team developing the landing system for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory tested the deployment of an early parachute design in mid-October 2007 inside the world's largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

    In this image, an engineer is dwarfed by the parachute, which holds more air than a 280-square-meter (3,000-square-foot) house and is designed to survive loads in excess of 36,000 kilograms (80,000 pounds).

    The parachute, built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, has 80 suspension lines, measures more than 50 meters (165 feet) in length, and opens to a diameter of nearly 17 meters (55 feet). It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built and is shown here inflated in the test section with only about 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) of clearance to both the floor and ceiling.

    The wind tunnel, which is 24 meters (80 feet) tall and 37 meters (120 feet) wide and big enough to house a Boeing 737, is part of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, operated by the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is building and testing the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft for launch in 2009. The mission will land a roving analytical laboratory on the surface of Mars in 2010. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Parachute Testing for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The team developing the landing system for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory tested the deployment of an early parachute design in mid-October 2007 inside the world's largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

    In this image, an engineer is dwarfed by the parachute, which holds more air than a 280-square-meter (3,000-square-foot) house and is designed to survive loads in excess of 36,000 kilograms (80,000 pounds).

    The parachute, built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, has 80 suspension lines, measures more than 50 meters (165 feet) in length, and opens to a diameter of nearly 17 meters (55 feet). It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built and is shown here inflated in the test section with only about 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) of clearance to both the floor and ceiling.

    The wind tunnel, which is 24 meters (80 feet) tall and 37 meters (120 feet) wide and big enough to house a Boeing 737, is part of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, operated by the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is building and testing the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft for launch in 2009. The mission will land a roving analytical laboratory on the surface of Mars in 2010. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  11. Propulsion and Power Technologies for the NASA Exploration Vision: A Research Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2004-01-01

    Future propulsion and power technologies for deep space missions are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. The presentation includes diagrams illustrating possible future travel times to other planets in the solar system. The propulsion technologies researched at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) include: 1) Chemical Propulsion; 2) Nuclear Propulsion; 3) Electric and Plasma Propulsion; 4) Energetics. The presentation contains additional information about these technologies, as well as space reactors, reactor simulation, and the Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) at MSFC.

  12. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  13. The Educational and Demographic Consequences of Four Years of School Desegregation in the Pasadena Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Harold

    Since 1970 the Pasadena Unified School District has operated racially balanced schools under the auspices of a courtmandated desegregation program known as the Pasadena Plan. This report assesses the educational and demographic consequences of four years (1970-1974) of school desegregation. The objectives of the paper are as follows: (1) to…

  14. Pasadena City Board of Education et al. v. Spangler et al. Supreme Court of the United States Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    In 1968, respondents (Pasadena, California high school students and their parents) brought a purported class action against various school officials seeking injunctive relief from allegedly unconstitutional segregation of the public schools in Pasadena. Ultimately, in 1970 the U.S. District Court ordered them to submit a plan for desegregating the…

  15. An Analysis of Academic Success of New Pasadena City College Transfers at University of California, Fall 1966-Spring 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Coll., CA.

    In this report, an analysis is made of the academic achievement of 755 new transfers from Pasadena City College at the University of California. The time period covered was from fall 1966 to spring 1972. Three tables comprise the major portion of the report. Table I details the cumulative GPA's earned by all new Pasadena City College transfers at…

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Rover and Descent Stage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-19

    In this February 17, 2009, image, NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover is attached to the spacecraft descent stage. The image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA JPL, Pasadena, Calif.

  17. Kite propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Pontavice, Emmanuel; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2014-11-01

    Kite propulsion is one way to harvest wind energy. The typical force is 1 kilo Newton per square meter, which means that with kites in the range 100 to 1000 square meters, one is able to propel ships from the trawler to the tanker. Several scientific issues arise when trying to design kites of these sizes. They first need to take off and land autonomously. This leads to the use of kites with an inflatable structure that can be compact when stored but very rigid and light once in the air. For that matter, we studied the behavior of large inflatable structures under static and dynamic load. Then, the kite needs to stay in the air. However, it appears that under certain conditions, kites without active control tend to engage into large oscillations and eventually crash. Through wind tunnel experiments, we try to understand this flight behavior to find the conditions of stability.

  18. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  19. Organic aerosol composition and sources in Pasadena, California, during the 2010 CalNex campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ortega, A. M.; Cubison, M. J.; Froyd, K. D.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Hu, W. W.; Toohey, D. W.; Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Grossberg, N.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Gouw, J. A.; Massoli, P.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Weber, R. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Isaacman, G.; Worton, D. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E. M.; Volkamer, R.; Lin, Y. H.; Surratt, J. D.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Dusanter, S.; Griffith, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-08-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and two types of oxygenated OA (OOA). The Pasadena OA elemental composition when plotted as H : C versus O : C follows a line less steep than that observed for Riverside, CA. The OOA components from both locations follow a common line, however, indicating similar secondary organic aerosol (SOA) oxidation chemistry at the two sites such as fragmentation reactions leading to acid formation. In addition to the similar evolution of elemental composition, the dependence of SOA concentration on photochemical age displays quantitatively the same trends across several North American urban sites. First, the OA/ΔCO values for Pasadena increase with photochemical age exhibiting a slope identical to or slightly higher than those for Mexico City and the northeastern United States. Second, the ratios of OOA to odd-oxygen (a photochemical oxidation marker) for Pasadena, Mexico City, and Riverside are similar, suggesting a proportional relationship between SOA and odd-oxygen formation rates. Weekly cycles of the OA components are examined as well. HOA exhibits lower concentrations on Sundays versus weekdays, and the decrease in HOA matches that predicted for primary vehicle emissions using fuel sales data, traffic counts, and vehicle emission ratios. OOA does not display a weekly cycle—after accounting for differences in photochemical aging —which suggests the dominance of gasoline emissions in SOA formation under the assumption that most urban SOA precursors are from motor vehicles.

  20. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  1. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  2. Advanced nuclear propulsion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Advanced nuclear propulsion can take on several forms. Radioactive thrust sheets directly use the decay of radioactive nuclei to provide propulsion. The fissioning of nuclei has been extensively studied for propulsion both analytically and experimentally. Fusion has been analytically examined as a means of providing propulsion during the last few decades. In the last decade, serious attention has been given to the direct annihilation of matter. Each of these technologies is discussed in this paper with the greatest emphasis on antiproton annihilation propulsion.

  3. Space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-02-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  4. Gas and aerosol carbon in California: comparison of measurements and model predictions in Pasadena and Bakersfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. R.; Carlton, A. G.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Beaver, M. R.; Gentner, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Gilman, J. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Woody, M. C.; Pye, H. O. T.; Kelly, J. T.; Lewandowski, M.; Jaoui, M.; Stevens, P. S.; Brune, W. H.; Lin, Y.-H.; Rubitschun, C. L.; Surratt, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    Co-located measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, radiocarbon (14C), speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and OH radicals during the CalNex field campaign provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's representation of organic species from VOCs to particles. Episode average daily 23 h average 14C analysis indicates PM2.5 carbon at Pasadena and Bakersfield during the CalNex field campaign was evenly split between contemporary and fossil origins. CMAQ predicts a higher contemporary carbon fraction than indicated by the 14C analysis at both locations. The model underestimates measured PM2.5 organic carbon at both sites with very little (7% in Pasadena) of the modeled mass represented by secondary production, which contrasts with the ambient-based SOC / OC fraction of 63% at Pasadena. Measurements and predictions of gas-phase anthropogenic species, such as toluene and xylenes, are generally within a factor of 2, but the corresponding SOC tracer (2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxo-pentanoic acid) is systematically underpredicted by more than a factor of 2. Monoterpene VOCs and SOCs are underestimated at both sites. Isoprene is underestimated at Pasadena and overpredicted at Bakersfield and isoprene SOC mass is underestimated at both sites. Systematic model underestimates in SOC mass coupled with reasonable skill (typically within a factor of 2) in predicting hydroxyl radical and VOC gas-phase precursors suggest error(s) in the parameterization of semivolatile gases to form SOC. Yield values (α) applied to semivolatile partitioning species were increased by a factor of 4 in CMAQ for a sensitivity simulation, taking into account recent findings of underestimated yields in chamber experiments due to gas wall losses. This sensitivity resulted in improved model performance for PM2.5 organic carbon at both field study locations and at routine monitor network sites in California. Modeled

  5. Propulsion System Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Jimmy C. M.; McClure, Erin K.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Burg, Cecile

    2002-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at the School of Aerospace Engineering in Georgia Institute of Technology has developed a core competency that enables propulsion technology managers to make technology investment decisions substantiated by propulsion and airframe technology system studies. This method assists the designer/manager in selecting appropriate technology concepts while accounting for the presence of risk and uncertainty as well as interactions between disciplines. This capability is incorporated into a single design simulation system that is described in this paper. This propulsion system design environment is created with a commercially available software called iSIGHT, which is a generic computational framework, and with analysis programs for engine cycle, engine flowpath, mission, and economic analyses. iSIGHT is used to integrate these analysis tools within a single computer platform and facilitate information transfer amongst the various codes. The resulting modeling and simulation (M&S) environment in conjunction with the response surface method provides the designer/decision-maker an analytical means to examine the entire design space from either a subsystem and/or system perspective. The results of this paper will enable managers to analytically play what-if games to gain insight in to the benefits (and/or degradation) of changing engine cycle design parameters. Furthermore, the propulsion design space will be explored probabilistically to show the feasibility and viability of the propulsion system integrated with a vehicle.

  6. JTEC panel report on space and transatmospheric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Duane

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The report focuses primarily upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in propulsion for spaceplanes and related transatmospheric areas. It also includes brief reference to Japan's solid rocket programs, as well as to supersonic air-breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway. The results are based upon the findings of a panel of U.S. engineers made up of individuals from academia, government, and industry, and are derived from a review of a broad array of the open literature, combined with visits to the primary propulsion laboratories and development agencies in Japan.

  7. Evaluation of High-Rate Real Time GPS Processing at USGS Pasadena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, N. E.; Langbein, J. O.; Lisowski, M.; Hudnut, K. W.; Stark, K.; Aspiotes, A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in hardware, telemetry, and processing software make possible real-time geodetic monitoring, including monitoring of fault-crossing lifelines, increased integration of geodetic and seismic networks, and improved geodetic response to large earthquakes. USGS Pasadena operates 97 permanent continuously operating GPS stations in southern California. To further the earthquake-response mission of USGS, these stations are in heavily populated urban areas and along the southern San Andreas fault. With support from city and county land surveyors, and the USGS MultiHazards Demonstration Project, USGS Pasadena has been upgrading its stations to real-time (1 second sampling interval), and broadcasting RTCM streams, for several years. USGS Pasadena currently operates 30 stations in real time, recently co-located GPS at four new or upgraded seismic stations along the southern San Andreas fault, and anticipates upgrading many more in the next year or two. Testing of real-time processing shows that, over a time span of several days, the proportion of observations within 100 mm of the mean value is typically over 98% for the north and east components and 93% or better for the vertical component. Outliers exceeding 1 m are a small percentage (< 0.1%) of the observations, and automated algorithms will be required to reject them. Telemetry outages and the resulting baseline configuration change sometimes cause re-convergence to a different position. We expect that, with development of automated tools to handle outlier detection and configuration change, high-rate and real-time GPS results will significantly improve our capacity to monitor fault slip and respond to southern California earthquakes.

  8. Hemoglobin Pasadena: identification of the gene mutant by DNA analysis using synthetic DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, S; Rosen, R; Nozari, G; Lee, T D; Asmerom, Y; Wallace, R B

    1988-03-01

    Hemoglobin Pasadena [beta 75(E19)Leu----Arg] was found in a boy who had an acute episode of anemia and rapid splenic enlargement. His father was the only other member of a large family with this hemoglobinopathy. We have used gene mapping techniques for direct identification of the beta-globin gene mutation. To correlate the DNA findings with the structural identification of this variant, we have also performed globin chain separation and analysis of the tryptic peptides using high performance liquid chromatography and secondary ion mass spectral analysis.

  9. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  10. Beamed energy propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust (tens of pounds to hundreds of pounds); therefore, they are typically suggested for cargo transportation. For the baseline scenario, these propulsion system can provide propulsion between the following nodes: (1) low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit; (2) low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit; (3) low lunar orbit to low Mars orbit--only solar thermal; and (4) lunar surface to low lunar orbit--only laser thermal.

  11. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  12. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture is an artist's concept of an orbiting vehicle using the Electrodynamic Tethers Propulsion System. Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to push against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant.

  13. OTV Propulsion Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The statistical technology needs of aero-assist maneuvering, propulsion, and usage of cryogenic fluids were presented. Industry panels discussed the servicing of reusable space based vehicles and propulsion-vehicle interation.

  14. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  15. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  16. Martian Soil Ready for Robotic Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander scooped up this Martian soil on the mission's 11th Martian day, or sol, after landing (June 5, 2008) as the first soil sample for delivery to the laboratory on the lander deck.

    The material includes a light-toned clod possibly from crusted surface of the ground, similar in appearance to clods observed near a foot of the lander.

    This approximately true-color view of the contents of the scoop on the Robotic Arm comes from combining separate images taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 11, using illumination by red, green and blue light-emitting diodes on the camera.

    The scoop loaded with this sample was poised over an open sample-delivery door of Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer at the end of Sol 11, ready to be dumped into the instrument on the next sol.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Propulsion system ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to provide management visibility relative to the roles of simulation and propulsion system testing for future development programs through assessment of current propulsion related simulation capabilities and review of contributions from propulsion system test programs. The presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  18. Directions in propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is research at NASA Lewis in the area of propulsion controls as driven by trends in advanced aircraft. The objective of the Lewis program is to develop the technology for advanced reliable propulsion control systems and to integrate the propulsion control with the flight control for optimal full-system control.

  19. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  20. The effect of variable practice on wheelchair propulsive efficiency and propulsive timing.

    PubMed

    Yao, W X; Cordova, A; De Sola, W; Hart, C; Yan, A F

    2012-06-01

    The net mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion is very low, approximately 13%. It is necessary to look for effective practice methods to obtain greater output with less energy expenditure during wheelchair propulsions. Literature indicates that variable practice (VP) is more effective than constant practice (CP) in motor-skill learning. However, it is unknown if VP is more effective than CP in improving wheelchair propulsive efficiency. The purpose of the study was to determine how propulsive efficiency and propulsive timing were affected by variable practice and constant practice. This was an observational and experimental study. The experiment was conducted in a well-controlled university research laboratory. A total of 33 able-bodied subjects participated in this study. Participants were randomly placed into one of the three training groups, two constant practice groups and one variable practice group. One constant group practiced wheelchair propulsion on a roller system with a single speed, 30% of the maximum speed, while the other constant group practiced using 55% of the maximum speed. The variable group practiced with both speeds. Three dependent variables, propulsive efficiency, timing, and intercycle variability of the timing, were measured. All groups improved the three dependent variables significantly after the training, and in general the VP group had greater improvement than the others in improving the propulsive efficiency. This study is the first to demonstrate the advantage of the VP over the CP in improving the propulsive efficiency. This finding has great implication for paraplegics because they require greater workloads for upper-extremity activities.

  1. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and urinary diversion: technical recommendations from the Pasadena Consensus Panel.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin G; Guru, Khurshid; Wiklund, Peter; Catto, James; Yuh, Bertram; Novara, Giacomo; Murphy, Declan G; Al-Tartir, Tareq; Collins, Justin W; Zhumkhawala, Ali; Wilson, Timothy G

    2015-03-01

    The technique of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) has evolved significantly since its inception >10 yr ago. Several high-volume centers have reported standardized techniques with refinements and subsequent outcomes. To review all existing literature on RARC and urinary diversion techniques and summarize key points that may affect oncologic, surgical, and functional outcomes. The Pasadena Consensus Panel on RARC and urinary reconstruction convened May 3-4, 2014, to review the existing peer-reviewed literature and create recommendations for best practice. The panel consisted of experts in open radical cystectomy and RARC. No commercial support was received. The consensus panel extensively reviewed the surgical technique of RARC in men and women, extended pelvic lymph node dissection, extracorporeal urinary diversion, and intracorporeal urinary diversion. Critical aspects of the technique are described. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative parameters from the largest and most contemporary RARC series, stratified by urinary diversion technique, are presented. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative measures of RARC technique adhere closely to the standards established in open surgery. Refinement of techniques for RARC and urinary diversion over the past 10 yr has made it safe, reproducible, and oncologically sound. We summarize the critical aspects of surgical techniques reviewed at the Pasadena international consensus meeting on RARC and urinary reconstruction. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative measures of RARC technique adhere closely to the standards established in open surgery. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  3. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  4. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  5. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at The Pennsylvania State University continued its progress toward meeting the goals of NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers (USERC) program. The USERC program was initiated in 1988 by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to provide an invigorating force to drive technology advancements in the U.S. space industry. The Propulsion Center's role in this effort is to provide a fundamental basis from which the technology advances in propulsion can be derived. To fulfill this role, an integrated program was developed that focuses research efforts on key technical areas, provides students with a broad education in traditional propulsion-related science and engineering disciplines, and provides minority and other under-represented students with opportunities to take their first step toward professional careers in propulsion engineering. The program is made efficient by incorporating government propulsion laboratories and the U.S. propulsion industry into the program through extensive interactions and research involvement. The Center is comprised of faculty, professional staff, and graduate and undergraduate students working on a broad spectrum of research issues related to propulsion. The Center's research focus encompasses both current and advanced propulsion concepts for space transportation, with a research emphasis on liquid propellant rocket engines. The liquid rocket engine research includes programs in combustion and turbomachinery. Other space transportation modes that are being addressed include anti-matter, electric, nuclear, and solid propellant propulsion. Outside funding supports a significant fraction of Center research, with the major portion of the basic USERC grant being used for graduate student support and recruitment. The remainder of the USERC funds are used to support programs to increase minority student enrollment in engineering, to maintain Center

  6. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.; Johnson, D.R.

    1999-04-26

    The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications.

  7. Laboratory Graduate Fellowship Program, 1989. Appendix A. Forms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    institution listed. Transcripts should be LABORATORY LIST LABORATORY 1: LABORATORY 5: AERO PROPULSION LABORATORY ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER Wright...Patterson AFB, (Dayton), Ohio Tyndall AFB, (Panama City), Florida Research Programs in Airbreathing Propulsion , Aerospace Power, Research in the...Sciences d. Hypersonic Flows relating to Rocket Propulsion and Interdisciplinary Space e. High Temperature Structural Behavior Technology for future ICBMs

  8. Aeroshell for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from July 2008 shows the aeroshell for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory while it was being worked on by spacecraft technicians at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company near Denver.

    This hardware was delivered in early fall of 2008 to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., where the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested.

    The aeroshell encapsulates the mission's rover and descent stage during the journey from Earth to Mars and shields them from the intense heat of friction with that upper atmosphere during the initial portion of descent.

    The aeroshell has two main parts: the backshell, which is on top in this image and during the descent, and the heat shield, on the bottom. The heat shield in this image is an engineering unit for testing. The heat shield to be used in flight will be substituted later. The heat shield has a diameter of about 15 feet. For comparison, the heat shields for NASA's Mars Exploraton Rovers Spirit and Opportunity were 8.5 feet and the heat shields for the Apollo capsules that protected astronauts returning to Earth from the moon were just under 13 feet.

    In addition to protecting the Mars Science Laboratory rover, the backshell provides structural support for the descent stage's parachute and sky crane, a system that will lower the rover to a soft landing on the surface of Mars. The backshell for the Mars Science Laboratory is made of an aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched between graphite-epoxy face sheets. It is covered with a thermal protection system composed of a cork/silicone super light ablator material that originated with the Viking landers of the 1970s. This ablator material has been used on the heat shields of all NASA Mars landers in the past, but this mission is the first Mars mission using it on the backshell.

    The heat shield for Mars Science Laboratory's flight will use tiles made of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator. The engineering unit in

  9. Aeroshell for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from July 2008 shows the aeroshell for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory while it was being worked on by spacecraft technicians at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company near Denver.

    This hardware was delivered in early fall of 2008 to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., where the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested.

    The aeroshell encapsulates the mission's rover and descent stage during the journey from Earth to Mars and shields them from the intense heat of friction with that upper atmosphere during the initial portion of descent.

    The aeroshell has two main parts: the backshell, which is on top in this image and during the descent, and the heat shield, on the bottom. The heat shield in this image is an engineering unit for testing. The heat shield to be used in flight will be substituted later. The heat shield has a diameter of about 15 feet. For comparison, the heat shields for NASA's Mars Exploraton Rovers Spirit and Opportunity were 8.5 feet and the heat shields for the Apollo capsules that protected astronauts returning to Earth from the moon were just under 13 feet.

    In addition to protecting the Mars Science Laboratory rover, the backshell provides structural support for the descent stage's parachute and sky crane, a system that will lower the rover to a soft landing on the surface of Mars. The backshell for the Mars Science Laboratory is made of an aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched between graphite-epoxy face sheets. It is covered with a thermal protection system composed of a cork/silicone super light ablator material that originated with the Viking landers of the 1970s. This ablator material has been used on the heat shields of all NASA Mars landers in the past, but this mission is the first Mars mission using it on the backshell.

    The heat shield for Mars Science Laboratory's flight will use tiles made of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator. The engineering unit in

  10. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  11. Future spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, P. W.; Stocky, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Propulsion requirements for launch vehicles, upper stages, satellites and platforms, and planetary spacecraft are described from a functional perspective and compared on an energy basis. Mission velocity requirements for a range of missions are presented. A simple model relating optimum exhaust velocity and maximum system delta-V as a function of system-specific energy is developed, which provides insight into the relationship between system performance and various power and propulsion subsystem characteristics. Based on this model, various advanced propulsion options, e.g., the solid-core nuclear rocket and nuclear electric propulsion, are evaluated, and the implications of this analysis for propulsion and power system technology development programs are discussed. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of future propulsion requirements for the nonspecialist.

  12. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  13. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  14. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  15. Weekly and Seasonal Trends in the Diurnal Variation of CO2 Mixing Ratio in Pasadena, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Stolper, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Diurnal variations in CO2 mixing ratio ([CO2]) in urban areas reflect changing proportions of biogenic and anthropogenic sources and changes in meteorological conditions (e.g., London, England: Rigby et al., 2008, Atm. Env. 42, 8943-8953). We have monitored [CO2] in Pasadena, CA almost continuously since 2001 using an infrared gas analyzer. In a typical day there is a low [CO2] plateau at about ~10 AM-4 PM (all times given as Pacific Standard Time) and a high [CO2] plateau at ~9 PM-3 AM, as observed previously for both CO (e.g., Riverside, CA: Gentner et al., 2009, Env. Sci. Tech. 43, 4247-4252) and CO2 (e.g., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Reid and Steyn, 1997, Atm. Env. 31, 3101-3114; Phoenix, AZ: Idso et al., 2002, Atm. Env. 36, 1655-1660; Salt Lake City, UT: Pataki et al., 2007, Oecolog. 152, 307-322; London, England: Rigby et al., 2008). The midday low and nighttime high in [CO2] are probably due to draw-down by photosynthesis during daylight hours and respiration at night, accompanied by diurnal changes in the mixed-layer depth resulting from formation and destruction of a nocturnal temperature inversion layer (e.g., Reid and Steyn, 1997). The amplitude of the diurnal variation in Pasadena ranges from ~20 ppm in June to ~70 ppm in December. We typically observe a maximum in [CO2] at ~5-9 AM on weekday mornings. This peak is smaller on weekends, generally being smallest on Sundays. This morning [CO2] peak coincides with increased traffic on surface streets in Los Angeles due to weekday morning rush hour (Chinkin et al., 2003, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc. 53, 829-843) it has also been observed by Reid and Steyn (1997) and Idso, et al. (2002 ) in Vancouver, BC, Canada, and Phoenix, AZ, respectively. There is no corresponding peak that can be associated with afternoon rush hour, perhaps because the time period of the afternoon commute is ill-defined in Pasadena and/or increased emissions from this time of day contribute to the evening increase in [CO2] along

  16. NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is currently developing a high performance, simplified ion propulsion system. This propulsion system, which is throttleable from 0.5- to 2.3-kW output power to the thruster, targets primary propulsion applications for planetary and Earth-space missions and has been baselined as the primary propulsion system for the first New Millennium spacecraft. The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the design and delivery of a breadboard power processing unit (PPU) and an engineering model thruster (EMT) for this system and will manage the contract for the delivery of the flight hardware to JPL. The PPU requirements, which dictate a mass of less than 12 kg with an efficiency of 0.9 or greater at a 2.3-kW output, forced a departure from the state-of-the-art ion thruster PPU design. Several innovations--including dual-use topologies, simplified thruster control, and the use of ferrite magnetic materials--were necessary to meet these requirements.

  17. 78 FR 78349 - Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on December 17, 2013, pursuant to sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act (FPA);...

  18. Linked Learning in Pasadena: Creating a Collaborative Culture for Sustainable District Reform. Linked Learning Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik; Rutherford-Quach, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of how Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD) is creating sustainable high school reform. PUSD, through a set of district leadership practices, thoughtfully built the capacity of and sense of ownership among essential stakeholders to design, implement, and support a system of Linked Learning pathways. Though firmly anchored by…

  19. A Comprehensive Review of Credit Instructional Programs Offered by Pasadena City Colleges, 1981-1982. Volume I. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvell Education Managment Planning, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    The first part of a report on a comprehensive review of the credit instructional programs offered by Pasadena City College (PCC), this volume provides a description of the evaluation procedures used, and a discussion of general issues that are major considerations for program improvement. Section I introduces the program review in terms of its…

  20. Effects of Class Drop Policy Changes on Student Attrition and Final Grades (Graded Classes), Pasadena City College, 1965-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Coll., CA.

    An investigation was made of the effects of drop policy changes at Pasadena City College on student attrition and final-grade distributions. Data on student attrition were obtained from data processing printouts for the years 1965-1973, and final-grade distribution data were obtained from Departmental Grade Distribution Reports produced annually.…

  1. Analysis of Academic Achievement of Pasadena City College Transfers in the California State College-University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Coll., CA.

    This report analyzes 4,664 grade reports received from the California State College-University System for students who had transferred from Pasadena City College. The analysis covers all reports that were available as of June 20, 1973, for the period fall 1966 through winter quarter 1973. The grade reports data are tabulated. The tables provide…

  2. Implications of on-the-job Experience for the Curriculum for Library Technical Assistants at Pasadena City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sylvia N.

    Reported are the results of a study undertaken to determine the extent to which library technical assistant students at Pasadena City College (California) brought previously learned skills from job experiences into the classroom and to ascertain whether the curriculum could be modified to minimize repetition of earlier experiences. Identification…

  3. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  4. Advanced nuclear propulsion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary analysis has been carried out for two potential advanced nuclear propulsion systems: a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine and an antiproton initiated ICF system. The results of these studies indicate that both concepts have a high potential to help enable manned planetary exploration but require substantial development.

  5. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  6. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  7. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  8. ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccia, G.

    2004-10-01

    ESA is currently involved in several activities related to spacecraft chemical and electric propulsion, from the basic research and development of conventional and new concepts to the manufacturing, AIV and flight control of the propulsion subsystems of several European satellites. In the commercial application field, the strong competition among satellite manufacturers is a major driver for advancements in the area of propulsion, where increasing better performance together with low prices are required. Furthermore, new scientific and Earth observation missions dictate new challenging requirements for propulsion systems and components based on advanced technologies. For all these reasons, the technology area of spacecraft propulsion is in strong evolution and this paper presents an overview of the current European programmes and initiatives in this technology field. Specific attention is devoted in the paper to the performance and flight experience of spacecraft currently in orbit or ready to be launched.

  9. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-04-28

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community.

  10. An antiproton driver for ICF propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, R. A.; Smith, G. A.; Gazze, C.; Higman, K.; Newton, R.; Chiaverini, M.; Dailey, J.; Surratt, M.; Werthman, W. Lance

    1993-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an anitprotoncatalyzed target is discussed as a possible source of propulsion for rapid interplanetary manned space missions. The relevant compression, ignition, and thrust mechanisms are presented. Progress on an experiment presently in progress at the Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM to demonstrate proof-of-principle is reviewed.

  11. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Taking Shape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-19

    This image taken in August 2008 in a clean room at NASA JPL, Pasadena, Calif., shows NASA next Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory, in the course of its assembly, before additions of its arm, mast, laboratory instruments and other equipment.

  12. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. PROPELLANTS FOR ELECTRICAL PROPULSION ENGINES OF THE CONTACT OR BOMBARDMENT ION TYPE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ALKALI METALS, *ANTHRACENES, *COLLOIDS, *ELECTRIC PROPULSION, * FERROCENES , *ION BEAMS, *IONIZATION, *MOLECULES, *PHENANTHRENES, *PLASMA JETS... PROPELLANTS , ACCELERATION, DECOMPOSITION, ELECTRON IRRADIATION, ELECTROSTATIC ACCELERATORS, IONIZATION POTENTIALS, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, LITHIUM

  14. Propulsion Research and Technology: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John; Schmidt, George

    1999-01-01

    Propulsion is unique in being the main delimiter on how far and how fast one can travel in space. It is the lack of truly economical high-performance propulsion systems that continues to limit and restrict the extent of human endeavors in space. Therefore the goal of propulsion research is to conceive and investigate new, revolutionary propulsion concepts. This presentation reviews the development of new propulsion concepts. Some of these concepts are: (1) Rocket-based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion, (2) Alternative combined Cycle engines suc2 as the methanol ramjet , and the liquid air cycle engines, (3) Laser propulsion, (4) Maglifter, (5) pulse detonation engines, (6) solar thermal propulsion, (7) multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB) and other low-G cryogenic fluids, (8) Electric propulsion, (9) nuclear propulsion, (10) Fusion Propulsion, and (11) Antimatter technology. The efforts of the NASA centers in this research is also spotlighted.

  15. Futuristic systems: Solar and nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, Dave

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) in-space propulsion impacts; (2) electric propulsion; (3) mission impacts of electric propulsion; and (4) summaries of electric propulsion status and solar and nuclear propulsion.

  16. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  17. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  18. Bionic Propulsion on Water and Measurement of Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Liu; Si-yuan, Zhao; Shan-chao, Tu; Tian-yu, Zhu; Rong-xiang, Li

    Traditional propulsion fashion on water are propeller propulsion and jet propulsion, but the efficiency relatively low. Used by biological propulsion, after the last million years of evolution, the maximum utilization of its power. Bionic propulsion system designed in this paper consists of two large travel umbrella wing plate in reciprocating linear travel agencies, led by the reciprocating motion along the vertical, in the water under the influence of backward movement of the wing disk automatically open, resulting in the pull forward, the forward movement of the wing disk automatically shut down to reduce water resistance. This paper designs a bionic propulsion and drag model for the static test and measurement test propulsion.

  19. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. G. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories have initiated and completed, in part, a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the T700 and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  20. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  1. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  2. Electric Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    DTIC FILE COPY AL-TR-89-040 AD: AD-A227 121 Final Report forteprod Electric Propulsion Study 21 Sep 1988 to 30 Nov 1989 DTIC ’ELECTE0OCT 0c 41990u... Electric Propulsion Study (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Cravens, Dennis J. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE...identif bv block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Inductive theories, electric propulsion, unified field 21 0- theories, Conservatc!±,n Laws, Dynamic

  3. Advanced Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    G . L ., Forward, R. L . and Frisbee, R. H. (1995a), “Report on the NASA/JPL Workshop on Advanced Quantum/Relativity Theory Propulsion,” AIAA-95-2599...31st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego, CA 19. Bennett, G . L ., Forward, R. L . and Frisbee, R. H. (1995b...Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, IN 169. Mead, F. B., Myrabo, L . N., and Messitt, D. G . (1998), “Flight and Ground Tests of a Laser-Boosted Vehicle

  4. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  5. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  6. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  7. Spacecraft propulsion: new methods.

    PubMed

    Alfvén, H

    1972-04-14

    Cosmic plasmas contain energy which may be tapped and used for spacecraft propulsion. The energy needed for launching a spacecraft could be supplied to it from the ground through a plasma channel in the atmosphere.

  8. Propulsion technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lee W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on propulsion technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis O2/H2 system; hydrazine system advancements; common technology; fluids disposal; and storable bipropellant system.

  9. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  10. Solid propulsion advanced concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility and application of a solid propulsion powered spacecraft concept to implement high energy missions independent of multiplanetary swingby opportunities are assessed and recommendations offered for future work. An upper stage, solid propulsion launch vehicle augmentation system was selected as the baseline configuration in view of the established program goals of low cost and high reliability. Spacecraft and propulsion system data that characterize mission performance capabilities were generated to serve as the basis for subsequent tradeoff studies. A cost effectiveness model was used for the preliminary feasibility assessment to provide a meaningful comparative effectiveness measure of the various candidate designs. The results substantiated the feasibility of the powered spacecraft concept when used in conjunction with several intermediate-sized launch vehicles as well as the existence of energy margins by which to exploit the attainment of extended mission capabilities. Additionally, in growth option applications, the employment of advanced propulsion systems and alternate spacecraft approaches appear promising.

  11. The NASA-JPL advanced propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) consists of two main areas: The first involves cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; the second involves research at universities and industry that is directly supported by JPL. The cooperative research program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C-60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry- supported research includes research (modeling and proof-of-concept experiments) in advanced, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion. These propulsion concepts were selected primarily to cover a range of applications from near-term to far-term missions. For example, the long-lived pulsed-xenon thruster research that JPL is supporting at Princeton University addresses the near-term need for efficient, long-life attitude control and station-keeping propulsion for Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The C-60-propellant ion engine has the potential for good efficiency in a relatively low specific impulse (Isp) range (10,000 - 30,000 m/s) that is optimum for relatively fast (less than 100 day) cis-lunar (LEO/GEO/Lunar) missions employing near-term, high-specific mass electric propulsion vehicles. Research and modeling on the C-60-ion engine are currently being performed by JPL (engine demonstration), Caltech (C-60 properties), MIT (plume modeling), and USC (diagnostics). The Li-propellant LFA engine also has good efficiency in the modest Isp range (40,000 - 50,000 m/s) that is optimum for near-to-mid-term megawatt-class solar- and nuclear-electric propulsion vehicles used for Mars missions transporting cargo (in support of a piloted mission). Research and modeling on the Li-LFA engine are currently being performed by JPL (cathode development), Moscow Aviation

  12. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Marietta - cryogenic oscillator Dr. Brice Cassenti, UTRC - antimatter propulsion A. E. Mensing, UTRC - nuclear lightbulb engine Michael Fowler, UTRC...sails, laser propulsion, tethers, fusion rockets, antimatter rockets Z9 BSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide if necessary and identify by block number) This...thorough literature search and carry out an intense technical assessment of the latest concepts in science and engineering that show promise of leading to a

  13. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  14. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  15. Advanced propulsion on a shoestring

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1990-05-01

    Consideration is given to propulsion concepts under study by NASA Advanced Propulsion Research Program. These concepts include fusion, antimatter-matter annihilation, microwave electrothermal, and electron cyclotron resonance propulsion. Results from programs to develop fusion technologies are reviewed, including compact fusion devices and inertial confinement experiments. Problems concerning both antimatter and fusion propulsion concepts are examined and the economic issues related to propulsion research are discussed.

  16. Fuel Effective Photonic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalakshmi, N.; Srivarshini, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the entry of miniaturization in electronics and ultra-small light-weight materials, energy efficient propulsion techniques for space travel can soon be possible. We need to go for such high speeds so that the generation’s time long interstellar missions can be done in incredibly short time. Also renewable energy like sunlight, nuclear energy can be used for propulsion instead of fuel. These propulsion techniques are being worked on currently. The recently proposed photon propulsion concepts are reviewed, that utilize momentum of photons generated by sunlight or onboard photon generators, such as blackbody radiation or lasers, powered by nuclear or solar power. With the understanding of nuclear photonic propulsion, in this paper, a rough estimate of nuclear fuel required to achieve the escape velocity of Earth is done. An overview of the IKAROS space mission for interplanetary travel by JAXA, that was successful in demonstrating that photonic propulsion works and also generated additional solar power on board, is provided; which can be used as a case study. An extension of this idea for interstellar travel, termed as ‘Star Shot’, aims to send a nanocraft to an exoplanet in the nearest star system, which could be potentially habitable. A brief overview of the idea is presented.

  17. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This image, taken during the test, depicts the light being concentrated into the focal point inside the vacuum chamber. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  18. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during 1989, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by JPL. Three classes of publications are included: JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report; and articles published in the open literature.

  19. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography of articles concerning topics on the deep space network, data acquisition, telecommunication, and related aerospace studies is presented. A sample of the diverse subjects include, solar energy remote sensing, computer science, Earth resources, astronomy, and satellite communication.

  20. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For many years before the clock counted down to midnight and the arrival of the year 2000, the world had anticipated 2001 as a special time and a new era. Now we know that 2001 will be a year none of us will ever forget. We began a new year, a new century, and a new millennium. Yet after September 11, the world in many ways seems profoundly changed. On that day we witnessed both the worst and best in human nature. Space exploration is one pursuit that points towards the best instincts in our nature. And certainly the pioneering spirit, so much a part of the American character, is a value deeply embedded into all the work we undertake at JPL. We are privileged that the nation has entrusted us with exploring space on its behalf. And we are fortunate to find ourselves part of two of the world's most accomplished institutions - NASA and the California Institute of Technology. Looking back over the past four decades, JPL has carried out an initial reconnaissance of nearly all of the solar systems planets. Today we have more than a dozen missions flying, and many more in various stages of development. Our challenge now is to create missions that help us understand these places more deeply. And in addition to exploring and understanding our solar system, we want to discover neighboring solar systems and explore them as well. The 21st century is upon us. So is a tremendous era of space exploration. There were many events in 2001 to celebrate, one being the arrival of the Mars Odyssey orbiter, which joins the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter in providing continuous coverage of the red planet. This is a major step in establishing a permanent robotic presence at Mars. Ahead for JPL will be both rewarding and challenging moments; thats the nature of being pioneers and explorers.

  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    What an amazing host of new sights 2005 brought us. With impeccable choreography, one spacecraft sent an impactor slamming into a comet, reversing the traditional view of these space wayfarers by revealing it to be buried in deep drifts of a fine talcum-like powder. Another spacecraft delivered a probe from our European partners to the surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan, disclosing a landscape eerily like Earth's, if we had methane rivers cascading down hillsides of ice. An orbiting observatory for the first time showed us the light from planets circling other stars, which astronomers previously knew to exist only from indirect clues. Throughout the year we also amassed continually expanding views of Earth as well as Mars, by far the most-explored planet after our own. In all, 18 spacecraft and five instruments were stationed across the solar system, studying our own world, other planets, comets and the deeper universe. These missions were enabled by the efforts of everyone at JPL. The Deep Space Network of communications complexes across three continents continued to experience a period of remarkable activity. Others were at work creating technologies both for NASA missions and other uses. JPL's contingent of scientific researchers was equally busy coordinating the science activities of our missions or pursuing independent investigations. None of this would be possible without the support of world-class business and administrative teams. All of our missions in one way or another support our nations Vision for Space Exploration, which envisages a gradually widening robotic and human presence across the solar system in the years ahead. The year was not without its challenges. NASA set forth to implement the Vision for Space Exploration, which resulted in some flight projects and technology efforts being terminated. To adjust to this new direction, it was necessary for us to reduce the JPL workforce by about five percent. Taking steps like this is painful, but we tried to make the process as orderly as possible. In the end, the adjustments made have left JPL on a healthy footing for the years ahead.

  2. EDI at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amago, B.

    1994-01-01

    The JPL Library and Information Center orders and claims material elecronically whenever feasible. The NASA Aerospace Research Information Network (ARIN) is used to order books for the library collection; BIP Plus on CD-ROM is used to order office copies. Paper copies of invoices are processed when material is received. Subscriptions are ordered using the vendor's online system; monthly and annual invoices are received both in paper and electronic format (diskette of FTP). Library-developed dbase programs complement or duplicate functions available through ARIN and/or the JPL institutional accounting system.

  3. NASA Center update: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, Sal

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: flight project support activities for TOPEX and the Mars Observer; and research/development and engineering activities for NiCd model development, secondary lithium battery development, the sodium-NiCl2 moderate temperature battery, Li-SOCl2 batteries for the Centaur launch vehicle, and direct hydrocarbon/methanol fuel cells.

  4. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  5. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  6. Best practices in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: recommendations of the Pasadena Consensus Panel.

    PubMed

    Montorsi, Francesco; Wilson, Timothy G; Rosen, Raymond C; Ahlering, Thomas E; Artibani, Walter; Carroll, Peter R; Costello, Anthony; Eastham, James A; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Menon, Mani; Novara, Giacomo; Patel, Vipul R; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Van der Poel, Henk; Van Poppel, Hein; Mottrie, Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) has long been the most common surgical technique used to treat clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). More recently, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been gaining increasing acceptance among patients and urologists, and it has become the dominant technique in the United States despite a paucity of prospective studies or randomized trials supporting its superiority over RRP. A 2-d consensus conference of 17 world leaders in prostate cancer and radical prostatectomy was organized in Pasadena, California, and at the City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, California, under the auspices of the European Association of Urology Robotic Urology Section to systematically review the currently available data on RARP, to critically assess current surgical techniques, and to generate best practice recommendations to guide clinicians and related medical personnel. No commercial support was obtained for the conference. A systematic review of the literature was performed in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. The results of the systematic literature review were reviewed, discussed, and refined over the 2-d conference. Key recommendations were generated using a Delphi consensus approach. RARP is associated with less blood loss and transfusion rates compared with RRP, and there appear to be minimal differences between the two approaches in terms of overall postoperative complications. Positive surgical margin rates are at least equivalent with RARP, but firm conclusions about biochemical recurrence and other oncologic end points are difficult to draw because the follow-up in existing studies is relatively short and the overall experience with RARP in locally advanced PCa is still limited. RARP may offer advantages in postoperative recovery of urinary continence and erectile function, although there are methodological limitations in most studies to date and a need for

  7. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  8. A cermet fuel reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Work on the cermet fuel reactor done in the 1960's by General Electric (GE) and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that had as its goal the development of systems that could be used for nuclear rocket propulsion as well as closed cycle propulsion system designs for ship propulsion, space nuclear propulsion, and other propulsion systems is reviewed. It is concluded that the work done in the 1960's has demonstrated that we can have excellent thermal and mechanical performance with cermet fuel. Thousands of hours of testing were performed on the cermet fuel at both GE and AGL, including very rapid transients and some radiation performance history. We conclude that there are no feasibility issues with cermet fuel. What is needed is reactivation of existing technology and qualification testing of a specific fuel form. We believe this can be done with a minimum development risk.

  9. Research Summary Number 36-8 for the Period 1 February-1 April 1961 on Contract NASw-6 (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-05-01

    microscope 32 JPL RESEARCH SUMMARY NO. 36-8 = 7-- 2. Niobium Superconducting Thin Films Work is continuing on the problem of depositing thin Sfilms of niobium ...which are superconducting. Since the last report (RS 36-7), a film of niobium approximately 1.5 / thick has been deposited inside a cylindrical... niobium wire evaporant to the substrate wall will-’ : - ," .... ETC ING ," "" . .heat it to approximately 10000C without external means. i $ (3) The

  10. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  11. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sinko, John E.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-10-08

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

  12. Nanosatellite Propulsion Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagosian, J. S.; Rhee, M. S.; Zakrzwski, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Earth-orbiting nanosatellite constellations are a unique and exciting means toward fulfilling part of the mission of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). These constellations, which may consist of several hundred 10-kg spacecraft, present unique challenges in the area of propulsion. Many mission concepts require significant delta-v and attitude control capability to reside in the nanosatellites. In response to requirements from mission feasibility studies, such as the Magnetospheric Constellation study, the GSFC has initiated industry and government partnerships to develop enabling propulsion technologies. The largest challenge has been to meet the power constraints of nanosatellites. These power issues, combined with the high thrust required by many of the missions studied, have led the GSFC to concentrate its efforts on chemical propulsion technology. Electric propulsion technologies capable of performing efficiently at very low power are also of interest to the GSFC as potential candidates for nanosatellite formation flying missions. This paper provides the status of specific industrial or government partnerships undertaken by the GSFC to develop nano/micro propulsion components. Three specific technologies are described in detail: 1) Nanosatellite Solid Rocket Motor Prototype 2) Ultra-Low-Power Cold Gas Thruster for Spin-Axis Precession 3) Micro-Machined Solid-Propellant Gas Generators.

  13. A liquid propulsion panorama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caisso, Philippe; Souchier, Alain; Rothmund, Christophe; Alliot, Patrick; Bonhomme, Christophe; Zinner, Walter; Parsley, Randy; Neill, Todd; Forde, Scott; Starke, Robert; Wang, William; Takahashi, Mamoru; Atsumi, Masahiro; Valentian, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    Liquid-propellant rocket engines are widely used all over the world, thanks to their high performances, in particular high thrust-to-weight ratio. The present paper presents a general panorama of liquid propulsion as a contribution of the IAF Advanced Propulsion Prospective Group. After a brief history of its past development in the different parts of the world, the current status of liquid propulsion, the currently observed trends, the possible areas of future improvement and a summarized road map of future developments are presented. The road map includes a summary of the liquid propulsion status presented in the "Year in review 2007" of Aerospace America. Although liquid propulsion is often seen as a mature technology with few areas of potential improvement, the requirements of an active commercial market and a renewed interest for space exploration has led to the development of a family of new engines, with more design margins, simpler to use and to produce associated with a wide variety of thrust and life requirements.

  14. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  15. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  16. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Sikes, W.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  17. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  18. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  20. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  1. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  2. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  3. Jet propulsion for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckingham, Edgar

    1924-01-01

    This report is a description of a method of propelling airplanes by the reaction of jet propulsion. Air is compressed and mixed with fuel in a combustion chamber, where the mixture burns at constant pressure. The combustion products issue through a nozzle, and the reaction of that of the motor-driven air screw. The computations are outlined and the results given by tables and curves. The relative fuel consumption and weight of machinery for the jet, decrease as the flying speed increases; but at 250 miles per hour the jet would still take about four times as much fuel per thrust horsepower-hour as the air screw, and the power plant would be heavier and much more complicated. Propulsion by the reaction of a simple jet can not compete with air screw propulsion at such flying speeds as are now in prospect.

  4. Electric Propulsion Applications and Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Most space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems are often dominant spacecraft mass drivers. Presently, on-board systems account for more than half the injected mass for commercial communications systems and even greater mass fractions for ambitious planetary missions. Anticipated trends toward the use of both smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles will likely increase pressure on the performance of on-board propulsion systems. The acceptance of arcjet thrusters for operational use on commercial communications satellites ushered in a new era in on-board propulsion and exponential growth of electric propulsion across a broad spectrum of missions is anticipated. NASA recognizes the benefits of advanced propulsion and NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology supports an aggressive On-Board Propulsion program, including a strong electric propulsion element, to assure the availability of high performance propulsion systems to meet the goals of the ambitious missions envisioned in the next two decades. The program scope ranges from fundamental research for future generation systems through specific insertion efforts aimed at near term technology transfer. The On-Board propulsion program is committed to carrying technologies to levels required for customer acceptance and emphasizes direct interactions with the user community and the development of commercial sources. This paper provides a discussion of anticipated missions, propulsion functions, and electric propulsion impacts followed by an overview of the electric propulsion element of the NASA On-Board Propulsion program.

  5. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  6. Pulsed Laser Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    afforded by a pulsed laser propulsion system over a CW laser propulsion system are 1) simplicity in engine design as a result of permitting the laser...to engineering and weight considerations. The lower boundary of the corridor is set by propellant feed considerations. To the right of this boundary...example, a OOJ -5 per pulse laser operating at 7 x 10 sec between pulses (14, 285 pps) is capable of powering a 30 lb (135 Nt)thrust rocket engine that has

  7. Supersonic laser propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rezunkov, Yurii; Schmidt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    To produce supersonic laser propulsion, a new technique based on the interaction of a laser-ablated jet with supersonic gas flow in a nozzle is proposed. It is shown that such parameters of the jet, such as gas-plasma pressure and temperature in the ablation region as well as the mass consumption rate of the ablated solid propellant, are characteristic in this respect. The results of numerical simulations of the supersonic laser propulsion are presented for two types of nozzle configuration. The feasibility to achieve the momentum coupling coefficient of C(m)∼10(-3) N/W is shown.

  8. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  9. Satellite/spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, Mack W.

    1991-01-01

    Propulsion system performance has high leverage for many future missions because of large propellant mass requirements. Relatively small performance improvements can translate into large increases in payload and science return. Contamination control becomes more important as science instruments become more sensitive. This places more emphasis on exhaust plume contamination control. The need for reliable operation and long life places increased importance on health monitoring and control of spacecraft propulsion systems. The need for accurate spacecraft pointing and control increases the need for small impulse-bit thrusters. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  10. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  11. Definition of an arcjet propulsion sub-system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Theodore W.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering flight demonstration of a 100 kW3 Space Reactor Power System is planned for the mid to late 1990s. An arcjet based propulsion subsystem will be included on the flight demonstraction as a secondary experiment. Two studies, sponsored by the Kay Technologies Directorate of the SDI Organization and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are currently under way to define that propulsion subsystem. The principal tasks of those contracts and the plans for two later phases, an experimental verification of the concept and a flight qualification/delivery of a flight unit, are described.

  12. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  13. Propulsion and Power Using Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Krause, L. H.; Wiegmann, B.; Bilen, S.; Gilchrist, B.

    2017-02-01

    Electrodynamic tethers provide propulsion and power by interacting with planetary magnetospheres, enabling propulsive-intense maneuvers and high-power without fuel or radioisotope power. Electric sails can propel spacecraft throughout the solar system.

  14. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  15. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  16. Orbital Analysis of Macron Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-28

    storage and solid-state switching enabled the use of peristaltic, pulsed inductive acceleration of non- ferritic particles for spacecraft propulsion...switching enabled the use of peristaltic, pulsed inductive acceleration of non- ferritic particles for spacecraft propulsion. Macron Launched Propulsion (MLP...peristaltic, pulsed inductive acceleration techniques of non- ferritic particles to electromagnetically accelerate macrons (i.e. a macroscopic particle with an

  17. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  18. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  19. Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area is tasked to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to improve or enable science mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. The solar electric propulsion investments are primarily driven by SMD cost-capped mission needs. The technology needs are determined partially through systems analysis tasks including the recent "Re-focus Studies" and "Standard Architecture Study." These systems analysis tasks transitioned the technology development to address the near term propulsion needs suitable for cost-capped open solicited missions such as Discovery and New Frontiers Class missions. Major SEP activities include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture for NSTAR and NEXT EP systems, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development and xenon recovery testing. Future plans include completion of ongoing ISP development activities and evaluating potential use of commercial electric propulsion systems for SMD applications. Examples of enhanced mission capability and technology readiness dates shall be discussed.

  20. Turboprop Propulsion Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This instructional package consists of a plan of instruction, glossary, and student handouts and exercises for use in training Air Force personnel to become turboprop propulsion mechanics. Addressed in the individual lessons of the course are the following: common hand tools, hardware, measuring devices, and safety wiring; aircraft and engine…

  1. Rarefaction wave gun propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathe, Eric Lee

    A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

  2. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  3. NASA Now: Propulsion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll visit NASA’s Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, called B-2, at NASA Plum Brook Station. You’ll meet Dr. Louis Povinelli and Brian Jones who explain w...

  4. Dynamics of intestinal propulsion.

    PubMed

    Miftahof, R; Akhmadeev, N

    2007-05-21

    A biomechanical model and mathematical formulation of the problem of propulsion of a solid non-deformable pellet by an isolated segment of the gut are presented. The organ is modeled as a soft orthotropic cylindrical biological shell. Its wall is reinforced by transversely isotropic muscle fibers of orthogonal type of weaving embedded in a connective tissue stroma. The mechanical properties of the wall are assumed to be nonlinear, deformations are finite. The longitudinal smooth muscle syncitium possesses anisotropic and the circular muscle syncytium has anisotropic electrical properties. Their electromechanical activity is under control of a pacemaker, which is represented by interstitial cells of Cajal. The model describes the dynamics of the generation and propagation of mechanical waves of contraction-relaxation along the surface of the bioshell and propulsion of the pellet. The governing system of equations was solved numerically. The combined finite-difference and finite-element method was used. The results demonstrate that pendular movements alone provide an aboral transit, without mixing though, of the bolus. Non-propagating segmental contractions show small amplitude librations of the pellet without its visible propulsion. Only the coordinated activity of both smooth muscle layers in a form of the peristaltic reflex provides physiologically significant simultaneous propulsion and mixing of the intraluminal content (pellet).

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND GOOD TEACHING, MORE EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY. PASADENA SCHOOLS IN ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HORNBECK, RALPH W.

    LISTENING-VIEWING CENTERS ARE BEING USED IN SCHOOLS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. THEY ARE EFFECTIVE IN IMPROVING INSTRUCTION AND INCREASING TEACHER EFFICIENCY. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES MEET THE DEMAND FOR PERSON-TO-PERSON COMMUNICATIONS. THEY PERMIT ALL STUDENTS TO PARTICIPATE AT THE SAME TIME WITHOUT INTERFERENCE FROM OTHERS, THUS THEY INCREASE…

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND GOOD TEACHING, MORE EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY. PASADENA SCHOOLS IN ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HORNBECK, RALPH W.

    LISTENING-VIEWING CENTERS ARE BEING USED IN SCHOOLS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. THEY ARE EFFECTIVE IN IMPROVING INSTRUCTION AND INCREASING TEACHER EFFICIENCY. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES MEET THE DEMAND FOR PERSON-TO-PERSON COMMUNICATIONS. THEY PERMIT ALL STUDENTS TO PARTICIPATE AT THE SAME TIME WITHOUT INTERFERENCE FROM OTHERS, THUS THEY INCREASE…

  7. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  8. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  9. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-11-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  10. The NASA Electric Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the NASA Electric Propulsion program is aimed at providing technology for auxiliary and primary propulsion functions for earth-orbital and planetary space missions. Efforts in electrostatic propulsion include analyses of ion propulsion for Geosynchronous (GEO) and planetary spacecraft, continued preflight efforts associated with the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), and research and technology for advanced and simplified ion thruster systems. In the area of electromagnetic propulsion, studies were conducted regarding the feasibility and impacts of the use of electromagnetic launchers. Research on magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, electromagnetic launchers, and Hall current thrusters was also performed. Studies in the electrothermal sector included an evaluation of electric propulsion options for the Space Station, taking into account also resistojets, a pulsed electrothermal thruster, and arc jets.

  11. First-Generation Jet Propulsion Laboratory "Hockey-Puck" Free-Flying Magnetometers for Distributed In-Situ Multiprobe Measurement of Current Density Filamentation in the Northern Auroral Zone: Enstrophy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H.; Blaes, B.; Boehm, M.; Boykins, K.; Gibbs, J.; Goodman, W.; Lieneweg, U.; Lux, J.; Lynch, K.; Narvaez, P.

    2000-01-01

    The sub-orbital rocket mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to study filamentation phenomena in the northern Auroral zone. The Enstrophy mission test flies the JPL Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) concept. The FFM technology development task has been funded by NASA develop miniaturized, low-power, integrated "sensorcrafts". JPL's role was to design, integrate, test, and deliver four FFMs for deployment from the sounding rocket, allowing a unique determination of curl-B. This provides a direct measurement of magnetic-field-aligned current density along the rocket trajectory. A miniaturized three-axis fluxgate magnetometer was integrated with a 4-channel 22-bit sigma-delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), four temperature sensors, digital control electronics, seven (Li-SOCl2) batteries, two (4 deg x 170 deg field of view) sun-sensors, a fan-shaped-beam laser diode beacon, a (16 MHz) stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, Radio Frequency (RF) communication subsystem, and an antenna for approximately 15 minutes of operation where data was collected continuously and transmitted in three (3) bursts (approximately 26 seconds each) to ground station antennas at Poker Flat, Alaska. FFMs were stowed within two trays onboard the rocket during the rocket launch and were released simultaneously using the spinning action of the rocket at approximately 300 km altitude (approximately 100 sec. into the flight). FFMs were deployed with spin rate of approximately 17 Hz and approximately 3 m/sec linear velocity with respect to the rocket. For testing purposes while the rocket was in the launch pad and during flight prior to release of FFMs from the rocket, commands (such as "power on", "test", "flight", "power off', and clock "Reset" signal) were transmitted via a infrared Light Emitting Diode to an infrared detector in the FFM. Special attention was paid to low

  12. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  13. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  14. Development Progress in Phase 1 Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, Jim; Dickens, Ricky; Pedersen, Kevin; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Lipinski, Ron; Wright, Steve; hide

    2000-01-01

    Phase 1 fission propulsion systems are those fission propulsion systems that are highly testable and require no development of nuclear fuels or materials. The systems can be developed without new or significantly modified facilities, have adequate performance for numerous missions of interest, and demonstrate technologies and programmatics that are traceable to Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems. Phase 1 fission propulsion systems focus on safety, cost and schedule. Phase 1 flight units can be tested at full thrust using resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission. The development and use of Phase 1 systems will help enable Phase 2 or Phase 3 fission propulsion systems capable of giving rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. A Phase 1 fission propulsion system under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in collaboration with individuals from Department of Energy Laboratories and industry is the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). The propellant energy source of a 30 kW SAFE unit (SAFE-30) is being fabricated, and will begin testing at MSFC in FY00. The conceptual design of a 300 kW SAFE unit (SAFE-300)is nearing completion. Experiments have been performed on both SAFE-30 and SAFE-300 components. Module tests have confirmed the performance potential of the SAFE series of propulsion systems. This paper will report on the development status of the Phase 1 SAFE fission propulsion system.

  15. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  16. STOL propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denington, R. J.; Koenig, R. W.; Vanco, M. R.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and the characteristics of quiet, clean propulsion systems for STOL aircraft are discussed. Engines are evaluated for augmentor wing and externally blown flap STOL aircraft with the engines located both under and over the wings. Some supporting test data are presented. Optimum engines are selected based on achieving the performance, economic, acoustic, and pollution goals presently being considered for future STOL aircraft. The data and results presented were obtained from a number of contracted studies and some supporting NASA inhouse programs, most of which began in early 1972. The contracts include: (1) two aircraft and mission studies, (2) two propulsion system studies, (3) the experimental and analytic work on the augmentor wing, and (4) the experimental programs on Q-Fan. Engines are selected and discussed based on aircraft economics using the direct operating cost as the primary criterion. This cost includes the cost of the crew, fuel, aircraft, and engine maintenance and depreciation.

  17. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  18. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  19. Hypersonic missile propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmar, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Pratt and Whitney is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current development of hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Program has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of an expendable, liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. This program will culminate in a flight type engine test at representative flight conditions. The hypersonic technology base that will be developed and demonstrated under HyTech will establish the foundation to enable hypersonic propulsion systems for a broad range of air vehicle applications from missiles to space access vehicles. A hypersonic missile flight demonstration is planned in the DARPA Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator (ARRMD) program in 2001.

  20. Device for Lowering Mars Science Laboratory Rover to the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is hardware for controlling the final lowering of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover to the surface of Mars from the spacecraft's hovering, rocket-powered descent stage.

    The photo shows the bridle device assembly, which is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from end to end, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the left is the descent brake. On the right is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion of the spool at far right. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  1. Bridle Device in Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory shows two of the stage's three spherical fuel tanks flanking the bridle device assembly. The photograph was taken in early October 2008 from the center of the descent stage looking outward. The top of the descent stage is toward the top of the image.

    The bridle device assembly is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from top to bottom, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the top is the descent brake. The conical-shaped mechanism below that is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  2. Device for Lowering Mars Science Laboratory Rover to the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is hardware for controlling the final lowering of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover to the surface of Mars from the spacecraft's hovering, rocket-powered descent stage.

    The photo shows the bridle device assembly, which is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from end to end, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the left is the descent brake. On the right is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion of the spool at far right. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  3. Bridle Device in Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory shows two of the stage's three spherical fuel tanks flanking the bridle device assembly. The photograph was taken in early October 2008 from the center of the descent stage looking outward. The top of the descent stage is toward the top of the image.

    The bridle device assembly is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from top to bottom, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the top is the descent brake. The conical-shaped mechanism below that is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  4. Digital MicroPropulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Distribution Statement ‘A’, Approved for Public Release – Distribution Unlimited.” Abstract Arrays of “Digital Propulsion” micro -thrusters have been fabricated...and tested. A three- layer sandwich is fabricated containing micro -resistors, thrust chambers, and rupture di- aphragms. A propellant is loaded into...Micromechanics; Micro -propulsion; Micro -thrusters; Micro -rockets ∗Sensors and Actuators A, Physical, 2000, 80(2), pages 143-154. †Corresponding author, email

  5. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  6. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  7. Emerging Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

  8. Interstellar Propulsion Concepts Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is investigating the feasibility of conducting extra-solar and interstellar missions over the next 10 to 50 years. An assessment of technologies supporting these near and far term objectives is required. To help meet these objectives the Principal Investigator assessed the feasibility of candidate propulsion systems for the proposed 'Interstellar Probe', a mission to send a spacecraft to the Heliopause at 250 AU and beyond.

  9. Chemical propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of NASA's low thrust liquid chemical propulsion program is presented with particular emphasis on thrust system technology in the ten to one thousand pound thrust range. Key technology issues include high performance of cooled low thrust engines; small cryogenic pumps; multiple starts-shutdowns (10) with slow ramps (approximately 10 seconds); thrust variation - 4/1 in flight and 20/1 between flights; long life (100 hours); improved system weight and size; and propellant selection.

  10. Implementation of an Online Database for Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David B. Owen, II; McRight, Patrick S.; Cardiff, Eric H.

    2009-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University, Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center (CPIAC) has been working closely with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC); the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH); The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL); and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to capture satellite and spacecraft propulsion system information for an online database tool. The Spacecraft Chemical Propulsion Database (SCPD) is a new online central repository containing general and detailed system and component information on a variety of spacecraft propulsion systems. This paper only uses data that have been approved for public release with unlimited distribution. The data, supporting documentation, and ability to produce reports on demand, enable a researcher using SCPD to compare spacecraft easily, generate information for trade studies and mass estimates, and learn from the experiences of others through what has already been done. This paper outlines the layout and advantages of SCPD, including a simple example application with a few chemical propulsion systems from various NASA spacecraft.

  11. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  12. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  13. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  14. The MAP Propulsion Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary T.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, integration, test, performance, and lessons learned of NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) propulsion subsystem. MAP was launched on a Delta-II launch vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on June 30, 2001. Due to instrument thermal stability requirements, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point was selected for the mission orbit. The L2 trajectory incorporated phasing loops and a lunar gravity assist. The propulsion subsystem's requirements are to manage momentum, perform maneuvers during the phasing loops to set up the lunar swingby, and perform stationkeeping at L2 for 2 years. MAP's propulsion subsystem uses 8 thrusters which are located and oriented to provide attitude control and momentum management about all axes, and delta-V in any direction without exposing the instrument to the sun. The propellant tank holds 72 kg of hydrazine, which is expelled by unregulated blowdown pressurization. Thermal management is complex because no heater cycling is allowed at L2. Several technical challenges presented themselves during I and T, such as in-situ weld repairs and in-situ bending of thruster tubes to accommodate late changes in the observatory CG. On-orbit performance has been nominal, and all phasing loop, mid-course correction, and stationkeeping maneuvers have been successfully performed to date.

  15. Geosynchronous earth orbit base propulsion - electric propulsion options

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electric propulsion and chemical propulsion requirements for a geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) base were analyzed. The base is resupplied from the Space Station's low earth orbit. Orbit-transfer Delta-Vs, nodal-regression Delta-Vs and orbit-maintenance Delta-Vs were considered. For resupplying the base, a cryogenic oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is currently-baselined. Comparisons of several electric propulsion options with the O2/H2 OTV were conducted. Propulsion requirements for missions related to the GEO base were also analyzed. Payload data for the GEO missions were drawn from current mission data bases. Detailed electric propulsion module designs are presented. Mission analyses and propulsion analyses for the GEO-delivered payloads are included. 23 references.

  16. Analysis of System Margins on Missions Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.; Landau, Damon; Randolph, Thomas; Timmerman, Paul; Chase, James; Sims, Jon; Kowalkowski, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has conducted a study focused on the analysis of appropriate margins for deep space missions using solar electric propulsion (SEP). The purpose of this study is to understand the links between disparate system margins (power, mass, thermal, etc.) and their impact on overall mission performance and robustness. It is determined that the various sources of uncertainty and risk associated with electric propulsion mission design can be summarized into three relatively independent parameters 1) EP Power Margin, 2) Propellant Margin and 3) Duty Cycle Margin. The overall relationship between these parameters and other major sources of uncertainty is presented. A detailed trajectory analysis is conducted to examine the impact that various assumptions related to power, duty cycle, destination, and thruster performance including missed thrust periods have on overall performance. Recommendations are presented for system margins for deep space missions utilizing solar electric propulsion.

  17. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  18. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  19. Tests on Thrust Augmenters for Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Shoemaker, James M

    1932-01-01

    This series of tests was undertaken to determine how much the reaction thrust of a jet could be increased by the use of thrust augmenters and thus to give some indication as to the feasibility of jet propulsion for airplanes. The tests were made during the first part of 1927 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. A compressed air jet was used in connection with a series of annular guides surrounding the jet to act as thrust augmenters. The results show that, although it is possible to increase the thrust of a jet, the increase is not large enough to affect greatly the status of the problem of the application of jet propulsion to airplanes.

  20. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.R.; Doherty, M.P.; Peecook, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  1. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  2. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  4. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  5. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  6. Methane Propulsion Elements for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percy, Tom; Polsgrove, Tara; Thomas, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration beyond LEO relies on a suite of propulsive elements to: (1) Launch elements into space, (2) Transport crew and cargo to and from various destinations, (3) Provide access to the surface of Mars, (4) Launch crew from the surface of Mars. Oxygen/Methane propulsion systems meet the unique requirements of Mars surface access. A common Oxygen/Methane propulsion system is being considered to reduce development costs and support a wide range of primary & alternative applications.

  7. Propulsion PathFinder (PPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Propulsion PathFinder (PPF) project will flight test a variety of CubeSat propulsion systems in a relevant space environment, thereby elevating the Technology Readiness Level (TRL), or technology maturity level, of these subsystems to TRL 7. A series of flights are planned in low Earth orbit to characterize the performance of each propulsion system and demonstrate the capability to perform orbital maneuvers.

  8. Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-16

    83 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION by A.P. Baranov DTIQ ~E tJ Approved for public release; 0.. distribution...MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION By: A.P. Baranov -,English pages: 10 Source: Sudostroyeniye, Nr. 12, December 1966, pp. 3-6 . Country of origin: USSR X...equations, etc. merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION A. P

  9. 1995 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is a collection of 36 unclassified/unlimited distribution papers which were presented at the 1995 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) propulsion meeting. Specific subjects discussed include the integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology initiative, hybrid propulsion, electric propulsion, the Minuteman 2/3 missile system, slag, aluminum in propellant compositions, electric propulsion, rocket nozzle design, and tactical missiles.

  10. Transport Processes in Beamed Energy Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    the advanced propulsion systems currently being considered for future space missions are the resistojet, arcjet , ion engines, and laser and microwave... electrothermal propulsion systems. Studies conducted of advanced propulsion concepts for both NASA and Air Force missions, such as low-earth orbit...advanced propulsion concepts mentioned, microwave electrothermal propulsion systems best suit this range of operation. Resistojets employ electrothermal

  11. In-situ, quantitative speciation of aerosols over Pasadena, CA during the CalNex 2010 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, G. A.; Worton, D. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Zhao, Y.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A.

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of over 200 compounds were quantified and several hundred more were observed in organic aerosols over Pasadena, CA using the GCxGC Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (2D-TAG) during the California at the Nexus between Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) Experiment in the summer of 2010. In order to improve quantitation, we incorporated recent improvements to the 2D-TAG instrument (detailed in Worton, et al., in prep), including valveless injection and an automated system for addition of deuterated internal standards. Measured compounds span a wide range of volatility and functionality, including alkanes and cycloalkanes, alkenes, furanones, ketones, nitriles, phthalic acids and anhydrides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), branched PAHs, and oxygenated PAHs, as well as known tracers for a variety of sources, such as secondary organic aerosol (SOA), diesel fuel, and biomass burning. These compounds represent not only fresh emissions, but also aged and slightly oxidized pollutants. Though most of these compounds have been quantified in the atmosphere in previous experiments, this represents the first multi-day, in-situ measurement of ambient urban aerosols using two-dimensional chromatography. The high time-resolution of these measurements allows for statistically significant analysis of the diurnal variability and covariance of these compounds, which will be used to better understand source profiles and attribute sources. Furthermore, because many of the observed compounds have been shown to be correlated with accepted Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) factors (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, oxygenated organic aerosol, etc.), the data presented here will provide a better understanding of the composition of these factors in an urban environment. Putting this work into the context of the extensive suite of data from the Pasadena site will greatly contribute to our understanding of urban aerosol sources

  12. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  13. Radiation Augmented Propulsion Feasibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    FE 1~ 1986 December 1985 Authors: Rockwell International S . C. Hurlock Rocketdyne Division V. Quan 6633 Canoga Ave ()J. Blauer Canoga Park, CA 91304 00...Organization Report Number( s ) RI /RD85-257 AFRPL-TR-85-068 Gam NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION b. OF FICE SY MBO L 7. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION...EW - PropulsionFeasibilityStudy_(U) ______ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Hurlock, S . C.; Quan, V.; Blauer, J.; Hall, J. R.; Wagner, R. I.; Wilson, R. 0. 113

  14. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The programmatic objective is to establish the feasibility of propulsion technologies for vastly expanded space activity. The technical objective is a revolutionary performance sought, such as: (1) about 1 kg/kW specific mass; (2) specific impulse tailored to mission requirements; (3) ability to use in-situ resources; (4) round-trips to Mars in months; (5) round-trips to outer planets in 1 to 2 years; and (6) the capability for robotic mission beyond the solar system.

  15. Electromagnetic propulsion test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    A test facility for the exploration of electromagnetic propulsion concept is described. The facility is designed to accommodate electromagnetic rail accelerators of various lengths (1 to 10 meters) and to provide accelerating energies of up to 240 kiloJoules. This accelerating energy is supplied as a current pulse of hundreds of kiloAmps lasting as long as 1 millisecond. The design, installation, and operating characteristics of the pulsed energy system are discussed. The test chamber and its operation at pressures down to 1300 Pascals (10 mm of mercury) are described. Some aspects of safety (interlocking, personnel protection, and operating procedures) are included.

  16. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  17. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  18. Propulsion by tachyon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.

    1989-07-01

    A possibility of generating collimated beams of faster-than-light particles (tachyons) and using them for rocket propulsion is explored. The relativistic rocket equations are derived, and are solved for a single-stage rocket with constant mass flow rate, constant exhaust velocity and no coasting period. The features of these solutions for faster-than-light exhaust velocities are discussed. It is shown that a tachyon drive would not violate the first law of thermodynamics. However, as seen in the Galactic frame, it would violate the second law.

  19. Miniature propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John G.

    1992-07-01

    Miniature solenoid valves, check valves and a hydrazine gas generator typify the miniaturization used in the liquid propulsion system for the Army Light Weight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP). The pressure control subsystem uses a solenoid valve weighing 24 grams to control flow of helium to pressurize the propellant tanks. The attitude control subsystem uses a gas generator weighing 71 grams to produce decomposed hydrazine as the gaseous propellant for miniature 1 lbf ACS thrusters weighing 5.4 grams. The successful use of these miniature components in development tests and a hover test of the LEAP is described.

  20. Plug nozzle propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, Dan A.

    1992-02-01

    General Dynamics studied a vertical takeoff/vertical landing fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concept for medium payload missions. A hydrogen oxygen plug nozzle main engine integrates well in the wide aft end. The principal driver for its selection was the promise of very high I(sub SP), 480 seconds vacuum. Further, preliminary design and analysis with Rocketdyne showed uncertainties and performance losses degrading this number to 467.4 seconds. Nevertheless, this SSTO configuration appears to be optimum for a plug nozzle main engine system. The merits and risks of this propulsion system are discussed. Continued development is recommended.

  1. Solar Thermal Propulsion Optical Figure Measuring and Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion has been an important area of study for four years at the Propulsion Research Center. Significant resources have been devoted to the development of the UAH Solar Thermal Laboratory that provides unique, high temperature, test capabilities. The facility is fully operational and has successfully conducted a series of solar thruster shell experiments. Although presently dedicated to solar thermal propulsion, the facility has application to a variety of material processing, power generation, environmental clean-up, and other fundamental research studies. Additionally, the UAH Physics Department has joined the Center in support of an in-depth experimental investigation on Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS) concentrators. Laboratory space has been dedicated to the concentrator evaluation in the UAH Optics Building which includes a vertical light tunnel. Two, on-going, research efforts are being sponsored through NASA MSFC (Shooting Star Flight Experiment) and the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Ground Demonstrator).

  2. Space propulsion technology and cryogenic fluid depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Information on space propulsion and technology and the cryogenic fluid depot is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer, electric propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, and program objectives.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  4. Hydrodynamics of ciliary propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauptain, A.; Favier, J.; Bottaro, A.

    2008-11-01

    A numerical approach is developed to study the effect on a fluid of the regular oscillations of an array of flexible cilia which hinge around points on a wall. The specific application studied concerns the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus, a small marine invertebrate of quasi-spherical shape and diameter of the order of the centimeter which swims in water thanks to the rhythmic beating of eight rows of hair-like cilia aligned along its body. Only one row of cilia is studied here, in a three-dimensional setting. The technique presented is general enough to allow its application to a variety of fluid-structure interaction problems. The physical mechanisms of the propulsion are highlighted, by analysing the results of three-dimensional simulations. A parametric study involving natural and non-natural parameters leads to a better understanding of the propulsive characteristics of ctenophores; results show that the specific power expended increases with the increase of the beating frequency of the row of cilia, in agreement with experiments.

  5. Integrated airframe propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, R. E.; Black, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    Perturbation equations which describe flight dynamics and engine operation about a given operating point are combined to form an integrated aircraft/propulsion system model. Included in the model are the dependence of aerodynamic coefficients upon atmospheric variables along with the dependence of engine variables upon flight condition and inlet performance. An off-design engine performance model is used to identify interaction parameters in the model. Inclusion of subsystem interaction effects introduces coupling between flight and propulsion variables. To analyze interaction effects on control, consideration is first given to control requirements for separate flight and engine models. For the separate airframe model, feedback control provides substantial improvement in short period damping. For the integrated system, feedback control compensates for the coupling present in the model and provides good overall system stability. However, this feedback control law involves many non-zero gains. Analysis of suboptimal control strategies indicates that performance of the closed loop integrated system can be maintained with a feedback matrix in which the number of non-zero gains is small relative to the number of components in the feedback matrix.

  6. Assessing potential propulsion breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Millis, Marc G

    2005-12-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations have begun. During 1996-2002 NASA supported the breakthrough propulsion physics project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging, since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but energy can serve as a basis for comparison. A hypothetical space drive would require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (1) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects, or critical issues; (2) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications; and (3) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  7. Assessing Potential Propulsion Breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2005-01-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations into these goals have begun. From 1996 to 2002, NASA supported the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but kinetic energy can serve as a basis for comparison. In terms of kinetic energy, a hypothetical space drive could require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications, and (c) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  8. Jet propulsion without inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-08-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e., jetting) surfaces are considered and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number, which corresponds to the potential flow created by a source dipole at the sphere center. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increases as the body becomes more oblate and limits to approximately 162% in the case of a flat plate swimming along its axis of symmetry. Our results are discussed in the light of slime extrusion mechanisms occurring in many cyanobacteria.

  9. Review Of Laser Lightcraft Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Eric W.; Mead, Franklin B.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-powered "Lightcraft" systems that deliver nano-satellites to LEO have been studied for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The study was built on the extensive Lightcraft laser propulsion technology already developed by theoretical and experimental work by the AFRL's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB, CA. Here we review the history and engineering-physics of the laser Lightcraft system and its propulsive performance. We will also review the effectiveness and cost of a Lightcraft vehicle powered by a high-energy laser beam. One result of this study is the significant influence of laser wavelength on the power lost during laser beam propagation through Earth's atmosphere and in space. It was discovered that energy and power losses in the laser beam are extremely sensitive to wavelength for Earth-To-Orbit missions, and this significantly affects the amount of mass that can be placed into orbit for a given maximum amount of radiated power from a ground-based laser.

  10. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an area density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In addition, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. The presentation will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within NASA, near-term solar sail mission applications, and near-term plans for further development.

  11. Review Of Laser Lightcraft Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Eric W.; Mead, Franklin B. Jr

    2008-04-28

    Laser-powered 'Lightcraft' systems that deliver nano-satellites to LEO have been studied for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The study was built on the extensive Lightcraft laser propulsion technology already developed by theoretical and experimental work by the AFRL's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB, CA. Here we review the history and engineering-physics of the laser Lightcraft system and its propulsive performance. We will also review the effectiveness and cost of a Lightcraft vehicle powered by a high-energy laser beam. One result of this study is the significant influence of laser wavelength on the power lost during laser beam propagation through Earth's atmosphere and in space. It was discovered that energy and power losses in the laser beam are extremely sensitive to wavelength for Earth-To-Orbit missions, and this significantly affects the amount of mass that can be placed into orbit for a given maximum amount of radiated power from a ground-based laser.

  12. Emergent Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andres

    2002-01-01

    almost an Engineer (2002 will be my last year as student) and the studies that I'm now ending here, in Girona, are closely related not only with science and technology subjects but with optimization and economic result obtention, too. Huge distances that separate us from everything in space have launched scientists and engineers into a new challenge: How to reach maximum speeds keeping high ratios payload/total spacecraft mass? The key limitation of chemical rockets is that their exhaust velocity is relatively low. Because achieving Earth orbit requires a high velocity change a rocket must carry far more propellant than payload. The answer to all this complications seems to stare in one way: electric propulsion systems and the possibility of taking advantatge of solar winds to thrust our crafts. possible solutions, some of them have been studied for years and now they are not a project but a reality; also newest theories bring us the possibility of dream. Improve of commom propellants, search of new ones: Investigators continued research on use of atomic species as high-energy-density propellants, which could increase the specific impulse of hydrogen/oxygen rockets by 50-150%. Nuclear fission propulsion: Centered in development of reactors for nearterm nuclear electric propulsion aplications. Multimegawatt systems based on vapor core reactors and magnetohydrodynamic power conversion. Engineers investigated new fuels for compact nuclear thermal propulsion systems. What is called plasma state?: When a gas is heated to tens of thousands or millions of degrees, atoms lose their electrons. The result is a "soup" of charged particles, or plasma, made up of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. No known material can contain the hot plasma necessary for rocket propulsion, but specially designed magnetic fields can. Plasma rockets: This rockets are not powered by conventional chemical reactions as today's rockets are, but by electrical energy that heats

  13. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  14. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  15. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion.

  16. Simulation of Electric Propulsion Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    to convert electrical power into thrust and in general provide superior specific impulse in comparison to chemical systems. Electric propulsion has...generates thrust primarily from electrical energy through a number of different mechanisms. In general, electric thrusters provide superior...specific impulse and thrust associated with several types of electric propulsion systems. In addition to superior propellant mass efficiency, electric

  17. Progress in NASA Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reviews recent progress made under NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) propulsion research activities. Advances in engines, drive systems and optimized propulsion systems are discussed. Progress in wide operability compressors, modeling of variable geometry turbine performance, foil gas bearings and multi-speed transmissions are presented.

  18. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Lisa Wood; Curran, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems typically have a major impact on spacecraft mass and cost. Electric propulsion systems offer major performance advantages over conventional chemical systems for many mission functions and the NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) supports an extensive effort to develop the technology for high-performance, on-board electric propulsion system options to enhance and enable near- and far-term US space missions. This program includes research and development efforts on electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion system technologies to cover a wide range of potential applications. To maximize expectations of technology transfer, the program emphasizes strong interaction with the user community through a variety of cooperative and contracted approaches. This paper provides an overview of the OSAT electric propulsion program with an emphasis on recent progress and future directions.

  19. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Y; Theisen, D; Daly, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art review on biomechanics in hand rim wheelchair propulsion, with special attention to sport-specific implications. Biomechanical studies in wheelchair sports mainly aim at optimising sport performance or preventing sport injuries. The sports performance optimisation question has been approached from an ergonomic, as well as a skill proficiency perspective. Sports medical issues have been addressed in wheelchair sports mainly because of the extremely high prevalence of repetitive strain injuries such as shoulder impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. Sports performance as well as sports medical reflections are made throughout the review. Insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms of hand rim wheelchair propulsion has been achieved through a combination of experimental data collection under realistic conditions, with a more fundamental mathematical modelling approach. Through a synchronised analysis of the movement pattern, force generation pattern and muscular activity pattern, insight has been gained in the hand rim wheelchair propulsion dynamics of people with a disability, varying in level of physical activity and functional potential. The limiting environment of a laboratory, however, has hampered the drawing of sound conclusions. Through mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation (minimising injury and maximising performance), insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms during wheelchair propulsion is sought. The surplus value of inverse and forward dynamic simulation of hand rim stroke dynamics is addressed. Implications for hand rim wheelchair sports are discussed. Wheelchair racing, basketball and rugby were chosen because of the significance and differences in sport-specific movement dynamics. Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental.

  20. Rocket Scientist for a Day: Investigating Alternatives for Chemical Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelin, Marcus; Rahm, Martin; Gabrielsson, Erik; Gumaelius, Lena

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces rocket science from a chemistry perspective. The focus is set on chemical propulsion, including its environmental impact and future development. By combining lecture-based teaching with practical, theoretical, and computational exercises, the students get to evaluate different propellant alternatives. To…

  1. Rocket Scientist for a Day: Investigating Alternatives for Chemical Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelin, Marcus; Rahm, Martin; Gabrielsson, Erik; Gumaelius, Lena

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces rocket science from a chemistry perspective. The focus is set on chemical propulsion, including its environmental impact and future development. By combining lecture-based teaching with practical, theoretical, and computational exercises, the students get to evaluate different propellant alternatives. To…

  2. Computational Structures Technology for Airframes and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Housner, Jerrold M. (Compiler); Starnes, James H., Jr. (Compiler); Hopkins, Dale A. (Compiler); Chamis, Christos C. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint University of Virginia (UVA)/NASA Workshops. The presentations included NASA Headquarters perspectives on High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), goals and objectives of the UVA Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST), NASA and Air Force CST activities, CST activities for airframes and propulsion systems in industry, and CST activities at Sandia National Laboratory.

  3. ALUMNI FROM SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES AND TECHNOLOGY WORKING AT LEWIS FLIGHT PROPULSION LABORATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    ALUMNI FROM SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES AND TECHNOLOGY WORKING AT LEWIS FLIGHT PROPULSION LABORATORY LFPL - LEFT TO RIGHT - CHARLES GRESSLIN - LESTER CORRINGTON - BERTRAM A MULCAHY - FRANZ L LAGERWELL

  4. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture

  5. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively), and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode

  6. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  9. GOSAT CO2 and CH4 validation activity with a portable FTS at Pasadena, Chino, and Railroad Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kataoka, F.; Hedelius, J.; Viatte, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Leifer, I.; Tanaka, T.; Iraci, L. T.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.; Crisp, D.

    2015-12-01

    The column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) were measured with a portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), EM27/SUN, using direct sunlight at 1) Caltech, in Pasadena, a northern Los Angeles suburb, 2) Chino, a dairy region east of Los Angeles, and 3) Railroad Valley (RRV), a desert playa in Nevada. They were conducted during the GOSAT/OCO-2 joint campaign for vicarious calibration and validation (cal/val) and its preparatory experiments in June-July 2015. JAXA's GOSAT has been operating since 2009 to monitor the greenhouse gases XCO2 and XCH4 using surface-reflected sunlight from space. GOSAT carries a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and a Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). NASA's OCO-2 has been operating since 2014, carries a grating spectrometer to make precise XCO2 observations with a-few-kilometer resolution. Their polar orbits have 12:46 pm (GOSAT) and 1:30 pm (OCO-2) observing times. For cal/val, these sites were targeted with coincident , near simultaneous ground-based and vertical profiling measurements. These sites are different types of suburban, dairy, and desert areas. Before the campaign, measurements from the JAXA EM27/SUN were compared with those from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and from the Caltech EM27/SUN at Pasadena. We compared the retrieved values and simultaneously observed diurnal enhancements by advection from the Los Angeles basin. Then, we observed a diurnal cycle at Chino dairy area, an area of concentrated husbandry, producing a CH4 point source. Finally, we conducted the cal/val campaign at RRV coincident with GOSAT and OCO-2 overpass observations. Over RRV, vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as a part of the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) . We will compare experimental results from the cal/val campaign for XCO2 and XCH4 with a portable FTS.

  10. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  11. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  12. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots.

  13. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  15. Propulsion Systems Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-14

    NASA Glenn’s Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) is conducting research to characterize ice crystal clouds that can create a hazard to aircraft engines in certain conditions. With specialized equipment, scientists can create a simulated ice crystal cloud with the set of bars in the back spraying out a mist. The red area includes lasers, which measure the intensity of the cloud and a series of probes to measure everything from humidity to air pressure. The isokinetic probe (in gold) samples particles and the robotic arm (in orange) has a test tube on the end that catches ice particles for further measuring. NASA Glenn’s PSL is the only place in the world which can create these kind of ice crystal cloud conditions.

  16. Propulsion controlled aircraft research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has been conducting flight, ground simulator, and analytical studies to investigate the use of thrust modulation on multi-engine aircraft for emergency flight control. Two general methods of engine only control have been studied; manual manipulation of the throttles by the pilot, and augmented control where a computer commands thrust levels in response to pilot attitude inputs and aircraft motion feedbacks. This latter method is referred to as the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) System. A wide variety of aircraft have been investigated. Simulation studies have included the B720, F-15, B727, B747 and MD-11. A look at manual control has been done in actual flight on the F15, T-38, B747, Lear 25, T-39, MD-11 and PA-30 Aircraft. The only inflight trial of the augmented (PCA) concept has been on an F15, the results of which will be presented below.

  17. Propulsion by directional adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Prakash, Manu

    2008-03-01

    The rough, hairy integument of water-walking arthropods is well known to be responsible for their water-repellency; we here consider its additional propulsive role. We demonstrate that the tilted flexible leg hairs of water-walking arthropods render the leg cuticle directionally anisotropic: contact lines advance most readily towards the leg tips. The dynamical role of the resulting unidirectional adhesion is explored, and yields new insight into the manner in which water-walking arthropods generate thrust, glide and leap from the free surface. We thus provide new rationale for the fundamental topological difference in the roughness on plants and insects, and suggest novel directions for biomimetic design of smart, hydrophobic surfaces.

  18. A General Departmental Outline for Career Guidance and a Specific Outline for a Basic Career Planning Course at Pasadena City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sylvia N.

    A questionnaire designed to assess the degree to which general education courses at Pasadena City College (California) impart vocational skills was administered to 200 cooperative education students who had had courses in English, Social Science, Mathematics, and Life Science. Results showed that in none of the areas studied did students feel…

  19. Investigation of biological, chemical and physical processes on and in planetary surfaces by laboratory simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Benoit, P. H.; McKeever, S. W. S.; Banerjee, D.; Kral, T.; Stites, W.; Roe, L.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

    2002-08-01

    The recently established Arkansas-Oklahoma Center for Space and Planetary Science has been given a large planetary simulation chamber by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. When completely refurbished, the chamber will be dubbed Andromeda and it will enable conditions in space, on asteroids, on comet nuclei, and on Mars, to be reproduced on the meter-scale and surface and subsurface processes monitored using a range of analytical instruments. The following projects are currently planned for the facility. (1) Examination of the role of surface and subsurface processes on small bodies in the formation of meteorites. (2) Development of in situ sediment dating instrumentation for Mars. (3) Studies of the survivability of methanogenic microorganisms under conditions resembling the subsurface of Mars to test the feasibility of such species surviving on Mars and identify the characteristics of the species most likely to be present on Mars. (4) The nature of the biochemical "fingerprints" likely to have been left by live organisms on Mars from a study of degradation products of biologically related molecules. (5) Testing local resource utilization in spacecraft design. (6) Characterization of surface effects on reflectivity spectra for comparison with the data from spacecraft-borne instruments on Mars orbiters.

  20. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph, taken at MSFC's Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility, shows a concentrator mirror, a combination of 144 mirrors forming this 18-ft diameter concentrator, and a vacuum chamber that houses the focal point. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-foot diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.