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Sample records for prospection surveys controle

  1. mba.com Prospective Students Survey. 2015 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 "mba.com Prospective Students Survey Report" explores the motivations, career goals, preferred program types, financial choices, decision time lines, and intended study destinations of individuals interested in pursuing a graduate management education. Findings analyzed in the report represent responses from nearly 12,000…

  2. An International Observational Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia-Pacific: Results of the Record-AFAP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A prospective 1-year observational survey was designed to assess the management and control of atrial fibrillation (AF) in eight countries within the Asia-Pacific region. Patients (N = 2,604) with recently diagnosed AF or a history of AF ≤1 year were included. Clinicians chose the treatment strategy (rhythm or rate control) according to their standard practice and medical discretion. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success. At baseline, rhythm- and rate-control strategies were applied to 35.7% and 64.3% of patients, respectively. At 12 months, therapeutic success was 43.2% overall. Being assigned to rhythm-control strategy at baseline was associated with a higher therapeutic success (46.5% vs 41.4%; P = 0.0214) and a lower incidence of clinical outcomes (10.4% vs 17.1% P < 0.0001). Patients assigned to rate-control strategies at baseline had higher cardiovascular morbidities (history of heart failure or valvular heart disease). Cardiovascular outcomes may be less dependent on the choice of treatment strategy than cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:26279634

  3. 2012 mba.com Prospective Students Survey. Survey Report. The GMAC[R] Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    This 2012 mba.com Prospective Students Survey Report explores the motivations, behaviors, program choices, and intended career outcomes of individuals who expressed a desire to further their education in a graduate business program. More than 16,000 prospective business school students who registered on mba.com shared their opinions, preferences,…

  4. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Loveday, J.; SDSS Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a project to definitively map {pi} steradians of the local Universe. An array of CCD detectors used in drift-scan mode will digitally image the sky in five passbands to a limiting magnitude of r{prime} {approximately} 23. Selected from the imaging survey, 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars will be observed spectroscopically. I describe the current status of the survey, which is due to begin observations early in 1997, and its prospects for constraining models for dark matter in the Universe. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Prospective survey of re-used plastic syringes for diabetics.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H

    1986-05-01

    In a 1 year prospective survey of the safety and economy of re-used plastic insulin syringes 9843 syringes were used 93,867 times with one possible injection site infection. On average syringes were used 5.7 days before changing. Re-use of plastic syringes would produce an annual saving of about ł15 per patient when compared with glass syringes.

  6. Electrical resistivity surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of naturally occurring and mining related metals to Cement Creek, a tributary of the upper Animas River in southwestern Colorado. Efforts to improve water quality in the watershed have focused on Prospect Gulch because many of its abandoned mines and are located on federal lands. Information on sources and pathways of metals, and related ground-water flow, will be useful to help prioritize and develop remediation strategies. It has been shown that the occurrence of sulfate, aluminum, iron, zinc and other metals associated with historical mining and the natural weathering of pyritic rock is substantial. In this study, direct current resistivity surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution and to identify faults and fractures that may act as ground-water conduits or barriers to flow. Five lines of resistivity data were collected in the vicinity of Prospect Gulch, and cross-section profiles were constructed from the field data using a two-dimensional inversion algorithm. The conductive anomalies in the profiles are most likely caused by wet or saturated rocks and sediments, clay rich deposits, or high TDS ground water. Resistive anomalies are likely bedrock, dry surficial and sub-surface deposits, or deposits of ferricrete.

  7. From Present Surveying to Future Prospecting of the Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M.; Cheung, C.

    2004-01-01

    We have applied a future mission architecture, the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS), to a proposed mission for in situ survey, or prospecting, of the asteroid belt, the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) as part of a NASA 2003 Revolutionary Aerospace Concept (RASC) study. ANTS architecture builds on and advances recent trends in robotics, artificial intelligence, and materials processing to minimize costs and maximize effectiveness of space operations. PAM and other applications have been proposed for the survey of inaccessible, high surface area populations of great interest from the standpoint of resources and/or solar system origin. The ANTS architecture is inspired by the success of social insect colonies, a success based on the division of labor within the colonies in two key ways: 1) within their specialties, individual specialists generally outperform generalists, and 2) with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, the group of specialists generally outperforms the group of generalists. Thus systems designed as ANTS are built from potentially very large numbers of highly autonomous, yet socially interactive, elements. The architecture is self-similar in that elements and sub-elements of the system may also be recursively structured as ANTS on scales ranging from microscopic to interplanetary distances. Here, we analyze requirements for the mission application at the low gravity target end of the spectrum, the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM), and for specialized autonomous operations which would support this mission. ANTS as applied to PAM involves the activities of hundreds of individual specialist 'sciencecraft'. Most of them, called Workers, carry and operate eight to nine different scientific instruments, as listed in the table, including spectrometers, ranging and radio science devices, and imagers. The remaining specialists, Messenger/Rulers, provide communication and coordination functions among specialists operating

  8. African sedimentary basins - Tectonic controls on prospectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bunter, M.A.G.; Crossley, R.; Hammill, M.; Jones, P.W.; Morgan, R.K.; Needham, D.T.; Spaargaren, F.A. )

    1991-03-01

    An important prerequisite for the evaluation of any sedimentary basin is the understanding of its regional tectonic setting. This is especially so in the underexplored regions of Africa. The majority of African sedimentary basins developed in an extensional setting although some have undergone subsequent compressional or transpressional deformation. The geometry and evolution of these basins is often influenced by basement structure. The extensional phase of basin development controls not only the distribution of syn-rift sediments but also the magnitude of post-rift regional subsidence and the preservation or removal of pre-rift sediments. This has important consequences for exploration models of syn-rift and pre-rift source rocks and reservoirs. Post-rift basin inversion and uplift provide crucial controls on the preservation of mature source rocks and quality of reservoirs. The distribution, nature, timing, and possible mechanisms of this uplift in Africa will be addressed. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of African basis appears to be highly variable although the limited exploration of some regions makes the exact extent of this variability unclear. Basins considered potentially prospective range from late Precambrian to Tertiary in age. The various tectonic controls outlined above, and criteria for the evaluation of underexplored areas, will be demonstrated by reference to basins studied by The Robertson Group. Examples described include basins from Bagon, Angola, Namibia, East Africa, Tertiary Rift and Karoo Rifts, and North Africa (Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco).

  9. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  10. 48 CFR 53.301-1408 - Preaward Survey of Prospective Contractor-Accounting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preaward Survey of Prospective Contractor-Accounting System. 53.301-1408 Section 53.301-1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-1408 Preaward Survey of Prospective Contractor—Accounting System. EC01MY91.093 EC01MY91.094...

  11. Primary Reasons for Osteopathic Consultation: A Prospective Survey in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Chantal; Aubin, Andrée

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopathy is an increasingly popular health care modality to address pain and function in the musculoskeletal system, organs and the head region, as well as functional somatic syndromes. Although osteopathy is recommended principally in guidelines for management of back pain, osteopaths' scope of practice is wide, albeit poorly defined. In order to understand better the practice of osteopathy, this study aimed to investigate the most common reasons for osteopathic consultations in clinical settings in Quebec. Methods A prospective survey of members of the Registre des ostéopathes du Québec was conducted to examine demographics in osteopathic practices, as well as patients' primary reasons for consultations over a two-week period. The questionnaire was devised following a literature review and refined and verified with two stages of expert input. Results 277 osteopaths (60.1% response rate) responded to the survey notice. 14,002 patients' primary reasons for consultations were reported in completed questionnaires and returned by practicing osteopaths. Musculoskeletal pain located in the spine, thorax, pelvis and limbs was the most common reason for consultations (61.9%), with females consulting most commonly for cervical pain and males for lumbar pain. Perinatal and paediatric (11.8%), head (9.1%), visceral (5.0%) and general concerns (4.8%) were the other most common reasons for consultations. Preventive care represented the remaining 0.3%. Interpretation The nature of primary reasons for osteopathic consultations, coupled with documented satisfaction of patients with this approach, suggest a future for multidisciplinary collaborative health care including osteopathy. Results of this survey may contribute to informing physicians and others pending regulation of Quebec osteopaths, and also provide direction for future clinical research and guidelines development. PMID:25184204

  12. Survey of Hand Controllers for Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. L.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Report surveys handgrip designs, control-input devices, and control strategies. 83-page report presents comprehensive survey of hand-controller technology in three major categories: handgrip design, control-input devices, and control strategies. Approach taken in review to identify and describe existing handgrips, control-input devices and control strategies, and new components and techniques that become elements of advanced hand controllers to satisfy increasing performance requirements for teleoperation in future.

  13. Survey, applications, and prospects of Johnson noise thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Significant progress in the field of Johnson noise thermometry has occurred since the 1971 survey of Kamper. This paper will review the foundation work of Johnson noise thermometry, survey the basic methods which do not utilize quantum devices for noise thermometry for industrial temperatures, and present some applications of noise thermometry in temperature scale metrology and process temperature instrumentation. 35 references.

  14. Infants' prospective control during object manipulation in an uncertain environment.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Janna M; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates how infants use visual and sensorimotor information to prospectively control their actions. We gave 14-month-olds two objects of different weight and observed how high they were lifted, using a Qualisys Motion Capture System. In one condition, the two objects were visually distinct (different color condition) in another they were visually identical (same color condition). Lifting amplitudes of the first movement unit were analyzed in order to assess prospective control. Results demonstrate that infants lifted a light object higher than a heavy object, especially when vision could be used to assess weight (different color condition). When being confronted with two visually identical objects of different weight (same color condition), infants showed a different lifting pattern than what could be observed in the different color condition, expressed by a significant interaction effect between object weight and color condition on lifting amplitude. These results indicate that (a) visual information about object weight can be used to prospectively control lifting actions and that (b) infants are able to prospectively control their lifting actions even without visual information about object weight. We argue that infants, in the absence of reliable visual information about object weight, heighten their dependence on non-visual information (tactile, sensorimotor memory) in order to estimate weight and pre-adjust their lifting actions in a prospective manner. PMID:25963753

  15. Expanding Demand for Online Higher Education: Surveying Prospective Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Eduventures survey examined next-generation demand for online postsecondary education, assessing online experience, delivery mode and marketing channels preferences, and perceptions of price, quality and location, identifying key takeaways in each area.

  16. Prospective associations between bilingualism and executive function in Latino children: sustained effects while controlling for biculturalism.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-10-01

    The study purpose was to test 1-year prospective associations between English-Spanish bilingualism and executive function in 5th to 6th grade students while controlling for biculturalism. Participants included 182 US Latino students (50 % female). Self-report surveys assessed biculturalism, bilingualism, and executive function (i.e., working memory, organizational skills, inhibitory control, and emotional control, as well as a summary executive function score). General linear model regressions demonstrated that bilingualism significantly predicted the summary executive function score as well as working memory such that bilingual proficiency was positively related to executive function. Results are the first to demonstrate (a) prospective associations between bilingualism to executive function while controlling for the potential third variable of biculturalism, and (b) a principal role for working memory in this relationship. Since executive function is associated with a host of health outcomes, one implication of study findings is that bilingualism may have an indirect protective influence on youth development.

  17. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Girardi, Léo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  18. Prospects for earthquake prediction and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Lee, W.H.K.; Pakiser, L.C.; Raleigh, C.B.; Wood, M.D.

    1972-01-01

    The San Andreas fault is viewed, according to the concepts of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics, as a transform fault that separates the Pacific and North American plates and along which relative movements of 2 to 6 cm/year have been taking place. The resulting strain can be released by creep, by earthquakes of moderate size, or (as near San Francisco and Los Angeles) by great earthquakes. Microearthquakes, as mapped by a dense seismograph network in central California, generally coincide with zones of the San Andreas fault system that are creeping. Microearthquakes are few and scattered in zones where elastic energy is being stored. Changes in the rate of strain, as recorded by tiltmeter arrays, have been observed before several earthquakes of about magnitude 4. Changes in fluid pressure may control timing of seismic activity and make it possible to control natural earthquakes by controlling variations in fluid pressure in fault zones. An experiment in earthquake control is underway at the Rangely oil field in Colorado, where the rates of fluid injection and withdrawal in experimental wells are being controlled. ?? 1972.

  19. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  20. Molecular entomology and prospects for malaria control.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F. H.; Kamau, L.; Ranson, H. A.; Vulule, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, the techniques of molecular and cell biology have been embraced by many scientists doing research on anopheline vectors of malaria parasites. Some of the most important research advances in molecular entomology have concerned the development of sophisticated molecular tools for procedures such as genetic and physical mapping and germ line transformation. Major advances have also been made in the study of specific biological processes such as insect defence against pathogens and the manner in which malaria parasites and their anopheline hosts interact during sporogony. One of the most important highlights of this research trend has been the emergence during the past year of a formal international Anopheles gambiae genome project, which at present includes investigators in several laboratories in Europe and the USA. Although much of this molecular research is directed towards the development of malaria control strategies that are probably many years from implementation, there are some important areas of molecular entomology that may have a more near-term impact on malaria control. We highlight developments over the past decade in three such areas that we believe can make important contributions to the development of near-term malaria control strategies. These areas are anopheline species identification, the detection and monitoring of insecticide susceptibility/resistance in wild anopheline populations and the determination of the genetic structure of anopheline populations. PMID:11196488

  1. Prospective Type Ia Supernova Surveys From Dome A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J.L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.; /Texas A-M /Purple Mountain Observ.

    2010-02-01

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over five years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of {approx}1000 z < 0.08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture ({approx}>4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z {approx} 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  2. Prospective Type Ia supernova surveys from Dome A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.

    2010-03-10

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over 5 years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of ~;; 1000 z< 0:08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture (>=4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z ~;; 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  3. The Reading Habits and Literacy Attitudes of Inservice and Prospective Teachers: Results of a Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Steven; Pruslow, John; Levitt, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a questionnaire survey of 747 students enrolled in a graduate school of education, who are currently teachers or prospective teachers. The Literacy Habits Questionnaire, developed by Applegate and Applegate, was administered in September 2006. Findings suggest a high prevalence of aliteracy, the ability to read but a…

  4. Perceived future career prospects in general practice: quantitative results from questionnaire surveys of UK doctors

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background There are more studies of current job satisfaction among GPs than of their views about their future career prospects, although both are relevant to commitment to careers in general practice. Aim To report on the views of GPs compared with clinicians in other specialties about their future career prospects. Design and setting Questionnaire surveys were sent to UK medical doctors who graduated in selected years between 1974 and 2008. Method Questionnaires were sent to the doctors at different times after graduation, ranging from 3 to 24 years. Results Based on the latest survey of each graduation year of the 20 940 responders, 66.2% of GPs and 74.2% of hospital doctors were positive about their prospects and 9.7% and 8.3%, respectively, were negative. However, with increasing time since graduation and increasing levels of seniority, GPs became less positive about their prospects; by contrast, over time, surgeons became more positive. Three to 5 years after graduation, 86.3% of those training in general practice were positive about their prospects compared with 52.9% of surgical trainees: in surveys conducted 12–24 years after graduation, 60.2% of GPs and 76.6% of surgeons were positive about their prospects. Conclusion GPs held broadly positive views of their career prospects, as did other doctors. However, there was an increase in negativity with increasing time since graduation that was not seen in hospital doctors. Research into the causes of this negativity and policy measures to ameliorate it would contribute to the continued commitment of GPs and may help to reduce attrition. PMID:27578813

  5. Survey on large scale system control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

  6. Prospects of application of survey satellite image for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapochkina, A. B.; Kapochkin, B. B.; Kucherenko, N. V.

    The maximal interest is represented with the information from geostationary satellites. These satellites repeat shootings the chosen territories, allowing to study dynamics of images. Most interesting shootings in IR a range. Studying of survey image is applied to studying linear elements of clouds (LEC). It is established, that "LEC " arise only above breaks of an earth's crust. In research results of the complex analysis of the satellite data, hydrometeorological supervision, seismicity, supervision over deformations of a surface of the Earth are used. It is established that before formation "LEC " in a ground layer arise anomalies of temperature and humidity. The situation above Europe 16 May, 2001 is considered. "LEC " in Europe block carry of air weights from the west to the east. Synoptic conditions above the Great Britain July, 7-10, 2000 is considered. Moving "LEC" trace distribution of deformation waves to an earth's crust. Satellite shootings Europe before earthquake in Greece 14.08.2003 are considered. These days ground supervision were conducted and the data of the geostationary satellite were analyzed. During moving "LEC " occur failures (destruction houses & of gas mains), earthquake. The situation above Iberian peninsula 12-16.11.2001 is considered. "LEC" arose before flooding in Europe. The situation before flooding in Germany June, 6-8, 2002 and flooding on the river Kuban June, 16-23, 2002 is considered. In case of occurrence of tectonic compression of an earth's crust there are "LEC ", tracer intensive movements of air upwards and downwards above negative and positive anomalies of the form of a terrestrial surface, accordingly. Such meteorological situations are dangerous to flights of aircraft, the fast gravitational anomalies influencing into orbits of movement of satellites trace. The situation above equatorial Atlantic 26.03.2003 years is considered. At tectonic compression of continental scale overcast covers the whole continents for more

  7. Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

    1952-01-01

    The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

  8. Active Prospective Control Is Required for Effective Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  9. Minor surgery procedures: A retrospective review and prospective survey in a pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Emily; Bucevska, Marija; Verchere, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated minor surgery procedures undertaken by a single plastic surgeon at BC Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) for patient and physician satisfaction, parent impressions, psychological concerns and complications. METHODS: Data were collected from a retrospective chart review and a prospective patient survey. Eligible subjects for the retrospective study included all pediatric patients undergoing minor surgery between May 2011 and April 2013. Parameters of interest included patient demographics, minor surgery specifics, complications and outcomes. Eligible subjects for the prospective patient survey included consecutive patients undergoing minor surgery between June 2013 and August 2013, as well as their parents. RESULTS: A total of 219 procedures were included in the retrospective review. The mean age of subjects was 13.1 years (range two weeks to 18 years). The median length of follow-up was 46 days (range four to 606 days). There were no major complications; however, 45 minor complications in 36 patients were found. Complications included crusting (4.6%), delayed wound healing (3.2%), hypersensitivity (2.3%), scar hypertrophy (1.8%), infection (0.9%) and other (7.8%). Outcomes were categorized as one of four outcomes: both satisfied (89.9%); patient satisfied but physician unsatisfied (0.8%); patient unsatisfied and physician satisfied (3.1%); and both unsatisfied (6.2%). In the prospective study, 32 subjects consented to participate in the survey. Of these subjects, 10 children and 12 parents responded to the questionnaires. Eighty-three percent of respondents indicated that their goals were accomplished by their procedure and that they would be willing to undergo minor surgery again. CONCLUSION: Minor surgery is possible and practical in pediatric plastic surgery clinics, with few complications and high patient and surgeon satisfaction. PMID:26361627

  10. Who Teaches Mathematics Content Courses for Prospective Elementary Teachers in the United States? Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masingila, Joanna O.; Olanoff, Dana E.; Kwaka, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a national survey of higher education institutions in the United States to answer the question, "Who teaches mathematics content courses for prospective elementary teachers, and what are these instructors' academic and teaching backgrounds?" We surveyed 1,926 institutions, and a faculty member from each of 825 institutions…

  11. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone.

  12. The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Achadi, Anhari; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Barber, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Using published data about consumption, economic aspects, and legislation, this paper analyzes tobacco control in Indonesia, a major consumer and producer of tobacco products. Given its large population and smoking prevalence, Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest tobacco consumption globally. Over 62% of Indonesian adult males smoke regularly, contributing to a growing burden of non-communicable diseases and enormous demands on the health care system. Tobacco control policies, however, have remained low on the political and public health agenda for many years. One reason was the contribution of tobacco to government revenues and employment, particularly in the industrial sector. But tobacco's importance in employment has fallen significantly since the 1970s from 38% of total manufacturing employment compared with 5.6% today. Widespread use of tobacco since the 1970s and the concomitant burden of non-communicable diseases have given rise to a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of tobacco production over the last decade. The first tobacco control regulation passed in 1999, succeeded by amendments in 2000 and 2003. Today, few restrictions exist on tobacco industry conduct, advertising, and promotion in Indonesia. We examine the relevance and prospects of advancing in Indonesia four cost-effective tobacco control strategies: price and tax measures, advertising bans, clean air legislation, and public education. We conclude with several suggestions for action for the public health community.

  13. The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Achadi, Anhari; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Barber, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Using published data about consumption, economic aspects, and legislation, this paper analyzes tobacco control in Indonesia, a major consumer and producer of tobacco products. Given its large population and smoking prevalence, Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest tobacco consumption globally. Over 62% of Indonesian adult males smoke regularly, contributing to a growing burden of non-communicable diseases and enormous demands on the health care system. Tobacco control policies, however, have remained low on the political and public health agenda for many years. One reason was the contribution of tobacco to government revenues and employment, particularly in the industrial sector. But tobacco's importance in employment has fallen significantly since the 1970s from 38% of total manufacturing employment compared with 5.6% today. Widespread use of tobacco since the 1970s and the concomitant burden of non-communicable diseases have given rise to a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of tobacco production over the last decade. The first tobacco control regulation passed in 1999, succeeded by amendments in 2000 and 2003. Today, few restrictions exist on tobacco industry conduct, advertising, and promotion in Indonesia. We examine the relevance and prospects of advancing in Indonesia four cost-effective tobacco control strategies: price and tax measures, advertising bans, clean air legislation, and public education. We conclude with several suggestions for action for the public health community. PMID:15862641

  14. Timing control improves seabed survey data quality

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.

    1996-04-01

    Seateam has completed development of and field-proven the Dolphin data acquisition and timing system for high-density surveys offshore. The Dolphin project was initiated to improve quality control of survey sensor data and ensure time synchronization, thus leading to faster turnaround of seabed terrain information. Data received from survey sensors is asynchronous, so the system must provide for data correlation. This includes establishment of data latency, i.e., the time difference between data creation and timing of the message at first-byte arrival at the recording system. Until recently, asynchronous data from multiple sensors was collected by a single computer, regardless of whether it had additional intelligent or non-intelligent serial cards. This computer was fully responsible for time stamping all incoming data, plus associated storage and distribution. Though this initially sufficed and is still applicable to low-density data, increasingly larger data volumes required an associated boost in the capability to time stamp data prior to eventual correction.

  15. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, P.; Sheldon, E.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveys or other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We also release open-source code of the web application and host an online demo version at http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net.

  16. Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia Independently Predict Increased Postoperative Opioid Consumption after Lower Extremity Joint Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Chad M.; Janda, Allison M.; Schueller, Christa M.; Tsodikov, Alex; Morris, Michelle; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variance in pain following total knee and hip arthroplasty may be due to a number of procedural and peripheral factors but also, in some individuals, to aberrant central pain processing as is described in conditions like fibromyalgia. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of patients undergoing lower extremity joint arthroplasty. Methods 519 patients were preoperatively phenotyped using validated self-reported pain questionnaires, psychological measures, and health information. In addition to assessing factors previously found to be associated with poor outcomes in arthroplasty, participants also completed the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Previous studies have suggested that rather than being “present” or “absent,” features of fibromyalgia as measured by this instrument, occur over a wide continuum. Postoperative pain control was assessed by total postoperative opioid consumption. Results Preoperatively, patients with higher fibromyalgia survey scores were younger, more likely to be female, taking more opioids, reported higher pain severity, and had a more negative psychological profile. In the multivariate analysis, the fibromyalgia survey score, younger age, preoperative opioid use, knee (vs. hip), pain severity at baseline, and the anesthetic technique were all predictive of increased postoperative opioid consumption. Conclusions Using the survey criteria for fibromyalgia distinct phenotypic differences were found, and the measure was independently predictive of opioid consumption. This self-report measure may provide an additional simple means of predicting postoperative pain outcomes and analgesic requirements. Future studies are needed to determine whether tailored therapies can improve postoperative pain control in this population. PMID:24343289

  17. An Italian prospective multicenter survey on patients suspected of having non-celiac gluten sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is still an undefined syndrome with several unsettled issues despite the increasing awareness of its existence. We carried out a prospective survey on NCGS in Italian centers for the diagnosis of gluten-related disorders, with the aim of defining the clinical picture of this new syndrome and to establish roughly its prevalence compared with celiac disease. Methods From November 2012 to October 2013, 38 Italian centers (27 adult gastroenterology, 5 internal medicine, 4 pediatrics, and 2 allergy) participated in this prospective survey. A questionnaire was used in order to allow uniform and accurate collection of clinical, biochemical, and instrumental data. Results In total, 486 patients with suspected NCGS were identified in this 1-year period. The female/male ratio was 5.4 to 1, and the mean age was 38 years (range 3–81). The clinical picture was characterized by combined gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and/or constipation, nausea, epigastric pain, gastroesophageal reflux, aphthous stomatitis) and systemic manifestations (tiredness, headache, fibromyalgia-like joint/muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, 'foggy mind,' dermatitis or skin rash, depression, anxiety, and anemia). In the large majority of patients, the time lapse between gluten ingestion and the appearance of symptoms varied from a few hours to 1 day. The most frequent associated disorders were irritable bowel syndrome (47%), food intolerance (35%) and IgE-mediated allergy (22%). An associated autoimmune disease was detected in 14% of cases. Regarding family history, 18% of our patients had a relative with celiac disease, but no correlation was found between NCGS and positivity for HLA-DQ2/-DQ8. IgG anti-gliadin antibodies were detected in 25% of the patients tested. Only a proportion of patients underwent duodenal biopsy; for those that did, the biopsies showed normal intestinal mucosa (69%) or mild increase in intraepithelial

  18. A survey of Simulium control in Africa.

    PubMed

    BROWN, A W

    1962-01-01

    It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa-namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone. PMID:14015908

  19. Model learning for robot control: a survey.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Tuong, Duy; Peters, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Models are among the most essential tools in robotics, such as kinematics and dynamics models of the robot's own body and controllable external objects. It is widely believed that intelligent mammals also rely on internal models in order to generate their actions. However, while classical robotics relies on manually generated models that are based on human insights into physics, future autonomous, cognitive robots need to be able to automatically generate models that are based on information which is extracted from the data streams accessible to the robot. In this paper, we survey the progress in model learning with a strong focus on robot control on a kinematic as well as dynamical level. Here, a model describes essential information about the behavior of the environment and the influence of an agent on this environment. In the context of model-based learning control, we view the model from three different perspectives. First, we need to study the different possible model learning architectures for robotics. Second, we discuss what kind of problems these architecture and the domain of robotics imply for the applicable learning methods. From this discussion, we deduce future directions of real-time learning algorithms. Third, we show where these scenarios have been used successfully in several case studies.

  20. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.

  1. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank. PMID:11459625

  2. Geological effect of high-precise gravimetric and magnetic surveys in Yangqiao prospect in Biyang depression

    SciTech Connect

    Rongyuan, W.; Zhaoling, Y.; Zhangmin, G.; Xiaoliu, W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Yangqiao prospect in Biyang depression which is an area where very high-degree exploration has been done. The complicated seismic and geological conditions in the border area of the depression cause very poor seismic data, so that exact structural configuration can not be known. Thus, high-precise gravimetric-magnetic surveys were done. The interpretations of gravimetric and magnetic data are mainly based on the properties of gravitational and magnetic fields. Local gravimetric and magnetic anomalies at Wangzhuang were discovered by performing forward fitting of observed gravimetric and magnetic data. The repeated seismic interpretation by reference to the gravimetric-magnetic interpretation result confirms the existence of an anticline structure in the local gravimetric and magnetic anomaly area. The effect of direct hydrocarbon prediction using high- precise gravimetric and magnetic data were checked in known Anpeng and Xiaermen oil fields. The check shows good effect.

  3. Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Scott C; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Ko, Albert I; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26996139

  4. Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Scott C; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Ko, Albert I; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

  5. Developing Historical Consciousness and a Community of History Practitioners: A Survey of Prospective History Teachers across Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lévesque, Stéphane G.; Zanazanian, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the historical consciousness of prospective history teachers in Canada. Using a bilingual online survey instrument inspired by the pan-Canadian research "Canadians and their Pasts" with volunteer participants (N = 233), the study investigates their background knowledge, their perceptions of the trustworthiness of…

  6. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schucht, Philippe; Banz, Vanessa; Trochsler, Markus; Iff, Samuel; Krähenbühl, Anna Katharina; Reinert, Michael; Beck, Jürgen; Raabe, Andreas; Candinas, Daniel; Kuhlen, Dominique; Mariani, Luigi

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT In ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery, laparoscopic assistance can be used for placement of the peritoneal catheter. Until now, the efficacy of laparoscopic shunt placement has been investigated only in retrospective and nonrandomized prospective studies, which have reported decreased distal shunt dysfunction rates in patients undergoing laparascopic placement compared with mini-laparotomy cohorts. In this randomized controlled trial the authors compared rates of shunt failure in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for peritoneal catheter placement with rates in patients who underwent traditional mini-laparotomy. METHODS One hundred twenty patients scheduled for VP shunt surgery were randomized to laparoscopic surgery or mini-laparotomy for insertion of the peritoneal catheter. The primary endpoint was the rate of overall shunt complication or failure within the first 12 months after surgery. Secondary endpoints were distal shunt failure, overall complication/ failure, duration of surgery and hospitalization, and morbidity. RESULTS The overall shunt complication/failure rate was 15% (9 of 60 cases) in the laparoscopic group and 18.3% (11 of 60 cases) in the mini-laparotomy group (p = 0.404). Patients in the laparoscopic group had no distal shunt failures; in contrast, 5 (8%) of 60 patients in the mini-laparotomy group experienced distal shunt failure (p = 0.029). Intraoperative complications occurred in 2 patients (both in the laparoscopic group), and abdominal pain led to catheter removal in 1 patient per group. Infections occurred in 1 patient in the laparoscopic group and 3 in the mini-laparotomy group. The mean durations of surgery and hospitalization were similar in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS While overall shunt failure rates were similar in the 2 groups, the use of laparoscopic shunt placement significantly reduced the rate of distal shunt failure compared with mini-laparotomy.

  7. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  8. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing the e-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates. PMID:25811767

  9. Prospects of probing quintessence with HI 21-cm intensity mapping survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azam; Thakur, Shruti; Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Sen, Anjan A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the prospect of constraining scalar field dark energy models using HI 21-cm intensity mapping surveys. We consider a wide class of coupled scalar field dark energy models whose predictions about the background cosmological evolution are different from the ΛCDM predictions by a few percent. We find that these models can be statistically distinguished from ΛCDM through their imprint on the 21-cm angular power spectrum. At the fiducial z = 1.5, corresponding to a radio interferometric observation of the post-reionization HI 21 cm observation at frequency 568 MHz, these models can infact be distinguished from the ΛCDM model at SNR > 3σ level using a 10,000 hr radio observation distributed over 40 pointings of a SKA1-mid like radio-telescope. We also show that tracker models are more likely to be ruled out in comparison with ΛCDM than the thawer models. Future radio observations can be instrumental in obtaining tighter constraints on the parameter space of dark energy models and supplement the bounds obtained from background studies.

  10. Minimizing the Disruptive Effects of Prospective Memory in Simulated Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Remington, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or non-adjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared to a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39min–42min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of non-prospective memory air traffic management (non-target aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by non-adjacent aids compared to no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared to non-adjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multi-task performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PMID:24059825

  11. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  12. Children with a Learning Disorder Show Prospective Control Impairments during Visuomanual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roon, Dominique; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a learning disorder (LD) are able to use prospective motor control, 30 children with LD (mean age 8 years and 11 months) and an age- and gender-matched control group were asked to smoothly track an accelerating dot presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizer. Children with LD performed worse…

  13. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. MATERIALS & METHODS : A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA). RESULTS : All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20-40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. CONCLUSIONS : This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  14. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. Materials & methods  A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA).  Results  All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20–40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. Conclusions  This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  15. A Survey of Quantum Lyapunov Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: nondegenerate cases and degenerate cases. For these two situations, respectively, in this paper the target state is divided into four categories: the eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Particularly, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed. PMID:23766732

  16. Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Agyei, Seth B.; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2016-01-01

    During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control. PMID:26903908

  17. Pupil Control Ideology among Prospective South African and Indian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherian, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of teacher training programmes is to instil a humanistic ideology into the school curriculum. Unfortunately however, this is not always able to change the culture of a school. The Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) scale was designed to measure the pupil control orientation of the respondents (teachers) on a humanistic-custodial continuum.…

  18. LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Verderber, R.R.; Rubinstein, F.

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the impact of lighting management systems that dynamically control lights in accordance with the needs of occupants. Various control strategies are described: scheduling, tuning, lumen depreciation, and daylighting. From initial experimental results, the energy savings provided by each of the above strategies are estimated to be 26, 12, 14, and 15%, respectively. Based upon a cost of $0.05-0.10 per kWh for electric energy and a 2-, 3-, or 4-yr payback, target costs for a simple and a sophisticated lighting management system are found to be $0.24 and 1.89 per ft{sup 2}, respectively, for a cost-effective investment. A growth model, based upon an extrapolation of the increase in building stock since 1975, indicates that the commercial and industrial (C and I) building stock will grow from 40 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} in 1980 to about 67 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} by the year 2000. Even with the use of more efficient lighting components, the energy required for this additional C and I stock will be 307 x 10{sup 9} kWh, an increase of only 13 x 10{sup 9} kWh above current use. The specified information is used to analyze the economic impacts that using these systems will have on the lighting industry, end users, utility companies, and the nation's economy. A $1 - 4 x 10{sup 9} annual lighting control industry can be generated, creating many jobs. The estimated return on investment (ROI) for controls for end users would be between 19 and 38%. Utilities will be able to make smaller additions to capacity and invest less capital at 7-10% ROI. Finally, the annual energy savings, up to $3.4 x 10{sup 9} for end users and about $5 x 10{sup 9} for utilities, representing unneeded generating capacity, will be available to capitalize other areas of the economy.

  19. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: external aids that signal when to act.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-03-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence, and in this study, we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids were used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  20. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Eric; Haywood, Misha; Mosser, Benoit; García, Rafael A.; Babusiaux, Carine; Ballot, Jérôme; Samadi, Reza; Katz, David; Belkacem, Kevin; Bernardi, Pernelle; Buey, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants), in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  1. I-ONE therapy in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized and controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with a severe local inflammatory reaction which, unless controlled, leads to persistent pain up to one year after surgery. Standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols are currently being implemented after TKA, but no consensus exists regarding the long-term effects. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been demonstrated to exert an anti-inflammatory effect, to promote early functional recovery and to maintain a positive long-term effect in patients undergoing joint arthroscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether PEMFs can be used to limit the pain and enhance patient recovery after TKA. Methods A prospective, randomized, controlled study in 30 patients undergoing TKA was conducted. Patients were randomized into experimental PEMFs or a control group. Patients in the experimental group were instructed to use I-ONE stimulator 4hours/day for 60days. Postoperatively, all patients received the same rehabilitation program. Treatment outcome was assessed using the Knee Society Score, SF-36 Health-Survey and VAS. Patients were evaluated pre-operatively and one, two, six and 12 months after TKA. Joint swelling and Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) consumption were recorded. Comparisons between the two groups were carried out using a two-tail heteroschedastic Student’s t-test. Analysis of variance for each individual subject during the study was performed using ANOVA for multiple comparisons, applied on each group, and a Dunnet post hoc test. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Pre-operatively, no differences were observed between groups in terms of age, sex, weight, height, Knee-Score, VAS, SF-36 and joint swelling, with the exception of the Functional Score. The Knee-Score, SF-36 and VAS demonstrated significantly positive outcomes in the I-ONE stimulated group compared with the controls at follow-ups. In the I

  2. Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu; Ippolito, Corey; Spritzer, John; Phelps, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    Using non-navigational (e.g. imagers, scientific) sensor information in control loops is a difficult problem to which no general solution exists. Whether the task can be successfully achieved in a particular case depends highly on problem specifics, such as application domain and sensors of interest. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using magnetometer data for control feedback in the context of geophysical magnetic surveys. An experimental system was created and deployed to (a) assess sensor integration with autonomous vehicles, (b) investigate how magnetometer data can be used for feedback control, and (c) evaluate the feasibility of using such a system for geophysical magnetic surveys. Finally, we report the results of our experiments and show that payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys is indeed feasible.

  3. Prospects of chemosterilant and genetic control of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rex E.; Howard, Walter E.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses some requirements of an ideal rodent chemosterilant, analyses the advantages of chemosterilants over other control methods, and compares the potential values of chemosterilants that affect females, males, and both sexes. Examples are given of specific situations where chemosterilants will be valuable in rodent control, together with suggested methods of applying them. The theory and practicability of using genetics in rodent control are also discussed. Neither the chemosterilant nor the genetic method is expected to become a panacea, but their eventual application will be a significant advance in rodent-control technology. Since both approaches are based on sound biological principles and are relatively safe, they should be helpful in regulating rodent populations in the future. PMID:4583051

  4. Partnership after induced abortion: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, W; Freudenberg, N; Wille, R

    1992-10-01

    To study the social and psychological consequences of induced abortion on the relationship between the pregnant woman and her partner, 92 patients seeking a socially indicated abortion, who had a stable partner at the time of abortion, were interviewed. Standardized psychological measures were used to assess their partnerships before abortion and on follow-up 1 year later. A control group of 92 patients (matched for age, marital status, duration of partnership, number of children, and educational background), drawn from a larger sample of women using safe contraceptive methods, completed the same psychological measures. Prior to abortion, partnerships in the study group showed considerably more conflicts and were less harmonious than in the control group. One year after the abortion, the number of separations in the study group was not significantly higher than in the control group, nor were there any remaining qualitative differences in the partnerships of either group. When separations occurred, they had been more frequently initiated by women in the study group than in the control group.

  5. The Development of Prospective Grasping Control between 5 and 7 Months: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    By 7 months, infants, when reaching for an object, visually guide their grasp by preorienting their hands to match the object's orientation. Evidence at earlier ages, however, for prospective grasp control via anticipatory hand orientation is mixed. This study examined longitudinally the development of anticipatory hand orientation in 15 infants,…

  6. Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from Spontaneous Retrieval and Impaired Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; control group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of…

  7. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  8. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  10. Prospects for chaos control of machine tool chatter

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Protopopescu, V.A.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.

    1998-06-01

    The authors analyze the nonlinear tool-part dynamics during turning of stainless steel in the nonchatter and chatter regimes, toward the ultimate objective of chatter control. Their previous work analyzed tool acceleration in three dimensions at four spindle speeds. In the present work, the authors analyze the machining power and obtain nonlinear measures of this power. They also calculate the cycle-to-cycle energy for the turning process. Return maps for power cycle times do not reveal fixed points or (un)stable manifolds. Energy return maps do display stable and unstable directions (manifolds) to and from an unstable period-1 orbit, which is the dominant periodicity. Both nonchatter and chatter dynamics have the unusual feature of arriving at the unstable period-1 fixed point and departing from that fixed point of the energy return map in a single step. This unusual feature makes chaos maintenance, based on the well-known Ott-Grebogi-Yorke scheme, a very difficult option for chatter suppression. Alternative control schemes, such as synchronization of the tool-part motion to prerecorded nonchatter dynamics or dynamically damping the period-1 motion, are briefly discussed.

  11. Prospects for Further Engagement: A Report of Results of the OAH Survey on International Resource Exchanges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American Historians, Bloomington, IN.

    This document reports survey results providing data and ideas for evaluating possible Organization of American Historians (OAH) international initiatives. The survey was constructed to address a wide range of issues and to solicit information on those resources that Americanists worldwide either wish to receive or have to offer. It sought…

  12. Mood impairs time-based prospective memory in young but not older adults: the mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Thorley, Craig; Phillips, Louise; Voigt, Babett; Threadgold, Emma; Hammond, Emily R; Mustafa, Besim; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined age-by-mood interactions in prospective memory and the potential role of attentional control. Positive, negative, or neutral mood was induced in young and older adults. Subsequent time-based prospective memory performance was tested, incorporating a measure of online attentional control shifts between the ongoing and the prospective memory task via time monitoring behavior. Mood impaired prospective memory in the young, but not older, adults. Moderated mediation analyses showed that mood effects in the young were mediated by changes in time monitoring. Results are discussed in relation to findings from the broader cognitive emotional aging literature.

  13. Survey of multi-function display and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Tonkin, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multi-function display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space and crew training time. The technology applicable to the development of a MFDCS for orbiter application is surveyed. Technology thought to be applicable presently or in the next five years is highlighted. Areas discussed include display media, data handling and processing, controls and operator interactions and the human factors considerations which are involved in a MFDCS design. Several examples of applicable MFDCS technology are described.

  14. Reference networks (Control surveys). [Geodetic systems for earth crustal movement monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Strange, W.E.; Zilkoski, D.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Control surveying activities of the National Geodetic Survey are reported for the 1987-1990 time period. The report is divided into two parts: horizontal control and vertical control. Particular attention is given to the North American Datum of 1983, high accuracy reference networks, the Global Positioning System and vertical control, vertical field surveys, and special survey projects. 44 refs.

  15. Prospective and retrospective effects in human motor control: planning grasps for object rotation and translation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rajal G; Rosenbaum, David A

    2011-07-01

    People pick up objects in ways that reflect prospective as well as retrospective control. Prospective control is indicated by planning for end-state comfort such that people grasp a cylinder to be rotated or translated with a hand orientation or at a height that affords a comfortable final posture. Retrospective control is indicated when people reuse a remembered grasp rather than using a new grasp that would ensure end-state comfort. Here, we asked whether these manifestations of prospective and retrospective control co-occur. We did so by having healthy young-adult participants grasp a cylinder to rotate and translate it between a horizontal position and a vertical position at each of five heights. We found that participants planned for comfortable final hand orientations for first moves but relied on recall for subsequent hand orientations. The results suggest that motor planning is sensitive to computational as well as physical demands and that object rotation and translation are not dissociable features of motor control, at least as reflected in their contributions to grasp selection. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that movements constitute holistic body changes between successive goal postures.

  16. A Bayesian hierarchical approach for combining case-control and prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Müller, P; Parmigiani, G; Schildkraut, J; Tardella, L

    1999-09-01

    Motivated by the absolute risk predictions required in medical decision making and patient counseling, we propose an approach for the combined analysis of case-control and prospective studies of disease risk factors. The approach is hierarchical to account for parameter heterogeneity among studies and among sampling units of the same study. It is based on modeling the retrospective distribution of the covariates given the disease outcome, a strategy that greatly simplifies both the combination of prospective and retrospective studies and the computation of Bayesian predictions in the hierarchical case-control context. Retrospective modeling differentiates our approach from most current strategies for inference on risk factors, which are based on the assumption of a specific prospective model. To ensure modeling flexibility, we propose using a mixture model for the retrospective distributions of the covariates. This leads to a general nonlinear regression family for the implied prospective likelihood. After introducing and motivating our proposal, we present simple results that highlight its relationship with existing approaches, develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for inference and prediction, and present an illustration using ovarian cancer data. PMID:11315018

  17. Career prospects for graduating nuclear medicine residents: survey of nuclear medicine program directors.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A; Guiberteau, Milton J; Metter, Darlene F; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    There has been much consternation in the nuclear medicine (NM) community in recent years regarding the difficulty many NM graduates experience in securing initial employment. A survey designed to determine the extent and root causes behind the paucity of career opportunities was sent to all 2010-2011 NM residency program directors. The results of that survey and its implications for NM trainees and the profession are presented and discussed in this article.

  18. South African control surveys from Maclear to the present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D. P. M.

    1995-08-01

    For many years the South African survey system with its well monumented control beacons was the envy of many countries. The success of the integrated system plus the ease with which all types of surveys could be based on the system led to South African surveyors being referred to as fellows with 0.01 mentality. This 0.01 figure was a reference to the days prior to metrication when urban cadastral diagrams and general plans required distances to 0.01 of a foot. This historical resumé covers a period of over 100 years when surveying not only required average scientific ability but also demanded tremendous physical effort and perseverance.

  19. [Planning and data analysis in prospective controlled clinical trials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Barth, H

    1978-11-01

    Planning of prospective controlled clinical trials in surgery requires the use of test and control groups, sufficiently frequent repetition of experiments, random allocation of patients to the groups (example), and balancing. The descriptive data analysis should be performed in a stepwise manner (list of new data, rank list, range, median, quartiles, histogram, mean value standard deviation). The advantages of the median-quartile-system and the prerequisites for application of various significance tests are pointed out. In the conduct of controlled clinical trials, the consultative role of experimental surgeons is proposed.

  20. Prospective calculation of identification power for individual genes in analyses controlling the false discovery rate.

    PubMed

    Crager, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Recent work on prospective power and sample size calculations for analyses of high-dimension gene expression data that control the false discovery rate (FDR) focuses on the average power over all the truly nonnull hypotheses, or equivalently, the expected proportion of nonnull hypotheses rejected. Using another characterization of power, we adapt Efron's ([2007] Ann Stat 35:1351-1377) empirical Bayes approach to post hoc power calculation to develop a method for prospective calculation of the "identification power" for individual genes. This is the probability that a gene with a given true degree of association with clinical outcome or state will be included in a set within which the FDR is controlled at a specified level. An example calculation using proportional hazards regression highlights the effects of large numbers of genes with little or no association on the identification power for individual genes with substantial association.

  1. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muso, Eri; Mune, Masatoshi; Hirano, Tsutomu; Hattori, Motoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunya; Wada, Takashi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takemura, Tsukasa; Yuzawa, Yukio; Ogahara, Satoru; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Iino, Yasuhiko; Sakai, Soichi; Ogura, Yousuke; Yukawa, Susumu; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Yorioka, Noriaki; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Saito, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims LDL apheresis (LDL-A) is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS) as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome), was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7%) showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP) level <1.0 g/day. The UP level immediately after LDL-A and the rates of improvement of UP, serum albumin, serum creatinine, eGFR, and total and LDL cholesterol after the treatment session significantly affected the outcome. Conclusions Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome. PMID:26557843

  2. Prospects for clustering and lensing measurements with forthcoming intensity mapping and optical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtsidou, A.; Bacon, D.; Crittenden, R.; Metcalf, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect H I clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21 cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high-precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the H I density Ω _{H I}, the H I bias b_{H I} and the galaxy-H I correlation coefficient r_{H I-g}.

  3. Prospective versus predictive control in timing of hitting a falling ball.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Hiromu; Russell, Daniel M

    2012-02-01

    Debate exists as to whether humans use prospective or predictive control to intercept an object falling under gravity (Baurès et al. in Vis Res 47:2982-2991, 2007; Zago et al. in Vis Res 48:1532-1538, 2008). Prospective control involves using continuous information to regulate action. τ, the ratio of the size of the gap to the rate of gap closure, has been proposed as the information used in guiding interceptive actions prospectively (Lee in Ecol Psychol 10:221-250, 1998). This form of control is expected to generate movement modulation, where variability decreases over the course of an action based upon more accurate timing information. In contrast, predictive control assumes that a pre-programmed movement is triggered at an appropriate criterion timing variable. For a falling object it is commonly argued that an internal model of gravitational acceleration is used to predict the motion of the object and determine movement initiation. This form of control predicts fixed duration movements initiated at consistent time-to-contact (TTC), either across conditions (constant criterion operational timing) or within conditions (variable criterion operational timing). The current study sought to test predictive and prospective control hypotheses by disrupting continuous visual information of a falling ball and examining consistency in movement initiation and duration, and evidence for movement modulation. Participants (n = 12) batted a ball dropped from three different heights (1, 1.3 and 1.5 m), under both full-vision and partial occlusion conditions. In the occlusion condition, only the initial ball drop and the final 200 ms of ball flight to the interception point could be observed. The initiation of the swing did not occur at a consistent TTC, τ, or any other timing variable across drop heights, in contrast with previous research. However, movement onset was not impacted by occluding the ball flight for 280-380 ms. This finding indicates that humans did not

  4. Surveying general prospects and challenges of GIS implementation in developing countries: a SWOT-AHP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleai, Mohammad; Mansourian, Ali; Sharifi, Ali

    2009-09-01

    We propose a combined method based on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to investigate the challenges and prospects of adopting geographic information systems (GIS) in developing countries. In this context, we identify, group, and analyse SWOT indicators in relation to the main GIS components: data, people, and technology. The relative significance of each SWOT indicator and its related SWOT groups in each GIS component is quantified. The method is then applied in a situation assessment of GIS adoption in the governmental organisations and strategic planning. The SWOT-AHP approach proves to be very useful in identifying and quantifying the relative significance of the major factors affecting GIS implementation, and effectively facilitates GIS strategic planning.

  5. [Tobacco and cancer of the larynx: a prospective survey of 58 patients].

    PubMed

    Benhamou, C A; Laraqui, N; Touhami, M; Chekkoury, A; Benchakroun, Y; Samlali, R; Kahlain, A

    1992-01-01

    A prospective investigation about the influence of the tabagism and its characters on the laryngeal cancer has been led in the department of oncology in the Hospital Center Ibnou Rochd in Casablanca from December 1990 to June 1991. The investigation concerned 58 new patients. We conclude from this investigation that the risk of cancer increases with the intensity of the tabagism (the precocious age at the beginning, long duration, high number of packets/years; black tobacco, deep inhalation of the smoke, absence of weanling). The risk increases with the association with an intense alcoholism. We don't find the professional exposition. These cancers related to tobacco have epidermoid predominance. Finally, the major interest of this study is to convince us about the ampleness of this flail and to lead us through an educative action for the preventive fight against tobacco because of the risk of laryngeal cancer. PMID:1344542

  6. A survey on hysteresis modeling, identification and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Vahid; Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh; Do, Thanh Nho

    2014-12-01

    The various mathematical models for hysteresis such as Preisach, Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (KP), Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI), Maxwell-Slip, Bouc-Wen and Duhem are surveyed in terms of their applications in modeling, control and identification of dynamical systems. In the first step, the classical formalisms of the models are presented to the reader, and more broadly, the utilization of the classical models is considered for development of more comprehensive models and appropriate controllers for corresponding systems. In addition, the authors attempt to encourage the reader to follow the existing mathematical models of hysteresis to resolve the open problems.

  7. Shockwave treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Rayer, S; Schipper, M; Schmikli, S; Weir, A; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2012-03-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the results of two treatment regimens for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS); a graded running programme and the same running programme with additional shockwave therapy (extracorporeal shockwave therapy; ESWT). Design A prospective observational controlled trial. Setting Two different sports medicine departments. Participants 42 athletes with MTSS were included. Intervention Patients from one hospital were treated with a graded running programme, while patients from the other hospital were treated with the same graded running programme and focused ESWT (five sessions in 9 weeks). Main Outcome Measures Time to full recovery (the endpoint was being able to run 18 min consecutively without pain at a fixed intensity). Results The time to full recovery was significantly faster in the ESWT group compared with the patients who only performed a graded running programme, respectively 59.7±25.8 and 91.6±43.0 days (p=0.008). Conclusions This prospective observational study showed that MTSS patients may benefit from ESWT in addition to a graded running programme. ESWT as an additional treatment warrants further investigation in a prospective controlled trial with the addition of randomisation and double blinding.

  8. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of an Interpersonal Violence Prevention Program With a Mexican American Community

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Lesser, Janna; Cheng, An-Lin; Osóos-Sánchez, Manuel; Martinez, Elisabeth; Pineda, Daniel; Mancha, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Using methods of community-based participatory research, a prospective randomized controlled trial of a violence prevention program based on Latino cultural values was implemented with elementary school children in a Mexican American community. Community members participated in intervention program selection, implementation, and data collection. High-risk students who participated in the program had greater nonviolent self-efficacy and demonstrated greater endorsement of program values than did high-risk students in the control group. This collaborative partnership was able to combine community-based participatory research with a rigorous study design and provide sustained benefit to community partners. PMID:20531101

  9. Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

    Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially planning for…

  10. Prospective survey of colonization and infection caused by expanded-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    De Champs, C; Sauvant, M P; Chanal, C; Sirot, D; Gazuy, N; Malhuret, R; Baguet, J C; Sirot, J

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of expanded-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing strains was prospectively studied in 56 patients in an intensive care unit. Ten patients were infected or colonized; some of these patients had asymptomatic intestinal colonization. Four different expanded-spectrum beta-lactamases were identified and used as epidemiological markers to survey nosocomial infections. PMID:2592552

  11. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study – Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013–2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data. PMID:26648732

  12. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    DOE PAGES

    Melchior, P.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality controlemployed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", itrenders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to markproblematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generatecustom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. Userreports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate andeliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the applicationand our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which areprofessional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. Wediscuss aspects ofmore » user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problemreports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely havebeen too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with anumber of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, andrecommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveysor other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We alsorelease open-source code of the web application and host an online demo versionat http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net« less

  13. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, including physicians, are at high risk of encountering workplace violence. At the same time physician turnover is an increasing problem that threatens the functioning of the health care sector worldwide. The present study examined the prospective associations of work-related physical violence and bullying with physicians’ turnover intentions and job satisfaction. In addition, we tested whether job control would modify these associations. Methods The present study was a 4-year longitudinal survey study, with data gathered in 2006 and 2010.The present sample included 1515 (61% women) Finnish physicians aged 25–63 years at baseline. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while adjusting for gender, age, baseline levels, specialisation status, and employment sector. Results The results of covariance analyses showed that physical violence led to increased physician turnover intentions and that both bullying and physical violence led to reduced physician job satisfaction even after adjustments. We also found that opportunities for job control were able to alleviate the increase in turnover intentions resulting from bullying. Conclusions Our results suggest that workplace violence is an extensive problem in the health care sector and may lead to increased turnover and job dissatisfaction. Thus, health care organisations should approach this problem through different means, for example, by giving health care employees more opportunities to control their own work. PMID:24438449

  14. The management of antenatal venous thromboembolism in the UK and Ireland: a prospective multicentre observational survey.

    PubMed

    Voke, Jennifer; Keidan, Jane; Pavord, Sue; Spencer, Neil H; Hunt, Beverley J

    2007-11-01

    This prospective observational study reports on 126 women from 25 UK centres with image-proven antenatal venous thromboembolism (VTE), 62% deep vein thrombosis and 38% pulmonary embolism. Thrombophilia screening was of limited benefit except to identify antithrombin deficiency. Sixteen (13%) patients had previous VTE, all but one was related to previous pregnancy or combined oral contraceptive and 12 received no thromboprophylaxis in the index pregnancy, the other four thus received inadequate low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) doses. Treatment was with dalteparin in 25%, enoxaparin in 47%, tinzaparin in 25% and unfractionated heparin alone in 3%. 66% of patients received once-daily LMWH. Anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) monitoring was performed at 90% of centres, with a wide range of target values. Thus current management of antenatal VTE, despite widely diverse clinical practice, appeared effective and safe, for there were no recurrent events and postpartum haemorrhage was not increased when compared to known rates. Larger studies are required to confirm this. The need for twice as opposed to once daily LMWH and for anti-Xa monitoring is questioned by this study. The importance of clinical risk assessment and adherence to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines on antenatal thromboprophylaxis, with adequate LMWH dosing is confirmed.

  15. Incidence and sources of native and prosthetic joint infection: a community based prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Kaandorp, C.; Dinant, H.; van de Laar, M. A F J; Moens, H.; Prins, A; Dijkmans, B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the incidence and sources of bacterial arthritis in the Amsterdam health district and the maximum percentage of cases that theoretically would be preventable.
METHODS—Patients with bacterial arthritis diagnosed between 1 October 1990 and 1 October 1993 were prospectively reported to the study centre by all 12 hospitals serving the district. Data were gathered on previous health status, source of infection, and microorganisms involved.
RESULTS—188 episodes of bacterial arthritis were found in 186 patients. Most of the 38 children were previously healthy. Fifty per cent of the adults were 65 years or older. Of the adults 84% had an underlying disease, in 59% a joint disorder. Joint surgery constituted the largest part of direct infections (33%) and skin defects were the most important source of haematogenous infections (67%). Infection of joints containing prosthetic or osteosynthetic material by a known haematogenous source occurred 15 times (8%). Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in 44% of all positive cultures.
CONCLUSION—The incidence of bacterial arthritis was 5.7 per 100 000 inhabitants per year. Preventive measures directed to patients with prosthetic joints or osteosynthetic material, and a known haematogenous source would have prevented at most 8% of all cases.

 PMID:9306869

  16. Multicentre prospective survey of SeHCAT provision and practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Janet; Coker, Bolaji; McMillan, Viktoria; Ofuya, Mercy; Lewis, Cornelius; Keevil, Stephen; Logan, Robert; McLaughlin, John; Reid, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Objective A clinical diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption (BAM) can be confirmed using SeHCAT (tauroselcholic (75selenium) acid), a radiolabelled synthetic bile acid. However, while BAM can be the cause of chronic diarrhoea, it is often overlooked as a potential diagnosis. Therefore, we investigated the use of SeHCAT for diagnosis of BAM in UK hospitals. Design A multicentre survey was conducted capturing centre and patient-level information detailing patient care-pathways, clinical history, SeHCAT results, treatment with bile acid sequestrants (BAS), and follow-up in clinics. Eligible data from 38 centres and 1036 patients were entered into a validated management system. Results SeHCAT protocol varied between centres, with no standardised patient positioning, and differing referral systems. Surveyed patients had a mean age of 50 years and predominantly women (65%). The mean SeHCAT retention score for all patients was 19% (95% CI 17.8% to 20.3%). However, this differed with suspected BAM type: type 1: 9% (95% CI 6.3% to 11.4%), type 2: 21% (95% CI 19.2% to 23.0%) and type 3: 22% (95% CI 19.6% to 24.2%). Centre-defined ‘abnormal’ and ‘borderline’ results represented over 50% of the survey population. BAS treatment was prescribed to only 73% of patients with abnormal results. Conclusions The study identified a lack of consistent cut-off/threshold values, with differing centre criteria for defining an ‘abnormal’ SeHCAT result. BAS prescription was not related in a simple way to the SeHCAT result, nor to the centre-defined result, highlighting a lack of clear patient care-pathways. There is a clear need for a future diagnostic accuracy study and a better understanding of optimal management pathways. PMID:27252882

  17. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING THE RELATIVE VELOCITIES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS IN PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS USING THE KINETIC SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keisler, Ryan; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: fabians@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-03-10

    We consider the prospects for measuring the pairwise kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal from galaxy clusters discovered in large photometric surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We project that the DES cluster sample will, in conjunction with existing mm-wave data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), yield a detection of the pairwise kSZ signal at the 8{sigma}-13{sigma} level, with sensitivity peaking for clusters separated by {approx}100 Mpc distances. A next-generation version of SPT would allow for a 18{sigma}-30{sigma} detection and would be limited by variance from the kSZ signal itself and the residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) signal. Throughout our analysis, we assume photometric redshift errors that wash out the signal for clusters separated by {approx}<50 Mpc; a spectroscopic survey of the DES sample would recover this signal and allow for a 26{sigma}-43{sigma} detection, and would again be limited by kSZ/tSZ variance. Assuming a standard model of structure formation, these high-precision measurements of the pairwise kSZ signal will yield detailed information on the gas content of the galaxy clusters. Alternatively, if the gas can be sufficiently characterized by other means (e.g., using tSZ, X-ray, or weak lensing), then the relative velocities of the galaxy clusters can be isolated, thereby providing a precision measurement of gravity on 100 Mpc scales. We briefly consider the utility of these measurements for constraining theories of modified gravity.

  18. Alcohol consumption and quitting smoking in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew; McKee, Sherry A; Thompson, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed 1 year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up. The role of frequent heavy drinking did not differ by country or sex and was not accounted for by demographics, smoking dependence, or attitudes regarding quitting smoking. Neither drinking frequency nor weekly quantity of consumption showed robust associations with quitting behaviors. Results indicate further study of interventions to address heavy drinking among smokers is warranted.

  19. Prospective survey of indoor fungal contamination in hospital during a period of building construction.

    PubMed

    Sautour, M; Sixt, N; Dalle, F; L'ollivier, C; Calinon, C; Fourquenet, V; Thibaut, C; Jury, H; Lafon, I; Aho, S; Couillault, G; Vagner, O; Cuisenier, B; Besancenot, J-P; Caillot, D; Bonnin, A

    2007-12-01

    An 18-month survey of indoor fungal contamination was conducted in one haematology unit during a period of construction work. Air was sampled with a portable Air System Impactor and surfaces with contact Sabouraud plates. During this survey the mean concentration of viable fungi in air was 4.2 cfu/m(3) and that for surfaces was 1.7 cfu/plate. At the beginning of construction work, there were increases in airborne fungal spores (from 3.0 to 9.8 cfu/m(3)) in the unit, but concentrations did not exceed 10 cfu/m(3) during the 18-month period. The most frequently recovered airborne fungi were Penicillium spp. (27-38%), Aspergillus spp. (25%) and Bjerkandera adusta, a basidiomycete identified with molecular tools (7-12%). Blastomycetes accounted for more than 50% of the fungal flora on surfaces. Investigating the impact of a new air-treatment system (mobile Plasmair units), there were significant reductions in fungal contamination for the Plasmer -treated rooms, and in these rooms we observed the same level of fungal load whether construction work was in progress or not.

  20. Motivational and control mechanisms underlying adolescent cannabis use disorders: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; van Benthem, Patty; van der Schee, Evelien; Spijkerman, Renske

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are the most prevalent substance use disorders among adolescents in treatment. Yet, little is known about the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs. Studies in adult cannabis users suggest a significant role for cognitive control and cannabis-oriented motivational processes, such as attentional bias, approach bias, and craving in CUDs. The current 6-month prospective study investigated the relationships between attentional bias, approach bias, craving, cognitive control, and cannabis use in adolescent patients in treatment for a primary or secondary CUD. Moreover, we investigated if these motivational processes and cognitive control could predict treatment progression after 6 months. Adolescents with a CUD had an attentional but no approach bias towards cannabis. In contrast to adult findings on the role of attentional bias, approach bias and cognitive control, only cannabis craving significantly correlated with current cannabis use and predicted cannabis use-related problems and abstinence from cannabis 6 months later. These findings identify craving as a predictor of treatment outcome, thereby supporting an important role for craving in the course of adolescent cannabis use and dependence. This prospective study is among the first to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs, warranting future longitudinal studies.

  1. Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath N.; Nayak, Shradda U.; Kadam, Avinash P.; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines. PMID:27011712

  2. Stress and burnout among hemodialysis nurses: a single-center, prospective survey study.

    PubMed

    Karkar, Ayman; Dammang, Mienalyn Lim; Bouhaha, Betty Mandin

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a well known and identified problem within the nursing profession. Dialysis nurses are exposed to high level of stress. Increasing workload can aggravate stress and cause burnout and exhaustion. Stress and burnout are capable of having a detrimental impact on organizational productivity and pose serious health and safety hazards on the job. We aimed in this study to determine the type and level of stress and the amount of burnout among our dialysis nurses, and to evaluate the managing skills and the impact of stress on their work performance. There were 93 nurses (19 national and 74 expatriate nurses) who answered modified questionnaires to the aims of our prospective and descriptive correlational study. Our results show that most nurses involved in the study (national and expatriate) experienced a mild level of stress (79% and 68%, respectively) and moderate level of burnout (42% and 38%, respectively). The most common stressor among the national nurses was technical breakdowns of machines (15.9%) and that among expatriates was job insecurity (16.9%). The majority of the national nurses (21%) coped with this by increased sick leaves, whereas the majority (25%) of the expatriates responded by becoming easily frustrated. The most utilized coping skill among both groups was the relaxation methods (20.8% versus 24.9%) and the least utilized was denial (3.9% versus 0.5%). In conclusion, our results suggest the exposure of dialysis nurses to different types of stress and demonstrate the different experienced coping skills. These results may have implications for nursing management and hospital administration.

  3. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  4. The tracking control system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, P; Arcidiacono, C; Argomedo, J; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Marty, L; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2012-09-01

    The VLT survey telescope is the latest telescope installed at European Southern Observatory's Paranal observatory that is considered one of the best sites for optical astronomy for the excellent seeing conditions. The exceptional quality of the site imposes tight requirements for the telescope tracking system that shall perform very well to fully exploit the extreme sharpness of the Chilean sky. We describe the specific solutions adopted for pointing, servo and guiding systems and the results obtained during the commissioning of the telescope. The hardware implementation relies on industry components and the control solutions privilege both the performance and the future maintainability of the system. PMID:23020397

  5. DES exposure checker: Dark Energy Survey image quality control crowdsourcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Peter; Sheldon, Erin; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2015-11-01

    DES exposure checker renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes, thus allowing image quality control for the Dark Energy Survey to be crowdsourced through its web application. Users can also generate custom labels to help identify previously unknown problem classes; generated reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. These problem reports allow rapid correction of artifacts that otherwise may be too subtle or infrequent to be recognized.

  6. The tracking control system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, P; Arcidiacono, C; Argomedo, J; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Marty, L; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2012-09-01

    The VLT survey telescope is the latest telescope installed at European Southern Observatory's Paranal observatory that is considered one of the best sites for optical astronomy for the excellent seeing conditions. The exceptional quality of the site imposes tight requirements for the telescope tracking system that shall perform very well to fully exploit the extreme sharpness of the Chilean sky. We describe the specific solutions adopted for pointing, servo and guiding systems and the results obtained during the commissioning of the telescope. The hardware implementation relies on industry components and the control solutions privilege both the performance and the future maintainability of the system.

  7. Faster Rate of Cognitive Decline in Essential Tremor Cases than Controls: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julián; Vega-Quiroga, Saturio; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive deficits have been reported in essential tremor (ET); however, these cognitive deficits have been assessed in cross-sectional rather than longitudinal analyses. Objective To determine whether decline in cognitive test scores occurs at a faster rate in ET cases than controls. Methods In a population-based study of older people (≥65 years) in central Spain (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain, NEDICES), non-demented ET cases and controls were followed prospectively. Participants with baseline or incident Parkinson’s disease or dementia were excluded, as were participants who developed incident ET. At baseline (1994–1995) and at follow-up (1997–1998), a 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (37-MMSE) was administered. Results 2,319 participants (72.4 ± 5.8 years) included 135 prevalent ET cases and 2,184 controls. At baseline, the mean 37-MMSE in cases was 28.8 ± 5.8 vs. 30.2 ± 4.8 in controls (p = 0.02). During the three year follow-up period, the 37-MMSE declined by 0.70 ± 3.2 points in cases vs. 0.11 ± 3.8 points in controls (p = 0.03). In analyses that adjusted for age, education and other potential confounders, the case-control difference remained robust. Discussion In this population-based, prospective study of non-demented elders, baseline cognitive test scores were lower in ET cases than controls; moreover, during the three-year follow-up period, these scores declined at a rate that was seven-times faster in ET cases. This study provides evidence that cognitive deficits in ET are not static and they appear to be progressing at a faster rate than in elders without this disease. PMID:20561042

  8. Minimum detectable activities of contamination control survey equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Baumann, B.L.; Johnson, M.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Instrumentation External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of the Health Physics Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has performed a series of tests to determine the ability of portable survey instruments used at Hanford to detect radioactive contamination at levels required by DOE 5480.11. This semi-empirical study combines instrumental, statistical, and human factors as necessary to derive operational detection limits. These threshold detection values have been compared to existing contamination control requirements, and detection deficiencies have been identified when present. Portable survey instruments used on the Hanford Site identify the presence of radioactive surface contamination based on the detection of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and/or x-radiation. However, except in some unique circumstances, most contamination monitors in use at Hanford are configured to detect either {alpha}-radiation alone or {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation together. Testing was therefore conducted on only these two categories of radiation detection devices. Nevertheless, many of the results obtained are generally applicable to all survey instruments, allowing performance evaluations to be extended to monitoring devices which are exclusively {gamma}- and/or x-ray- sensitive. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Chemical dosing for sulfide control in Australia: An industry survey.

    PubMed

    Ganigue, Ramon; Gutierrez, Oriol; Rootsey, Ray; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-12-01

    Controlling sulfide (H(2)S) production and emission in sewer systems is critical due to the corrosion and malodour problems that sulfide causes. Chemical dosing is one of the most commonly used measures to mitigate these problems. Many chemicals have been reported to be effective for sulfide control, but the extent of success varies between chemicals and is also dependent on how they are applied. This industry survey aims to summarise the current practice in Australia with the view to assist the water industry to further improve their practices and to identify new research questions. Results showed that dosing is mainly undertaken in pressure mains. Magnesium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and nitrate are the most commonly used chemicals for sewers with low flows. In comparison, iron salts are preferentially used for sulfide control in large systems. The use of oxygen injection has declined dramatically in the past few years. Chemical dosing is mainly conducted at wet wells and pumping stations, except for oxygen, which is injected into the pipe. The dosing rates are normally linked to the control mechanisms of the chemicals and the dosing locations, with constant or profiled dosing rates usually applied. Finally, key opportunities for improvement are the use of mathematical models for the selection of chemicals and dosing locations, on-line dynamic control of the dosing rates and the development of more cost-effective chemicals for sulfide control.

  10. A Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence: Design of a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Kathie C.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Hepworth, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as it relates to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  11. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  12. Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey.

    PubMed

    Ware, Mark A; Doyle, Crystal R; Woods, Ryan; Lynch, Mary E; Clark, Alexander J

    2003-03-01

    There has been a surge in interest in medicinal cannabis in Canada. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the current prevalence of medicinal cannabis use among patients with chronic non-cancer pain, to estimate the dose size and frequency of cannabis use, and to describe the main symptoms for which relief was being sought. Over a 6-week period in mid-2001, 209 chronic non-cancer pain patients were recruited in an anonymous cross-sectional survey. Seventy-two (35%) subjects reported ever having used cannabis. Thirty-two (15%) subjects reported having used cannabis for pain relief (pain users), and 20 (10%) subjects were currently using cannabis for pain relief. Thirty-eight subjects denied using cannabis for pain relief (recreational users). Compared to never users, pain users were significantly younger (P=0.001) and were more likely to be tobacco users (P=0.0001). The largest group of patients using cannabis had pain caused by trauma and/or surgery (51%), and the site of pain was predominantly neck/upper body and myofascial (68% and 65%, respectively). The median duration of pain was similar in both pain users and recreational users (8 vs. 7 years; P=0.7). There was a wide range of amounts and frequency of cannabis use. Of the 32 subjects who used cannabis for pain, 17 (53%) used four puffs or less at each dosing interval, eight (25%) smoked a whole cannabis cigarette (joint) and four (12%) smoked more than one joint. Seven (22%) of these subjects used cannabis more than once daily, five (16%) used it daily, eight (25%) used it weekly and nine (28%) used it rarely. Pain, sleep and mood were most frequently reported as improving with cannabis use, and 'high' and dry mouth were the most commonly reported side effects. We conclude that cannabis use is prevalent among the chronic non-cancer pain population, for a wide range of symptoms, with considerable variability in the amounts used. Discussions between patients and health care providers concerning

  13. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27284790

  14. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  16. A Prospective Controlled Study of Living Kidney Donors: Three-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Israni, Ajay K.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kraus, Edward S.; Kumar, Rajiv; Posselt, Andrew A.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Rabb, Hamid; Steffes, Michael W.; Snyder, Jon J.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been few prospective controlled studies of kidney donors. Understanding the pathophysiological effects of kidney donation is important for judging donor safety and for improving our understanding of the consequences of reduced kidney function in chronic kidney disease. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Three-year follow-up of kidney donors and paired controls suitable for donation at their donor’s center. Predictor Kidney donation. Outcomes Medical history, vital signs, glomerular filtration rate and other measurements at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after donation. Results At 36 months, 182 of 203 (89.7%) original donors and 173 of 201 (86.1%) original controls continue to participate in follow-up visits. The linear slope of the glomerular filtration rate measured by plasma iohexol clearance declined 0.36±7.55 mL/min per year in 194 controls, but increased 1.47±5.02 mL/min per year in 198 donors (P = 0.005) between 6 and 36 months. Blood pressure was not different between donors and controls at any visit, and at 36 months all 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were similar in 126 controls and 135 donors (mean systolic: 120.0±11.2 [SD] v. 120.7±9.7 mmHg [P=0.6]; mean diastolic: 73.4±7.0 v. 74.5±6.5 mmHg [P=0.2]). Mean arterial pressure nocturnal dipping was manifest in 11.2%±6.6% of controls and 11.3%±6.1% donors (P=0.9). Urinary protein-creatinine and albumin-creatinine ratios were not increased in donors compared to controls. From 6 to 36 months post-donation, serum parathyroid hormone, uric acid, homocysteine and potassium levels were higher, whereas hemoglobin was lower in donors compared to controls. Limitations Possible bias resulting from an inability to select controls screened to be as healthy as donors, short follow-up duration, and drop-outs. Conclusions Kidney donors manifest several of the findings of mild chronic kidney disease. However, at 36 months after

  17. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball and basketball players: A survey-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A J; van der Worp, H; Diercks, R L; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Zwerver, J

    2015-10-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury of the patellar tendon in jumping athletes. In a recent large cross-sectional study from 2008 several factors were identified that may be associated with the etiology of PT. However, because of the study design no conclusions could be drawn about causal relations. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate whether the factors identified in the previous 2008 study can also be prospectively recognized as predictors of symptomatic PT in 2011. Nine hundred twenty-six Dutch elite and non-elite basketball and volleyball players from the previous study were invited again to complete an online survey about knee complaints and risk factors for PT in 2011. The logistic regression included 385 athletes of which 51 (13%) developed PT since 2008. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.5] was found to be a risk factor for developing PT. No sports-related variables could be identified to increase the risk of developing PT, but some evidence was found for performing heavy physically demanding work, like being a nurse or a physical education teacher (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9-6.3). These findings indicate that, when considering preventive measures, it is important to take into account the total tendon load. PMID:25091500

  18. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball and basketball players: A survey-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A J; van der Worp, H; Diercks, R L; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Zwerver, J

    2015-10-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury of the patellar tendon in jumping athletes. In a recent large cross-sectional study from 2008 several factors were identified that may be associated with the etiology of PT. However, because of the study design no conclusions could be drawn about causal relations. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate whether the factors identified in the previous 2008 study can also be prospectively recognized as predictors of symptomatic PT in 2011. Nine hundred twenty-six Dutch elite and non-elite basketball and volleyball players from the previous study were invited again to complete an online survey about knee complaints and risk factors for PT in 2011. The logistic regression included 385 athletes of which 51 (13%) developed PT since 2008. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.5] was found to be a risk factor for developing PT. No sports-related variables could be identified to increase the risk of developing PT, but some evidence was found for performing heavy physically demanding work, like being a nurse or a physical education teacher (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9-6.3). These findings indicate that, when considering preventive measures, it is important to take into account the total tendon load.

  19. Laparoscopic versus open adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction - a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is emerging as an alternative for open surgery in adhesive small bowel obstruction. Retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic approach shortens hospital stay and reduces complications in these patients. However, no prospective, randomized, controlled trials comparing laparoscopy to open surgery have been published. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, open label, randomized, controlled trial comparing laparoscopic adhesiolysis to open surgery in patients with computed-tomography diagnosed adhesive small bowel obstruction that is not resolving with conservative management. The primary study endpoint is the length of postoperative hospital stay in days. Sample size was estimated based on preliminary retrospective cohort, which suggested that 102 patients would provide 80% power to detect a difference of 2.5 days in the length of postoperative hospital stay with significance level of 0.05. Secondary endpoints include passage of stool, commencement of enteral nutrition, 30-day mortality, complications, postoperative pain, and the length of sick leave. Tertiary endpoints consist of the rate of ventral hernia and the recurrence of small bowel obstruction during long-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up by letter or telephone interview will take place at 1, 5, and 10 years. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this trial is the first one aiming to provide level Ib evidence to assess the use of laparoscopy in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01867528. Date of registration May 26th 2013. PMID:25306234

  20. Prospects for naval arms control: A bad idea whose time has come. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trout, B.T.

    1990-06-30

    This paper assesses the contemporary prospects for naval arms control based on two principal contentions. (1) The political framework of the present arms control environment makes consideration of naval issues virtually certain. The notion that there should be naval arms control is widespread and will probably prove politically compelling if the overall arms control regime continues to develop. (2) The substantive naval issues amenable to negotiation within the prevailing balance are few, but those few are important. Therefore, a position of continuing U.S. Navy resistance to consideration of the subject of naval arms control is not tenable, and may be counterproductive. The Navy has two options for a constructive approach to arms control. One option is to take the initiative on soft issues such as scheduling annual meetings of senior naval officials of the two sides to discuss issues without commitment to negotiate. A second option focuses on the limited range of hard naval arms control issues, sea-launched cruise missiles, tactical naval nuclear weapons, attack submarines and related force questions.

  1. Prospects for titanium alloy comparison control by electron beam scan frequency manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, A.; Pal, U.; Avyle, J.V.D.; Damkroger, B.

    1996-12-31

    Using mathematical modelling, the authors evaluate the prospects for using beam spot size and scan frequency to control titanium-aluminum alloy composition in electron beam melting and refining. Composition control is evaluated in terms of attainable steady-state extremes of composition, and the time scales required to change hearth and mold composition between those extremes. Mathematical models predict spot size-evaporation and frequency-evaporation relationships by simulating heat transfer in the surface of the melt, and predict overall composition change using simplifying assumptions about the fluid flow field in a melting hearth. Corroborating experiments were run on the electron beam furnace at Sandia National Laboratories in order to verify predicted relationships between frequency and evaporation and to calculate activity coefficients of aluminum and vanadium in titanium.

  2. The role of perceived control over anxiety in prospective symptom reports across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress.

  3. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  4. Intravenous Versus Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis Efficacy for Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Karaca, A Serdar; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial is to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and oral antibiotic prophylaxis for cost and surgical site infection in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three hundred twenty patients were split into two groups as to include 160 patients in each, and they were evaluated in a prospective and randomized fashion. While one group was subjected to 1 g cefazolin via intravenous route during anesthesia induction, other group received 1 g cephalexin monohydrate via oral route 1 h prior to the operation. Demographic findings and operation results of the patients were compared by analyses. Our 320 patients (278 females and 42 males) received elective cholecystectomy and were followed up for a period of 6-26 months. Each group had 160 patients. Both groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and inclusion criteria. Among all, only five (1.5 %) cases demonstrated postoperative surgical site infection. Surgical site infection at postoperative period was determined in three (1.8 %) cases of intravenous prophylaxis group and two (1.2 %) cases of oral prophylaxis group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of surgical site infection. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis can be used in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy prophylaxis due to its cost-effective, reliable nature, and low surgical site infection rate. PMID:26730079

  5. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction < 0.01). Conclusions We observed no overall association between serum taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  6. Passive Smoking Is Associated with Poor Asthma Control during Pregnancy: A Prospective Study of 500 Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Grarup, Pernille A.; Janner, Julie H.; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Asthma and tobacco exposure is common among pregnant women. We investigated the effect of passive and active smoking on asthma control during pregnancy. Methods Prospective observational design. Patients had their asthma control, based on symptoms, use of medication, spirometry, and exhaled nitric oxide [FENO], assessed every four weeks during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy; data on tobacco exposure were also collected prospectively. The primary outcome was episodes of uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma during pregnancy (defined according to GINA-guidelines). Results A total of 500 pregnant women with asthma (mean age 30.8 years, range 17 to 44) were consecutively included, of whom 32 (6.4%), 115 (23.0%) and 353 (70.6%), respectively, were current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers [NS]. Sixty-five NS (18.4%) reported passive tobacco exposure. NS with passive tobacco exposure had significantly lower FEV1% predicted (p<0.02) and FENO (p = 0.01) compared to NS without passive tobacco exposure. The relative risk [RR] of an episode of uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy was 4.5 (95% CI 2.7–7.5: p<0.001) in current and ex-smokers compared with never smokers, and 2.9 (95% CI 1.4–5.9; p = 0.004) in NS-women with passive tobacco exposure compared with NS-women not reporting passive tobacco exposure. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, most likely as a marker of more severe asthma, was also associated with a higher risk (RR 8.1, 95% CI 5.1–13.0; p<0.001) of an episode of uncontrolled asthma. Conclusion Passive tobacco exposure in never smokers is associated with an increased risk of episodes of uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy, which is likely to have adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. PMID:25409513

  7. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  8. Blood DNA methylation markers in prospectively identified hepatocellular carcinoma cases and controls from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Shen, Jing; Yang, Hwai-I; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Chen, Chien-Jen; Santella, Regina M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if gene-specific DNA methylation in prospectively collected blood samples is associated with later development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Comparing genome-wide DNA methylation profiles using Illumina Human methylation 450K arrays, we previously identified a list of loci that were differentially methylated between tumor and adjacent nontumor tissues. To examine if dysregulation of DNA methylation patterns observed in tumor tissues can be detected in white blood cell (WBC) DNA, we conducted a prospective case-control study nested within a community-based cancer screening cohort in Taiwan with 16 years of follow up. We measured methylation levels in ninety-six loci that were aberrant in DNA methylation in HCC tumor tissues compared to adjacent tissues. Baseline WBC DNA from 159 HCC cases and 312 matched controls were bisulfite treated and assayed by Illumina BeadArray. We used the χ2 test for categorical variables and student’s t-test for continuous variables to assess the difference in selected characteristics between cases and controls. To estimate associations with HCC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models stratified on the matching factors to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI. RESULTS: We found that high methylation level in cg10272601 in WNK2 was associated with increased risk of HCC, with an OR of 1.91 (95%CI: 1.27-2.86). High methylation levels in both cg12680131 in TPO and cg22511877 in MYT1L, however, were associated with decreased risk. The ORs (95%CI) were 0.59 (0.39-0.87) and 0.50 (0.33-0.77), respectively, for those with methylation levels of cg12680131 and cg22511877 above the median compared with those with levels below the median. These associations were still statistically significant in multivariable conditional logistic regression models after adjusting for hepatitis B virus infection and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: These findings support the measurement of methylation markers in WBC DNA

  9. Prospective memory and glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective memory is that memory which is required to carry out intended actions and is therefore essential in carrying out the daily activities required in the self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aimed to identify the relationships between prospective memory and diabetic control in children with T1DM. Method 94 children aged 6–18 years with T1DM completed an innovative prospective memory screen, PROMS, and a series of cognitive tests. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's diabetic histories and cognitive skills. Results No association between total PROMS score and glycemic control was found. Lower HbA1C was associated with higher (better) scores on the 20 minute event-based task on the PROMS. Parental concerns about working memory and metacognition in their children were mirrored by higher HbA1C. Conclusions This study suggests that there may be an association between glycemic control and prospective memory for event based tasks. Additional studies need to be done to determine reproducibility, causality, and if prospective memory based interventions can improve diabetic control. PMID:23198726

  10. A Prospective Controlled Study of Kidney Donors: Baseline and 6-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Weir, Matthew R.; Nogueira, Joseph M.; Cosio, Fernando G.; Kraus, Edward S.; Rabb, Hamid H.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Posselt, Andrew A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Steffes, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous studies of living kidney donors have been retrospective and have lacked suitable healthy controls. Needed are prospective controlled studies to better understand the effects of a mild reduction in kidney function from kidney donation in otherwise normal individuals. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Consecutive patients approved for donation at 8 transplant centers in the US were asked to participate. For every donor enrolled, an equally healthy control with 2 kidneys who theoretically would have been suitable to donate a kidney was also enrolled. Predictor Kidney donation. Measurements At baseline pre-donation and at 6 months after donation, a medical history, vital signs, measured (iohexol) glomerular filtration rate and other measurements were collected. There were 201 donors and 198 controls that completed both baseline and 6 month visits and form the basis of this report. Results Compared to controls, donors had 28% lower glomerular filtration rate at 6 months (94.6±15.1 [SD] v. 67.6±10.1 mL/min/1.73m2; P<0.001), associated with a 23% greater parathyroid hormone (42.8±15.6 v. 52.7±20.9 pg/mL; P<0.001), 5.4% lower serum phosphate (3.5±0.5 v. 3.3±0.5 mg/dL; P<0.001), 3.7% lower hemoglobin (13.6±1.4 v. 13.1±1.2 g/dL; P<0.001), 8.2% greater uric acid (4.9±1.2 v. 5.3±1.1 mg/dL; P<0.001), 24% greater homocysteine (1.20±0.34 v. 1.49±0.43 mg/L; P<0.001), and 1.5% lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (54.9±16.4 v. 54.1±13.9 mg/dL; P=0.03) level. There were no differences in albumin-creatinine ratios (5.0 [IQR, 4.0-6.6] v. 5.0 [IQR, 3.3-5.4] mg/g; P=0.5), office blood pressure, or glucose homeostasis. Limitations Short duration of follow-up and possible bias resulting from an inability to screen controls with kidney and vascular imaging performed in donors. Conclusions Kidney donors have some, but not all, abnormalities typically associated with mild chronic kidney

  11. Workplace Exercise for Control of Occupational Neck/Shoulder Disorders: A Review of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian D; Dick, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    A review was conducted of prospective studies (1997–2014) examining the efficacy of exercise as a workplace intervention to control neck/shoulder pain, symptoms, and disability. The review identified 38 relevant studies – 20 were classified with positive effects, 13 with null effects, and 5 as inconclusive. Of the positive studies, 12 were consistent with Level I evidence, 3 with Level II evidence, and 5 with Level IV evidence. Specific resistance training (SRT) exercise appeared to be associated with more positive studies (eight Level I studies) than other exercise modalities such as general resistance training, general physical exercise, stretching, and movement awareness exercises. Studies of longer trial duration tended toward more null findings and lower program compliance. Evidence for a primary preventive effect of workplace exercise is minimal. The findings of this review suggest that workplace exercise can be effective as tertiary prevention and therapeutic relief of neck/shoulder symptoms, at least over the shorter term. PMID:25780338

  12. Sleep quality in patients with xerostomia: a prospective and randomized case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Lucero Berdugo, Maira; Fernandez-Pujante, Alba; C, Castillo Felipe; Lavella C, Zamora; A, Pons-Fuster; J, Silvestre Rangil; Silvestre, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate sleep quality, anxiety/depression and quality-of-life in patients with xerostomia. Materials and methods This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of xerostomia patients (n = 30) compared with 30 matched control subjects. The following evaluation scales were used to assess the psychological profile of each patient: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), the Xerostomia Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results The PSQI obtained 5.3 3 ± 1.78 for patients with xerostomia compared with 4.26 ± 1.01 for control subjects (p = 0.006); ESS obtained 5.7 ± 2.1 for test patients vs 4.4 0 ± 1 for control subjects (p = 0.010). Statistical regression analysis showed that xerostomia was significantly associated with depression (p = 0.027). Conclusions Patients with xerostomia exhibited significant decreases in sleep quality compared with control subjects.

  13. Obesity, inflammatory markers, and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Becker, Susen; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Stegger, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Travier, Noémie; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Altzibar, Jone M; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H M; Hallmans, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim J; Slimani, Nadia; Hainaut, Pierre; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case–control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP (odds ratio (OR) for top versus bottom quartile: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–2.41, Ptrend=0.02), IL6 (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08–2.54, Ptrend=0.008), and IL1Ra (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.22–2.73, Ptrend=0.004). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the estimates were strongly reduced and became non-significant. The association between BMI and endometrial cancer was also substantially attenuated (∼10–20%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers, even when the effects of C-peptide or estrone had already been taken into account. We provided epidemiological evidence that chronic inflammation might mediate the association between obesity and endometrial cancer and that endometrial carcinogenesis could be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:20843938

  14. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Richard T; Barysauskas, Constance M; Rundensteiner, Elke A; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods.  A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results.  In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions.  In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity.

  15. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the use of merocel nasal tampons and BIPP in the control of acute epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Corbridge, R J; Djazaeri, B; Hellier, W P; Hadley, J

    1995-08-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of Merocel nasal tampons to BIPP (Bismuth Subnitrate and Iodoform Paste) impregnated ribbon gauze in the control of acute epistaxis requiring hospital admission. A total of 50 patients presenting with severe epistaxis was treated with either merocel nasal tampons, or BIPP. The groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, sex distribution, aetiology or severity of the bleed. There was no significant difference in efficacy or patient tolerance of either treatment. It was concluded that Merocel nasal tampons should be considered effective in the first line treatment of severe epistaxis uncontrolled by simple measures. Their ease of insertion makes them suitable for use in the accident and emergency department or in general practice.

  16. Advancement of physical process by mental activation: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lehrl, S; Gusinde, J; Schulz-Drost, S; Rein, A; Schlechtweg, P M; Jacob, H; Krinner, S; Gelse, K; Pauser, J; Brem, Matthias H

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, patients who are significantly impaired by physical mobility limitations can be rehabilitated if the patient's working memory is used to capacity. The conclusion that periodic mental activity improves physical rehabilitation should be evaluated. This is a prospective, controlled, and randomized open study of patients who underwent a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Sixteen patients who played the video game Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? were compared in terms of rehabilitation progress to 16 individuals who did not play. Harris Hip and Merle d'Aubigné scores were evaluated 1 d preoperation and again 12 +/- 1 d postoperation. Preoperation, no significant differences in hip scores between the gaming and control groups were found (median Harris Hip score: 39 vs 33, respectively, p = 0.304; median Merle D'Aubigné score: 12 vs 9, respectively, p = 0.254). Postoperation, there were significant differences between the gaming and control groups (median Harris Hip score: 76.0 vs 56.5, respectively, p = 0.001; median Merle D'Aubigné score: 16.0 vs 13.5, respectively, p = 0.014). Within both groups, the posttest scores significantly improved; however, the increase for the gaming group was greater for both measures. Because the influence of age, sex, and level of education can be excluded, it can be assumed that mental activities can improve physical rehabilitation after THA.

  17. Enteroadherent Escherichia coli and diarrhea in children: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Forestier, C; Meyer, M; Favre-Bonte, S; Rich, C; Malpuech, G; Le Bouguenec, C; Sirot, J; Joly, B; De Champs, C

    1996-01-01

    The relative contribution of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was examined during a 1-year prospective study of hospitalized children in Clermont-Ferrand, France, including 220 case patients (with diarrhea) and 211 matched controls. Fecal isolates were characterized by means of their pattern of adherence to HEp-2 cells and by colony hybridization with DNA probes specific for the six categories of diarrheagenic E. coli. No enteroinvasive or enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates were isolated. Twenty-eight (6.5%) eae-positive isolates and 39 (9%) enteroaggregative E. coli isolates characterized with the aggregative adherence probe and/or by their adherence pattern were detected; they were equally distributed among the patients and the controls. Diffusely adhering E. coli was the predominant pathotype: 30.7% were detected by their adherence pattern and 13.7% were detected with the daaC probe. They were isolated with similar frequencies from the patients and the controls, thereby showing no association with diarrhea. However, daaC-positive strains were significantly associated with a past record of urinary tract infections. These results suggest that the diffusely adhering E. coli organisms isolated in the present study are not true intestinal pathogens but may be regarded as resident colonic strains. PMID:8940419

  18. Patterns, predictors and outcomes of asthma control and exacerbations during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E.; Smith, Brian; Roy, Anil; Dekker, Gustaaf A.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a paucity of data for socially disadvantaged populations describing patterns and predictors of asthma control status and exacerbations during pregnancy, and their relationship to adverse perinatal outcomes. Asthmatic women (n=189) were followed prospectively during pregnancy, with visits at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Data on loss of control, recurrent uncontrolled asthma and moderate/severe exacerbations were collected at each visit and their relationship to perinatal outcomes examined following stratification for fetal sex. 50% of asthmatic women experienced a loss of control or moderate/severe exacerbation during pregnancy, with 22% of women experiencing a moderate/severe exacerbation. Factors associated with an increased risk of women experiencing recurrent uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy included smoking (relative risk 2.92, 95% CI 1.53–5.58), inhaled corticosteroid use at the beginning of pregnancy (relative risk 2.40, 95% CI 1.25–4.60) and increasing maternal age (relative risk 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11). No factors were associated with moderate/severe exacerbations. Asthma control rather than exacerbations during pregnancy appeared to be most strongly correlated with perinatal outcomes. Following stratification by fetal sex, the presence of recurrent uncontrolled asthma was associated with an increased risk of being small for gestational age in women pregnant with females (33.3% versus 9.5%; p=0.018). In contrast, there was a nonsignificant increased risk of preterm birth in women with recurrent uncontrolled asthma that were pregnant with males (25.0% versus 11.8%; p=0.201) These results suggest that the key to improving perinatal outcomes lies in improving asthma control as early as possible in pregnancy and monitoring throughout pregnancy, rather than focusing on preventing exacerbations alone. PMID:27730170

  19. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation.

    PubMed

    Ommerborn, Michelle Alicia; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal parameters. Fifty-eight sleep bruxism subjects and 31 controls participated in this study. The diagnosis sleep bruxism was based on clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sixteen functional and occlusal parameters were recorded clinically or from dental study casts. Similar to the recently published retrospective pilot study, with a mean slide of 0.77 mm (s.d., 0.69 mm) in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.4 mm (s.d., 0.57 mm) in the control group, the evaluation of the mean comparison between the two groups demonstrated a larger slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation in sleep bruxism subjects (Mann-Whitney U-test; P=0.008). However, following Bonferroni adjustment, none of the 16 occlusal and functional variables differed significantly between the sleep bruxism subjects and the non-sleep bruxism controls. The present study shows that the occlusal and functional parameters evaluated do not differ between sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism subjects. However, as the literature reveals a possible association between bruxism and certain subgroups of temporomandibular disorders, it appears advisable to incorporate the individual adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system into future investigations. PMID:22935746

  20. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project management control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, Jeffrey P.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program is jointly funded by the NSF, the DOE, and private institutions and donors. From an NSF funding standpoint, the LSST is a Major Research Equipment and Facilities (MREFC) project. The NSF funding process requires proposals and D&D reviews to include activity-based budgets and schedules; documented basis of estimates; risk-based contingency analysis; cost escalation and categorization. "Out-of-the box," the commercial tool Primavera P6 contains approximately 90% of the planning and estimating capability needed to satisfy R&D phase requirements, and it is customizable/configurable for remainder with relatively little effort. We describe the customization/configuration and use of Primavera for the LSST Project Management Control System (PMCS), assess our experience to date, and describe future directions. Examples in this paper are drawn from the LSST Data Management System (DMS), which is one of three main subsystems of the LSST and is funded by the NSF. By astronomy standards the LSST DMS is a large data management project, processing and archiving over 70 petabyes of image data, producing over 20 petabytes of catalogs annually, and generating 2 million transient alerts per night. Over the 6-year construction and commissioning phase, the DM project is estimated to require 600,000 hours of engineering effort. In total, the DMS cost is approximately 60% hardware/system software and 40% labor.

  1. 78 FR 78416 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0253

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0253 AGENCY: U.S... on the information collection request (ICR) 3206-0253, Performance Measurement Surveys. As required... measurement surveys are valuable tools to gather information from our customers so we can design and...

  2. 75 FR 35092 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Performance Measurement Surveys. As required... high quality and diverse workforce. Performance measurement surveys are valuable tools to...

  3. 78 FR 78415 - Submission for Review: Customer Service Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Customer Service Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0236 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... information collection request (ICR) 3206-0236, Customer Service Surveys. As required by the Paperwork..., manage and retain a high quality and diverse workforce. Customer service surveys are valuable tools...

  4. 75 FR 65040 - Submission for Review: Customer Satisfaction Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... customers to evaluate our performance in providing services. Customer satisfaction surveys are valuable... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Customer Satisfaction Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0236 AGENCY: U.S... on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0236, Customer Satisfaction Surveys....

  5. [Correction of pronounced plagiocephaly with orthosis : results of a prospective follow-up control].

    PubMed

    Yacoub, A; von Salis-Soglio, G; Heyde, C-E

    2013-11-01

    For the treatment of pronounced deformational plagiocephaly in infants different therapeutic options are under discussion in the literature. This article presents a prospective observational study of 45 infants enrolled with distinct plagiocephaly and treated with a custom-made helmet orthosis. Treatment with the helmet orthosis was indicated by a difference in the skull diagonals of more than 0.5 cm or a cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) index > 3.5. The follow-up results were controlled with the help of a mobile spatial laser scanner and the CVA index and the skull deformity were measured. The average duration of treatment was 131 days. The CVA index improved from 9.95 to a normal value of 3.35 (median) and the skull deformity improved from 1.3 cm to 0.5 cm (median). The only side effects observed were easily treatable pressure marks. The results of this study reveal that pronounced deformational plagiocephaly can be successfully treated with a custom-made helmet orthosis and closely controlled monitoring.

  6. Control of Cost in Prospective Memory: Evidence for Spontaneous Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the processes that support prospective remembering, previous research has often examined whether the presence of a prospective memory task slows overall responding on an ongoing task. Although slowed task performance suggests that monitoring is present, this method does not clearly establish whether monitoring is functionally related to…

  7. Early neuromuscular customized training after surgery for lumbar disc herniation: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Millisdotter, Monica; Strömqvist, Björn

    2007-01-01

    A prospective and controlled study of training after surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The objective was to determine the effect of early neuromuscular customized training after LDH surgery. No consensus exists on the type and timing of physical rehabilitation after LDH surgery. Patients aged 15-50 years, disc prolapse at L4-L5 or L5-S1. Before surgery, at 6 weeks, 4, and 12 months postoperatively, the following evaluations were performed: low back pain and leg pain estimated on a visual analog scale, disability according to the Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ) and disability rating index (DRI). Clinical examination, including the SLR test, was performed using a single blind method. Consumption of analgesics was registered. Twenty-five patients started neuromuscular customized training 2 weeks after surgery (early training group = ETG). Thirty-one patients formed a control group (CG) and started traditional training after 6 weeks. There was no significant difference in pain and disability between the two training groups before surgery. Median preoperative leg pain was 63 mm in ETG and 70 mm in the CG. Preoperative median disability according to RMQ was 14 in the ETG and 14.5 in the CG. Disability according to DRI (33/56 patients) was 5.3 in the ETG vs. 4.6 in the CG. At 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months, pain was significantly reduced in both groups, to the same extent. Disability scores were lower in the ETG at all follow-ups, and after 12 months, the difference was significant (RMQ P=.034, DRI P=.015). The results of the present study show early neuromuscular customized training to have a superior effect on disability, with a significant difference compared to traditional training at a follow-up 12 months after surgery. No adverse effects of the early training were seen. A prospective, randomized study with a larger patient sample is warranted to ultimately demonstrate that early training as described is beneficial for patients undergoing LDH surgery

  8. Early neuromuscular customized training after surgery for lumbar disc herniation: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Strömqvist, Björn

    2006-01-01

    A prospective and controlled study of training after surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The objective was to determine the effect of early neuromuscular customized training after LDH surgery. No consensus exists on the type and timing of physical rehabilitation after LDH surgery. Patients aged 15–50 years, disc prolapse at L4–L5 or L5–S1. Before surgery, at 6 weeks, 4, and 12 months postoperatively, the following evaluations were performed: low back pain and leg pain estimated on a visual analog scale, disability according to the Roland–Morris questionnaire (RMQ) and disability rating index (DRI). Clinical examination, including the SLR test, was performed using a single blind method. Consumption of analgesics was registered. Twenty-five patients started neuromuscular customized training 2 weeks after surgery (early training group=ETG). Thirty-one patients formed a control group (CG) and started traditional training after 6 weeks. There was no significant difference in pain and disability between the two training groups before surgery. Median preoperative leg pain was 63 mm in ETG and 70 mm in the CG. Preoperative median disability according to RMQ was 14 in the ETG and 14.5 in the CG. Disability according to DRI (33/56 patients) was 5.3 in the ETG vs. 4.6 in the CG. At 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months, pain was significantly reduced in both groups, to the same extent. Disability scores were lower in the ETG at all follow-ups, and after 12 months, the difference was significant (RMQ P=.034, DRI P=.015). The results of the present study show early neuromuscular customized training to have a superior effect on disability, with a significant difference compared to traditional training at a follow-up 12 months after surgery. No adverse effects of the early training were seen. A prospective, randomized study with a larger patient sample is warranted to ultimately demonstrate that early training as described is beneficial for patients undergoing LDH

  9. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4) to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey) survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2) where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115). Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115). On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3]) and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9]) completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%), immediate survey access (62%), and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%). Most reluctant responders (89%) indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration. PMID:23110849

  10. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses.

  11. Koi herpesvirus: distribution and prospects for control in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N G H; Dixon, P F; Jeffery, K R; Peeler, E J; Denham, K L; Way, K

    2010-03-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly virulent disease affecting carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and poses a serious socio-economic threat to the UK carp industry. This study aimed to determine the geographic distribution and prevalence of KHV exposed fish in England and Wales through ELISA antibody testing. Only three of the 82 farms sampled produced positive results, suggesting fish farms provide a relatively safe source of fish. Of the 71 'high-risk' fisheries tested, 26 were positive. All eight geographic areas within England and Wales studied had at least one KHV positive site. Twelve consignments of imported koi carp from seven S.E. Asian countries were tested for KHV antibody. Six consignments from six different countries were positive. Although a high proportion of consignments were positive, the results indicate that lower risk stocks of fish exist that could be sourced by the ornamental carp sector. The study provides evidence that KHV is widespread and prevalent in 'high-risk' fisheries. There are, however, prospects for controlling KHV as English and Welsh farms appear to be relatively free of the virus, and in most cases fish are not moved from fisheries to other waters.

  12. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  13. Expert advice provided through telemedicine improves healing of chronic wounds: prospective cluster controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zarchi, Kian; Haugaard, Vibeke B; Dufour, Deirdre N; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-03-01

    Telemedicine is widely considered as an efficient approach to manage the growing problem of chronic wounds. However, to date, there is no convincing evidence to support the clinical efficacy of telemedicine in wound management. In this prospective cluster controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that advice on wound management provided by a team of wound-care specialists through telemedicine would significantly improve the likelihood of wound healing compared with the best available conventional practice. A total of 90 chronic wound patients in home care met all study criteria and were included: 50 in the telemedicine group and 40 in the conventional group. Patients with pressure ulcers, surgical wounds, and cancer wounds were excluded. During the 1-year follow-up, complete wound healing was achieved in 35 patients (70%) in the telemedicine group compared with 18 patients (45%) in the conventional group. After adjusting for important covariates, offering advice on wound management through telemedicine was associated with significantly increased healing compared with the best available conventional practice (telemedicine vs. conventional practice: adjusted hazard ratio 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.17; P=0.017). This study strongly supports the use of telemedicine to connect home-care nurses to a team of wound experts in order to improve the management of chronic wounds.

  14. Prospective case-control study of encephalopathy in children with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Cam, B V; Fonsmark, L; Hue, N B; Phuong, N T; Poulsen, A; Heegaard, E D

    2001-12-01

    We present a prospective case-control study of 27 serologically confirmed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients with severe central nervous system symptoms. Dengue associated encephalopathy accounted for 0.5% of 5,400 patients admitted with DHF. The mortality rate among children with encephalopathy was 22%, with the survivors experiencing a complete recovery. Liver enzymes and bilirubin were significantly elevated in the study group. In analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed dengue-3-specific RNA in one evaluated case. Dengue-specific immunoglobulin M was detected in CSF in 14 of 22 assessable patients, indicating a localized infection. Magnetic resonance imaging scans showed cerebral edema in the majority of patients, although encephalitis-like changes were less common. There was an equal distribution of primary and secondary infections. On the basis of previous reports and of the findings of our study, DHF probably encompasses an expanding clinical spectrum that infrequently involves encephalitis due to a direct neurotropic effect of dengue virus.

  15. 76 FR 71107 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number 1405-XXXX ACTION... Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection. Originating... information collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V, as part of the Gender Assessment Evaluation, to...

  16. 77 FR 10033 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number 1405-xxxx ACTION... Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection... requirements, this request for a new information collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V, as part of the...

  17. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  18. In-line filtration minimizes organ dysfunction: New aspects from a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infused particles induce thrombogenesis, impair microcirculation and modulate immune response. We have previously shown in critically ill children, that particle-retentive in-line filtration reduced the overall complication rate of severe events, length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. We now evaluated the influence of in-line filtration on different organ function and thereby elucidated the potential underlying pathophysiological effects of particle infusion. Methods In this single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial 807 critically ill children were assigned to either control (n = 406) or filter group (n = 401), the latter receiving in-line filtration for complete infusion therapy. Both groups were compared regarding the differences of incidence rates and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of different organ dysfunction as defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 2005. Results The incidence rates of respiratory (−5.06%; 95% CI, −9.52 to −0.59%), renal (−3.87%; 95% CI, −7.58 to −0.15%) and hematologic (−3.89%; 95% CI, −7.26 to −0.51%) dysfunction were decreased in the filter group. No difference was demonstrated for the occurrence rates of cardiovascular, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction between both groups. Conclusions In-line filtration has beneficial effects on the preservation of hematologic, renal and respiratory function in critically ill patients. The presented clinical data further support our hypothesis regarding potential harmful effects of particles. In critically ill patients infused particles may lead to further deterioration of the microcirculation, induce a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with consecutive negative effects on organ function. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number; NCT00209768 PMID:23384207

  19. Chronic constipation and co-morbidities: A prospective population-based nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok S; Rey, Enrique; Richard Locke, G; Schleck, Cathy D; Baum, Charles; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic constipation (CC) is common in the community but surprisingly little is known about relevant gastro-intestinal (GI) and non-GI co-morbidities. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of CC and in particular provide new insights into the co-morbidities linked to this condition. Methods In a prospective, population-based nested case-control study, a cohort of randomly selected community residents (n = 8006) were mailed a validated self-report gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire. CC was defined according to Rome III criteria. Medical records of each case and control were abstracted to identify potential CC comorbidities. Results Altogether 3831 (48%) subjects returned questionnaires; 307 met criteria for CC. Age-adjusted prevalence in females was 8.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.1–10.3) and 5.1 (3.6–6.7) in males, per 100 persons. CC was not associated with most GI pathology, but the odds for constipation were increased in subjects with anal surgery relative to those without (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% CI 1.2–9.1). In those with constipation vs those without, neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 2.9–14.4) and multiple sclerosis (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 1.9–15.8) showed significantly increased odds for chronic constipation, adjusting for age and gender. In addition, modestly increased odds for chronic constipation in those with angina (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) and myocardial infarction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.4) were observed. Conclusions Neurological and cardiovascular diseases are linked to constipation but in the community constipation is unlikely to account for most lower GI pathology. PMID:26966534

  20. Prospective Control in Catching: The Persistent Angle-of-Approach Effect in Lateral Interception

    PubMed Central

    Ledouit, Simon; Casanova, Remy; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Bootsma, Reinoud J.

    2013-01-01

    In lateral interception tasks balls converging onto the same interception location via different trajectories give rise to systematic differences in the kinematics of hand movement. While it is generally accepted that this angle-of-approach effect reflects the prospective (on-line) control of movement, controversy exists with respect to the information used to guide the hand to the future interception location. Based on the pattern of errors observed in a task requiring visual extrapolation of line segments to their intersection with a second line, angle-of-approach effects in lateral interception have been argued to result from perceptual biases in the detection of information about the ball's future passing distance along the axis of hand movement. Here we demonstrate that this account does not hold under experimental scrutiny: The angle-of-approach effect still emerged when participants intercepted balls moving along trajectories characterized by a zero perceptual bias with respect to the ball's future arrival position (Experiment 4). Designing and validating such bias-controlled trajectories were done using the line-intersection extrapolation task (Experiments 2 and 3). The experimental set-up used in the present series of experiments was first validated for the lateral interception and the line-intersection extrapolation tasks: In Experiment 1 we used rectilinear ball trajectories to replicate the angle-of-approach effect in lateral interception of virtual balls. Using line segments extracted from these rectilinear ball trajectories, in Experiment 2 we replicated the reported pattern of errors in the estimated locus of intersection with the axis of hand movement. We used these errors to develop a set of bias-free trajectories. Experiment 3 confirmed that the perceptual biases had been corrected for successfully. We discuss the implications on the information-based regulation of hand movement of our finding that the angle-of-approach effect in lateral

  1. Rigorous anaesthesia management protocol for patients with intracranial arterial stenosis: a prospective controlled-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Laiwalla, Azim N; Ooi, Yinn Cher; Van De Wiele, Barbara; Ziv, Keren; Brown, Adam; Liou, Raymond; Saver, Jeffrey L; Gonzalez, Nestor R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reducing variability is integral in quality management. As part of the ongoing Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis Revascularisation for Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (ERSIAS) trial, we developed a strict anaesthesia protocol to minimise fluctuations in patient parameters affecting cerebral perfusion. We hypothesise that this protocol reduces the intraoperative variability of targeted monitored parameters compared to standard management. Design Prospective cohort study of patients undergoing encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis surgery versus standard neurovascular interventions. Patients with ERSIAS had strict perioperative management that included normocapnia and intentional hypertension. Control patients received regular anaesthetic standard of care. Minute-by-minute intraoperative vitals were electronically collected. Heterogeneity of variance tests were used to compare variance across groups. Mixed-model regression analysis was performed to establish the effects of treatment group on the monitored parameters. Setting Tertiary care centre. Participants 24 participants: 12 cases (53.8 years±16.7 years; 10 females) and 12 controls (51.3 years±15.2 years; 10 females). Adults aged 30–80 years, with transient ischaemic attack or non-disabling stroke (modified Rankin Scale <3) attributed to 70–99% intracranial stenosis of the carotid or middle cerebral artery, were considered for enrolment. Controls were matched according to age, gender and history of neurovascular intervention. Main outcome measures Variability of heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure and end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) throughout surgical duration. Results There were significant reductions in the intraoperative MAP SD (4.26 vs 10.23 mm Hg; p=0.007) and ETCO2 SD (0.94 vs 1.26 mm Hg; p=0.05) between the ERSIAS and control groups. Median MAP and ETCO2 in the ERSIAS group were higher (98 mm Hg, IQR 23 vs 75 mm Hg, IQR 15; p<0

  2. Routine Opt-Out HIV Testing Strategies in a Female Jail Setting: A Prospective Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kavasery, Ravi; Maru, Duncan Smith-Rohrberg; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Sylla, Laurie N.; Smith, David; Altice, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ten million Americans enter jails annually. The objective was to evaluate new CDC guidelines for routine opt-out HIV testing and examine the optimal time to implement routine opt-out HIV testing among newly incarcerated jail detainees. Methods This prospective, controlled trial of routine opt-out HIV testing was conducted among 323 newly incarcerated female inmates in Connecticut's only women's jail. 323 sequential entrants to the women's jail over a five week period in August and September 2007 were assigned to be offered routine opt-out HIV testing at one of three points after incarceration: immediate (same day, n = 108), early (next day, n = 108), or delayed (7 days, n = 107). The primary outcome was the proportion of women in each group consenting to testing. Results Routine opt-out HIV testing was significantly highest (73%) among the early testing group compared to 55% for immediate and 50% for 7 days post-entry groups. Other factors significantly (p = 0.01) associated with being HIV tested were younger age and low likelihood of early release from jail based on bond value or type of charge for which women were arrested. Conclusions In this correctional facility, routine opt-out HIV testing in a jail setting was feasible, with highest rates of testing if performed the day after incarceration. Lower testing rates were seen with immediate testing, where there is a high prevalence of inability or unwillingness to test, and with delayed testing, where attrition from jail increases with each passing day. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00624247 PMID:19946370

  3. Hypertonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Frank M P; Sleigh, James; Boerma, E Christiaan; La Pine, Mary; Bahr, Mohamed; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of hypertonic fluid versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock. This was a double-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial in a 15-bed intensive care unit. Twenty-four patients with septic shock were randomized to receive 250 mL 7.2% NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HT group) or 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch (IT group). Hemodynamic measurements included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, stroke volume index, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index, gastric tonometry, and sublingual microcirculatory flow as assessed by sidestream dark field imaging. Systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities of the medial mitral annulus were measured using echocardiography to assess left ventricular contractility. Log transformation of the ratio MAP divided by the norepinephrine infusion rate (log MAP/NE) quantified the combined effect on both parameters. Compared with the IT group, hypertonic solution treatment resulted in an improvement in log MAP/NE (P = 0.008), as well as an increase in systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities (P = 0.03) and stroke volume index (P = 0.017). No differences between the groups were found for preload parameters (central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index) or for afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance index, MAP). Hypertonic solution treatment decreased the need for ongoing fluid resuscitation (P = 0.046). No differences between groups were observed regarding tonometry or the sublingual microvascular variables. In patients with septic shock, hypertonic fluid administration did not promote gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion or sublingual microcirculatory blood flow in comparison to isotonic fluid. Independent of changes in preload or afterload, hypertonic fluid administration improved the cardiac contractility and vascular tone compared with isotonic fluid. The need for ongoing fluid

  4. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure: a prospective randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thys, F; Roeseler, J; Reynaert, M; Liistro, G; Rodenstein, D O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify whether the known effects of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with respiratory failure are real or due to placebo effects and whether early application of NPPV in the emergency department leads to rapid improvement of the patients condition and outcome. A prospective randomised placebo-controlled study was conducted in 20 patients with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) secondary to an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute pulmonary oedema, not improving under conventional medical therapy and on the edge of intubation. Patients received either conventional medical therapy plus two-level NPPV (hi-level NPPV) or conventional medical therapy plus "placebo" NPPV. The main outcome measures involved the need for endotracheal intubation in the bi-level NPPV arm and in the placebo arm after crossing over to active NPPV. Morbidity, length of stay, mortality and the effect of the ventilatory mode on clinical, arterial-blood gas parameters, and the sternocleidomastoid muscles electromyogram (EMG) activity were also measured. The 10 patients in the active NPPV group rapidly improved and none needed intubation. Placebo NPPV resulted in no change in the clinical condition of patients that continued to worsen and the 10 patients were crossed over to active NPPV. Three patients were intubated. No differences in terms of morbidity, length of stay or mortality between the two groups were observed. Active NPPV (but not placebo NPPV) led to a rapid and significant improvement in the clinical parameters, pH and the carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood and to a decrease in respiratory frequency and sternocleidomastoid EMG activity. Early application of bi-level noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with severe acute respiratory failure, due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute pulmonary oedema, leads to a rapid improvement in clinical status

  5. Bank-to-turn control technology survey for homing missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential advantages of bank-to-turn control are summarized. Recent and current programs actively investigating bank-to-turn steering are reviewed and critical technology areas concerned with bank-to-turn control are assessed.

  6. Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey: Waves 1, 2 and 3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the methods of sampling design and data collection of Wave 1, 2 and 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, with major focus on longitudinal features of the study. Key measures of quality of the survey data, such as retention rates and final sample sizes, are presented. Sample replenishment procedures are outlined, including the addition of a new city, Kunming, at Wave 3. Methods for constructing the longitudinal and cross-sectional survey weights are briefly described.

  7. Control of infection in general practice: a survey and recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P. N.; Cooke, E. M.; Larkin, D. P.; Southgate, L. J.; Mayon-White, R. T.; Pether, J. V.; Wright, A. E.; Keenlyside, D.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty general practices in four areas in Britain were surveyed to establish their needs for and practices of sterilising and disinfecting equipment. Of the 327 items of equipment and instruments examined in the survey, 190 were satisfactorily decontaminated, 100 were treated in a way judged to result in doubtful decontamination, and in 37 cases treatment was considered unsatisfactory. Decontamination apparatuses (autoclaves, hot air ovens, and hot water disinfectors) were generally in good working order, but the use of chemical disinfectants was often inappropriate. Recommendations were made on appropriate methods of decontamination for various items in common use in general practice. By virtue of the large numbers of patients treated by general practitioners there is a substantial possibility of transmitting infection; having appropriate methods for decontaminating instruments and equipment is therefore imperative. PMID:3408909

  8. A survey of adaptive control technology in robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosunoglu, S.; Tesar, D.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the adaptive control of robotic systems is reviewed. Although the field is relatively new and does not yet represent a mature discipline, considerable attention has been given to the design of sophisticated robot controllers. Here, adaptive control methods are divided into model reference adaptive systems and self-tuning regulators with further definition of various approaches given in each class. The similarity and distinct features of the designed controllers are delineated and tabulated to enhance comparative review.

  9. Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…

  10. 75 FR 65039 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010 at 75 FR 35092 allowing for a 60... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Performance Measurement Surveys. As...

  11. 78 FR 78416 - Submission for Review: Program Services Evaluation Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0252

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Program Services Evaluation Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0252 AGENCY: U.S... on the information collection request (ICR) 3206-0252, Program Services Evaluation Surveys. As... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of OPM, including...

  12. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  13. 75 FR 35093 - Submission for Review: Customer Satisfaction Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0236.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... performance in providing services. Customer satisfaction surveys are valuable tools to gather information from our customers so we can design and implement new ways to improve our service to meet their needs. This... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Customer Satisfaction Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0236. AGENCY:...

  14. Bladder irrigation with chlorhexidine for the prevention of urinary infection after transurethral operations: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ball, A J; Carr, T W; Gillespie, W A; Kelly, M; Simpson, R A; Smith, P J

    1987-09-01

    The value of postoperative bladder irrigation with the antiseptic agent chlorhexidine was assessed in a randomized prospective controlled study of men after transurethral operations. In patients with sterile preoperative urine the incidence of postoperative bacteriuria was 12.8 per cent, compared to 36.7 per cent in control patients. The difference is significant (chi-square 5.54, p less than 0.02). On the other hand, chlorhexidine irrigation did not eliminate pre-existing infection. Small amounts of chlorhexidine were demonstrated in the blood of some patients. There was no evidence of damage to the bladder and no toxic side effects.

  15. Dietary Screener Questionnaire in the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement 2010: Overview

    Cancer.gov

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment.

  16. Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

  17. Theory and applications survey of decentralized control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nonmathematical overview is presented of trends in the general area of decentralized control strategies which are suitable for hierarchical systems. Advances in decentralized system theory are closely related to advances in the so-called stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools pertaining to the classical stochastic control problem are outlined. Particular attention is devoted to pitfalls in the mathematical problem formulation for decentralized control. Major conclusions are that any purely deterministic approach to multilevel hierarchical dynamic systems is unlikely to lead to realistic theories or designs, that the flow of measurements and decisions in a decentralized system should not be instantaneous and error-free, and that delays in information exchange in a decentralized system lead to reasonable approaches to decentralized control. A mathematically precise notion of aggregating information is not yet available.

  18. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-08-01

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them. PMID:26287219

  19. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C.K.

    2015-01-01

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers’ reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them. PMID:26287219

  20. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-08-13

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  1. Survey of decentralized control methods. [for large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the types of problems that are being considered by control theorists in the area of dynamic large scale systems with emphasis on decentralized control strategies. Approaches that deal directly with decentralized decision making for large scale systems are discussed. It is shown that future advances in decentralized system theory are intimately connected with advances in the stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools associated with the latter are summarized, and recommendations concerning future research are presented.

  2. Community child psychiatric medication experiences measured by an internet-based, prospective parent survey of retail pharmacy customers.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Robert; Wolf, Christine; Koprowicz, Kent; Thomas, Elizabeth; Chandler, Mary; Hao, Xiao Lei; Russell, Matthew; Le, Tung; Hooks, Lee; King, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    One thousand five hundred parents filling a psychiatric prescription for their 6-18 year old child with a multi-state retail pharmacy chain received a single mailed invitation to complete a detailed online survey. 276 parents responded (18.4%). 60% of children on medications had a parent rated CBCL scale score in the clinically significant range at enrollment (T score ≥65), with a similar frequency of clinically significant CBCL scores through 15 months of survey followup. 47% of medication regimens were noted to be causing persistent side effects. This simple community based data collection method can offer a unique way to investigate naturalistic treatment outcomes.

  3. Community child psychiatric medication experiences measured by an internet-based, prospective parent survey of retail pharmacy customers.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Robert; Wolf, Christine; Koprowicz, Kent; Thomas, Elizabeth; Chandler, Mary; Hao, Xiao Lei; Russell, Matthew; Le, Tung; Hooks, Lee; King, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    One thousand five hundred parents filling a psychiatric prescription for their 6-18 year old child with a multi-state retail pharmacy chain received a single mailed invitation to complete a detailed online survey. 276 parents responded (18.4%). 60% of children on medications had a parent rated CBCL scale score in the clinically significant range at enrollment (T score ≥65), with a similar frequency of clinically significant CBCL scores through 15 months of survey followup. 47% of medication regimens were noted to be causing persistent side effects. This simple community based data collection method can offer a unique way to investigate naturalistic treatment outcomes. PMID:24323138

  4. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly. From 2006 to 2010, in Canada, the percentages noticing POS tobacco displays declined from 74.1 to 6.1% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P < 0.001]; and reported exposure to POS tobacco advertising decreased from 40.3 to 14.1% (adjusted OR = 0.61, P < 0.001). Similarly, in Australia, noticing of POS displays decreased from 73.9 to 42.9%. In contrast, exposure to POS marketing in the United States and United Kingdom remained high during this period. In parallel, there were declines in reported exposures to other forms of advertising/promotion in Canada and Australia, but again, not in the United States or United Kingdom. Impulse purchasing of cigarettes was lower in places that enacted POS display bans. These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes. PMID:23640986

  5. Hand controllers for teleoperation. A state-of-the-art technology survey and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. L.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    Hand controller technology for teleoperation is surveyed in three major catagories: (1) hand grip design, (2) control input devices, and (3) control strategies. In the first category, 14 hand grip designs are reviewed and evaluated in light of human factor considerations. In the second, 12 hand controller input devices are evaluated in terms of task performance, configuration and force feedback, controller/slave correspondence, operating volume, operator workload, human limitations, cross coupling, singularities, anthropomorphic characteristics, physical complexity, control/display interference, accuracy, technological base, cost, and reliability. In the third catagory, control strategies, commonly called control modes, are surveyed and evaluated. The report contains a bibliography with 189 select references on hand controller technology.

  6. Survey of control performance in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Zheng, Yicong; Kosut, Robert; Brun, Todd; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-08-01

    There is a rich variety of physics underlying the fundamental gating operations for quantum information processing (QIP). A key aspect of a QIP system is how noise may enter during quantum operations and how suppressing or correcting its effects can best be addressed. Quantum control techniques have been developed to specifically address this effort, although a detailed classification of the compatibility of controls schemes with noise sources found in common quantum systems has not yet been performed. This work numerically examines the performance of modern control methods for suppressing decoherence in the presence of noise forms found in viable quantum systems. The noise-averaged process matrix for controlled one-qubit and two-qubit operations are calculated across noise found in systems driven by Markovian open quantum dynamics. Rather than aiming to describe the absolute best control scheme for a given physical circumstance, this work serves instead to classify quantum control behavior across a large class of noise forms so that opportunities for improving QIP performance may be identified.

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency study with referring physicians on patient radiation exposure and its tracking: a prospective survey using a web-based questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Rehani, Madan M; Berris, Theocharis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the following themes among referring physicians: (A) importance of acquiring information about previous diagnostic exposures; (B) knowledge about radiation doses involved, familiarity with radiation units and, age-related radiosensitivity; (C) opinion on whether patients should be provided information about radiation dose and (D) self-assessment of appropriateness of referrals. Design A prospective survey using a web-based questionnaire. Setting International survey among referring physicians. Participants Referring physicians from 28 countries. Main outcome measures Knowledge, opinion and practice of the four themes of the survey. Results All 728 responses from 28 countries (52.3% from developed and 47.7% from developing countries) indicated that while the vast majority (71.7%) of physicians feel that being aware of history of CT scans would always or mostly lead them to a better decision on referring patients for CT scans, only 43.4% often enquire about it. The majority of referring physicians (60.5%) stated that having a system that provides quick information about patient exposure history would be useful. The knowledge about radiation doses involved is poor, as only one-third (34.7%) of respondents chose the correct option of the number of chest x-rays with equivalence of a CT scan. In total, 70.9% of physicians stated that they do not feel uncomfortable when patients ask about radiation risk from CT scans they prescribe. Most physicians (85.6%) assessed that they have rarely prescribed CT scans of no clinical use in patient management. Conclusions This first ever multinational survey among referring physicians from 28 countries indicates support for a system that provides radiation exposure history of the patient, demonstrates poor knowledge about radiation doses, supports radiation risk communication with patients and mandatory provisions for justification of a CT examination. PMID:22997065

  8. Injuries as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, E

    2000-12-01

    Injuries are common and on increase in most developing countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. A large proportion of the injuries are caused by road traffic accidents, falls, burns, assaults, bites, stings and other animal-related injuries, poisonings, drownings/near-drownings and suicide. Globally, injuries are responsible for about five per cent of the total mortality, and the overall global annual costs were estimated in the late 1980s at around 500 billion US dollars. The burden and pattern of injuries in Africa and other developing areas are poorly known and not well studied. The incidence is on the increase, partly due to rapid growth of motorised transport and to expansion of industrial production without adequate safety precautions. This is a review of data on various kinds of injuries in developing countries with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. A computerised search of the relevant literature published between 1985 and 1998 was conducted and a manual search of journals publishing texts on health in low-income countries and in tropical environments was also done. A few studies on injury prevention policy and on research related to injury epidemiology and prevention have also been identified and included. It is concluded that in a relatively typical East African area with a total mortality rate of 1,300/100,000/year, injuries are likely to cause around 100 of these deaths. The corresponding total rate of significant injuries is estimated at 40,000/100,000/year with a breakdown as tabulated below. [table: see text] Although a few surveys and other investigations of injuries have been conducted over the years, injury epidemiology and control remain under-researched and relatively neglected subject areas. Much needs to be done. Collection and analysis of injury data need to be standardised, for example regarding age groups, gender disaggregation and severity. Injuries and accidents should be subdivided in at least road traffic injury, fall, burn, assault

  9. Effect of Radial Shock Wave Therapy on Spasticity of the Upper Limb in Patients With Chronic Stroke: A Prospective, Randomized, Single Blind, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Chih-Ya; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-05-01

    Recently, studies have reported that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe, noninvasive, alternative treatment for spasticity. However, the effect of ESWT on spasticity cannot be determined, because most studies to date have enrolled small patient numbers and have lacked placebo-controlled groups and/or long-term follow-up. In addition, whether varying the number of ESWT sessions would affect the duration of the therapeutic effect has not been investigated in a single study. Hence, we performed a prospective, randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the long-term effect of radial ESWT (rESWT) in patients with poststroke spasticity and surveyed the outcome of functional activity.Sixty patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group A patients received 1 session of rESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks; group B patients received a single session of rESWT; group C patients received one session of sham rESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was Modified Ashworth Scale of hand and wrist, whereas the secondary outcomes were Fugl-Meyer Assessment of hand function and wrist control. Evaluations were performed before the first rESWT treatment and immediately 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the last session of rESWT.Compared to the control group, the significant reduction in spasticity of hand and wrist lasted at least 16 and 8 weeks in group A and B, respectively. Three sessions of rESWT had a longer-lasting effect than one session. Furthermore, the reduction in spasticity after 3 sessions of rESWT may be beneficial for hand function and wrist control and the effect was maintained for 16 and 12 weeks, respectively.rESWT may be valuable in decreasing spasticity of the hand and wrist with accompanying enhancement of wrist control and hand function in chronic stroke patients.

  10. A survey of life support system automation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory K.

    1993-01-01

    The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

  11. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries.

  12. Treatment as usual (TAU) control practices in the PROSPECT Study: managing the interaction and tension between research design and ethics.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C F; Degenholtz, H; Parker, L S; Schulberg, H C; Mulsant, B H; Post, E; Rollman, B

    2001-06-01

    The use of treatment as usual (TAU) as a control condition may pose the considerable challenge of maintaining both scientific rigor and meeting high ethical standards in experiments on human subjects. The authors illustrate the tension and explore the relationship between research design and ethics, especially the interaction between the two, in the NIMH-funded PROSPECT study (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly - Collaborative Trial). The goal of PROSPECT is to determine whether placement of a depression health specialist in primary care practices will have a favorable impact on rates of depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation in elderly primary care patients with major or persistent minor depression. PROSPECT randomly assigns practices either to an intervention arm (which includes the provision of depression health specialists) or to an enhanced care arm (TAU, with the addition of screening and assessment services). TAU, enhanced by the provision of screening and assessment services, is to be used as a benchmark for measuring the effectiveness of PROSPECT's intervention. However, TAU in the epidemiological and clinical literature has also been linked to high rates of suicide in the elderly related to unrecognized and untreated or under-treated depression. The authors present their approach to managing the tension, or interaction, between the use of TAU for scientific and public health purposes and the requirement for beneficence, that is, the duty to assure the safety of human subjects in research and to do no harm. Through enhancements of TAU, by the provision of information to primary care physicians concerning the psychiatric status of their patients, the investigators attempt to meet the challenge of maintaining rigor and meeting high ethical standards. PMID:11424169

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Survey of helicopter control/display investigations for instrument decelerating approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Control-display requirements for helicopters conducting decelerating approaches in the terminal area under instrument meteorological conditions were surveyed. The programs are organized on the basis of the control augmentation concepts that were considered, and the results are summarized and compared. Nine control-display combinations are hypothesized as possible candidates for future ground and in-flight investigation. Specific guidelines for the guidance relationship, control characteristics, and display presentation concepts are given.

  16. Electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravimetric surveys at the Bi'r Jarbuah gold prospect, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.H.; Showail, A.A.; Bazzari, M.A.; Khoja, J.A.; Hajour, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed search for gold and associated minerals was begun in the Bi'r Jarbuah area in 1988. Crone electromagnetic (CEM), magnetic, and gravimetric surveys were run in the areas of greatest interest. Anomalous areas are most interesting in the southern part of the area where linear magnetic and gravity anomalies trend east-northeast and overlap in large part. They are most prominent at or near the south end of a diorite pluton where some quartz veins mined by the ancients also trend northeast. A second area, at the extreme southern end of the survey, contains a large CEM anomaly that coincides with northeast-trending magnetic and gravity anomalies. Although this second area is largely overlain by alluvium, a major quartz vein strikes to the northeast in the adjacent bedrock.

  17. [Tuberculosis and its control--lessons from the past and future prospect].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2005-06-01

    : elucidation of the pathogenesis of TB when TB was highly prevalent in Japan by high incidence of TB from primarily infected youth, the development of mass screening for TB using radiophotography technique developed in Japan, completion of the interpretation method of chest X-ray findings, first success in the mass production of freeze-dried BCG vaccine in the world, the first implementation of the TB prevalence survey using random sampling method in 1953, and the development of a new drug for TB, kanamycin. Phthisiology also contributed to the progress of international health. As the objective index to measure the magnitude of TB problem, the concept of annual risk of TB infection (ARTI) was introduced by Sutherland and Styblo, and by using ARTI, the epidemiological situation of TB could be divided into 3 categories; high prevalence country with ARTI above 1%, low prevalence country below 0.05-0.1%, and middle prevalence country inbetween. To reduce the burden of TB in high prevalence countries, so-called DOTS strategy of TB control was introduced and has been applied in most developing countries, and the gap between high and low prevalence countries has reduced in the past decade. Cooperation in global TB control has also been done actively from the government and NGOs of industrialized countries under the strong leadership of WHO. For the success of TB control, the transmission of tubercle bacilli in a community should be cut either infection, onset of TB or the progress of TB. Prevention of TB infection could be achieved by the early detection of TB cases and their cure by the treatment. To encourage early visit to doctors for those with symptoms suggesting TB and adequate examinations at medical institutions for these persons would be a major tool of early detection of TB cases in Japan in the future. In addition, there is no doubt to intensify contacts examinations and source investigations. It is hoped to elucidate recent pathogenesis of TB by applying new technologies

  18. Survey of infection control programs in a large national healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Thomas R; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Greevy, Robert A; Burgess, Hayley; Williams, Mark V; Deshpande, Jayant K; McFadden, Patsy; Weinger, Matthew B; Englebright, Jane; Dittus, Robert S; Speroff, Theodore

    2007-12-01

    In light of consumers' and regulators' increasing focus on infection prevention, infection control practices and resources were surveyed at 134 hospitals owned by the Hospital Corporation of America. Infection control practices and resources varied substantially among hospitals, and many facilities reported difficulty acquiring the data they needed to report infection rates.

  19. State anxiety and depression as factors modulating and influencing postoperative pain in dental implant surgery. A prospective clinical survey

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Montero-Martín, Javier; Prados-Frutos, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objetives: To determine whether preoperative state anxiety and depression modulate or influence objective and subjective postoperative pain following dental implant insertion. Study Design: Prospective, clinical study with 7-day follow-up of a sample of 105 subjects who preoperatively completed the state anxiety questionnaire (STAI-E) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and postoperatively, at 2 and 7 days, recorded objective pain with the Semmes-Weinstein mechanical esthesiometer (SW test) and subjective pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: 85.6% and 81.5% of patients, respectively, recorded no signs of state anxiety or depression. The correlation between anxiety and depression for both maxillary bones was the lower (P=0.02). The correlation between subjective and objective pain at 2 and 7 days, and the anatomic regions intervened, was statistically significant in the mandible at day 7 (P<0.01), and highly significant (P<0.001) for the other variables. The correlation between state anxiety and objective pain at day 7 was nearly statistically significant (P=0.07). Conclusions: The correlation between state anxiety and depression, and objective and subjective pain at day 7 was not statistically significant. A strong correlation was found between objective and subjective pain in the immediate postoperative period. Key words:Anxiety, depression, postoperative pain, dental implants. PMID:24880447

  20. A prospective longitudinal survey of erectile function status in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients treated with dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hasegawa, Masanori; Ando, Toshiyuki; Matsushima, Masashi; Yuge, Kazuyuki; Ito, Yujiro; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively evaluated erectile function (EF) using the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and the erectile hardness score (EHS) as well as urinary statuses using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after a daily treatment with 0.5 mg dutasteride (DUT). Significant improvements were observed in IPSS and OABSS in 98 patients with the DUT treatment, and the effects were similar between 28 patients with potency with baseline SHIM of 8 or greater and 70 severe erectile dysfunction (ED) patients at baseline. In the 28 patients with potency, significant decreases were observed in SHIM and EHS after 3, 6, and 12 months of the DUT treatment, with the severity of ED according to SHIM deteriorating in half of these patients after 12 months of the DUT treatment. Eighteen out of 28 patients (64.3%) with potency at baseline had awareness of the occurrence of ED before the DUT treatment, were younger, and had higher SHIM and EHS just before the DUT treatment than their counterparts. Regular assessments of EF may be needed, especially in younger patients and those with higher levels of EF before the administration of DUT. PMID:26964647

  1. Electricity from wind - A survey of the state of the art and future prospects for research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windheim, R.

    1982-10-01

    Small, medium-size, and large wind power installations are surveyed. Projects in the first two of these size ranges, from about 10 kW up to 270 kW, are summarized. For large installations, the meteorological situations, the development and construction, the progress in research and technology, and the integration and storage of wind energy in the network are examined. The Growian and Monopteros projects are emphasized, giving relevant data and structural descriptions of both projects. Future projects are covered in some detail, and international activities are summarized.

  2. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: A nation-wide prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279

  3. Epidemiology and Antifungal Susceptibility of Bloodstream Fungal Isolates in Pediatric Patients: a Spanish Multicenter Prospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pemán, Javier; Cantón, Emilia; Linares-Sicilia, María José; Roselló, Eva María; Borrell, Nuria; Ruiz-Pérez-de-Pipaon, María Teresa; Guinea, Jesús; García, Julio; Porras, Aurelio; García-Tapia, Ana María; Pérez-del-Molino, Luisa; Suárez, Anabel; Alcoba, Julia; García-García, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    Data on fungemia epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of isolates from children are scarce, leading frequently to pediatric empirical treatment based on available adult data. The present study was designed to update the epidemiological, mycological, and in vitro susceptibility data on fungal isolates from children with fungemia in Spain. All fungemia episodes were identified prospectively by blood culture over 13 months at 30 hospitals. Tests of susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin were performed at participant institutions by a microdilution colorimetric method. New species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole, voriconazole, and echinocandins were also applied. A total of 203 episodes of fungemia in 200 children were identified. A higher proportion of fungal isolates was from general wards than intensive care units (ICU). Candida parapsilosis (46.8%), Candida albicans (36.5%), Candida tropicalis (5.9%), Candida glabrata (3.9%), and Candida guilliermondii (2.5%) were the leading species. C. parapsilosis was the predominant species except in neonates. C. albicans was the most frequent in neonatal ICU settings (51.9%). Intravascular catheter (79.3%), surgery (35%), prematurity (30%), and neutropenia (11%) were the most frequent predisposing factors. Most Candida isolates (95.1%) were susceptible to all antifungals. When the new species-specific clinical breakpoints were applied, all C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to echinocandins except one, which was micafungin resistant. This is the largest published series of fungemia episodes in the pediatric setting. C. parapsilosis is the most prevalent species in Spain, followed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Resistance to azole and echinocandin agents is extremely rare among Candida species. The fluconazole resistance rate in Spain has decreased in the last 10 years. PMID:22012014

  4. Are we meeting the standards set for endoscopy? Results of a large‐scale prospective survey of endoscopic retrograde cholangio‐pancreatograph practice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Earl J; Taylor, Steve; Fairclough, Peter; Hamlyn, Adrian; Logan, Richard F; Martin, Derrick; Riley, Stuart A; Veitch, Peter; Wilkinson, Mark; Williamson, Paula R; on behalf of participating units, Martin Lombard

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine endoscopic retrograde cholangio‐pancreatography (ERCP) services and training in the UK. Design Prospective multicentre survey. Setting Five regions of England. Participants Hospitals with an ERCP unit. Outcome measures Adherence to published guidelines, technical success rates, complications and mortality. Results Organisation questionnaires were returned by 76 of 81 (94%) units. Personal questionnaires were returned by 190 of 213 (89%) ERCP endoscopists and 74 of 91 (81%) ERCP trainees, of whom 45 (61%) reported participation in <50 ERCPs per annum. In all, 66 of 81 (81%) units collected prospective data on 5264 ERCPs, over a mean period of 195 days. Oximetry was used by all units, blood pressure monitoring by 47 of 66 (71%) and ECG monitoring by 37 of 66 (56%) units; 1484 of 4521 (33%) patients were given >5 mg of midalozam. Prothrombin time was recorded in 4539 of 5264 (86%) procedures. Antibiotics were given in 1021 of 1412 (72%) cases, where indicated. Patients' American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) scores were 3–5 in 670 of 5264 (12.7%) ERCPs, and 4932 of 5264 (94%) ERCPs were scheduled with therapeutic intent. In total, 140 of 182 (77%) trained endoscopists demonstrated a cannulation rate ⩾80%. The recorded cannulation rate among senior trainees (with an experience of >200 ERCPs) was 222/338 (66%). Completion of intended treatment was done in 3707 of 5264 (70.4%) ERCPs; 268 of 5264 (5.1%) procedures resulted in a complication. Procedure‐related mortality was 21/5264 (0.4%). Mortality correlated with ASA score. Conclusion Most ERCPs in the UK are performed on low‐risk patients with therapeutic intent. Complication rates compare favourably with those reported internationally. However, quality suffers because there are too many trainees in too many low‐volume ERCP centres. PMID:17145737

  5. Drugs given by a syringe driver: a prospective multicentre survey of palliative care services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Andrew; Jacob, Jayin K; Charlesworth, Sarah; Harris, Elayne; Gibbs, Margaret; Allsop, Helen

    2006-10-01

    The use of a syringe driver to administer drugs by continuous subcutaneous infusion is common practice in the UK. Over time, drug combinations used in a syringe driver are likely to change and the aim of this survey was to obtain a more recent snapshot of practice. On four separate days, at two-week intervals, a questionnaire was completed for every syringe driver in use by 15 palliative care services. Of 336 syringe drivers, the majority contained either two or three drugs, but one-fifth contained only one drug. The median (range) volume of the infusions was 15 (9.5-48) mL, and duration of infusion was generally 24 hours. Only one combination was reported as visually incompatible, and there were 13 site reactions (4% of total). Laboratory physical and chemical compatibility data are available for less than half of the most frequently used combinations. PMID:17060264

  6. The impact of brief messages on HSV-2 screening uptake among female defendants in a court setting: a randomized controlled trial utilizing prospect theory.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Certo, David; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV-2. Participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing factors associated with antibody test uptake/refusal and were offered free point-of-care HSV-2 serologic testing. Although individuals in the loss-frame group accepted testing at the highest rate, an overall statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by group (p ≤ .43) was not detected. The majority of the sample (74.6%) characterized receiving a serological test for HSV-2 as health affirming. However, this did not moderate the effect of the intervention nor was it significantly associated with test acceptance (p ≤ .82). Although the effects of message framing are subtle, the findings have important theoretical implications given the participants' characterization of HSV-2 screening as health affirming despite being a detection behavior. Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are also explored.

  7. The effect of laser epilation on recurrence and satisfaction in patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Demircan, Firat; Akbulut, Sami; Yavuz, Ridvan; Agtas, Huseyin; Karabulut, Koray; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: The primary aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effects of laser epilation on patient satisfaction and recurrence in patients who underwent pilonidal sinus surgery. Method: Sixty patients scheduled for pilonidal sinus surgery in our clinic between 2011 and 2012 were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled study. Patients were divided in two groups of 30 patients each. Only the Karydakis flap reconstruction technique was performed in the first group. Two sessions of laser epilation were applied in the second group in addition to Karydakis flap reconstruction. The patients in the second group underwent laser epilation 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after the surgery for a total of 2 times in a private office. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, gender, smoking usage, ASA Score, duration of patient’s complaints, BMI and hospital stay. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of surgical site infection, wound separation, abscess formation at the any time postoperatively. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the first week post operation considering the VAS pain score (P<0.03) and VAS satisfaction score (P<0.01). While there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the first month post operation considering the VAS pain score (P<0.0001), there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of VAS satisfaction score in the first and three month postoperatively. In the telephone interviews done 1 year after the surgery, recurrence were detected in 4% of first group and in 20% of second group. Recurrence rates were significantly higher in the second group (P=0.045). Conclusion: Our results show that laser epilation does not reduce the relapse rates in pilonidal sinus surgery, as expected. It is obvious that prospective randomized studies need to

  8. [Diphtheria in the military forces: lessons and current status of prophylaxis, prospects of epidemiological control process].

    PubMed

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological situation of diphtheria in the world and in Russia and experience of mass vaccination of military personnel and civil population with diphtheria toxoid for the last 50 years. Early diagnosis of diphtheria in military personnel has a prognostic value. Authors described the peculiarities of epidemiological process of diphtheria in military personnel in 80-90 years of 20th century and organizational aspects of mass vaccination with diphtheria toxoid. Authors analyzed current problems of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diphtheria in military personnel and civil population and possible developments. According to long-term prognosis authors mentioned the increase of morbidity and came to conclusion that it is necessary enhance the epidemiological surveillance. Authors presented prospect ways of improvement of vaccination and rational approaches to immunization of military personnel under positive long-term epidemiological situation.

  9. Geophysical Modeling of the Dixie Meadows Geothermal Prospect: Dual Analysis of Gravity and Magnetic Data towards Identifying Structural Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Paul C.

    The northern Great Basin has abundant geothermal systems. Studies have shown these systems are structurally controlled by extensional faults. The faults, and sometimes systems themselves, often have little or no surface expression and must therefore be characterized by geophysical methods. The Dixie Meadows geothermal prospect, located within the Humboldt Structural Zone in central Dixie Valley, Nevada, was investigated in this study in order to delineate basin and fault structure that likely control hydrothermal fluid flow in the subsurface. The study focused on dual interpretation and modeling of gravity and magnetic geophysical data, but was also supported by geological reconnaissance and assessment of surficial hydrothermal expressions. Results indicate a concealed piedmont fault zone separates a deep basin from a relatively shallow intra-basin adjacent to the rangefront. Geophysically delineated faults are located in the intra-basin and piedmont fault zones, and have little or no surface expressions. Rangefront, intra-basin, and piedmont faults are interpreted to be moderately- to steeply-dipping. Faults strike in multiple directions, revealing a network of interlinking and interacting faults. Interpreted structural, geophysical, and hydrothermal patterns along the intrabasin and rangefront demarcate a primary geothermal target area and two secondary targets. The primary target area is characterized by advanced argillic alteration at the surface and upflow indicated by two fumarole zones. Fault intersection appears to be the key structural pattern controlling upflow in the target areas, but fault splaying and step-over are also contributing factors. Integration of dual gravity and magnetic models with geological observations indicates three discrete phases of extension have occurred in Cenozoic time. The superposition of normal faults from these extensional phases appears to be a key component in generating the fault patterns that are controlling hydrothermal

  10. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  11. Survey of balloon design problems and prospects for large super-pressure balloons in the next century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Nobuyuki

    About a half century has passed since modern scientific ballooning started in the 1950's. All this while, size and payload capabilities of zero-pressure balloons have improved rapidly. On the other hand, a super-pressure balloon which can take the place of a conventional large zero-pressure balloon has not yet become operational. To investigate this problem, previous research on balloon design is surveyed. It is concluded that quite important design problems have been left unsolved. Problems occur when a load tape assembly is introduced to the natural shape balloon system. The author proposed a new balloon design concept, named 3-D gore design, at the last COSPAR held in Nagoya in 1998. This theory improves the conventional natural shape design concept for the balloon reinforced by load tapes. This new design concept enables enhancing the strength of a balloon dramatically. In addition, the strength does not depend on balloon size. This theory will accelerate the development of large super-pressure balloons which will play a leading role in scientific ballooning in the 21st century.

  12. Control strategies for effective robot assisted gait rehabilitation: the state of art and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinghui; Xie, Sheng Quan; Das, Raj; Zhu, Guo L

    2014-12-01

    A large number of gait rehabilitation robots, together with a variety of control strategies, have been developed and evaluated during the last decade. Initially, control strategies applied to rehabilitation robots were adapted from those applied to traditional industrial robots. However, these strategies cannot optimise effectiveness of gait rehabilitation. As a result, researchers have been investigating control strategies tailored for the needs of rehabilitation. Among these control strategies, assisted-as-needed (AAN) control is one of the most popular research topics in this field. AAN training strategies have gained the theoretical and practical evidence based backup from motor learning principles and clinical studies. Various approaches to AAN training have been proposed and investigated by research groups all around the world. This article presents a review on control algorithms of gait rehabilitation robots to summarise related knowledge and investigate potential trends of development. There are existing review papers on control strategies of rehabilitation robots. The review by Marchal-Crespo and Reinkensmeyer (2009) had a broad cover of control strategies of all kinds of rehabilitation robots. Hussain et al. (2011) had specifically focused on treadmill gait training robots and covered a limited number of control implementations on them. This review article encompasses more detailed information on control strategies for robot assisted gait rehabilitation, but is not limited to treadmill based training. It also investigates the potential to further develop assist-as-needed gait training based on assessments of patients' ability. In this paper, control strategies are generally divided into the trajectory tracking control and AAN control. The review covers these two basic categories, as well as other control algorithm and technologies derived from them, such as biofeedback control. Assessments on human gait ability are also included to investigate how to

  13. Control strategies for effective robot assisted gait rehabilitation: the state of art and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinghui; Xie, Sheng Quan; Das, Raj; Zhu, Guo L

    2014-12-01

    A large number of gait rehabilitation robots, together with a variety of control strategies, have been developed and evaluated during the last decade. Initially, control strategies applied to rehabilitation robots were adapted from those applied to traditional industrial robots. However, these strategies cannot optimise effectiveness of gait rehabilitation. As a result, researchers have been investigating control strategies tailored for the needs of rehabilitation. Among these control strategies, assisted-as-needed (AAN) control is one of the most popular research topics in this field. AAN training strategies have gained the theoretical and practical evidence based backup from motor learning principles and clinical studies. Various approaches to AAN training have been proposed and investigated by research groups all around the world. This article presents a review on control algorithms of gait rehabilitation robots to summarise related knowledge and investigate potential trends of development. There are existing review papers on control strategies of rehabilitation robots. The review by Marchal-Crespo and Reinkensmeyer (2009) had a broad cover of control strategies of all kinds of rehabilitation robots. Hussain et al. (2011) had specifically focused on treadmill gait training robots and covered a limited number of control implementations on them. This review article encompasses more detailed information on control strategies for robot assisted gait rehabilitation, but is not limited to treadmill based training. It also investigates the potential to further develop assist-as-needed gait training based on assessments of patients' ability. In this paper, control strategies are generally divided into the trajectory tracking control and AAN control. The review covers these two basic categories, as well as other control algorithm and technologies derived from them, such as biofeedback control. Assessments on human gait ability are also included to investigate how to

  14. Poor Self-Control and Harsh Punishment in Childhood Prospectively Predict Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) propose that harsh, invalidating parenting of a child with poor self-control and heightened negative emotionality often leads to a coercive cycle of parent-child transactions that increase risk for BPD symptoms such as emotion dysregulation. Although parenting practices and child temperament have previously been linked with BPD, less is known about the prospective influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Using annual longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 2450), our study examined how reciprocal influences among harsh parenting, self-control, and negative emotionality between ages 5 and 14 predicted the development of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls ages 14 to 17. Consistent with developmental theories, we found that harsh punishment, poor self-control, and negative emotionality predicted BPD symptom severity at age 14. Only worsening self-control between ages 12 and 14, however, predicted growth in BPD symptoms from 14 to 17. Furthermore, the effects of harsh punishment and poor self-control on age 14 BPD symptoms were partially mediated by their earlier reciprocal effects on each other between ages 5 and 14. Our findings underscore the need to address both child and parental contributions to dysfunctional transactions in order to stem the development of BPD symptoms. Moreover, problems with self-regulation in early adolescence may indicate heightened risk for subsequent BPD. Altogether, these results increase our understanding of developmental trajectories associated with BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. PMID:25961815

  15. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: a cross-national survey

    PubMed Central

    Sfetcu, Otilia; van der Sande, Marianne A.; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, Björn; Ward, Helen; Götz, Hannelore M.; Uusküla, Anneli; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Redmond, Shelagh M.; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J.; Low, Nicola; van Bergen, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the levels of chlamydia control activities including primary prevention, effective case management with partner management and surveillance were assessed in 2012 across countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), on initiative of the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) survey, and the findings were compared with those from a similar survey in 2007. Methods: Experts in the 30 EU/EEA countries were invited to respond to an online questionnaire; 28 countries responded, of which 25 participated in both the 2007 and 2012 surveys. Analyses focused on 13 indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control activities, whereas others may strengthen implementation and monitoring of existing activities. PMID:26498953

  16. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Mai; Gale, Catharine R.; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Kuh, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention. Methods Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64. Results Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered. Conclusions Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation’s mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age. PMID:26030929

  17. Preliminary survey report: control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization at Selby General Hospital, Marietta, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, S.L.; Mortimer, V.D.; Todd, W.F.

    1985-08-01

    A survey of control technology for reducing exposure during ethylene oxide sterilization was conducted at Selby General Hospital, Marietta, Ohio on August 30, 1984. The Central Services Department performed ethylene oxide sterilization for obstetrics, neonatal care, respiratory therapy, cytology, isolation cases, and surgery. Engineering controls consisted of isolation of the sterilizer and aerators, local exhaust ventilation, a continuous fresh air purge on the sterilization cycle, in chamber aeration of the sterilizers, and general exhaust ventilation of the Central Services Department and the sterilizer room. The author concludes that the Central Services Department has instituted control technology that minimizes employee exposure to ethylene-oxide. The hospital should be considered a candidate for an in-depth survey in a NIOSH study of control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization in hospitals.

  18. Corrosion Control Specialist Career Ladder AFSC 53530, 53550, 53570, and 53690. Occupational Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The report describes the results of a detailed occupational survey of the corrosion control career ladder. Responses to a 457-task, time rating inventory from 1,015 personnel (representing 64 percent of the career field) were analyzed to produce seven specific findings and the career ladder structure. The career ladder includes a variety of jobs…

  19. State of the art survey of technologies applicable to NASA's aeronautics, avionics and controls program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, R. K. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art survey (SOAS) covers six technology areas including flightpath management, aircraft control system, crew station technology, interface & integration technology, military technology, and fundamental technology. The SOAS included contributions from over 70 individuals in industry, government, and the universities.

  20. 75 FR 35092 - Submission for Review: Program Services Evaluation Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... agencies in shaping human resources management systems to effectively recruit, develop, manage and retain a... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Program Services Evaluation Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office...

  1. Incidence of Inadvertent Intraoperative Hypothermia and Its Risk Factors in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia in Beijing: A Prospective Regional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaoming; Fan, Ting; Fu, Runqiao; Geng, Wanming; Guo, Ruihong; He, Nong; Li, Chenghui; Li, Lei; Li, Min; Li, Tianzuo; Tian, Ming; Wang, Geng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Tianlong; Wu, Anshi; Wu, Di; Xue, Xiaodong; Xu, Mingjun; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhanmin; Yuan, Jianhu; Zhao, Qiuhua; Zhou, Guoqing; Zuo, Mingzhang; Pan, Shuang; Zhan, Lujing; Yao, Min; Huang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia (core temperature <360 C) is a recognized risk in surgery and has adverse consequences. However, no data about this complication in China are available. Our study aimed to determine the incidence of inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia and its associated risk factors in a sample of Chinese patients. Methods We conducted a regional cross-sectional survey in Beijing from August through December, 2013. Eight hundred thirty patients who underwent various operations under general anesthesia were randomly selected from 24 hospitals through a multistage probability sampling. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to explore the risk factors of developing hypothermia. Results The overall incidence of intraoperative hypothermia was high, 39.9%. All patients were warmed passively with surgical sheets or cotton blankets, whereas only 10.7% of patients received active warming with space heaters or electric blankets. Pre-warmed intravenous fluid were administered to 16.9% of patients, and 34.6% of patients had irrigation of wounds with pre-warmed fluid. Active warming (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.81), overweight or obesity (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.28–0.56), high baseline core temperature before anesthesia (OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.04–0.13), and high ambient temperature (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.79–0.98) were significant protective factors for hypothermia. In contrast, major-plus operations (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.32–3.04), duration of anesthesia (1–2 h) (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.19–4.78) and >2 h (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.90–6.22,), and intravenous un-warmed fluid (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.45–4.12) significantly increased the risk of hypothermia. Conclusions The incidence of inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia in Beijing is high, and the rate of active warming of patients during operation is low. Concern for the development of intraoperative hypothermia should be especially high in patients undergoing major

  2. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: prospective randomized controlled trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Schiavetti, Rafael Ramos; Kanematsu, Maiara; Ikeda, Tiago Moreno; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Galbiatti, José Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration in patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, through analysis of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaires. Methods Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow were prospectively randomized and evaluated after receiving infiltration of three milliliters of PRP, or 0.5% neocaine, or dexamethasone. For the scoring process, the patients were asked to fill out the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires on three occasions: on the day of infiltration and 90 and 180 days afterwards. Results Around 81.7% of the patients who underwent the treatment presented some improvement of the symptoms. The statistical tests showed that there was evidence that the cure rate was unrelated to the substance applied (p = 0.62). There was also intersection between the confidence intervals of each group, thus demonstrating that the proportions of patients whose symptoms improved were similar in all the groups. Conclusion At a significance level of 5%, there was no evidence that one treatment was more effective than another, when assessed using the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires. PMID:26962506

  3. Oronasopharyngeal suction versus no suction in normal, term and vaginally born infants: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Sadettin; Teksoz, Ertan; Ceyhan, Temel; Kurt, Ercan; Goktolga, Umit; Baser, Iskender

    2005-10-01

    This prospective randomised controlled trial aimed to compare the effects of oronasopharyngeal suction with those of no suction in normal, term and vaginally born infants and was performed at a Turkish tertiary hospital from June 2003 to January 2004. A total of 140 newborns were enrolled in the trial (n = 70 per group). The no suction group showed lower mean heart rates through the 3rd and 6th minutes and higher SaO(2) values through the first 6 mins of life (P < 0.001). The maximum time to reach SaO2 of >or= 92% (6 vs. 11 min) and >or= 86% (5 vs. 8 min) were shorter in the no suction group (P < 0.001).

  4. Longtime soaking of high concentration tranexamic acid in total hip arthroplasty: A prospective randomized controlled trial in 224 patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingming; Li, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-articular Soaking of high concentration Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in total hip arthroplasty. Methods: From March 2013 to March 2014, 224 patients who underwent unilateral primary THA in our hospital was enrolled in this randomized, prospective double-blinded study. The patients were allocated into two groups according to intra-articular solution received: Intra-articular soaking of TXA group, Control group (physiologic saline). The solution was injected from intermuscular space following fixation of the implants and closure of articular capsule, short external rotators. Total blood loss, total volume of drainage and transfusion were recorded. Postoperative deep vein thrombosis and other complications was also measured. Results: The mean total blood loss was 730±296 ml in intra-articular soaking of TXA group compared with 1048±295ml in control group (P<0.05). The postoperative mean total volume of drainage was 93±50 mL in intra-articular soaking of TXA group versus 312±136 mL in control group.22 patients (19.8%, control) and 6 patients (5.3%, Intra-articular soaking of TXA) required transfusion (P=0.001). Postoperative deep vein thrombosis and other complications were no statistical significance between the two groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular soaking of high concentration TXA with 2-hour clamping drain can reduce the total blood loss and transfusion rates in primary THA without significant increase in postoperative thrombotic complications. PMID:26870087

  5. Altered lumbopelvic movement control but not generalized joint hypermobility is associated with increased injury in dancers. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Nathalie Anne; Nijs, Jo; Mottram, Sarah; Van Moorsel, Annouk; Truijen, Steven; Stassijns, Gaetane

    2009-12-01

    Dancers experience significant more low back pain (LBP) than non-dancers and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries. Literature concerning the relationship between joint hypermobility and injury in dancers remains controversial. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine whether lumbopelvic movement control and/or generalized joint hypermobility would predict injuries in dancers. Four clinical tests examining the control of lumbopelvic movement during active hip movements were used in combination with joint hypermobility assessment in 32 dancers. Occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries, requiring time away from dancing, was recorded during a 6-month prospective study. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the probability of developing lower limb and/or lumbar spine injuries. Twenty-six injuries were registered in 32 dancers. Forty-four percent of the dancers were hypermobile. A logistic regression model using two movement control tests, correctly allocated 78% of the dancers. The results suggest that the outcome of two lumbopelvic movement control tests is associated with an increased risk of developing lower extremities or lumbar spine injuries in dancers. Neither generalized joint hypermobility, evaluated with the Beighton score, nor a history of LBP was predictive of injuries. Further study of these interactions is required.

  6. A Prospective Mediational Model of Sexual Aggression among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie P.; Koss, Mary P.; Kingree, J. B.; Goree, Jennifer; Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the authors examined prospective associations of attitudes, norms, and control with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration 1 year later among male college students. Data were collected from 652 males via confidential, self-report surveys at the end of their 1st and 2nd years in college. Results…

  7. Challenges and prospects for dengue and malaria control in Thailand, Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Nosten, Francois; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Luxemburger, Christine; Kongmee, Monthathip; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2013-12-01

    Despite significant advances in the search for potential dengue vaccines and new therapeutic schemes for malaria, the control of these diseases remains difficult. In Thailand, malaria incidence is falling whereas that of dengue is rising, with an increase in the proportion of reported severe cases. In the absence of antiviral therapeutic options for acute dengue, appropriate case management reduces mortality. However, the interruption of transmission still relies on vector control measures that are currently insufficient to curtail the cycle of epidemics. Drug resistance in malaria parasites is increasing, compromising malaria control and elimination. Deficiencies in our knowledge of vector biology and vectorial capacity also hinder public health efforts for vector control. Challenges to dengue and malaria control are discussed, and research priorities identified. PMID:24215776

  8. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Lopman, Benjamin A; Steele, Duncan; Kirkwood, Carl D; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-04-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from their current state of

  9. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Lopman, Benjamin A; Steele, Duncan; Kirkwood, Carl D; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-04-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from their current state of

  10. Comparison between Ultrasound Guided Transperineal and Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Prospective, Randomized, and Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Le-Hang; Wu, Rong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Wu, Jian; Wang, Shuai; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Liu, Bo-Ji

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study of comparing transperineal prostate biopsy (TPBx) with transrectal prostate biopsy (TRBx) was aimed to provide evidence for clinicians to select the appropriate biopsy approach under different conditions. TPBx (n = 173) and TRBx (n = 166) were performed randomly for 339 patients who were suspicious of prostate cancer (PCa). The cancer detection rate (CDR), complication rate, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, most painful procedure, number of repeated biopsy and additional anesthesia, and operating time (starting from lying down on the operating table to getting up) were recorded. The results showed that TPBx and TRBx were equivalent in CDR (35.3% vs. 31.9%) and minor complication rate (44.9% vs. 41.0%) (both P > 0.05). The major complication rate was lower in TPBx than in TRBx (0.6% vs. 4.3%, P < 0.05). TPBx was more time-consuming (17.51 ± 3.33 min vs. 14.73 ± 3.25 min) and painful (VAS score: 4.0 vs. 2.0); and it had higher rates of repeated biopsy (3.2% vs. 1.1%) and additional anesthesia (15.0% vs. 1.2%) (all P < 0.05). In summary, both TPBx and TRBx are effective to detect PCa. The major complication rate for TRBx is higher, whereas TPBx procedure is more complex and painful. PMID:26526558

  11. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Benjamin A.; Steele, Duncan; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care–acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from their current state

  12. Prospective evaluation of C-reactive protein, smoking and lung cancer death in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Bittoni, Marisa A; Focht, Brian C; Clinton, Steven K; Buckworth, Janet; Harris, Randall E

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammation plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined associations between lung cancer, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), a measure of systemic inflammation, and inflammatory lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity. This study prospectively examined the relationship between CRP and lung cancer death and its interrelationships with several lifestyle factors. Baseline data on smoking and other lifestyle variables were collected for 8,950 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III: 1988-1994). Baseline CRP levels were measured in serum samples by nephelometry. Mortality status was ascertained through probabilistic record matching using the National Death Index through 2006. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for CRP and lung cancer death, with adjustment for smoking and other variables. During 18 years of follow-up, 219 individuals died from lung cancer. Multivariate regression models revealed a dose-response effect for elevated CRP and risk of lung cancer death when adjusting for age, gender, BMI and smoking. Compared to individuals with CRP <3 mg/l, lung cancer death was significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP: HR=1.63 (95% CI=1.15-2.26) for 3-7 mg/l and HR=2.44 (95% CI=1.81‑3.45) for CRP >7 mg/l, P-trend <0.0001). The risk of lung cancer death for smokers increased 9-fold in adjusted models (P<0.0001). When stratified by gender and smoking status the effects of CRP were similar for smokers and males but did not reach statistical significance for females and non-smokers. This study supports a dose-dependent relationship between lung cancer death and CRP for males and smokers, but additional efforts are needed to better elucidate these relationships in women and non-smokers. The results suggest that CRP may emerge as a valuable tool in identifying high-risk subgroups of smokers for lung cancer prevention

  13. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  14. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010–2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. Methods A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Results A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Conclusions Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to

  15. Efficacy of low dose gabapentin in acute herpes zoster for preventing postherpetic neuralgia: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eo G; Lee, Hee J; Hyun, Dong J; Min, Kyunghoon; Kim, Dong H; Yoon, Moon S

    2016-05-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a sequela of herpes zoster that adversely affects quality of life seriously. The risk factors for PHN are well known but the effective interventions that reduce the incidence of PHN are less studied. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with gabapentin in patients with acute herpes zoster for preventing PHN. We performed a prospective randomized controlled study of 120 participants diagnosed with acute herpes zoster, aged 50 and over and complaining moderate to severe pain. All patients were treated with valacyclovir and acetaminophen. Half of the participants were assigned to the gabapentin group and received gabapentin 300 mg three times a day additionally. The intensity of pain at every visit and the incidence of PHN in both groups were measured. Total 52 and 49 patients in the gabapentin group and the control group, respectively, had completed 12 weeks of follow-up period. Although the incidence of PHN was higher in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (6.1% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.67). Our results indicate that the use of low-dose gabapentin in acute herpes zoster seems not effective in the prevention of PHN.

  16. Husband's control and sexual coercion within marriage: findings from a population-based survey in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Khawaja, Marwan; Linos, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    This article examined sexual coercion within marriage in Egypt. Using cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of married Egyptian women (N = 5,240), associations between forced intercourse and husband's control, as well as other relevant sociodemographic factors, were assessed through binary logistic regression models. The lifetime prevalence of forced intercourse was 6.2% and 4.6% during the past year, and husband's control was significantly associated with forced intercourse during a woman's lifetime (odds ratio = 3.5) and past year (odds ratio = 2.8). Interventions addressing gender patriarchy and men's control may decrease incidence of sexual coercion in Egypt and similar contexts.

  17. Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective- and Cross-sectional Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41 803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35 546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34–3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90–3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12–4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17–3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%–47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  18. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with peripheral vertigo: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Isa; Kahraman, Cuneyt; Balikci, Hasan Huseyin; Kucur, Cuneyt; Kahraman, Nilufer Kuzeyli; Ozkaya, Derya Pınar; Oghan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between peripheral vertigo and inflammation by using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker. We recruited 103 patients with peripheral vertigo (71 women, 32 men; mean age, 39.8 ± 14.7 years) who presented to the Otolaryngology Department of Dumlupinar University Hospital. Vertigo patients with systemic diseases, neurological disorders, malignancy or any inflammatory disease that could alter the NLR were excluded from the study. We also enrolled 103 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls; 82 women, 21 men; mean age, 36.7 ± 13.5 years) who underwent routine checkups in our hospital. The vertigo patients underwent full otolaryngologic and neurologic examinations and audiometric tests to rule out any other pathology causing the peripheral vertigo. NLR was calculated in all subjects and was compared between the patient and control groups. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of lipid profiles, liver-function tests, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin level, mean platelet volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels. The mean NLR was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study, which was the first to investigate the relationship between the NLR and peripheral vertigo, found that the NLR is significantly higher among peripheral vertigo patients than among healthy controls. This result suggests that the NLR is a novel potential marker of stress in peripheral vertigo patients.

  19. Prospects of control and eradication of capripox from the Indian subcontinent: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2011-09-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox, two endemic capripox infections in India, pose a significant economic threat to small ruminant productivity in the subcontinent. Vaccination of all susceptible sheep and goats is the feasible and sustainable means of control. Availability of effective live attenuated vaccines that are inherently thermostable and development of improved diagnostics provide the opportunities to initiate effective control measures for capripox. All animals older than 4 months can be vaccinated with the current homologous vaccines using a single vaccination by intradermal or subcutaneous routes. The success of the control program needs to be monitored by active surveillance particularly for the presence of virus, as sero-monitoring does not enable the differentiation of infection and vaccination. And also the sero-conversion following capripox vaccination is not detectable enough by the available tools. Sustained control efforts call for socio-economic and political stability, adequate infrastructure and logistic support to store and transport vaccines for reaching out vaccines to the remote end users. Availability of veterinary services, improved extension services for increased awareness among farmers, contribute significantly to the control campaigns. Poor vaccination coverage and in-adequate infrastructure in major parts of the country are some of the major elements that come in the way of effective implementation of building herd immunity through immunization.

  20. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals. PMID:24370629

  1. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.

  2. Morphine Spinal Block Anesthesia in Patients Who Undergo an Open Hemorrhoidectomy: A Prospective Analysis of Pain Control and Postoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, José PT; Isaac, Raniere R; Alves-Neto, Onofre; Moreira, Thiago AC; Vieira, Tiago HM; Brasil, Andressa MS

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the use of adding morphine to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for pain control in patients who underwent an open hemorrhoidectomy. Methods Forty patients were prospectively selected for an open hemorrhoidectomy at the same institution and were randomized into two groups of 20 patients each: group 1 had a spinal with 7 mg of heavy bupivacaine associated with 80 µg of morphine (0.2 mg/mL). Group 2 had a spinal with 7 mg of heavy bupivacaine associated with distilled water, achieving the same volume of spinal infusion as that of group 1. Both groups were prescribed the same pain control medicine during the postoperative period. Pain scores were evaluated at the anesthetic recovery room and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Postoperative complications, including pruritus, nausea, headaches, and urinary retention, were also recorded. Results There were no anthropometric statistical differences between the two groups. Pain in the anesthetic recovery room and 3 hours after surgery was similar for both groups. However, pain was better controlled in group 1 at 6 and 12 hours after surgery. Although pain was better controlled for group 1 after 24 hours of surgery, the difference between the groups didn't achieved statistical significance. Complications were more common in group 1. Six patients (6/20) presented coetaneous pruritus and 3 with (3/20) urinary retention. Conclusion A hemorrhoidectomy under a spinal with morphine provides better pain control between 6 and 12 hours after surgery. However, postoperative complications, including cutaneous pruritus (30%) and urinary retention (15%), should be considered as a negative side of this procedure. PMID:24999465

  3. Association of Low Levels of Vitamin D with Chronic Stable Angina: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Ab Hameed; Allai, Mohammad Sultan; Shah, Zafar Amin; Changal, Khalid Hamid; Raina, Manzoor Ahmad; Bhat, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Chronic stable angina is the initial manifestation of CAD in approximately 50% of the patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is crucial for cardiovascular health. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our region is 83%. A low level of vitamin D is associated with chronic stable angina. Aim: This study was aimed at supporting or refuting this hypothesis in our population. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective case-control study. We studied 100 cases of chronic stable angina and compared them with 100 matched controls. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <20 ng/mL, vitamin D insufficiency as 20-30 ng/mL and normal vitamin D level as 31-150 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases and controls was 75% and 10%, respectively. 75% of the cases were vitamin D-deficient (<20 ng/mL); 12% were vitamin D-insufficient (20-30 ng/mL), and 13% had normal vitamin D levels (31-150 ng/mL). None had a toxic level of vitamin D. Among the controls, 10% were vitamin D-deficient, 33% were vitamin D-insufficient, and 57% had normal vitamin D levels. The mean vitamin level among cases and controls was 15.53 ng/mL and 40.95 ng/mL, respectively, with the difference being statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0001). There was no statistically significant relation between the disease severities, i.e., on coronary angiography (CAG) with vitamin D level. Among the cases, we found that an increasing age was inversely related to vitamin D levels (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Our study indicates a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and chronic stable angina. Low levels may be an independent, potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:27114971

  4. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  5. Evolution of particulate regulation in China--prospects and challenges of exposure-based control.

    PubMed

    Florig, H Keith; Sun, Guodong; Song, Guojun

    2002-12-01

    China's urban and rural populations face very serious health risks from combustion particles. Major sources of exposure to inhalable particulates include the burning solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, coal-fired industrial and residential boilers, tobacco smoking, and diesel motor vehicles. China began to address particulate pollution problems over 25 years ago and has implemented a series of progressively more aggressive policies. This paper reviews the successes and limitations of past and existing policies for particulate controls, as well as the effects of China's economic reforms and energy policies on particulate exposure and pollution management. We examine the challenge of emissions reporting, required as part of both China's pollution levy system and emerging system for "total emissions control." Finally, we discuss practical steps toward exposure-based regulation of particulates, which would take advantage of the high cost-effectiveness for lifesaving of controlling particulate exposure from household and neighborhood sources relative to that of controlling exposure from industrial sources.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ticarcillin in patients with cystic fibrosis: a controlled prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Groot, R; Hack, B D; Weber, A; Chaffin, D; Ramsey, B; Smith, A L

    1990-01-01

    We compared the pharmacokinetics of ticarcillin at a dose of 120 mg/kg in 11 patients with cystic fibrosis to 11 control subjects matched for age and sex. The mean elimination half-life of ticarcillin in serum was 70.8 minutes in the control subjects and 53.1 minutes in the patients with cystic fibrosis. The total body clearance of ticarcillin was significantly higher in cystic fibrosis patients (65.6 +/- 22.0 versus 46.2 +/- 10.9 ml/min/m2 in control subjects; p = 0.017). The nonrenal clearance of ticarcillin was also significantly higher in patients with cystic fibrosis (24.8 +/- 11.1 versus 13.3 +/- 6.0 ml/min/m2 for the control group; p = 0.006). There was no significant difference in volume of distribution between the two groups. We concluded that the shorter elimination half-life and the higher total body clearance of ticarcillin in patients with cystic fibrosis are a result of an increase in both renal and nonrenal elimination.

  7. Prospects for repellent in pest control: current developments and future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall interest for environmentally safe pest control methods and the increased frequency of insecticide resistance in pest populations have stimulated research on insect repellents in the recent decades in medical and agricultural entomology. However, there remains a great deal of work to be ...

  8. Research on Speech Motor Control and Its Disorders: A Review and Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray D.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders that include dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. Assessment, classification, and treatment of these…

  9. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brabbs, Thomas; Collins, Debbie; Hérard, Franck; Maspero, Matteo; Eyre, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan, and fungal infection results in high mortality rates. Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments. Parasitoids: a parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitising up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs; some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents. Predators: two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin, have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests. The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora spp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible. PMID:25216358

  10. Commercial applications and future prospects for the use of biological control after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of postharvest diseases celebrated its first decade of commercial use last year. In the United States, BioSave is the only product that is currently being used. The original registration for postharvest application to pome and citrus fruits was expanded to include cherries, pota...

  11. Space Crew Members' Microbial Flora in Space Flight and Prospective Approaches for Its Ecological Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iilyin, V. K.; Kornyushenkova, I. N.; Lizko, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the astronauts' microflora, the changes that occur during spaceflight and the control of microflora using drugs, is reported. A decrease in the quantity of lactibacilli in the mouth and throat cavities was observed during flight. The data showed that the susceptibility of the microflora to antibiotics increased during flight.

  12. A parametrization of the growth index of matter perturbations in various Dark Energy models and observational prospects using a Euclid-like survey

    SciTech Connect

    Belloso, Alicia Bueno; García-Bellido, Juan; Sapone, Domenico E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es

    2011-10-01

    We provide exact solutions to the cosmological matter perturbation equation in a homogeneous FLRW universe with a vacuum energy that can be parametrized by a constant equation of state parameter w and a very accurate approximation for the Ansatz w(a) = w{sub 0}+w{sub a}(1−a). We compute the growth index γ = log f(a)/log Ω{sub m}(a), and its redshift dependence, using the exact and approximate solutions in terms of Legendre polynomials and show that it can be parametrized as γ(a) = γ{sub 0}+γ{sub a}(1−a) in most cases. We then compare four different types of dark energy (DE) models: wΛCDM, DGP, f(R) and a LTB-large-void model, which have very different behaviors at z∼>1. This allows us to study the possibility to differentiate between different DE alternatives using wide and deep surveys like Euclid, which will measure both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for several hundreds of millions of galaxies up to redshift z ≅ 2. We do a Fisher matrix analysis for the prospects of differentiating among the different DE models in terms of the growth index, taken as a given function of redshift or with a principal component analysis, with a value for each redshift bin for a Euclid-like survey. We use as observables the complete and marginalized power spectrum of galaxies P(k) and the Weak Lensing (WL) power spectrum. We find that, using P(k), one can reach (2%, 5%) errors in (w{sub 0},w{sub a}), and (4%, 12%) errors in (γ{sub 0},γ{sub a}), while using WL we get errors at least twice as large. These estimates allow us to differentiate easily between DGP, f(R) models and ΛCDM, while it would be more difficult to distinguish the latter from a variable equation of state parameter or LTB models using only the growth index.

  13. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.

  14. An Investigation into the Academic Success of Prospective Teachers in Terms of Learning Strategies, Learning Styles and the Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akça, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to investigate the relationship between the learning strategies, learning styles, the locus of control and the academic success of prospective teachers. The study group consists of 198 university students in various departments at the Uludag University Faculty of Education. Research data were collected with the Locus of…

  15. Does Visceral Osteopathic Treatment Accelerate Meconium Passage in Very Low Birth Weight Infants?- A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haiden, Nadja; Pimpel, Birgit; Kreissl, Alexandra; Jilma, Bernd; Berger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine whether the complementary approach of visceral manipulative osteopathic treatment accelerates complete meconium excretion and improves feeding tolerance in very low birth weight infants. Methods This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in premature infants with a birth weight <1500 g and a gestational age <32 weeks who received a visceral osteopathic treatment 3 times during their first week of life or no treatment. Results Passage of the last meconium occurred after a median of 7.5 days (95% confidence interval: 6–9 days, n = 21) in the intervention group and after 6 days (95% confidence interval: 5-9 days, n = 20,) in the control group (p = 0.11). However, osteopathic treatment was associated with a 8 day longer time to full enteral feedings (p = 0.02), and a 34 day longer hospital stay (Median = 66 vs. 100 days i.e.; p=0.14). Osteopathic treatment was tolerated well and no adverse events were observed. Conclusions Visceral osteopathic treatment of the abdomen did not accelerate meconium excretion in VLBW (very low birth weight)-infants. However infants in the osteopathic group had a longer time to full enteral feedings and a longer hospital stay, which could represent adverse effects. Based on our trial results, we cannot recommend visceral osteopathic techniques in VLBW-infants. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov: NCT02140710 PMID:25875011

  16. The impact of cognitive control on children's goal monitoring in a time-based prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Voigt, Babett; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Ellis, Judi; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether developmental changes in cognitive control may underlie improvements of time-based prospective memory. Five-, 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds (N = 166) completed a driving simulation task (ongoing task) in which they had to refuel their vehicle at specific points in time (PM task). The availability of cognitive control resources was experimentally manipulated by imposing a secondary task that required divided attention. Children completed the driving simulation task both in a full-attention condition and a divided-attention condition where they had to carry out a secondary task. Results revealed that older children performed better than younger children on the ongoing task and PM task. Children performed worse on the ongoing and PM tasks in the divided-attention condition compared to the full-attention condition. With respect to time monitoring in the final interval prior to the PM target, divided attention interacted with age such that older children's time monitoring was more negatively affected by the secondary task compared to younger children. Results are discussed in terms of developmental shifts from reactive to proactive monitoring strategies.

  17. Volar locking distal radius plates show better short-term results than other treatment options: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drobetz, Herwig; Koval, Lidia; Weninger, Patrick; Luscombe, Ruth; Jeffries, Paula; Ehrendorfer, Stefan; Heal, Clare

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of displaced distal radius fractures treated with volar locking plates and with immediate postoperative mobilisation with the outcomes of these fractures treated with modalities that necessitate 6 wk wrist immobilisation. METHODS A prospective, randomised controlled single-centre trial was conducted with 56 patients who had a displaced radius fracture were randomised to treatment either with a volar locking plate (n = 29), or another treatment modality (n = 27; cast immobilisation with or without wires or external fixator). Outcomes were measured at 12 wk. Functional outcome scores measured were the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and activities of daily living (ADLs). Clinical outcomes were wrist range of motion and grip strength. Radiographic parameters were volar inclination and ulnar variance. RESULTS Patients in the volar locking plate group had significantly better PRWE scores, ADL scores, grip strength and range of extension at three months compared with the control group. All radiological parameters were significantly better in the volar locking plate group at 3 mo. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that volar locking plates produced significantly better functional and clinical outcomes at 3 mo compared with other treatment modalities. Anatomical reduction was significantly more likely to be preserved in the plating group. Level of evidence: II. PMID:27795951

  18. Laryngeal mask airway vs the endotracheal tube in paediatric airway management: A meta-analysis of prospective randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Patki, Abhiruchi

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on prospective randomised controlled trials to assess whether the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) offered any advantage over the conventional endotracheal tube in the paediatric age group. Using the Cochrane methodology, a literature search was carried out through peer-reviewed indexed journals in three medical databases to obtain all publications comparing the LMA with the endotracheal tube in the paediatric age group (age less than 12 years), available till December 2010. Data from 16 randomised controlled clinical trials were selected for analysis. A null hypothesis was formed against each of the seven issues tested using the Fisher's method of combining P values. The LMA was seen to have three advantages over the tracheal tube in the form of lower incidence of cough during emergence, lower incidence of postoperative sore throat and lower incidence of postoperative vomiting (P<0.05). It was seen to offer no advantage over the tracheal tube in incidence of bronchospasm or laryngospasm during emergence; also, it did not offer any advantage in increasing the efficacy of the airway seal. The only disadvantage the LMA had over the tracheal tube was its greater incidence of placement failure in the first attempt. PMID:22174478

  19. History, progress and prospect for controlled ecological life support technique in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Constructing controlled ecological life support system is an important supporting condition for carrying out manned deep-space exploration and extraterrestrial inhabitation and development in the future. In China, the controlled ecological life support technique has gone through a developmental process of more than twenty years, undergoing the course of from conceptual research, to key unit-level technique and key system-level integrated technique, and from ground-based simulated tests to spaceflight demonstrating test, and gained many important stagy harvests. In this paper, the present status, subsistent problems and next plans in the domain of CELSS techniques in China are introduced briefly, so as to play a referential role for promoting development of the techniques internationally.

  20. Prospective Controlled Study of Buttock Fat Transfer Using Ultrasound and Photographic Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Buttock fat transfer is now the preferred method for gluteal augmentation. However, its efficacy has not been well-documented using measurements. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent buttock fat transfer performed by the author. Twenty-one patients returned for measurements ≥3 months after surgery (inclusion rate, 84%). A separate group of 25 patients undergoing cosmetic surgery without buttock fat transfer served as controls. All patients underwent superwet liposuction using total intravenous anesthesia and no prone positioning. A closed filtration system was used to collect the fat. Subcutaneous fat thickness was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Measurements were made on standardized photographs. The data were controlled for change in body mass index. Clinical data were also evaluated. Results: The mean fat volume injected per buttock was 287 mL (range, 70–550 mL). Ultrasound measurements detected a significant increase in the subcutaneous fat thickness (P ≤ 0.001), with mean increments of 0.66 cm for the right buttock and 0.86 cm for the left buttock and no significant change for control patients. The mean calculated fat retention, based on the measured surface area injected, was 66%. Photographic measurements of buttock projection revealed a significant increase in treated patients (P < 0.01) and no significant change in control patients. There were no clinical complications at either recipient or donor sites and no evidence of oily cysts on ultrasound examinations. Conclusions: Photographic and ultrasound measurements, and clinical findings, confirm that buttock fat transfer effectively and safely increases buttock projection. PMID:27579222

  1. Current state and prospects of researches on the control of turbulent boundary layer by air blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the analytical review of the current state of the investigations and development trends on the problem of turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag reduction in simple model configurations, which is among key ones in modern aeromechanics. Under consideration is the modern fast progressing method of the turbulent flow control by air- and other gases (micro)blowing through a permeable surface, which is utilized in incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layers. Several computational results to understand the essential flow physics are also included. The problem of simulation of the flow over a perforated wall where some ambiguities, in particular, at the permeable/impermeable boundary being still remained is discussed. Special attention is paid to the analysis of most important experimental and numerical results obtained with the air blowing through a finely-perforated surface, analysis of the physical peculiarities and regularities of the flow with the blowing, probability to describe the properties of such a flow within simple approach frameworks, evaluation of the efficiency of this control method, as well as the trends and opportunities of this method progress in view of state-of-the-art achievements. Although this technology has a penalty for developing the effective turbulent-flow control method, some modifications of the air blowing are an attractive alternative for real applications.

  2. Recent advances in rheumatic fever control and future prospects: a WHO Memorandum*

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The public health importance of rheumatic fever is not directly related to its prevalence but is a complex function of many factors, such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, and cost to the community, all relative to the importance of other diseases. Although the prevalence is low and still decreasing in developed countries, rheumatic fever is the commonest form of heart disease in many developing countries. Advances in the bacterial and serological characterization of group A streptococci are reviewed in this Memorandum, with emphasis on the nature of the structural elements of the cell wall. Microbiological methods play an important role in the diagnosis and control of rheumatic fever and up-to-date information is given concerning methods of isolation and grouping and of typing. Methods of assessing streptococcal activity in the host, in particular the different antibody responses found in relation to different pathological conditions, are discussed, as are the improvements required in laboratory services to enable them to carry out these duties adequately. Current concepts concerning the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever are reviewed together with differences in the epidemiology related to the different sites of infection and the problems of carriership. The Memorandum is also concerned with the methods of prevention and treatment, including prevention of recurrences, control of the disease in communities, and strategies for nationwide control. PMID:310731

  3. Effect of shed blood retransfusion on pulmonary perfusion after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Eser; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Fidan, Fatma; Ergan, Volkan; Fidan, Hüseyin

    2006-01-01

    Postoperative shed blood retransfusion (autotransfusion) is a commonly used salvage method following major surgical operations, such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The systemic effects of shed blood are still unclear. We studied the effect of residual substances in the retransfused shed blood, on lung perfusion after TKA. Fifteen unilateral and one bilateral TKAs were performed with autotransfusion (the study group) and 15 unilateral and three bilateral TKAs were performed in a control group. Lung X-rays, arterial blood gases (ABG), D-dimer values, and lung perfusion scintigraphies were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. A mean of 300.0 ± 335.6 ml of bank blood was needed in the autotransfusion group and a mean of 685.7 ± 365.5 ml of bank blood was needed in the control group (p=0.001). There was a postoperative segmental perfusion defect at the lateral segment of the superior lobe of the left lung in one patient of the control group and he also had risk factors for thrombosis. Although both groups had a decrease in lung perfusion postoperatively, there were no significant differences among the groups regarding the lung perfusion scintigraphy, chest X-rays, ABG, and D-dimer values. In conclusion, although pulmonary perfusion diminishes following TKA, shed blood retransfusion does not add any risk to pulmonary perfusion. PMID:17115155

  4. Cryptic parasite revealed improved prospects for treatment and control of human cryptosporidiosis through advanced technologies.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Smith, Huw V; Nolan, Matthew J; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Young, Neil D; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important genus of parasitic protozoa of humans and other vertebrates and is a major cause of intestinal disease globally. Unlike many common causes of infectious enteritis, there are no widely available, effective vaccine or drug-based intervention strategies for Cryptosporidium, and control is focused mainly on prevention. This approach is particularly deficient for infections of severely immunocompromised and/or suppressed, the elderly or malnourished people. However, cryptosporidiosis also presents a significant burden on immunocompetent individuals, and can, for example have lasting effects on the physical and mental development of children infected at an early age. In the last few decades, our understanding of Cryptosporidium has expanded significantly in numerous areas, including the parasite life-cycle, the processes of excystation, cellular invasion and reproduction, and the interplay between parasite and host. Nonetheless, despite extensive research, many aspects of the biology of Cryptosporidium remain unknown, and treatment and control are challenging. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of Cryptosporidium, with a focus on major advances arising from the recently completed genome sequences of the two species of greatest relevance in humans, namely Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. In addition, we discuss the potential of next-generation sequencing technologies, new advances in in silico analyses and progress in in vitro culturing systems to bridge these gaps and to lead toward effective treatment and control of cryptosporidiosis.

  5. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Africa: risk factors, epidemiology and prospects for control using vaccination.

    PubMed

    Assana, Emmanuel; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Zoli, André P; Geerts, Stanny

    2013-07-01

    Poor sanitary conditions, free-roaming of domestic pigs and lack of awareness of the disease play an important role in the perpetuation of the Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis in Africa. Traditional pig production systems known as the source of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis complex are predominant in the continent, representing 60-90% of pig production in rural areas. It has been reported that T. solium cysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in human population and results in considerable public health problems and economic costs to the endemic countries. Although the socioeconomic impact and public health burden of cysticercosis have been demonstrated, up to now no large-scale control programme has been undertaken in Africa. Most disease control trials reported in the literature have been located in Latin America and Asia. This review discusses the risk factors and epidemiology of T. solium cysticercosis in Africa and critically analyzes the options available for implementing control of this zoonotic disease in the continent.

  6. Comparative study on induction and effects of surgical menopause in a female rat model: a prospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    Moiety, Fady MS; Salem, Hesham A; Mehanna, Radwa A; Abdel-Ghany, Bedor S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare induced surgical menopause in rat models following hysterectomy with ovarian preservation, unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy, versus control. Secondary objective was evaluation of certain physiological changes in the animal following the induced menopause. Design: A prospective case control study. Setting: University Research Centre. Methodology: 80 female rats were divided into four groups (n=20). HG: hysterectomy with ovarian preservation, UOG: unilateral oophorectomy, BOG: bilateral oophorectomy and CG: control rats. Blood tests were done at day 0, one week and one month post-procedure for hormonal profile including FSH and E2, and lipid profile including cholesterol, LDL and HDL. Behavioral tests (Learning and memory tests) were also done. Results: Menopause was successfully induced by the three used surgical methods. After one week, no significant difference in FSH level between CG and HG. But its level was significantly increased in BOG and UOG. E2 level was significantly decreased in HG, UOG and BOG in comparison to CG. Its level in BOG was significantly lower than that of UOG and HG. Cholesterol level was significantly higher in HG, UOG and BOG in comparison to CG, also its level was significantly increased in UOG and BOG in comparison to HG (P<0.001). Long term memory was affected in BOG and UOG, one week and one month post-menopausal induction in comparison to the control. Conclusion: surgical menopause, induced by hysterectomy alone, unilateral, or bilateral oophorectomy has a negative impact on reproductive hormonal function, as well as cognitive & cardiovascular integrity. We suggest a possibility of early ovarian failure after hysterectomy alone or with unilateral oophorectomy. PMID:26309602

  7. Early goal-directed therapy based on endotracheal bioimpedance cardiography: a prospective, randomized controlled study in coronary surgery.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Brossier, David; Dechanet, Fabien; Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Saplacan, Vladimir; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to compare the impact of an early goal-directed hemodynamic therapy based on cardiac output monitoring (Endotracheal Cardiac Output Monitor, ECOM) with a standard of care on postoperative outcome following coronary surgery. This prospective, controlled, parallel-arm trial randomized 100 elective primary coronary artery bypass grafting patients to a study group (ECOM; n = 50) or a control group (control; n = 50). In the ECOM group, hemodynamic therapy was guided by respiratory stroke volume variation and cardiac index given by the ECOM system. A standard of care was used in the control. Goal-directed therapy was started immediately after induction of anesthesia and continued until arrival in the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary endpoint was the time when patients fulfilled discharge criteria from hospital (possible hospital discharge). Secondary endpoints were the hospital discharge, the time to reach extubation, the length of stay in ICU, the number of major adverse cardiac events, and in-hospital mortality. Patients in the ECOM group received more often fluid loading and dobutamine. The time to reach extubation was reduced in the ECOM group: 510 min [360-1,110] versus 570 min [320-1,520], P = 0.005. No significant differences were found between both groups for possible hospital discharge [Hazard Ratio = 0.96 (95 % CI 0.64-1.45)] and hospital discharge [Hazard Ratio = 1.20 (95 % CI 0.79-1.81)]. A mini-invasive early goal-directed hemodynamic therapy based on ECOM can reduce the time to reach extubation but fails to significantly reduce the length of stay in hospital and the rate of major cardiac morbidity.

  8. Genitourinary Procedures as Risk Factors for Prosthetic Hip or Knee Infection: A Hospital-Based Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arjun; Osmon, Douglas R.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Lightner, Deborah J.; Wilson, Walter R.; Steckelberg, James M.; Baddour, Larry M.; Harmsen, William S.; Mandrekar, Jay N.; Berbari, Elie F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) as a complication of routine genitourinary (GU) procedures in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to study the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis administered prior to these procedures. Methods. We conducted a prospective, single-center, case-control study between December 1, 2001 and May 31, 2006. Case patients were hospitalized with total hip or knee PJI. Control subjects underwent a THA or TKA and were hospitalized during the same period on the same orthopedic floor without a PJI. Data regarding demographic features and potential risk factors were collected. The outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) of PJI after GU procedures performed within 2 years of admission. Results. A total of 339 case patients and 339 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Of these, 52 cases (15%) and 55 controls (16%) had undergone a GU procedure in the preceding 2 years. There was no increased risk of PJI for patients undergoing a GU procedure with or without antibiotic prophylaxis (adjusted OR [aOR] = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2–4.5, P = .95 and aOR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6–1.7, P = .99, respectively). Results were similar in a subset of patients with a joint age less than 6 months, less than 1 year, or greater than 1 year. Conclusions. Genitourinary procedures were not risk factors for subsequent PJI. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis before GU procedures did not decrease the risk of subsequent PJI in our study. PMID:26258154

  9. The prospects for biological control of the free-living stages of nematode parasites of livestock.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J; Faedo, M

    1996-01-01

    Control of nematode parasites of livestock is focused almost entirely on the parasitic stages within the host. Current methods rely on anthelmintic drugs, but these are under increasing threat with the development of resistance covering the whole spectrum of anthelmintics amongst the important nematode species of a range of livestock. However, invariably the greatest proportion of the parasite biomass resides not within the animal hosts, but in the external environment-commonly on pasture. It is in this environment that the free-living stages are vulnerable to a range of abiotic factors (extremes in temperature and desiccation) and biotic factors (macro- and micro-organisms) that may decimate their numbers. Of the latter, there are organisms, which exert their effects either indirectly by rendering faecal deposits inimical for the development of nematode eggs through to infective larvae, or directly by acting as pathogens or by exploiting the free-living stages as a food source. Within this vast assemblage of organisms, which include microarthropods, protozoa, viruses, bacteria and fungi, could well emerge a variety of biological control agents of nematode parasites. At present, greatest interest lies with the nematode-destroying fungi. Work has progressed from Petri dishes, to plots, to paddocks with several species of the genus Arthrobotrys and Duddingtonia flagrans. These studies indicate that the voracious nematophagous capabilities of these fungi, clearly demonstrated in vitro, translate to reductions in the number of infective larvae on pasture and indicate that levels of control, comparable to conventional schemes using anthelmintics, can be achieved. The challenge now lies in developing methods of administration of fungi to animals which can be applied under practical farm conditions. However, the pursuit of candidates for biological control of nematode parasites of livestock should not involve just a few species of nematophagous fungi. More than 100

  10. [MBL quality control survey of autoantibodies--25 years of activity and its achievement--mainly antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Shinji; Arai, Jiro; Ishihara, Yasushi; Fujii, Yoshihisa

    2010-02-01

    Annual MBL Quality Control Survey of Autoantibodies has continued to this day since it started in 1983 as the only quality control survey of autoantibodies in Japan. The survey has aimed at unification and standardization of measurement value, as well as finding out between-laboratory differences in results through reporting the results of tabulation to the participating laboratories. For carrying out the survey, we intend to make our efforts to promote assurance and standardization of the quality control of the autoantibodies. The number of participant on this survey has been increasing every year and more than 500 laboratories participate not only in Japan but also from Asia and European countries. The laboratories that participated in this survey are the ones that usually perform ANA test, anti-DNA antibodies test, anti-ENA antibodies test, AMA test, ASMA test, anti-cardiolipin antibodies test and anti-CCP antibodies test. The purpose of the survey is to standardize antinuclear antibodies testing value in semi quantitative assay using ANA control serum or our titer control HEPASERA-1. We got 12% increase from 79% to 91% in 1986 using ANA control serum. Additionally, we reached 97% (86% to 97%) of convergence in 2001 by using HEPASERA-1, which contains 4 major pattern titer controls from 1993. In 2007, coefficient of variation (CV) for anti-dsDNA antibodies was 13%, showing better result than 25% of the first survey in 1993. We started secondary survey for laboratories which reported a result far apart. In the secondary survey, we made investigation for cause and improvement action. We conclude quality control survey is useful for autoantibodies testing for its result convergence.

  11. Case–control and prospective studies of dietary α-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, Amanda J; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Jenkins, David J A

    2013-01-01

    Objective α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is considered to be a cardioprotective nutrient; however, some epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary ALA intake increases the risk of prostate cancer. The main objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of case–control and prospective studies investigating the association between dietary ALA intake and prostate cancer risk. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE for relevant prospective and case–control studies. Included studies We included all prospective cohort, case–control, nested case-cohort and nested case–control studies that investigated the effect of dietary ALA intake on the incidence (or diagnosis) of prostate cancer and provided relative risk (RR), HR or OR estimates. Primary outcome measure Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model from studies that compared the highest ALA quantile with the lowest ALA quantile. Risk estimates were expressed as RR with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ2 and quantified by I2. Results Data from five prospective and seven case–control studies were pooled. The overall RR estimate showed ALA intake to be positively but non-significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (1.08 (0.90 to 1.29), p=0.40; I2=85%), but the interpretation was complicated by evidence of heterogeneity not explained by study design. A weak, non-significant protective effect of ALA intake on prostate cancer risk in the prospective studies became significant (0.91 (0.83 to 0.99), p=0.02) without evidence of heterogeneity (I2=8%, p=0.35) on removal of one study during sensitivity analyses. Conclusions This analysis failed to confirm an association between dietary ALA intake and prostate cancer risk. Larger and longer observational and interventional studies are needed to define the role of ALA and prostate cancer. PMID:23674441

  12. Effect of Septoplasty on Voice Quality: A Prospective-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Safak; Kulahli, Ismail; Sahin, Mehmet Ilhan; Kokoğlu, Kerem; Gunes, Murat Salih; Avci, Deniz; Arli, Turan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose is to investigate effect of septoplasty and widened nasal patency on voice quality. Methods. Fifty patients who undergone septoplasty were included in the study. Thirty-three people who had similar age and distribution were enrolled as control group. Before and 1 and 3 months after surgery, anterior rhinomanometry, voice analysis by Multi-Dimensional Voice Program, and spectrographic analysis were performed to patients. The recordings of /a/ vowel were used to evaluate average fundamental frequency (F0), jitter percent, and shimmer percent. In spectrographic analyses, F3–F4 values for the vowels /i, e, a, o, and u/, nasal formant frequencies of the consonants /m/ and /n/ in the word /mini/, and 4 formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, and F4) for nasalized /i/ vowel following a nasal consonant /n/ in the word /mini/ were compared. The differences in nasal resonance were evaluated. All patients were asked whether change in their voices after the surgery. Preoperative and postoperative voice parameters and anterior rhinomanometry results were compared separately with the control group as well as in the patient group itself. Results. Preoperative total nasal resistance (TNR) values of patients were higher than the control group (P=0.001). TNR values of patients measured one day before surgery and after surgery in the 1st and 3rd months were different and these differences were significant statistically (P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the voice analysis parameters in preoperative, postoperative 1st, and 3rd months. As a result of their subjective reviews, 12 patients (36%) noted their voices were better than before surgery and 20 patients (61%) noted no change before and after surgery. Conclusion. Providing widened nasal cavity has no effect on voice quality. PMID:27230274

  13. Local bupivacaine for postoperative pain management in thyroidectomized patients: A prospective and controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Öcal, Haydar; Durak, Doğukan; Kara, Halil; Kılıç, Mehmet; Yalçın, Abdussamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and to compare the routes of administration of bupivacaine in the management of postoperative incision site pain after thyroidectomy. Material and Methods Consecutive patients who were planned for thyroidectomy surgery were randomized into three groups of 30 patients each: Group 1 (control group): standard thyroidectomy surgery without additional intervention; Group 2 (paratracheal infiltration with bupivacaine): following thyroidectomy, 0.25% bupivacaine was applied on the surgical area; Group 3 (subcutaneous infiltration with bupivacaine): following thyroidectomy, 0.25% bupivacaine was injected into the cutaneous, subcutaneous region and fascia of the surgical area. Postoperative pain was evaluated by a visual analog scale (VAS) at 1st, 4th, and 12th hours after thyroidectomy. Total daily requirement for additional analgesia was recorded. Results The mean age of 90 patients was 44.37±13.42 years, and the female:male ratio was 62:28. There was no difference between study groups in terms of age, thyroid volume, TSH and T4 levels. VAS score of patients in paratracheal infiltration with bupivacaine group was significantly lower than control group patients at 1st, 4th and 12th hours following thyroidectomy (p=0.030, p=0.033, p=0.039, respectively). The need for analgesics was significantly lower in both paratracheal infiltration and subcutaneous infiltration groups than the control group (86.7%, 83.0%, and 73.3%, respectively, p=0.049). Conclusions Intraoperative local bupivacaine application is effective in decreasing postoperative pain in patients with thyroidectomy. PMID:27528810

  14. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Petrina; Lye, David C; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Cheung, Carol Y; Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua G; Agrawal, Rupesh; Li, Ling-Jun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Gan, Victor C; Leo, Yee-Sin; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p < 0.001; 227.7 μm vs 212.8 μm, p < 0.001; respectively), higher arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions (1.271 vs 1.249, p = 0.002; 1.268 vs. 1.230, p < 0.001, respectively), higher arteriolar and venular tortuosity (0.730 vs 0.546 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; 0.849 vs 0.658 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; respectively), compared to controls. Resolution of acute dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system.

  15. Examination of the diagnostic validity of 'headache attributed to whiplash injury': a controlled, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Schrader, H; Stovner, L J; Obelieniene, D; Surkiene, D; Mickeviciene, D; Bovim, G; Sand, T

    2006-11-01

    Acute and chronic headache attributed to whiplash injury are new diagnostic entities in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition. A main objective of the present study was to assess the validity of these nosologic entities by studying the headache pattern in an inception cohort of 210 rear-end car collision victims and in 210 matched controls. Consecutive drivers involved in rear-end collisions were identified from the daily records of the Traffic Police Department of Kaunas, Lithuania. A standard self-report questionnaire was sent to the drivers between 2 and 7 days after the collision, and their passengers were recruited as well. Headache and neck pain were evaluated within 7 days of the collision, at 2 months and 1 year after the collision. A control group of non-traumatized subjects received questionnaires at the time of the selection and 1 year later. Of the 75 collision victims who developed headache within the first 7 days of the collision, 37 had a clinical picture in accordance with the criteria for acute whiplash headache (i.e., concomitant neck pain) and 38 did not. For acute headache after collision, concomitant neck pain was of no relevance to the headache type or its course. In both these subgroups, migraine and tension-type headache could be diagnosed in similar proportions and the prognosis after 2 months and 1 year was also similar. Preexisting headache was a strong prognostic factor in both groups for both acute and chronic pain. Compared with the non-traumatized control group, the 1-year incidence of new or worsened headache, or of headache improvement, was the same. A likely interpretation of the data is that acute headaches after rear-end car collisions mainly represent episodes of a primary headache precipitated by the stress of the situation. We conclude that the nosologic validity of both acute and chronic whiplash headache is poor as the headaches, in accordance with the criteria lack distinguishing clinical

  16. Standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC): a prospective, observational, multicenter study [NCT01283893

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extended systemic lymphadenectomy (D2) is standard procedure for surgical treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) although less extensive lymphadenectomy (D1) can be applied to early gastric cancer. Complete D2 lymphadenectomy is the mandatory procedure for studies that evaluate surgical treatment results of AGC. However, the actual extent of D2 lymphadenectomy varies among surgeons because of a lacking consensus on the anatomical definition of each lymph node station. This study is aimed to develop a consensus for D2 lymphadenectomy and also to qualify surgeons that can perform both laparoscopic and open D2 gastrectomy. Methods/Design This (KLASS-02-QC) is a prospective, observational, multicenter study to qualify the surgeons that will participate in the KLASS-02-RCT, which is a prospective, randomized, clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for AGC. Surgeons and reviewers participating in the study will be required to complete a questionnaire detailing their professional experience and specific gastrectomy surgical background/training, and the gastrectomy metrics of their primary hospitals. All surgeons must submit three laparoscopic and three open D2 gastrectomy videos, respectively. Each video will be allocated to five peer reviewers; thus each surgeon’s operations will be assessed by a total of 30 reviews. Based on blinded assessment of unedited videos by experts’ review, a separate review evaluation committee will decide whether or not the evaluated surgeon will participate in the KLASS-02-RCT. The primary outcome measure is each surgeon’s proficiency, as assessed by the reviewers based on evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy. Discussion We believe that our study for standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC) will guarantee successful implementation of the subsequent KLASS-02-RCT study. After making consensus on D2 lymphadenectomy, we developed evaluation

  17. Intravaginal Misoprostol for Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction in Nulliparous Women: A Double-blinded, Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Hao-Ping; Fan, Jian-Xia; Yu, Hong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Chen, Lian; Chang, Qing; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Di, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, no multicenter double-blinded prospective randomized controlled study on labor induction has been conducted till now. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravaginal accurate 25-μg misoprostol tablets for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancy in nulliparous women. Methods: This was a double-blinded, prospective randomized controlled study including nulliparous women from 6 university hospitals across China. Subjects were randomized into misoprostol or placebo group with the sample size ratio set to 7:2. Intravaginal 25-μg misoprostol or placebo was applied at an interval of 4 h (repeated up to 3 times) for labor induction. Primary outcome measures were the incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h. Safety assessments included the incidences of maternal morbidity and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes. Results: A total of 173 women for misoprostol group and 49 women for placebo were analyzed. The incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h was higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo (64.2% vs. 22.5%, relative risk [RR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–6.0). The incidence of onset of labor within 24 h was significantly higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo group (48.0% vs. 18.4%, RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2–5.7); and the induction-onset of labor interval was significantly shorter in the misoprostol group (P = 0.0003). However, there were no significant differences in the median process time of vaginal labor (6.4 vs. 6.8 h; P = 0.695), incidence (39.3% vs. 49.0%, RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.5) and indications (P = 0.683) of cesarean section deliveries, and frequencies of maternal, fetal/neonatal adverse events between the groups. Conclusion: Intravaginal misoprostol 25 μg every 4 h is efficacious and safe in labor induction and cervical ripening. PMID:26481739

  18. A prospective controlled trial of teaching basic surgical skills with 4th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Lossing, A; Groetzsch, G

    1992-01-01

    Scrubbing, gowning, gloving and aseptic technique are currently the only formal teaching 4th year medical students receive at the beginning of an 8-week surgery rotation. Teaching is often delegated to junior house staff and early bad habits are difficult to unlearn in post-graduate training. A study population of 4th year medical students from three hospitals were examined. At the beginning of an 8-week surgery rotation technical skills were tested with a simulation appendectomy model at the beginning and end of the surgery rotation. On day one, after a pre-test, a teaching intervention was alternated between two hospitals. A control group received only a post-test. The outcome measure was a cumulative score of the students' performance in technical stations in the simulation model. A comparison was made of the mean post-test scores in the teaching, non-teaching and control groups. An analysis of variance of all post-test scores rejected the null hypothesis at the 0.05 level. Duncan's multiple range test demonstrated a significant difference between the teaching and non-teaching group. Feedback from 25 students indicated the teaching model was practical and relevant. A formal teaching intervention of basic technical skills with 4th year medical students improved their performance on a simulated appendectomy model.

  19. Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Rushmore, Julie; Caillaud, Damien; Hall, Richard J.; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Many endangered wildlife populations are vulnerable to infectious diseases for which vaccines exist; yet, pragmatic considerations often preclude large-scale vaccination efforts. These barriers could be reduced by focusing on individuals with the highest contact rates. However, the question then becomes whether targeted vaccination is sufficient to prevent large outbreaks. To evaluate the efficacy of targeted wildlife vaccinations, we simulate pathogen transmission and control on monthly association networks informed by behavioural data from a wild chimpanzee community (Kanyawara N = 37, Kibale National Park, Uganda). Despite considerable variation across monthly networks, our simulations indicate that targeting the most connected individuals can prevent large outbreaks with up to 35% fewer vaccines than random vaccination. Transmission heterogeneities might be attributed to biological differences among individuals (e.g. sex, age, dominance and family size). Thus, we also evaluate the effectiveness of a trait-based vaccination strategy, as trait data are often easier to collect than interaction data. Our simulations indicate that a trait-based strategy can prevent large outbreaks with up to 18% fewer vaccines than random vaccination, demonstrating that individual traits can serve as effective estimates of connectivity. Overall, these results suggest that fine-scale behavioural data can help optimize pathogen control efforts for endangered wildlife. PMID:24872503

  20. Radiation therapy, local tumor control, and prognosis in bronchogenic carcinoma: current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    While the overall prognosis for cure of bronchogenic carcinoma remains poor for most patients, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that rationally optimized local therapy may benefit a significant subset of patients. Local therapy in this context includes any systemic therapy (such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy) that enhances local tumor control in the chest. Compared with many other human epithelial cancers, the total local tumor burden is large for many nonresectable lung cancers and not within the tolerance for control by radiation alone. Thus there is growing evidence that combined surgery and radiation treatment will improve results, especially in the differentiated tumors. Proper selection of patients is important and must include histologic stratification in addition to conventional TNM staging. It is projected that much useful research can be conducted during this decade using clinical tools now available and those that are being tested in early clinical trials throughout the world. Likely candidates for such improvements are both oxic and hypoxic radiosensitizing drugs that should decrease the death rate from uncontrolled local cancer in the chest.

  1. Hedonic Hunger Prospectively Predicts Onset and Maintenance of Loss of Control Eating among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R.; Arigo, Danielle; Butryn, Meghan L.; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Sarwer, David; Stice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective The subjective feeling of loss of control (LOC) over eating is common among eating disordered individuals and has predicted weight gain in past research. Restrained eating and negative affect are risk factors for binge eating (which involves LOC), but intense feelings of pleasure derived from palatable foods might also predict the emergence or intensification of LOC eating. The Power of Food Scale (PFS; Lowe et al., 2009) assesses preoccupation with the pleasure derived from palatable food. Method The current sample (n = 294) comprised female college freshmen at risk for weight gain. LOC was assessed using an abbreviated version of the Eating Disorders Examination interview. LOC was assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-ups. Results Among those exhibiting LOC eating at baseline, (and controlling for baseline depression, restrained eating and body image dissatisfaction), those scoring higher on the PFS at baseline showed a smaller reduction in LOC frequency over time relative to those scoring lower. Using the same covariates, the PFS predicted the first emergence of LOC over two years among those showing no LOC at baseline. Conclusions These results suggest that powerful hedonic attraction to palatable foods may represent a risk factor for the maintenance of LOC in those initially experiencing it and the emergence of LOC eating in those who are not. An enhanced ability to identify individuals at increased risk of developing or maintaining LOC eating could be useful in prevention programs. PMID:26690638

  2. Stall inception and the prospects for active control in four high-speed compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Day, I.J.; Breuer, T.; Escuret, J.; Cherrett, M.; Wilson, A.

    1999-01-01

    As part of a European collaborative project, four high-speed compressors were tested to investigate the generic features of stall inception in aero-engine type compressors. Tests were run over the full speed range to identify the design and operating parameters that influence the stalling process. A study of data analysis techniques was also conducted in the hope of establishing early warning of stall. The work presented here is intended to relate the physical happenings in the compressor to the signals that would be received by an active stall control system. The measurements show a surprising range of stall-related disturbances and suggest that spike-type stall inception is a feature of low-speed operation while modal activity is clearest in the midspeed range. High-frequency disturbances were detected at both ends of the speed range and nonrotating stall, a new phenomenon, was detected in three out of the four compressors. The variety of the stalling patterns, and the ineffectiveness of the stall warning procedures, suggests that the ultimate goal of a flightworthy active control system remains some way off.

  3. Prospective analysis of long term control of mild hypertension on cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-11-01

    A group of 12 otherwise normal elderly volunteers (mean age = 69.8 years), were detected to have mild hypertension. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured using 133Xe inhalation method prior to initiating medical treatment and repeated at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after BP was adequately controlled and restored to normal (below 150/90). Results indicate that CBF values increased markedly during follow-up intervals at 6, 12 and 24 months but not at 36 months. Hypertension is known to be a risk factor for stroke and 4 of the 12 subjects subsequently developed symptoms of cerebrovascular disease (stroke, multi-infarct dementia or transient ischemic attacks) despite control of hypertension. Analyses separating asymptomatic and symptomatic groups indicated that the eight asymptomatic patients continued to maintain increased CBF levels throughout the entire three year interval, whereas the 4 symptomatic patients developed declines in CBF which began, and progressively decreased below the initial pretreatment values, during the second and third years.

  4. Medicare and Medicaid programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System rate update for CY 2014, home health quality reporting requirements, and cost allocation of home health survey expenses. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    This final rule will update the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, the low-utilization payment adjustment (LUPA) add-on, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective January 1, 2014. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule establishes rebasing adjustments, with a 4-year phase-in, to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates; the national per-visit rates; and the NRS conversion factor. In addition, this final rule will remove 170 diagnosis codes from assignment to diagnosis groups within the HH PPS Grouper, effective January 1, 2014. Finally, this rule will establish home health quality reporting requirements for CY 2014 payment and subsequent years and will clarify that a state Medicaid program must provide that, in certifying HHAs, the state's designated survey agency carry out certain other responsibilities that already apply to surveys of nursing facilities and Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ICF-IID), including sharing in the cost of HHA surveys. For that portion of costs attributable to Medicare and Medicaid, we will assign 50 percent to Medicare and 50 percent to Medicaid, the standard method that CMS and states use in the allocation of expenses related to surveys of nursing homes. PMID:24294635

  5. Medicare and Medicaid programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System rate update for CY 2014, home health quality reporting requirements, and cost allocation of home health survey expenses. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    This final rule will update the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, the low-utilization payment adjustment (LUPA) add-on, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective January 1, 2014. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule establishes rebasing adjustments, with a 4-year phase-in, to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates; the national per-visit rates; and the NRS conversion factor. In addition, this final rule will remove 170 diagnosis codes from assignment to diagnosis groups within the HH PPS Grouper, effective January 1, 2014. Finally, this rule will establish home health quality reporting requirements for CY 2014 payment and subsequent years and will clarify that a state Medicaid program must provide that, in certifying HHAs, the state's designated survey agency carry out certain other responsibilities that already apply to surveys of nursing facilities and Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ICF-IID), including sharing in the cost of HHA surveys. For that portion of costs attributable to Medicare and Medicaid, we will assign 50 percent to Medicare and 50 percent to Medicaid, the standard method that CMS and states use in the allocation of expenses related to surveys of nursing homes.

  6. Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. A Survey

    DOE PAGES

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-03-31

    The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Physiotherapy Post Lumbar Discectomy: Prospective Feasibility and Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Alison; Goodwin, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate: acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures; distribution of scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, planned primary outcome); and efficient working of trial components. Design and Setting A feasibility and external pilot randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN33808269, assigned 10/12/2012) was conducted across 2 UK secondary care outpatient physiotherapy departments associated with regional spinal surgery centres. Participants Consecutive consenting patients aged >18 years; post primary, single level, lumbar discectomy. Interventions Participants were randomised to either 1:1 physiotherapy outpatient management including patient leaflet, or patient leaflet alone. Main Outcome Measures Blinded assessments were made at 4 weeks post surgery (baseline) and 12 weeks post baseline (proposed primary end point). Secondary outcomes included: Global Perceived Effect, back/leg pain, straight leg raise, return to work/function, quality of life, fear avoidance, range of movement, medication, re-operation. Results At discharge, 110 (44%) eligible patients gave consent to be contacted. 59 (54%) patients were recruited. Loss to follow up was 39% at 12 weeks, with one site contributing 83% losses. Mean (SD) RMDQ was 10.07 (5.58) leaflet and 10.52 (5.94) physiotherapy/leaflet at baseline; and 5.37 (4.91) leaflet and 5.53 (4.49) physiotherapy/leaflet at 12 weeks. 5.1% zero scores at 12 weeks illustrated no floor effect. Sensitivity to change was assessed at 12 weeks with mean (SD) change -4.53 (6.41), 95%CI -7.61 to -1.44 for leaflet; and -6.18 (5.59), 95%CI -9.01 to -3.30 for physiotherapy/leaflet. RMDQ mean difference (95%CI) between change from baseline to twelve weeks was 1.65(-2.46 to 5.75). Mean difference (95%CI) between groups at 12 weeks was -0.16 (-3.36 to 3.04). Participant adherence with treatment was good. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Both interventions were acceptable, and it is promising that they both

  8. Mycoplasmas and Their Antibiotic Resistance: The Problems and Prospects in Controlling Infections.

    PubMed

    Chernova, O A; Medvedeva, E S; Mouzykantov, A A; Baranova, N B; Chernov, V M

    2016-01-01

    The present review discusses the problem of controlling mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), the smallest of self-replicating prokaryotes, parasites of higher eukaryotes, and main contaminants of cell cultures and vaccines. Possible mechanisms for the rapid development of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in mycoplasmas have been analyzed. Omics technologies provide new opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial adaptation to stress factors and identifying resistomes, the total of all genes and their products contributing to antibiotic resistance in microbes. The data obtained using an integrated approach with post-genomics methods show that antibiotic resistance may be caused by more complex processes than has been believed heretofore. The development of antibiotic resistance in mycoplasmas is associated with essential changes in the genome, proteome, and secretome profiles, which involve many genes and proteins related to fundamental cellular processes and virulence.

  9. Mycoplasmas and Their Antibiotic Resistance: The Problems and Prospects in Controlling Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, O.A.; Medvedeva, E.S.; Mouzykantov, A.A.; Baranova, N.B.; Chernov, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present review discusses the problem of controlling mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), the smallest of self-replicating prokaryotes, parasites of higher eukaryotes, and main contaminants of cell cultures and vaccines. Possible mechanisms for the rapid development of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in mycoplasmas have been analyzed. Omics technologies provide new opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial adaptation to stress factors and identifying resistomes, the total of all genes and their products contributing to antibiotic resistance in microbes. The data obtained using an integrated approach with post-genomics methods show that antibiotic resistance may be caused by more complex processes than has been believed heretofore. The development of antibiotic resistance in mycoplasmas is associated with essential changes in the genome, proteome, and secretome profiles, which involve many genes and proteins related to fundamental cellular processes and virulence. PMID:27437137

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as salvage treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, M; Magnano, M; Maffi, L; Pezzoli, L; Marcato, P; Orione, M; Cupi, D; Bongioannini, G

    2015-07-01

    The most commonly used treatment for sensorineural sudden hearing loss (SSHL) in clinical practice is the administration of steroids; however, a favorable result is not always obtained. We studied 58 patients who failed to recover after primary treatment with IV steroids, 44 of these met our inclusion criteria (mean age 50.7, 27 males, range 30-74). We treated 23 patients (mean age 47.3, 16 males, age range 22-74) with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) (2.5 ATA for 60 min for 15 treatments), while 21 (mean age 54.5, 11 males, age range 22-71) patients refused to be treated and served as a non-randomized control group. Patients treated with HBO had a mean improvement of 15.6 dB (SD ± 15.3), with 1 of them completely healed, 5 with a good recovery, 10 with a fair recovery and 7 unchanged. Patients who were not treated had a spontaneous mean improvement of 5.0 dB (SD ± 11.4) with 3 patients with a good recovery, 1 patient with a fair recovery and 17 patients unchanged. Mean improvement was significantly better in patients treated with HBO compared to controls (p = 0.0133). Patients with worst hearing had the greater degree of improvement whether or not they were treated in the first 10 days after the onset of the hearing loss or between 11 and 30 days. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen therapy can lead to significant improvement of pure tone hearing thresholds in patients with SSHL who failed primary corticosteroid treatment and are within 4 weeks of the onset of deafness.

  11. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Metabolism of Glucose and Lipids in Primary Chronic Insomnia: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Eleonora; Keller, Ulrich; Klarhöfer, Markus; Scheffler, Klaus; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Hatzinger, Martin; Bilz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relation between primary chronic insomnia and insulin sensitivity, visceral adiposity, non alcoholic fatty liver disease and neuroendocrine hormones. Materials and Methods In a case-controlled, prospective clinical trial 13 women with primary chronic insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria were compared to 12 healthy controls matched for age, sex, BMI, body composition and menopausal status. All participants had a sleep assessment including polysomnographic studies and neuropsychiatric evaluation. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Hepatic fat content, visceral adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid accumulation were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The hormonal stress axis was evaluated by measurements of midnight and early morning salivary cortisol, urinary catecholamines and plasma metanephrines. Body composition was determined using body impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. Results Although the diagnosis of primary chronic insomnia was made by established clinical criteria, standard polysomongraphic studies failed to identify altered sleep continuity and architecture when compared to matched controls. However, women with primary chronic insomnia showed significantly higher midnight salivary cortisol concentrations (1.46 vs. 0.76 nmol/l, p = 0.02), indicating dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Plasma glucose and lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, hepatic and intramyocellular fat content, visceral adipose tissue mass and body composition did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Healthy women with clinically diagnosed primary chronic insomnia demonstrate a dysregulation of circadian cortisol secretion despite normal sleep continuity and architecture. Increased midnight cortisol levels, however, were not associated with impaired metabolism of glucose and lipids. PMID:23593497

  12. Assessing experimental visceral pain in dairy cattle: A pilot, prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled study focusing on spinal pain proteomics.

    PubMed

    Rialland, P; Otis, C; de Courval, M-L; Mulon, P-Y; Harvey, D; Bichot, S; Gauvin, D; Livingston, A; Beaudry, F; Hélie, P; Frank, D; Del Castillo, J R E; Troncy, E

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have verified the validity of behavioral and physiological methods of pain assessment in cattle. This prospective, blinded, randomized controlled experimental study aimed to validate different methods of pain assessment during acute and chronic (up to 21 d postintervention) conditions in dairy cattle, in response to 3 analgesic treatments for traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and mechanical sensitization were measured as indicators of centralized pain. Proteomics in the CSF were examined to detect specific (to pain intensity) and sensitive (responsive to analgesia) markers. Recordings of spontaneous behavior with video analysis, telemetered motor activity, pain scales, electrodermal activity, and plasma cortisol concentration were quantified at regular intervals. Cows were assigned to group 1 (n=4, standard control receiving aspirin), group 2 (n=5, test group receiving preemptive tolfenamic acid), or group 3 (n=3, positive control receiving preemptive multimodal analgesia composed of epidural morphine, plus tolfenamic acid and butorphanol). Rescue analgesia was administered as needed. Generalized estimating equations tested group differences and the influence of rescue analgesia on the measurements. All 3 groups demonstrated a long-term decrease in a CSF protein identified as transthyretin. The decrease in transthyretin expression inversely correlated with the expected level of analgesia (group 1<2<3). Moreover, in group 1, CSF noradrenaline decreased long term, cows were hypersensitive to mechanical stimulation, and they demonstrated signs of discomfort with higher motor activity and "agitation while lying" recorded from video analysis. Decreased "feeding behavior," observer-reported pain scales, electrodermal activity, and plasma cortisol concentration were inconsistent to differentiate pain intensity between groups. In summary, changes in CSF biomarkers and mechanical sensitization reflected modulation of central

  13. Subaqueous terminus evolution at Tasman Glacier, New Zealand, as determined by remote-controlled survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdie, Heather; Bealing, Paul; Tidey, Emily; Harrison, Justin

    2016-04-01

    The presence of subaqueous ice ramps at the terminus of calving glaciers result from a combination of subaerial and subaqueous processes. These ice ramps eventually buoyantly calve, an event that can be hazardous to companies operating boat tours on proglacial lakes. However our knowledge of ice ramp forming processes, and feedbacks associated with their evolution, is sparse. We are using a remote controlled jet boat to survey bathymetry at an active calving margin. This vessel, mounted with both depth and side-scan sonar, can map subaqueous portions of the terminus right up to the active calving face at no risk to the operators. Surveys at the Tasman Glacier terminus over three consecutive years have revealed that subaqueous ice ramps are ephemeral features. In 2015 multiple ice ramps extended out into the lake from the terminus by 100-200 m, with the ramp surface being as much as 60 m below the water line at its outer perimeter. The maximum depth of the Tasman Lake at this time was 240 m. Within one month of the survey taking place, the largest of these ice ramps had calved and disintegrated. The consistent location of ice ramps between surveys indicates that other factors, like subglacial hydrology, may influence ice ramp evolution.

  14. Comparisons of Prediction Models of Myofascial Pain Control after Dry Needling: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuan-Ting; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Lin, Shun-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study purposed to validate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting myofascial pain control after dry needling and to compare the predictive capability of ANNs with that of support vector machine (SVM) and multiple linear regression (MLR). Methods. Totally 400 patients who have received dry needling treatments completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) at baseline and at 1 year postoperatively. Results. Compared to the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model generally had smaller mean square error (MSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values in the training dataset and testing dataset. Most ANN models had MAPE values ranging from 3.4% to 4.6% and most had high prediction accuracy. The global sensitivity analysis also showed that pretreatment BPI score was the best parameter for predicting pain after dry needling. Conclusion. Compared with the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model in this study was more accurate in predicting patient-reported BPI scores and had higher overall performance indices. Further studies of this model may consider the effect of a more detailed database that includes complications and clinical examination findings as well as more detailed outcome data. PMID:23853659

  15. Prospects for the control of onchocerciasis in Africa with special reference to the Volta River basin.

    PubMed

    Waddy, B B

    1969-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is found in association with all the main river systems of northern tropical Africa, and there are endemic foci south of the Equator. Heavy and prolonged infection may cause blindness and intense pruritus. The vectors, Simulium damnosum and S. neavei, are also intolerable pests when they swarm. The disease and its vector together cause serious economic loss and are a main cause of the depopulation of river valleys in the savanna lands.The basin of the River Volta, in which the worst endemic area in the world is situated, is considered to be the most favourable area for a study of the problems involved in the large-scale control of onchocerciasis carried by S. damnosum. Mass treatment or prophylaxis are not practicable at present. The clinical condition progresses for many years in the absence of fresh infection, and drugs capable of mass application are needed. However, the first aim is to attack the larval stages of the vector with insecticides. DDT is ideal for this purpose in large, steadily flowing rivers, but a more suitable insecticide and formulation are needed for small, irregularly flowing streams.Research is needed into many aspects of the adult life of S. damnosum, including feeding and resting habits, dry season survival and flight range. One of the main practical problems is prevention of reinfestation of a treated river system. PMID:5307598

  16. Prospects for the control of onchocerciasis in Africa with special reference to the Volta River basin.

    PubMed

    Waddy, B B

    1969-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is found in association with all the main river systems of northern tropical Africa, and there are endemic foci south of the Equator. Heavy and prolonged infection may cause blindness and intense pruritus. The vectors, Simulium damnosum and S. neavei, are also intolerable pests when they swarm. The disease and its vector together cause serious economic loss and are a main cause of the depopulation of river valleys in the savanna lands.The basin of the River Volta, in which the worst endemic area in the world is situated, is considered to be the most favourable area for a study of the problems involved in the large-scale control of onchocerciasis carried by S. damnosum. Mass treatment or prophylaxis are not practicable at present. The clinical condition progresses for many years in the absence of fresh infection, and drugs capable of mass application are needed. However, the first aim is to attack the larval stages of the vector with insecticides. DDT is ideal for this purpose in large, steadily flowing rivers, but a more suitable insecticide and formulation are needed for small, irregularly flowing streams.Research is needed into many aspects of the adult life of S. damnosum, including feeding and resting habits, dry season survival and flight range. One of the main practical problems is prevention of reinfestation of a treated river system.

  17. Vector population manipulation for control of arboviruses--a novel prospect for India.

    PubMed

    Niranjan Reddy, Bp; Gupta, Bhavna; Rao, B Prasad

    2014-04-01

    India, the seventh largest country in the world, has diverse geographical and climatic regions with vast rural and peri-urban areas. Many are experiencing an escalation in the spread and intensity of numerous human diseases transmitted by insects. Classically, the management of these vector-borne diseases is underpinned by either chemical insecticides and/or environmental management targeted at the vector. However, these methods or their present implementation do not offer acceptable levels of control, and more effective and sustainable options are now available. Genetic strategies for the prevention of arbovirus transmission are most advanced for dengue and chikungunya, targeting their primary vector, Aedes aegypti. The national burden in terms of morbidity and mortality as a direct consequence of dengue virus in India is considered to be the largest worldwide, over 4 times that of any other country. Presently, new genetic technologies are undergoing field evaluation of their biosafety and efficacy in several countries. This paper discusses the merits of these approaches and argues for fair and transparent appraisal in India as a matter of urgency. Identification of any associated risks and their appropriate mitigation are fundamental to that process.

  18. Hepatitis B among Asian Americans: Prevalence, progress, and prospects for control

    PubMed Central

    Chen Jr, Moon S; Dang, Julie

    2015-01-01

    After tobacco use, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) viral infections are the most important cause of cancer globally in that 1 out of 3 individuals have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Though infection rates are low (< 1%) in the United States, Asian Americans who comprise about 6% of the population experience about 60% of the CHB burden. This paper reviews the magnitude of hepatitis B (HBV) burden among Asian Americans and the progress being made to mitigate this burden, primarily through localized, community-based efforts to increase screening and vaccination among Asian American children, adolescents, and adults. This review brings to light that despite the numerous community-based screening efforts, a vast majority of Asian Americans have not been screened and that vaccination efforts, particularly for adults, are sub-optimal. Greater efforts to integrate screenings by providers within existing healthcare systems are urged. Evidence-based strategies are offered to implement CDC’s three major recommendations to control and prevent hepatitis B through targeted screening and enhanced vaccination efforts. PMID:26576081

  19. Role of drinking water copper in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Hunasgi, Santosh; Colbert, Serryth; Merkx, M A W; Brennan, Peter A

    2014-07-01

    Although oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is thought to be multifactorial in origin, the chewing of areca nut is thought to be the main cause. Alkaloids and tannins in areca nut are responsible for fibrosis, but recent evidence has suggested that copper ions are also an important mediator, and in a small pilot study we recently found that OSMF was significantly associated with a raised concentration of copper in drinking water. We have further investigated this association in a heterogeneous population in Hyderabad-Karnataka, India, a region with a high incidence of the condition. We evaluated 3 groups, each of 100 patients: those with OSMF who chewed gutkha, those who chewed gutkha but did not have OSMF, and healthy controls who did not chew gutkha. The difference between the groups in the mean concentration of copper in water measured by atomic absorption spectrometry was significant (p<0.001). There were also significant differences between the groups in mean concentrations of serum copper, salivary copper, and ceruloplasmin (p<0.001). Our results confirm that copper in drinking water contributes to the pathogenesis of OSMF, but ingestion of copper is unlikely to be the sole cause.

  20. Prospects of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals loaded microparticles prepared by double emulsion technique for controlled delivery

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Choudhary, Chhatrapal; Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Several methods and techniques are potentially useful for the preparation of microparticles in the field of controlled drug delivery. The type and the size of the microparticles, the entrapment, release characteristics and stability of drug in microparticles in the formulations are dependent on the method used. One of the most common methods of preparing microparticles is the single emulsion technique. Poorly soluble, lipophilic drugs are successfully retained within the microparticles prepared by this method. However, the encapsulation of highly water soluble compounds including protein and peptides presents formidable challenges to the researchers. The successful encapsulation of such compounds requires high drug loading in the microparticles, prevention of protein and peptide degradation by the encapsulation method involved and predictable release, both rate and extent, of the drug compound from the microparticles. The above mentioned problems can be overcome by using the double emulsion technique, alternatively called as multiple emulsion technique. Aiming to achieve this various techniques have been examined to prepare stable formulations utilizing w/o/w, s/o/w, w/o/o, and s/o/o type double emulsion methods. This article reviews the current state of the art in double emulsion based technologies for the preparation of microparticles including the investigation of various classes of substances that are pharmaceutically and biopharmaceutically active. PMID:23960828

  1. Prospects for Renovascular Protection by More Aggressive Renin-Angiotensin System Control

    PubMed Central

    Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors such as hypertension or diabetes result in a continuum of renal damage. Without intervention, initial subclinical endothelial damage progresses to incipient disease, identified by microalbuminuria. Glomerular filtration rate declines, macroalbuminuria develops, and eventually end-stage renal disease (ESRD) emerges. Because of the interrelationship between cardiovascular and renal disease and their common pathophysiologies involving angiotensin II, many patients die of cardiovascular disease before renal replacement therapy is needed. Blood pressure control is key to renoprotection, but blood pressure-independent mechanisms are also implicated. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is a logical approach to managing all at-risk patients. In advanced nephropathy, therapy aims at retarding progression to ESRD. For incipient nephropathy, ideal therapy should bring about microalbuminuria regression. In patients at risk of renal damage, preventing early target-organ damage is essential. Although evidence of ACE inhibitor benefit is limited, data show that ARBs provide renoprotection throughout the continuum and that this may be related to their cardioprotective effects. More aggressive RAS targeting by combination blockade is under investigation. Telmisartan is an ARB that delays progression of incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy and brings about regression from microalbuminuria to normoalbuminuria in hypertensive and normotensive patients. The ultimate proof of benefit will come from the ONTARGET trial, which will evaluate the cardiovascular and renal protective effects of the combination of telmisartan and ramipril. PMID:18449382

  2. Prospects of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals loaded microparticles prepared by double emulsion technique for controlled delivery.

    PubMed

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Choudhary, Chhatrapal; Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Several methods and techniques are potentially useful for the preparation of microparticles in the field of controlled drug delivery. The type and the size of the microparticles, the entrapment, release characteristics and stability of drug in microparticles in the formulations are dependent on the method used. One of the most common methods of preparing microparticles is the single emulsion technique. Poorly soluble, lipophilic drugs are successfully retained within the microparticles prepared by this method. However, the encapsulation of highly water soluble compounds including protein and peptides presents formidable challenges to the researchers. The successful encapsulation of such compounds requires high drug loading in the microparticles, prevention of protein and peptide degradation by the encapsulation method involved and predictable release, both rate and extent, of the drug compound from the microparticles. The above mentioned problems can be overcome by using the double emulsion technique, alternatively called as multiple emulsion technique. Aiming to achieve this various techniques have been examined to prepare stable formulations utilizing w/o/w, s/o/w, w/o/o, and s/o/o type double emulsion methods. This article reviews the current state of the art in double emulsion based technologies for the preparation of microparticles including the investigation of various classes of substances that are pharmaceutically and biopharmaceutically active. PMID:23960828

  3. Analysis of Postoperative Thoracolumbar Spine Infections in a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Using the Centers for Disease Control Surgical Site Infection Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Richelle C.; Lonner, Baron S.; Andres, Tate M.; Park, Justin J.; Ricart-Hoffiz, Pedro A.; Bendo, John A.; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Spivak, Jeffrey M.; Errico, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wound infections following spinal surgery place a high toll on both the patient and the healthcare system. Although several large series studies have examined the incidence and distribution of spinal wound infection, the applicability of these studies varies greatly since nearly every study is either retrospective and/or lacks standard inclusion criteria for defining surgical site infection. To address this void, we present results from prospectively gathered thoracolumbar spine surgery data for which the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria were stringently applied to define a surgical site infection (SSI). Methods A prospective randomized trial of 314 patients who underwent multilevel thoracolumbar spinal surgery with instrumentation followed by postoperative drain placement was completed (Takemoto et al., 2015). The trial consisted of two antibiotic arms: one for 24-hours, and the other for the duration of the drain; no differences were found between the arms. All infections meeting CDC criteria for SSI were included. Results A total of 40 infections met CDC criteria for SSI, for an overall incidence of 12.7%. Of these, 20 (50%) were culture-positive. The most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus (4 total: methicillin-sensitive=2; methicillin-resistant=2), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (3 cases), Propionibacterium acnes and Escherichia coli (2 cases each). Six infections grew multiple organisms, most commonly involving coagulase-negative staphylococcus and enterococcus. Conclusions Our findings indicate that thoracolumbar SSI occurs at the higher end of the range cited in the literature (2-13%), which is largely based on retrospective data not subjected to the inclusivity of SSI as defined by the CDC. The three most common organisms in our analysis (S. aureus, P. acnes, E. coli) are consistent with previous reports. Staphylococcus aureus continues to be the most common causative organism and continued vigilance and

  4. Polypropylene vs silicone Ahmed valve with adjunctive mitomycin C in paediatric age group: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Y; Awadein, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the results of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGV) implanted during the first 10 years of life. Methods A prospective study was performed on 50 eyes of 33 patients with paediatric glaucoma. Eyes were matched to either polypropylene or silicone AGV. In eyes with bilateral glaucoma, one eye was implanted with polypropylene and the other eye was implanted with silicone AGV. Results Fifty eyes of 33 children were reviewed. Twenty five eyes received a polypropylene valve, and 25 eyes received a silicone valve. Eyes implanted with silicone valves achieved a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP) compared with the polypropylene group at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The average survival time was significantly longer (P=0.001 by the log-rank test) for the silicone group than for the polypropylene group and the cumulative probability of survival by the log-rank test at the end of the second year was 80% (SE: 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64–96%) in the silicone group and 56% (SE: 9.8, 95% CI: 40–90%) in the polypropylene group. The difference in the number of postoperative interventions and complications between both groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Silicone AGVs can achieve better IOP control, and longer survival with less antiglaucoma drops compared with polypropylene valves in children younger than 10 years. PMID:23579403

  5. Carbamazepine as a single drug in the treatment of epilepsy. A prospective study of serum levels and seizure control.

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, N; O'Callaghan, M; Duggan, B; Feely, M

    1978-01-01

    Serum levels and seizure control were investigated in a prospective study when carbamazepine was given as a single drug to 32 patients with a variety of seizures. The patients included 13 previously untreated patients (group 1), and 19 who were unresponsive to other anticonvulsant drugs used in different combinations or as a single treatment (group 2). Thirteen patients (10 from group 1, and three from group 2) became seizure-free, and a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency occurred in 10 patients (nine from group 2, and one from group 1). Less than 50% reduction in seizure frequency occurred in five patients from group 2. As a wide range of serum levels was associated with complete freedom from seizures, or a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency, it was not possible to define a therapeutic range for carbamazepine. Side effects occurred at the start of treatment or after a dose increase. A wide range of serum levels was associated with side effects, and some patients could not tolerate levels greater than 42 mumol/l. PMID:731240

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Lower Limb Deep Vein Thrombosis after Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation: Results of a Prospective active controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lan; Zhang, Bao-jian; Zhang, Bao-ku; Ma, Jun; Liu, Xu-zheng; Jiang, Shu-bin

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, single-center, active controlled study from July 2013 to January 2015, in Chinese patients with rapid ventricular arrhythmia who had received radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) treatment to determine formation of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LDVT) post RFCA procedure, and evaluated the effect of rivaroxaban on LDVT. Patients with asymptomatic pulmonary thromboembolism who had not received any other anticoagulant and had received no more than 36 hours of treatment with unfractionated heparin were included. Post RFCA procedure, patients received either rivaroxaban (10 mg/d for 14 days beginning 2–3 hours post-operation; n = 86) or aspirin (100 mg/d for 3 months beginning 2–3 hours post-operation; n = 90). The primary outcome was a composite of LDVT occurrence, change in diameter of femoral veins, and safety outcomes that were analyzed based on major or minor bleeding events. In addition, blood flow velocity was determined. No complete occlusive thrombus or bleeding events were reported with either of the group. The lower incidence rate of non-occluded thrombus in rivaroxaban (5.8%) compared to the aspirin group (16.7%) indicates rivaroxaban may be administered post-RFCA to prevent and treat femoral venous thrombosis in a secure and effective way with a faster inset of action than standard aspirin therapy. PMID:27329582

  7. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  8. Immediate versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature neonates born < 35 weeks: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Amir; Borenstein-Levin, Liron; Riskin, Arieh; Chistyakov, Irena; Ohel, Gonen; Gonen, Ron; Bader, David

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether delayed versus immediate cord clamping would result in higher blood pressure (BP) and hematocrit (Hct), and to assess its clinical effects on the neonatal course in premature neonates (< 35 weeks). This was a prospective, masked, randomized, controlled study. Prior to delivery, 35 neonates were randomly assigned to immediate cord clamping (ICC) at 5 to 10 seconds, and a comparable group of 30 neonates were randomly assigned to delayed cord clamping (DCC) at 30 to 45 seconds. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that the DCC group tended to have higher initial diastolic BP and higher Hct (especially in vaginally delivered neonates). Infants weighing < 1500 g with DCC tended to have higher mean BP, and needed less mechanical ventilation and surfactant compared with ICC neonates. Infants with DCC did not experience more polycythemia (Hct > 60%), but had a trend toward higher bilirubin levels with no differences in the phototherapy needs. DCC seems to be safe and may be beneficial when compared with ICC in premature neonates. However, the differences between the two methods were modest and the clinical relevance needs to be assessed further by larger studies and additional meta-analysis of randomized trials.

  9. Towards improving the efficiency of blowing through a permeable wall and prospects of its use for a flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Modern achievements, status, and prospects of studies on reducing the turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag with the help of the blowing through a permeable wall are discussed. The main focus is placed upon a physical modeling of the process of boundary layer blowing in the framework of the dimensional theory, a critical analysis of experimental and numerical results for different conditions of air blowing through a high-tech finely perforated wall including the case of external-pressure-flow air supply in wind tunnel, and elicitation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the reduction of turbulent friction at flow-exposed surfaces. It is shown that the use of air supply through the micro-perforated wall with low effective roughness, which is manufactured in compliance with the highest necessary requirements to quality and geometry of orifices, is quite a justified means for easy, affordable, and reliable control of near-wall turbulent flows in laboratory experiment and numerical simulation. This approach can provide a sustained reduction of local skin friction coefficient along flat plate, which in some cases reaches 90%.

  10. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ≤3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis.

  11. A 5-year prospective case-control study of the influence of early otitis media with effusion on reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M

    1984-10-01

    In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.

  12. Prepackaged central line kits reduce procedural mistakes during central line insertion: a randomized controlled prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central line catheter insertion is a complex procedure with a high cognitive load for novices. Providing a prepackaged all-inclusive kit is a simple measure that may reduce the cognitive load. We assessed whether the use of prepackaged all-inclusive central line insertion kits reduces procedural mistakes during central line catheter insertion by novices. Methods Thirty final year medical students and recently qualified physicians were randomized into two equal groups. One group used a prepackaged all-inclusive kit and the other used a standard kit containing only the central vein catheter and all other separately packaged components provided in a materials cart. The procedure was videotaped and analyzed by two blinded raters using a checklist. Both groups performed central line catheter insertion on a manikin, assisted by nursing students. Results The prepackaged kit group outperformed the standard kit group in four of the five quality indicators: procedure duration (26:26 ± 3:50 min vs. 31:27 ± 5:57 min, p = .01); major technical mistakes (3.1 ± 1.4 vs. 4.8 ± 2.6, p = .03); minor technical mistakes (5.2 ± 1.7 vs. 8.0 ± 3.2, p = .01); and correct steps (83 ± 5% vs. 75 ± 11%, p = .02). The difference for breaches of aseptic technique (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 3.0 ± 3.6, p = .06) was not statistically significant. Conclusions Prepackaged all-inclusive kits for novices improved the procedure quality and saved staff time resources in a controlled simulation environment. Future studies are needed to address whether central line kits also improve patient safety in hospital settings. PMID:23631396

  13. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment. PMID:9203740

  14. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment.

  15. Pain in hospitalized children: A prospective cross-sectional survey of pain prevalence, intensity, assessment and management in a Canadian pediatric teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Elsa M; Boyer, Kristina; Campbell, Fiona A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain is under-recognised and undertreated. Although standards now exist for pain management, it is not known if this has improved care of hospitalized children. OBJECTIVES: To benchmark pain prevalence, pain intensity, pain assessment documentation and pharmacological treatment of pain. The aim was to highlight areas of good practice, identify areas for improvement and inform development of hospital standards, education, future audits and the research agenda. METHODS: The present prospective cross-sectional survey of all medical and surgical inpatient units took place on a single day at the Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario), a Canadian tertiary and quaternary pediatric hospital. A structured, verbally administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics, pain before admission, pain intensity during admission and pain treatment. Charts were reviewed to establish frequency of documented pain assessment, the pain assessment tool used and analgesics given. Subgroup analysis was included for age, sex, visible minority or fluency in English, medical versus surgical services and acute pain service input. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Two hundred forty-one (83%) of the 290 inpatients or their carergivers were interviewed. It was found that 27% of patients usually had pain before admission, and 77% experienced pain during admission. Of these, 23% had moderate or severe pain at interview and 64% had moderate or severe pain sometime in the previous 24 h. Analgesics were largely intermittent and single-agent, although 90% of patients found these helpful. Fifty-eight per cent of those with pain received analgesics in the preceding 24 h but only 25% received regular analgesia. Only 27% of children had any pain score documented in the preceding 24 h. It was concluded that pain was infrequently assessed, yet occurred commonly across all age groups and services and was often moderate or severe. Although effective, analgesic therapy

  16. Geologic controls on gas hydrate occurrence in the Mount Elbert prospect, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, R.; Rose, K.; Collett, T.S.; Lee, M.; Winters, W.; Lewis, K.A.; Agena, W.

    2011-01-01

    Data acquired at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled in the Milne Point area of the Alaska North Slope in February, 2007, indicates two zones of high gas hydrate saturation within the Eocene Sagavanirktok Formation. Gas hydrate is observed in two separate sand reservoirs (the D and C units), in the stratigraphically highest portions of those sands, and is not detected in non-sand lithologies. In the younger D unit, gas hydrate appears to fill much of the available reservoir space at the top of the unit. The degree of vertical fill with the D unit is closely related to the unit reservoir quality. A thick, low-permeability clay-dominated unit serves as an upper seal, whereas a subtle transition to more clay-rich, and interbedded sand, silt, and clay units is associated with the base of gas hydrate occurrence. In the underlying C unit, the reservoir is similarly capped by a clay-dominated section, with gas hydrate filling the relatively lower-quality sands at the top of the unit leaving an underlying thick section of high-reservoir quality sands devoid of gas hydrate. Evaluation of well log, core, and seismic data indicate that the gas hydrate occurs within complex combination stratigraphic/structural traps. Structural trapping is provided by a four-way fold closure augmented by a large western bounding fault. Lithologic variation is also a likely strong control on lateral extent of the reservoirs, particularly in the D unit accumulation, where gas hydrate appears to extend beyond the limits of the structural closure. Porous and permeable zones within the C unit sand are only partially charged due most likely to limited structural trapping in the reservoir lithofacies during the period of primary charging. The occurrence of the gas hydrate within the sands in the upper portions of both the C and D units and along the crest of the fold is consistent with an interpretation that these deposits are converted free gas accumulations

  17. Quick biochemical markers for assessment of quality control of intraoperative cell salvage: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraoperative Cell Salvage (ICS), hereby referred to ‘mechanical red cell salvage’, has been widely used in adult elective major surgeries to reduce requirement for homologous red blood cell transfusion and its associated complications. However, amount of free haemoglobin (fHb) from ICS has been shown related to incidence of renal failure. fHb is the most important indicator of quality control of cell salvaged blood, thus monitoring the fHb concentration is imperative to minimise renal injury. However, currently there has been lacking quick biochemical markers to monitor the levels of fHb during ICS. The aim of this study was to screen quick biochemical markers for evaluating the amount of fHb during use of intraoperative cell salvage. Methods Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiovascular surgery were enrolled. Blood was collected and processed using a Fresenius continuous auto-transfusion system device. The concentration of fHb, albumin (Alb), and calcium (Ca) in three washing modes were measured, and their clearance rates were calculated. The correlations among the clearances and concentrations of fHb, albumin, and calcium were analysed. Results In three washing modes, concentrations of albumin and calcium are significantly associated with amount of fHb:fHb(g/L) = 0.111Alb(g/L) –0.108, R = 0.638, p = 0.000; fHb(g/L) = 1.721Ca(mmol/L) +0.091, R = 0.514, p = 0.000. Furthermore, the clearance rates of albumin and calcium significantly predict clearance of fHb, CRfHb = 0.310CRALB + 0.686, R = 0.753, p = 0.000, CRfHb = 0.073 CR Ca + 0.913, R = 0.497, p = 0.000. Conclusions In clinic practice, clearance rates of albumin, or calcium can be used to evaluate the quality of salvaged blood, fHb. Bed-side measurement of calcium could offer a more feasible means for clinicians to undertake a real-time assessment of fHb. PMID:24886505

  18. Survey of historical incidences with Controls-Structures Interaction and recommended technology improvements needed to put hardware in space

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.

    1989-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey for the Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center. The purpose of the survey was to collect information documenting past incidences of problems with CSI during design, analysis, ground development, test and/or flight operation of space systems in industry. The survey was conducted to also compile recommended improvements in technology to support future needs for putting hardware into space. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of mode of hydrocortisone administration on glycemic control in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Loisa, Pekka; Parviainen, Ilkka; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Hovilehto, Seppo; Ruokonen, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Low-dose hydrocortisone treatment is widely accepted therapy for the treatment of vasopressor-dependent septic shock. The question of whether corticosteroids should be given to septic shock patients by continuous or by bolus infusion is still unanswered. Hydrocortisone induces hyperglycemia and it is possible that continuous hydrocortisone infusion would reduce the fluctuations in blood glucose levels and that tight blood glucose control could be better achieved with this approach. Methods In this prospective randomized study, we compared the blood glucose profiles, insulin requirements, amount of nursing workload needed, and shock reversal in 48 septic shock patients who received hydrocortisone treatment either by bolus or by continuous infusion with equivalent dose (200 mg/day). Duration of hydrocortisone treatment was five days. Results The mean blood glucose levels were similar in the two groups, but the number of hyperglycemic episodes was significantly higher in those patients who received bolus therapy (15.7 ± 8.5 versus 10.5 ± 8.6 episodes per patient, p = 0.039). Also, more changes in insulin infusion rate were needed to maintain strict normoglycemia in the bolus group (4.7 ± 2.2 versus 3.4 ± 1.9 adjustments per patient per day, p = 0.038). Hypoglycemic episodes were rare in both groups. No difference was seen in shock reversal. Conclusion Strict normoglycemia is more easily achieved if the hydrocortisone therapy is given to septic shock patients by continuous infusion. This approach also reduces nursing workload needed to maintain tight blood glucose control. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN98820688 PMID:17306016

  20. Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty without Tourniquet: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bidolegui, Fernando; Arce, Guillermo; Lugones, Alfonso; Pereira, Sebastián; Vindver, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Blood loss during and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can lead to substantial morbidity and the need for blood transfusions. There are several methods to minimize blood loss and to decrease transfusion rates in patients undergoing TKA. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent with known efficacy for achieving these goals. Currently, many surgeons are performing TKA without the use of tourniquet. Consequently, the aim of the study is to evaluate whether tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after TKA without the adjunctive use of above-the-knee tourniquet. Methods : We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial (1:1 fashion) on the use of tranexamic acid versus placebo in 50 patients undergoing TKA (without tourniquet). The treatment group received two (preoperative and postoperative) 15 mg/kg doses. The primary endpoint was blood transfusion rate. We collected data about demographic and procedural characteristics, hemoglobin and hematocrit values, drain blood loss at 24 hours as well as adverse events. Results : There were no transfusions in the treatment group, whereas 32% of the control group required transfusion (p<0.01). The treatment group had higher hematocrit and hemoglobin levels at 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery (all p<0.01) and lower drain loss at 24hours (363.4±141 vs 626±260ml, p=<0,001). There were no in-hospital or six-month thromboembolic complications. Discussion : A double-dose of tranexamic acid was safe and effective, reducing blood loss and preventing the need of blood transfusion in patients undergoing TKA without above-the-need tourniquet. PMID:25132872

  1. Disc replacement using Pro-Disc C versus fusion: a prospective randomised and controlled radiographic and clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ahlhelm, F.; Pitzen, T.; Steudel, W. I.; Jung, J.; Shariat, K.; Steimer, O.; Bachelier, F.; Pape, D.

    2006-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) may be considered to be the gold standard for treatment of symptomatic degenerative disc disease within the cervical spine. However, fusion of the segment may result in progressive degeneration of the adjacent segments. Therefore, dynamic stabilization procedures have been introduced. Among these, artificial disc replacement by disc prosthesis seems to be promising. However, to be so, segmental motion must be preserved. This, again, is very difficult to judge and has not yet been proven. The aim of the current study was to first analyse the segmental motion following artificial disc replacement using a disc prosthesis. A second aim was to compare both segmental motion as well as clinical result to the current gold standard (ACDF). This is a prospective controlled study. Twenty-five patients with cervical disc herniation were enrolled and assigned to either study group (receiving a disc prosthesis) or control group (receiving ACDF, using a cage with bone graft and an anterior plate.) Radiostereometric analysis was used to quantify intervertebral motion immediately as well as 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. Further, clinical results were judged using visual analogue scale and neuro-examination. Cervical spine segmental motion decreased over time in the presence of disc prosthesis or ACDF. However, the loss of segmental motion is significantly higher in the ACDF group, when looked at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. We observed significant pain reduction in neck and arm postoperatively, without significant difference between both groups (P > 0.05). Cervical spine disc prosthesis preserves cervical spine segmental motion within the first 6 months after surgery. The clinical results are the same when compared to the early results following ACDF. PMID:17106665

  2. A prospective randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Hamza; Senol, Levent; Ercan, Erdinc; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Karabudak Abuaf, Ozlem

    2016-02-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) appears to enhance wound healing, increase bactericidal activity, and act synergistically with a number of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBOT as an adjunctive therapy in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) treated with a combination of systemic rifampicin and clindamycin. The study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, randomized controlled clinical study of HBOT in patients with moderate to severe HS. Efficacy was measured by modified Sartorius score (SS), HS Severity Index (HSSI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and a visual analog scale (VAS) before treatment and after the completion of 4 and 10 weeks of treatment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured. Forty-three patients were enrolled in the study. More patients in the HBOT than in the control group showed a decrease of ≥50% from baseline parameters at week 10 for SS (100%), HSSI (100%), DLQI (95.5%), VAS (100%), ESR (100%), and CRP (72.7%). Clinically and statistically significant improvements from baseline were observed at 4 and 10 weeks in HSSI (P = 0.009 at both), SS (P = 0.021 at both), and DLQI (P = 0.044 at week 4, P = 0.009 at week 10). Adjunctive HBOT was considered to be effective in significantly improving antibiotic treatment of HS. The treatment was well tolerated, and no unexpected safety issues were identified.

  3. Recurrence rates in bipolar disorder: Systematic comparison of long-term prospective, naturalistic studies versus randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Holtzman, Jessica N; Lolich, María; Ketter, Terence A; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent, lifelong illness with high risks of disability and excess mortality. Despite many treatment options with demonstrated short-term efficacy, evidence concerning long-term treatment effectiveness in BD remains limited and the relative value of naturalistic studies versus randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in its assessment, uncertain. Systematic computer-searching yielded 10 naturalistic studies and 15 RCTs suitable for analysis of recurrence rates and their association with treatments and selected clinical factors. In naturalistic studies (3904 BD subjects, 53.3% women, 85.8% BD-I, mean onset age 29.1, followed up to 2.1 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 55.2% (26.3%/year). In RCTs (4828 subjects, 50.9% women, 96.0% BD-I, mean onset age 23.1, followed up to 1.9 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 39.3% (21.9%/year) with mood-stabilizing drug-treatment versus 60.6% (31.3%/year) with placebo; drug-versus-placebo outcomes favored antipsychotics over lithium, and disfavor an approved anticonvulsant. Depressive episode-polarity increased from 27.7% at intake to 52.0% at first-recurrence (p<0.0001). Recurrence rate (%/year) did not differ by study-type, was greater with younger onset and rapid-cycling, and paradoxically declined with longer observation. In short, recurrences of major affective episodes up to two years during putative mood-stabilizing treatment of BD patients in prospective, naturalistic studies and RCTs were substantial and similar (26.3 vs. 21.9%/year). Episode-polarity shifted strongly toward depressive first-recurrences. These findings support the value of naturalistic studies to complement long-term RCTs, and add to indications that control of depression in BD remains particularly unsatisfactory. PMID:26238969

  4. Recurrence rates in bipolar disorder: Systematic comparison of long-term prospective, naturalistic studies versus randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Holtzman, Jessica N; Lolich, María; Ketter, Terence A; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent, lifelong illness with high risks of disability and excess mortality. Despite many treatment options with demonstrated short-term efficacy, evidence concerning long-term treatment effectiveness in BD remains limited and the relative value of naturalistic studies versus randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in its assessment, uncertain. Systematic computer-searching yielded 10 naturalistic studies and 15 RCTs suitable for analysis of recurrence rates and their association with treatments and selected clinical factors. In naturalistic studies (3904 BD subjects, 53.3% women, 85.8% BD-I, mean onset age 29.1, followed up to 2.1 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 55.2% (26.3%/year). In RCTs (4828 subjects, 50.9% women, 96.0% BD-I, mean onset age 23.1, followed up to 1.9 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 39.3% (21.9%/year) with mood-stabilizing drug-treatment versus 60.6% (31.3%/year) with placebo; drug-versus-placebo outcomes favored antipsychotics over lithium, and disfavor an approved anticonvulsant. Depressive episode-polarity increased from 27.7% at intake to 52.0% at first-recurrence (p<0.0001). Recurrence rate (%/year) did not differ by study-type, was greater with younger onset and rapid-cycling, and paradoxically declined with longer observation. In short, recurrences of major affective episodes up to two years during putative mood-stabilizing treatment of BD patients in prospective, naturalistic studies and RCTs were substantial and similar (26.3 vs. 21.9%/year). Episode-polarity shifted strongly toward depressive first-recurrences. These findings support the value of naturalistic studies to complement long-term RCTs, and add to indications that control of depression in BD remains particularly unsatisfactory.

  5. Adolescent self-control behavior predicts body weight through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S; Hardy, R; Richards, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight gain has become one of the biggest issues for healthy aging in middle- and high-income countries. Self-control of emotional reward cues is an important behavioral factor for regulation of weight gain through voluntary diet control and physical activity. Methods: We tested the associations between teacher-rated self-control at ages 13 and 15 years, and measured body mass index (BMI) between ages 15 and 60–64 years, controlling for confounding factors such as affective symptoms and cognition, using 3873 study members in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. Results: Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment for all covariates showed that lower self-control was associated with higher BMI in all measure points (P<0.05). Multilevel modeling using a cubic model showed that there was an association between self-control and BMI at 15 years in females (male: BMI=−0.00 kg m−2 per 1 s.d. on the self-control score (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.12 to 0.11), P =0.94; female: BMI=−0.27 (−0.42 to −0.11), P<0.001). The association became stronger with age in both sexes (BMI=−0.065 (−0.082 to −0.048), P<0.001; BMI=−0.036 (−0.057 to −0.015), P<0.001). By age 60–64 years, the association between self-control and BMI in men had increased to −0.70 (−0.96 to −0.44) and −0.67 (−1.04 to −0.30) in women. Conclusions: Lower adolescent self-control was associated with higher BMI through the life course, and this becomes stronger with age. Investigations to test whether intervention to self-control improves obesity are recommended. PMID:26449420

  6. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Morales-Martinez, Felipe Arturo; Rodríguez-Guajardo, René; González-Saldivar, Gloria; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo G.; Alvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; Lavalle-Gonzalez, Fernando Javier; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL) when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL) (P = 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r = 0.78; P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.74;  P ≤ 0.001, and r = 0.71;  P ≤ 0.001), respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P = 0.001) and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P = 0.0002 and 0.009). Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction. PMID:25505909

  7. Ovarian and adrenal androgens and their link to high human chorionic gonadotropin levels: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Morales-Martinez, Felipe Arturo; Rodríguez-Guajardo, René; González-Saldivar, Gloria; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo G; Alvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; Lavalle-Gonzalez, Fernando Javier; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL) when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL) (P = 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r = 0.78; P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.74;  P ≤ 0.001, and r = 0.71;  P ≤ 0.001), respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P = 0.001) and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P = 0.0002 and 0.009). Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  8. In vivo confocal microscopy of meibomian glands in primary blepharospasm: A prospective case-control study in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tong; Gong, Lan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological changes of meibomian glands (MGs) in primary blepharospasm (PBS) by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and to investigate the correlations between clinical data of PBS and LSCM parameters of MGs. This prospective and case-control study recruited 30 consecutive PBS patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. After questionnaire assessments of ocular surface disease index (OSDI), Jankovic rating scale, and blepharospasm disability index, all subjects underwent blink rate evaluation, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Schirmer test, MG expressibility, meibum quality, MG dropout, and LSCM examination of the MGs. The main LSCM outcomes included the mean MG acinar area and density, orifice diameter, meibum secretion reflectivity, acinar irregularity, and inhomogeneity of interstice and acinar wall. The PBS patients had significantly higher blink rate, higher OSDI and CFS scores, lower TBUT and Schirmer test value, and worse MG expressibility than the controls (All P < 0.05), whereas meibum quality showed no difference (P > 0.05). The PBS patients showed lower values of MG acinar area, orifice diameter and meibum secretion reflectivity, and higher scores of acinar irregularity and inhomogeneity of interstices than the controls (All P < 0.05). For the PBS patients, the severity of blepharospasm evaluated by JCR scale was strong correlated with MG acinar area (P < 0.001), orifice diameter (P = 0.002), meibum secretion reflectivity (P = 0.002), and MG acinar irregularity (P = 0.013). The MG expressibility was significantly correlated to MG acinar area (P = 0.039), orifice diameter (P < 0.001), and MG acinar irregularity (P = 0.014). The OSDI score was moderate correlated with MG acinar irregularity (P = 0.016), whereas the TBUT value was positively correlated with MG acinar area (P = 0.045) and negatively correlated to MG acinar

  9. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue

  10. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  11. A survey of helminth control practices on sheep farms in Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; Hosking, B C; Burston, S; Carder, K M; Hyslop, A C; Pritchard, L J; Whitmarsh, A K; Coles, G C

    2012-06-01

    A telephone survey of 600 farmers throughout Great Britain and Ireland was conducted in order to characterise helminth control practices, and identify factors correlated with perceived anthelmintic failure. Overall, 93% of surveyed farmers routinely treated their sheep against nematodes, 67% against liver fluke and 58% against tapeworms. Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes was perceived by farmers to be present on 10% of farms. Farmers who dosed ewes at mating were more likely to have observed anthelmintic failure, than those who were aware of national guidelines on parasite control. However, objective assessment of anthelmintic efficacy had only been undertaken on 19% of farms. Ewes were treated at mating and lambing on 63% and 62% of farms, respectively. On average, lambs were treated 3.6 times annually, depending on geographical region and on dates of lambing and finishing. Although 'quarantine' treatments were widely administered to bought-in stock, these were appropriately applied in only 3% of cases. This study provides baseline data against which the impact of future anthelmintic information campaigns can be assessed; it will facilitate the development of rational, farm-level mathematical models in support of sustainable parasite control, and will aid in the design of farm management practices that prolong the effective lifespan of novel classes of anthelmintic. PMID:21908211

  12. Bioinspired Intelligent Algorithm and Its Applications for Mobile Robot Control: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Fan, Xinnan; Yang, Simon X.

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired intelligent algorithm (BIA) is a kind of intelligent computing method, which is with a more lifelike biological working mechanism than other types. BIAs have made significant progress in both understanding of the neuroscience and biological systems and applying to various fields. Mobile robot control is one of the main application fields of BIAs which has attracted more and more attention, because mobile robots can be used widely and general artificial intelligent algorithms meet a development bottleneck in this field, such as complex computing and the dependence on high-precision sensors. This paper presents a survey of recent research in BIAs, which focuses on the research in the realization of various BIAs based on different working mechanisms and the applications for mobile robot control, to help in understanding BIAs comprehensively and clearly. The survey has four primary parts: a classification of BIAs from the biomimetic mechanism, a summary of several typical BIAs from different levels, an overview of current applications of BIAs in mobile robot control, and a description of some possible future directions for research. PMID:26819582

  13. Bioinspired Intelligent Algorithm and Its Applications for Mobile Robot Control: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Fan, Xinnan; Yang, Simon X

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired intelligent algorithm (BIA) is a kind of intelligent computing method, which is with a more lifelike biological working mechanism than other types. BIAs have made significant progress in both understanding of the neuroscience and biological systems and applying to various fields. Mobile robot control is one of the main application fields of BIAs which has attracted more and more attention, because mobile robots can be used widely and general artificial intelligent algorithms meet a development bottleneck in this field, such as complex computing and the dependence on high-precision sensors. This paper presents a survey of recent research in BIAs, which focuses on the research in the realization of various BIAs based on different working mechanisms and the applications for mobile robot control, to help in understanding BIAs comprehensively and clearly. The survey has four primary parts: a classification of BIAs from the biomimetic mechanism, a summary of several typical BIAs from different levels, an overview of current applications of BIAs in mobile robot control, and a description of some possible future directions for research. PMID:26819582

  14. A survey of helminth control practices on sheep farms in Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; Hosking, B C; Burston, S; Carder, K M; Hyslop, A C; Pritchard, L J; Whitmarsh, A K; Coles, G C

    2012-06-01

    A telephone survey of 600 farmers throughout Great Britain and Ireland was conducted in order to characterise helminth control practices, and identify factors correlated with perceived anthelmintic failure. Overall, 93% of surveyed farmers routinely treated their sheep against nematodes, 67% against liver fluke and 58% against tapeworms. Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes was perceived by farmers to be present on 10% of farms. Farmers who dosed ewes at mating were more likely to have observed anthelmintic failure, than those who were aware of national guidelines on parasite control. However, objective assessment of anthelmintic efficacy had only been undertaken on 19% of farms. Ewes were treated at mating and lambing on 63% and 62% of farms, respectively. On average, lambs were treated 3.6 times annually, depending on geographical region and on dates of lambing and finishing. Although 'quarantine' treatments were widely administered to bought-in stock, these were appropriately applied in only 3% of cases. This study provides baseline data against which the impact of future anthelmintic information campaigns can be assessed; it will facilitate the development of rational, farm-level mathematical models in support of sustainable parasite control, and will aid in the design of farm management practices that prolong the effective lifespan of novel classes of anthelmintic.

  15. Asthma out of control? A structured review of recent patient surveys

    PubMed Central

    Holgate, Stephen T; Price, David; Valovirta, Erkka

    2006-01-01

    Background An understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients is important in developing an asthma-related healthcare policy. The primary goal of the present review was to assess patient perspectives on key issues in asthma and its management, as captured in patient surveys. Methods Local, national, and multinational asthma surveys were reviewed to assess patient perspectives, and where possible healthcare provider (HCP) perspectives, on key issues, including diagnosis, treatment, control, quality of life, and other patient-centered outcomes. Twenty-four surveys, conducted or published between 1997 and 2003 in Europe and North America, were included in this review. Substantial differences among studies prevented a formal meta-analysis; instead, data were pooled to allow for general comparisons and qualitative analysis. Results The results indicate that patients' knowledge of the underlying causes of asthma and treatment options remains inadequate. Moreover, patients often tolerate poor symptom control, possess meager knowledge of correct drug usage, and display insufficient adherence to therapy. Many patients have a low expectation of receiving an appropriate therapy or of having a positive encounter with the HCP. Among HCPs, there is evidence of inadequate understanding of disease etiology and poor or unstructured communication with patients, resulting often in inaccurate assessment of disease severity. Moreover, patients often underreport their symptoms and severity, which in turn could lead to misclassification and undertreatment. Conclusion Improving patient education about the importance of achieving optimal asthma control, along with improved communication between patients and HCPs, emphasizing treatment options and optimal treatment of inflammation, may lead to better outcomes and improved asthma management in daily practice. PMID:17140420

  16. A survey of control rod measurements in ZPPR and their analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accurate prediction of control rod worths has been of great concern in the United States. Optimum control configurations need to balance several often conflicting requirements of control through the operating cycle, while maintaining acceptable power shapes, safety considerations of overriding importance, together with seeking economy by minimizing the number of rods, reducing boron enrichment and lengthening replacement intervals. After control and shutdown requirements have been met, the most important safety concern is the transient overpower condition (TOP) which may be initiated by uncontrolled run-out of a primary rod. Stringent criteria for the primary and secondary systems may be that they are independently capable of shutting down the reactor even with one rod stuck. The TOP initiator may be greatly enhanced by control rod interaction effects. Control rod effects may have a strong impact on core design. For example, work on the integral fast reactor with metallic fuel at ANL has studied core designs which minimize the TOP reactivity by maintaining a minimum primary control bank insertion through tailoring the internal breeding gain. The predicted control rod worths are very sensitive to the calculation methods used and to the accuracy of the basic nuclear data files. Required accuracies have been achieved only through the use of critical experiments on the ZPR and ZPPR facilities. Experiments on ZPR-3 and ZPR-9 produced satisfactory control predictions for the SEFOR, EBR-II and FFTF reactors. This document provides a survey of control rod measurements and compares calculated and experimental results. 16 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Improved Metabolic Control in Pediatric Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Prospective 12-Year Time Trends Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dovc, Klemen; Telic, Sasa Starc; Lusa, Lara; Bratanic, Nina; Zerjav-Tansek, Mojca; Kotnik, Primoz; Stefanija, Magdalena Avbelj; Bratina, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study estimated temporal trends of metabolic control over 12 years in a national cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Data from the prospective childhood-onset diabetes register, which included 886 case subjects from 0 to 17.99 years of age at diagnosis and at least 1 year of follow-up until the age of 22.99 years, were analyzed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models in the observational period between 2000 and 2011. Results: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) significantly decreased over 12 years, from 78 mmol/mol (interquartile range [IQR], 68–88 mmol/mol) (9.26% [IQR, 8.41–10.24%]) in the year 2000 to 61 mmol/mol (IQR, 55–67 mmol/mol) (7.75% [IQR, 7.20–8.30%]) in the year 2011 (P<0.001). HbA1c was significantly associated with age, treatment modality, and duration of diabetes (P<0.001), with females having on average 1.02% higher HbA1c (P=0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005–1.035). The overall use of insulin pumps was 74%. The incidence rate of severe acute complications was low: 1.07 per 100 patient-years for severe diabetic ketoacidosis (95% CI 0.81–1.40) and 1.21 per 100 patient-years for severe (requiring intravenous or intramuscular therapy) hypoglycemia (95% CI 0.81–1.40). Conclusions: The metabolic control of the entire nationwide pediatric type 1 diabetes population significantly improved during the 12-year observational period with a low rate of severe acute complications events. The improvement was associated with the treatment modality. Additional efforts and solutions are necessary to further improve metabolic control and the quality of life of young people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24131373

  18. Ebeltoft project: baseline data from a five-year randomized, controlled, prospective health promotion study in a Danish population.

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Lunde, I M; Nielsen, K D

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. There is increasing political pressure on the medical profession to approach welfare diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, through prevention. General practitioners are required to offer regular health checks to healthy people, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence for the universal need, usefulness and side effects of such an intervention. Randomized controlled trials are needed. AIM. A study was carried out to investigate people's interest in participating in health checks and in discussions about health with their own general practitioner, participants' health status, the proportion who received health advice following health checks, and the lifestyle goals they set following discussion with their general practitioner. This study reports the baseline data from a five-year randomized, controlled, prospective, population-based study in general practices in Ebeltoft, Denmark. METHOD. All general practitioners from the four practices in Ebeltoft and a random sample of 2000 people aged between 30 and 50 years were invited to participate. Participants were randomly divided into three groups--one control group and two intervention groups. One intervention group were given a health check which included being screened for cardiovascular risk factors, lung and liver function, fitness, sight and hearing and an optional test for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); this group received written feedback from the general practitioner. The other intervention group were also given a health check and written feedback; in addition, they were given the opportunity to attend their general practitioner to discuss preventive health. RESULTS. A total of 1370 people participated in the study (69% response rate). Health advice was given to 76% of 905 participants following health checks. Almost all of the 456 participants (96%) who were offered the opportunity of discussing their health with their general practitioner took up the offer; 64% of the

  19. Comparison of Incidence of hypoxia during modified rapid sequence induction and an alternative technique: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ji; Li, Xing-Huan; Zuo, Yun-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effects and safety of an alternative technique for rapid sequence intubation in children predicting to have high risk of pulmonary aspiration in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods: One hundred sixty-five children predicting to have high risk of pulmonary aspiration were randomly allocated to spontaneous breathing maintained induction and intubation group (Group S) and the modified rapid sequence group (Group C). The primary outcome was the incidence of hypoxemia around the intubation period, which was defined as SpO2<90% at any time during the induction and 10 min after the endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, gastroesophageal reflux and other major adverse events associated with the induction and intubation. Results: There were no differences in the incidence of hypoxemia around the intubation period between Group C and Group S; 25.9% vs. 14.8% (P=0.079). The incidence of severe hypoxemia appeared higher in Group C than Group S but not statistical significance, 6.2% vs. 2.5% (P=0.246). Simultaneously, gastroesophageal reflux (upper esophageal pH≤4) was detected in 4.93% children in Group C and 2.47% in group S, which was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.552). There were no witnessed aspirations in all subjects. Conclusion: Sevoflurane based deep sedation with spontaneous respiration maintained technique is not superior to modified rapid sequence induction but can be an alternative technique for anesthesia induction for those predicting to have high risk of aspiration in children. PMID:26629138

  20. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    PubMed

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  1. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study of Endoscopic Sphincterotomy With the Endocut Mode or Conventional Blended Cut Mode

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Tsuchida, Hiroyuki; Mizuide, Masafumi; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Ishida, Katsutoshi; Mori, Masatomo; Kusano, Motoyasu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the potential advantages of the Endocut mode (E-mode) of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) over the conventional blended cut mode (C-mode) have been reported, the problems, including the small sample size and retrospective analysis, that occurred in previous studies make it difficult to conclude the advantage of the E-mode regarding the safety and efficacy. We performed a prospective randomized controlled study to compare these modes. Methods: A total of 360 patients with choledocholithiasis or stenosis of the bile duct were randomly assigned to one of the modes. To avoid the technical bias due to multiple operators or institutions, the main operator and the institution were restricted to only one experienced doctor and 3 institutions at his place of employment, respectively. We defined pancreatitis, bleeding, and perforation as complications of EST. Besides, bleeding includes endoscopically evident bleeding that was defined as visible during the procedure of sphincterotomy and temporary slight oozing. Results: The complications occurred in 20 (11.2%) patients from the E-mode group: pancreatitis in 6 (3.4%) and endoscopically evident bleeding in 14 (7.8%). In contrast, the complications occurred in 25 (13.8%) patients from the C-mode group: pancreatitis in 7 (3.9%) and endoscopically evident bleeding in 18 (9.9%), although these findings were not statistically significant. Overall, there were no severe complications. There were no significant differences in completion ratio of EST and the time taken for the sphincterotomy between both groups. Conclusions: The E-mode could not surpass the C-mode in safety and efficacy under the operation by a single endoscopist. PMID:24583745

  2. Twenty-four hours or 10 days? A prospective randomised controlled trial in children comparing head bandages following pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, S; Narayanan, V; Laing, J H E

    2006-01-01

    The perceived benefits of bandaging for 10 days following pinnaplasty have been questioned by previous studies. The problems arising from these dressings are many [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bartley J. How long should ears be bandaged after otoplasty? J Laryngol Otol 1998;112:531-2. Wong MC, Sylaidis P. Head dressings for pinnaplasty: a tradition not supported by evidence. Br J Plast Surg 2001;54:81-2], including their slippage [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bradbury ET, Hewison J, Timmons MJ. Psychological and social outcome of prominent ear correction in children. Br J Plast Surg 1992;45:97-100. Jeffery SLA. Complications following correction of prominent ears: an audit review of 122 cases. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52:588-90]. Eighty children were recruited into a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the use of a head bandage for only 24 h with a standard practise of a 10-day head bandage. A preoperative measurement of the lateral ear projection (LEP) was made. The outcome measures recorded during the two planned postoperative visits at 10 days (visit 1) and 2 months (visit 2) were: patient satisfaction score, LEP, complications and any unscheduled hospital visits associated with the surgery. There was no significant difference in LEP and patient satisfaction between the two groups at both the scheduled postoperative visits. Differences between the groups in the number of unscheduled visits (p=0.21) did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that it is safe and effective to use head bandage for only 24 h following surgical correction of prominent ears. This study shows no benefit from the application of a formal head bandage for any longer than 1 day.

  3. Evaluation of Endotracheal Intubation with a Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope in Lateral Patient Positioning: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Wu; Lu, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Lei, Li-Pei; Fang, Xiang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an unmet need for a reliable method of airway management for patients in the lateral position. This prospective randomized controlled two-center study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of intubation using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in the lateral position during surgery. Methods: Seventy-two patients scheduled for elective nonobstetric surgery in the lateral decubitus position requiring tracheal intubation under general anesthesia at Lishui Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province and Jiaxing First Hospital of Zhejiang Province from April 1, 2015, to September 30, 2015, were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the supine position group (Group S, n = 38) and the lateral position group (Group L, n = 34). Experienced anesthetists performed tracheal intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope after general anesthesia. The time required for intubation, intubation success rates, and hemodynamic changes was recorded. Between-group differences were assessed using the Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Results: The median total time to tracheal intubation was significantly longer in Group S (140.0 [135.8, 150.0] s) compared to Group L (33.0 [24.0, 38.8] s) (P < 0.01). The first-attempt intubation success rate was significantly higher in Group L (97%) compared to Group S (16%). Hemodynamic changes immediately after intubation were more exaggerated in Group S compared to Group L (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Endotracheal intubation with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope may be an effective and timesaving technique for patients in the lateral position. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-IIR-16007814; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=13183. PMID:27569229

  4. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i) provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii) to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS) to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii) scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located <2,000 m altitude. Of 5,083 surveyed households, 3,282 (65.6%) owned at least one ITN. In ITN-owning households, 53.2% of all persons had slept under an ITN the prior night, including 1,564/2,496 (60.1%) children <5 years of age, 1,891/3,009 (60.9%) of women 15 - 49 years of age, and 166/266 (65.7%) of pregnant women. Overall, 906 (20.0%) households reported to have had IRS in the past 12 months. Of 747

  5. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the effects of noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound to standard care in healing venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Gary W; Orgill, Dennis P; Serena, Thomas E; Novoung, Aksone; O'Connell, Jessica B; Li, William W; Driver, Vickie R

    2015-01-01

    Current scientific evidence suggests venous leg ulcers (VLUs) that do not respond to guideline-defined care may have a wound microenvironment that is out of physiological balance. A prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial was conducted to compare percent wound size reduction, proportions healed, pain, and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in patients randomized to standard care (SC) alone or SC and 40 kHz noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound (NLFU) treatments 3 times per week for 4 weeks. One hundred, twelve (112) eligible participants with documented venous stasis, a VLU >30 days' duration, measuring 4 cm2 to 50 cm2, and demonstrated arterial flow were enrolled. Of these, 81 reduced <30% in size during the 2-week run-in study phase and were randomized (SC, n = 40; NLFU+SC, n = 41). Median age of participants was 59 years; 83% had multiple complex comorbidities. Index ulcers were 56% recurrent, with a median duration of 10.3 months (range 1 month to 204.5 months) and median ulcer area of 11.0 cm2 (range 3.7 cm2-41.3 cm2). All participants received protocol-defined SC compression (30-40 mm Hg), dressings to promote a moist wound environment, and sharp debridement at the bedside for a minimum of 1 time per week. Ulcer measurements were obtained weekly using digital planimetry. Pain and QOL scores were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment using the Visual Analog Scale and the Short Form-36 Health Survey. After 4 weeks of treatment, average wound size reduction was 61.6% ± 28.9 in the NLFU+SC compared to 45% ± 32.5 in the SC group (P = 0.02). Reductions in median (65.7% versus 44.4%, P = 0.02) and absolute wound area (9.0 cm2 versus 4.1 cm2, P = 0.003) as well as pain scores (from 3.0 to 0.6 versus 3.0 to 2.4, P = 0.01) were also significant. NLFU therapy with guideline-defined standard VLU care should be considered for healing VLUs not responding to SC alone. The results of this study warrant further research on barriers to healing and the

  6. Preliminary survey report: control technology for the ceramic industry at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1983-06-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manufacture of brick were surveyed at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas in June, 1983. The company employed about 32 workers to produce structural brick from alluvial clay, free clay, shale, and aggregate. A potential hazard existed from silica exposure since the clays contained about 20% quartz. Raw materials were transported in a cab-enclosed front-end loader to feeders that delivered the materials to a crusher. Blended coarsely crushed material was moved by conveyor to a hammer mill for fine crushing. Production-size product was transported by overhead conveyor to storage silos in the production building. The entire material particle-size reduction process was completely automated. The clay-preparation building and raw-material storage area were isolated from the production building, and only two workers performed the crushing and grinding operations. Material transfer points had removable covers, and a water-mist spray was used on one conveyor of each line. The operation was monitored from a totally enclosed air-conditioned control room. Head and eye protection were required. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies of the company.

  7. Manual handling risk controls in hospitals (MARCH): a cross-sectional survey of UK hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smedley, J; Poole, J; Waclawski, E; Harrison, J; Stevens, A; Buckle, P; Coggon, D

    2004-05-01

    Injury and ill health among healthcare staff associated with handling patients is an important area of risk for UK National Health Service (NHS) employers. Since the introduction of a specific legal duty to control this risk in 1992, many Trusts have developed manual handling risk management strategies. Anecdotally, however, practice varies between Trusts and there is no published description of common practice among NHS employers. The latter would be useful as a benchmark for risk managers. Therefore, we undertook a cross-sectional survey of 158 UK trusts (81% of those invited) using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect information about manual handling risk controls. Most Trusts had basic systems for risk management, including defined management accountability, written policies, provision of handling equipment, training, expert advice about manual handling and access to occupational health services and physiotherapy for injured employees. However, there was wide variation in important aspects, including the extent of expert manpower and criteria for referral to occupational health. Arrangements for monitoring risk controls were generally poor, and the variation in practice was a cause for concern. These data will help NHS employers by providing a benchmark against which to measure and develop risk management systems for manual handling. Future research should aim to develop standards through consensus opinion and ultimately evidence of effectiveness of risk controls. PMID:15198858

  8. Software Design Aspects and First Test Results of VLT Survey Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, M.; Schipani, P.; Marty, L.; Capaccioli, M.

    2006-08-01

    The 2.6 m VLT Survey Telescope (VST) is going to be installed at Cerro Paranal (Chile) as a powerful survey instrument for the ESO VLT. The tightest requirements to be respected for such a telescope, (large field of view of 1°x1°, pixel scale of 0.21 arcsec/pixel, and hosted in a one of the best worldwide astronomical sites), are basically very high performances of active optics and autoguiding systems and an excellent axes control, in order to obtain the best overall image quality of the telescope. The VST active optics software must basically provide the analysis of the image coming from the 10x10 subpupils Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor and the calculation of primary mirror forces and secondary mirror displacements to correct the intrinsic aberrations of the optical system and the ones originated for thermal or gravity reasons. The algorithm to select the guide star depends on the specific geometry of the adapter system. The adapter of the VST hosts many devices handled by the overall telescope control software: a probe system to select the guide star realized with motions in polar coordinates, a pickup mirror to fold the light to the image analysis and guiding cameras, a selectable reference light system and a focusing device. All these devices deeply interface with autoguiding, active optics and field rotation compensation systems. A reverse engineering approach mixed to the integration of new specific solutions has been fundamental to match the ESO commitments in terms of software re-use, in order to smoothen the integration of a new telescope designed and built by an external institute in the ESO environment. The control software architecture, the simulation code to validate the results and the status of work are here described. This paper includes also first results of preliminary tracking tests performed at the VST integration site for azimuth, altitude and rotator axes, that already match system quality requirements.

  9. Dietary Vitamin K intake and anticoagulation control during the initiation phase of warfarin therapy: A prospective cohort study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin K intake on therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) values among patients starting warfarin therapy has not been well studied. We performed a prospective cohort study among 282 patients to explore the independent associations between usual in...

  10. High-Temperature Modal Survey of a Hot-Structure Control Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Natalie Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted for supporting flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles; however, for hypersonic vehicle applications, thermoelastic vibration testing techniques are not well established and are not routinely performed for supporting hypersonic flutter analysis. New high-temperature material systems, fabrication technologies and high-temperature sensors expand the opportunities to develop advanced techniques for performing ground vibration tests at elevated temperatures. High-temperature materials have the unique property of increasing in stiffness when heated. When these materials are incorporated into a hot-structure, which includes metallic components that decrease in stiffness with increasing temperature, the interaction between the two materials systems needs to be understood because that interaction could ultimately affect the hypersonic flutter analysis. Performing a high-temperature modal survey will expand the research database for hypersonics and will help build upon the understanding of the dual material interaction. This paper will discuss the vibration testing of the Carbon-Silicon Carbide Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article which is a truncated version of the full-scale X-37 hot-structure control surface. In order to define the modal characteristics of the test article during the elevated-temperature modal survey, two series of room-temperature modal test configurations had to be performed. The room-temperature test series included one with the test article suspended from a bungee cord (free-free) and the second with it mounted on the strongback (fixed boundary condition) in NASA Dryden's Flight Loads Lab large nitrogen test chamber.

  11. A Fractal Interpretation of Controlled-Source Helicopter Electromagnetic Survey Data: Seco Creek, Edwards Aquifer, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, K. T.; Everett, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Edwards aquifer lies in the structurally complex Balcones fault zone and supplies water to the growing city of San Antonio. To ensure that future demands for water are met, the hydrological and geophysical properties of the aquifer must be well-understood. In most settings, fracture lengths and displacements occur in power-law distributions. Fracture distribution plays an important role in determining electrical and hydraulic current flowpaths. 1-D synthetic models of the controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) response for layered models with a fractured layer at depth described by the roughness parameter βV, such that 0≤βV<1, associated with the power-law length-scale dependence of electrical conductivity are developed. A value of βV = 0 represents homogeneous, continuous media, while a value of 0<βV<1 shows that roughness exists. The Seco Creek frequency-domain helicopter electromagnetic survey data set is analyzed by introducing the similarly defined roughness parameter βH to detect lateral roughness along survey lines. Fourier transforming the apparent resistivity as a function of position along flight line into wavenumber domain using a 256-point sliding window gives the power spectral density (PSD) plot for each line. The value of βH is the slope of the least squares regression for the PSD in each 256-point window. Changes in βH with distance along the flight line are plotted. Large values of βH are found near well-known large fractures and maps of βH produced by interpolating values of βH along survey lines suggest previously undetected structure at depth.

  12. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Philipp; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Wolbers, Marcel; Schild, Ursula; Thomann, Robert; Falconnier, Claudine; Widmer, Isabelle; Neidert, Stefanie; Blum, Claudine A; Schönenberger, Ronald; Henzen, Christoph; Bregenzer, Thomas; Hoess, Claus; Krause, Martin; Bucher, Heiner C; Zimmerli, Werner; Müller, Beat

    2007-01-01

    Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections <28 days of duration. Patients with no informed consent, not fluent in German, a previous hospital stay within 14 days, severe immunosuppression or chronic infection, intravenous drug use or a terminal condition are excluded. Randomization to either guidelines-enforced management or procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy is stratified by centre and type of lower respiratory tract infections. During hospitalization, all patients are reassessed at days 3, 5, 7 and at the day of discharge. After 30 and 180 days, structured phone interviews by blinded medical students are conducted. Depending on the randomization allocation, initiation and discontinuation of antibiotics is encouraged or discouraged based on evidence-based guidelines or procalcitonin cut off ranges, respectively. The primary endpoint is the risk of combined disease-specific failure after 30 days. Secondary outcomes are antibiotic exposure, side effects from antibiotics, rate and duration of hospitalization, time to clinical stability, disease activity scores and cost effectiveness. The study hypothesis is that

  13. A Pilot Prospective Randomized Control Trial Comparing Exercises Using Videogame Therapy to Standard Physical Therapy: 6 Months Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Painting, Lynda; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Molitor, Fred; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available, interactive videogames that use body movements for interaction are used clinically in burn rehabilitation and have been shown to facilitate functional range of motion (ROM) but their efficacy with burn patients has not yet been proven. The purpose of this pilot randomized control study was to prospectively compare planar and functional ROM, compliance, pain, enjoyment, and exertion in pediatric burn patients receiving two types of rehabilitation therapy. Seventeen school-aged children with 31 affected limbs who demonstrated limited shoulder ROM from burn injury were randomized to receive exercises using either standard therapy ROM activities (ST) or interactive videogame therapy (VGT). Patients received 3 weeks of the designated therapy intervention twice daily. They were then given a corresponding home program of the same type of therapy to perform regularly for 6 months. Standard goniometry and three-dimensional motion analysis during functional tasks were used to assess ROM. Measures were taken at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Pain was measured before and after each treatment session during the 3-week intervention. There was no difference in compliance, enjoyment, or exertion between the groups. Patients in both the ST and VGT groups showed significant improvement in shoulder flexion (P < .001), shoulder abduction (P <.001), shoulder external rotation (P = .01), and elbow flexion (P = .004) ROM from baseline to 6 months as measured with goniometry. Subjects also showed significant gains in elbow flexion (P = .04) during hand to head and shoulder flexion (P = .04) during high reach. There was no difference in ROM gains between the groups. Within group comparison showed that the VGT group had significantly more recovery of ROM during the first 3 weeks than any other timeframe in the study, whereas ST had most gains at 3 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in the subjects' pain response. ST subjects

  14. WEED SURVEYING OF PHACELIA (PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA L.) AND EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WEED CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Horváth, E; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was set up in an area of 9 ha that was split into 4 plots: in plot 1 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 2 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 3 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg; in plot 4 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg. After the weed surveying, the total weed coverage was established as follows: in plot 1 the total weed coverage was 11.34%, in plot 2 it was 12.3%, in plot 3 it was 18%, and in plot 4 the total weed coverage was 15%. Based on the weed survey, on the test area the following dicotyledon weeds belonging to the T4 Raunkiaer plant life-form category occupied the highest percentage: heal-all, black-bindweed, goosefoot. The proportion of the perennial dicotyledons: field bindweed (G3), tuberous pea (G1), white campion (H3) was negligible. In all four cases the weed control was executed using the same herbicide in the same doses and with regard to the weed species it showed the same level of efficiency. The smaller row spacing and higher seeding rate has a beneficial effect on the weed suppressing capacity of the crop, the crop's weed suppressing capacity is better and the development of the weeds becomes worse.

  15. High-Temperature Modal Survey of a Hot-Structure Control Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Natalie D.

    2011-01-01

    Ground vibration tests are routinely conducted for supporting flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles; however, for hypersonic vehicles, thermoelastic vibration testing techniques are neither well established nor routinely performed. New high-temperature material systems, fabrication technologies and high-temperature sensors expand the opportunities to develop advanced techniques for performing ground vibration tests at elevated temperatures. When high-temperature materials, which increase in stiffness when heated, are incorporated into a hot-structure that contains metallic components that decrease in stiffness when heated, the interaction between those materials can affect the hypersonic flutter analysis. A high-temperature modal survey will expand the research database for hypersonics and improve the understanding of this dual-material interaction. This report discusses the vibration testing of the carbon-silicon carbide Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article, which is a truncated version of a full-scale hot-structure control surface. Two series of room-temperature modal test configurations were performed in order to define the modal characteristics of the test article during the elevated-temperature modal survey: one with the test article suspended from a bungee cord (free-free) and the second with it mounted on the strongback (fixed boundary). Testing was performed in the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Flight Loads Laboratory Large Nitrogen Test Chamber.

  16. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, consists of 45 high-quality soundings acquired in continuous-profiling mode and has been funded in support of CSDP drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter bipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 KW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. These current bipoles gave source fields over the receiver sites which were substantially independent in polarization and provided well-resolved tensor elements. The surroundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. At each receiver, two orthogonal electric and three orthogonal magnetic field components were acquired in accordance with tensor principles. Derivation of model resistivity cross sections from our data and their correlation with structure and geochemistry are principal components of the OBES award. However, Sulphur Springs also can serve as a natural testbed of traditional assumptions and methods of CSAMT with quantification through rigorous model analysis. Issues here include stability and accuracy of scalar versus tensor estimates, theoretical versus observed field patterns over the survey area, and controls on near-field effects using CSAMT and natural field data both inside and outside the caldera.

  17. A survey of nonuniform inflow models for rotorcraft flight dynamics and control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a brief survey of nonuniform inflow models was summarized for the calculation of induced velocities at and near a lifting rotor in and out of ground effect. The survey, conducted from the perspective of flight dynamics and control applications, covers a spectrum of flight conditions including hover, vertical flight, and low-speed and high-speed forward flight, and reviews both static and dynamic aspects of the inflow. A primary emphasis is on the evaluation of various simple first harmonic inflow models developed over the years, in comparison with more sophisticated methods developed for use in performance and airload computations. The results of correlation with several sets of test data obtained at the rotor out of ground effect indicate that the Pitt/Peters first harmonic inflow model works well overall. For inflow near the rotor or in ground effect, it is suggested that charts similar to those of Heyson/Katzoff and Castles/De Leeuw of NACA be produced using modern free-wake methods for use in flight dynamic analyses and simulations.

  18. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  19. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  20. Survey of wildlife rehabilitators on infection control and personal protective behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Shreve, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators treat a number of wildlife species that can carry infectious and zoonotic diseases. These can rapidly spread within a facility and to the caregivers when adequate measures are not taken. Financial constraints and reduced access to laboratories often limit identification of disease etiology of many cases admitted into wildlife rehabilitation centers. A survey to investigate wildlife rehabilitator illness during the 2002 West Nile virus season indicated that many rehabilitators do not follow adequate protective measures in their facilities and may not seek medical care when disease symptoms arise or even linger. The recommended precautions and proper infection control measures for those handling and housing wildlife cases should be discussed between rehabilitators and their attending veterinarian(s).

  1. A telephone survey of internal parasite control practices on sheep farms in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco A; Hosking, Barry C

    2013-02-18

    A telephone survey of farmers was conducted to determine current internal parasite control practices on sheep farms in Spain; the farmers were interviewed by their veterinarians. Anthelmintic choice was largely on veterinary advice and dominated by benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones. Anthelmintic rotation was separated into: no rotation (42% of farms); annual rotation (36%); rotate within year (20%); and rotate every second year (2%). The mean annual number of treatments varied subtly by region; ewes and rams 1.6-2.1, replacement lambs 1.7-2.1. Anthelmintics are administered primarily during spring and early summer (47% of treatments), and autumn (41%). Thirty-two percent of farmers introduced sheep to their properties and more than half did not quarantine drench the arrivals.

  2. Feasibility of an automated telephone survey to enable prospective monitoring of subjects whose confidentiality is paramount: a four-week cohort study of partner violence recurrence after Emergency Department discharge

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Carr, Brendan G; Datner, Elizabeth M; Elliott, Michael R; Richmond, Therese S

    2008-01-01

    Objective A goal in intimate partner violence (IPV) research is to identify victims when they are treated in a hospital Emergency Department (ED) and predict which patients will sustain abuse again after discharge, so interventions can be targeted. Following patients to determine those prognostic factors is difficult, however, especially to study IPV given the risk to be assaulted if their partner learns of their participation. We assessed the feasibility of an automated telephone survey and a wireless incentive delivery system to follow ED patients after discharge, enabling detection of IPV recurrence. Methods A four-week prospective cohort pilot study was conducted at an urban academic medical center ED in the U.S. Thirty patient subjects (24 women, 6 men; 18–54 years) who had sustained IPV in the past six months, 12 of whom presented for an acute IPV-related condition, were interviewed in the ED and were asked to report weekly for four weeks after discharge to a toll-free, password protected telephone survey, and answer recorded questions using the telephone keypad. A $10 convenience store debit card was provided as an incentive, and was electronically recharged with $10 for each weekly report, with a $20 bonus for making all four reports. Results Twenty-two of 30 subjects (73.3%) made at least one report to the telephone survey during the four weeks following discharge; 14 of the 30 subjects (46.7%) made all four weekly reports. Each time the telephone survey was accessed, the subject completed all questions (i.e., no mid-survey break-offs). Eight months after follow-up ended, almost all debit cards (86.7%) had been used to make purchases. Conclusion Approximately three of every four subjects participated in follow-up after ED discharge, and approximately two of every four subjects completed all follow-up reports, suggesting the method of an automated telephone survey and wireless incentive delivery system makes it feasible to study IPV prospectively among

  3. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Guo, Ten-Heui; Mercer, Carolyn; Behbahani, Alireza; Bajwa, Anupa; Jensen, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Control and Health Management technology for aircraft propulsion systems is much more developed in the laboratory than in practice. With a renewed emphasis on reducing engine life cycle costs, improving fuel efficiency, increasing durability and life, etc., driven by various government programs, there is a strong push to move these technologies out of the laboratory and onto the engine. This paper describes the existing state of engine control and on-board health management, and surveys some specific technologies under development that will enable an aircraft propulsion system to operate in an intelligent way--defined as self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, self-optimizing, and mission adaptable. These technologies offer the potential for creating extremely safe, highly reliable systems. The technologies will help to enable a level of performance that far exceeds that of today s propulsion systems in terms of reduction of harmful emissions, maximization of fuel efficiency, and minimization of noise, while improving system affordability and safety. Technologies that are discussed include various aspects of propulsion control, diagnostics, prognostics, and their integration. The paper focuses on the improvements that can be achieved through innovative software and algorithms. It concentrates on those areas that do not require significant advances in sensors and actuators to make them achievable, while acknowledging the additional benefit that can be realized when those technologies become available. The paper also discusses issues associated with the introduction of some of the technologies.

  4. The Effectiveness of Gelfoam Technique before Percutaneous Vertebroplasy: Is It Helpful for Prevention of Cement Leakage? A Prospective Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Bae, Hack-Gun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preinjection gelfoam embolization during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been thought alternative technique to prevent the leakage of bone cement. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the gelfoam techniques are useful to reduce bone cement leakage. Methods Total 100 PVPs of osteoporotic spine compression fractures were performed by 1 spine surgeon who experienced more than 500 PVP cases under prospective control study. Operation was done in T-L junction (T10-L2) fractures with bi-transpedicular approach. Preinjection gelfoam PVP was done in the 50 levels. As control group, PVP without gelfoam was done in the 50 levels. We did not perform preoperative venography. We inserted normal saline-mixed gelfoam to the anterior third of vertebral body via PVP needle, and then 3mL of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) was injected. We prospectively evaluated the incidence and leakage pattern of PMMA by postoperative computed tomography. Results Between gelfoam and control groups, there were 11 leaks (22%) versus 12 leaks (26%). The mean operation time was 7.00 minutes versus 6.30 minutes. In gelfoam group, there were 6 spinal canal leaks, 4 paravertebral venous leaks, and 1 soft tissue leaks. In control group, there were 4 spinal canal leaks, 8 paravertebral venous leaks, and 1 disc space leak. In spite of cement leakage, there was no symptomatic case in both groups. Statistically, gelfoam technique was not related to decrease the incidence of leakage (p=0.64). Conclusion Our prospective study showed that it did not significantly decrease cement leakage when vertebroplasty is performed by experienced spine surgeon. PMID:27437015

  5. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations.

  6. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations. PMID:26493476

  7. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended.

  8. A prospective randomised controlled trial comparing Merocel and Rapid Rhino nasal tampons in the treatment of epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Moumoulidis, Ioannis; Draper, Mark R; Patel, Hemi; Jani, Piyush; Price, Timothy

    2006-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to compare the efficacy and patient tolerance of Merocel and Rapid Rhino nasal tampons in the treatment of epistaxis. A total of 42 patients were studied. There was no significant difference between the two types of pack in efficacy or patient discomfort with pack in situ. Rapid Rhino produced significantly lower scores for subjective patient discomfort during insertion and removal of pack.

  9. Longitudinal Weight Calibration with Estimated Control Totals for Cross Sectional Survey Data: Theory and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qing, Siyu

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) collects information on a sample of individuals in the United States with PhD degrees. A significant portion of the sampled individuals appear in multiple survey years and can be linked across time. Survey weights in each year are created and adjusted for oversampling and…

  10. A survey of China's birth control among women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S

    1983-12-01

    To further implement China's family planning policy of "prevention first, birth control first," a study of the current family planning situation was conducted. A survey of the birth control methods employed by women of childbearing age and by men was based on a nationwide randomized sampling of 1/1000. In the different age groups, ranging from 15-49 years old, IUD users accounted for over 50%, tubal sterilization 25%, and vasectomy 10%. The main IUD users were women in the 20-24 age group. Tubal sterilization was more prevalent among the women in the 35-39 age group. The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) was more common among younger women but accounted for less than 10% of the total. The survey was based on the replies to questionnaires from 172,788 married women of childbearing age; 120,022 of them practiced contraceptive methods for a birth control rate of 69.46%. The breakdown was as follows: IUD, 34.84%; tubal sterilization, 17.63%; vasectomy, 6.94%; OCs, 5.86%; condom users, 1.39%; and other methods (including chemical suppositories, rhythm, or safe period method and withdrawal before ejaculation), 2.78%. There was a higher percentage of OC users in urban areas, and a marked preference for IUDs in the rural communities. The rural birth control rate was 68.58%; the urban rate was 74.17%. The use of the IUD has priority in all the areas; its percentage approaches the national average level. The use of vasectomy as a birth control method varies considerably according to area as does the use of OCs, condom, and tubal sterilization. Rural minority groups prefer the IUD and OCs; tubal sterilization, the condom, and vasectomy are preferred by the Han nationality. The birth control rate differed according to the different occoupation groups: 77.85%, workers; 76.01%, farmers; 85.15%, cadres; 59.52%, housewives; and 66.67%, others. The birth control rate was higher among those who received a college education than the illiterates, but statistics did not show a

  11. Infection control implementations at forensic medicine practice: a national survey in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Tanyel, Esra; Colak, Basar; Fisgin, Nuriye; Tulek, Necla

    2009-06-01

    Because forensic medicine workers have a greater occupational risk for infectious diseases, strict rules and measures against infections must be implemented at every stage of forensic medicine practices. In this study, we aim to evaluate the infection control implementations in forensic medicine practices in Turkey.A questionnaire survey was mailed to forensic medicine specialists and residents between April and June 2005. The questionnaire consisted of 36 questions whose designed was based on standard precautions and protective barriers against infectious risks.In all, 111 doctors from 27 different cities responded to the questionnaire. Of those doctors who responded, 43.2% reported performing external examination anywhere. The percentage of doctors performing external examinations who regularly wore gloves, masks, and gowns, and washed hands with a disinfectant were 81.5%, 24.7%, 30.9%, and 81.5%, respectively. The percentage of doctors performing autopsies who regularly wore masks, protective eye-wear, gloves, special gloves, and special boots were 59.6%, 10.6%, 98.9%, 71.3%, and 36.2%, respectively. Only 2 negative pressure rooms were reported.According to these results, precautionary measures against infectious risks in forensic medicine practice in our country are insufficient. Conditions to facilitate and to improve the compliance with infection control procedures must be prepared.

  12. Problematic Internet Use, Mental Health and Impulse Control in an Online Survey of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; White, Marney A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Internet use has become a popular entertainment source and has become highly integrated into daily life. However, some people display problematic or addictive usage of the Internet. The present study attempts to fill current knowledge gaps regarding at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) and its relation to various health and functioning measures. Methods Online survey data from 755 adults in the United States were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVAs. Results The ARPIU group did not differ from the non-ARPIU group with respect to substance use. Individuals with ARPIU were, however, more likely to report at-risk/problematic engagement in video-game playing and gambling. Compared to the non-ARPIU group, the ARPIU group reported poorer self-control and higher levels of impulsivity and depression. Conclusions ARPIU appears associated with other risk behaviors, particularly those that might be performed on the Internet. Future studies should examine the extent to which the Internet may promote engagement in these risk behaviors and the extent to which preventative interventions targeting better self-control or negative mood states might help a range of non-substance-related addictive behaviors. PMID:24294501

  13. Walk-through survey report: control technology for fermentation processes at Wyeth Laboratories, Inc. , West Chester, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, K.F.

    1985-10-01

    A walk-through survey was conducted at Wyeth Laboratories, Incorporated, West Chester, Pennsylvania in November, 1983. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate the control technology for the fermentation processes. The facility produced penicillin-V and penicillin-G using the microbial strain Penicillium-chrysogenum. Medical examinations were available for fermentation and extraction process workers. Safety shoes and glasses and disposable dust respirators were provided. The author concludes that Wyeth has in operation an apparently effective system of control measures.

  14. Emerging risk factors and the dose–response relationship between physical activity and lone atrial fibrillation: a prospective case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Naiara; Ramos, Pablo; Montserrat, Silvia; Guasch, Eduard; Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Domenech, Mònica; Bisbal, Felipe; Hevia, Sara; Vidorreta, Silvia; Borras, Roger; Falces, Carles; Embid, Cristina; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Berruezo, Antonio; Coca, Antonio; Sitges, Marta; Brugada, Josep; Mont, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Aims The role of high-intensity exercise and other emerging risk factors in lone atrial fibrillation (Ln-AF) epidemiology is still under debate. The aim of this study was to analyse the contribution of each of the emerging risk factors and the impact of physical activity dose in patients with Ln-AF. Methods and results Patients with Ln-AF and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in a 2:1 prospective case–control study. We obtained clinical and anthropometric data transthoracic echocardiography, lifetime physical activity questionnaire, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Berlin questionnaire score, and, in patients at high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome, a polysomnography. A total of 115 cases and 57 controls were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression analysis associated height [odds ratio (OR) 1.06 [1.01–1.11

  15. Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey: Waves 1, 2, and 3

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze; Quah, Anne C.K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methods of sampling design and data collection of Waves 1, 2, and 3 of the ITC China Survey, with major focus on longitudinal features of the study. Key measures of quality of the survey data, such as retention rates and final sample sizes, are presented. Sample replenishment procedures are outlined, including the addition of a new city, Kunming, at Wave 3. Methods for constructing the longitudinal and cross-sectional survey weights are briefly described. PMID:25550421

  16. Does Extended-Release Liposomal Bupivacaine Better Control Pain Than Bupivacaine After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)? A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Schroer, William C; Diesfeld, Paul G; LeMarr, Angela R; Morton, Diane J; Reedy, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine periarticular injection (PAI) offers sustained bupivacaine release after TKA, but few prospective independent studies exist. In this prospective, blinded study, liposomal bupivacaine was randomized against bupivacaine and incorporated into a comprehensive multimodal pain management protocol. 111 primary TKAs were randomized to receive PAI: 58 patients received 266 mg (20cc) liposomal bupivacaine mixed with 75 mg (30cc) 0.25% bupivacaine, and 53 patients received 150 mg (60cc) 0.25% bupivacaine. Visual analog pain scores and narcotic use were determined. No pain score differences occurred between study and control patients: Day 1: 4.5/4.6 (P=0.73); Day 2: 4.4/4.8 (P=0.27); or Day 3: 3.5/3.7 (P=0.58). Narcotic use was similar during hospitalization, 51.8/54.2 (P=0.34). The study medication costs $285, and the control medication costs $2.80. This finding does not justify the routine use of liposomal bupivacaine.

  17. Effectiveness of Proadrenomedullin Enhanced CURB65 Score Algorithm in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in “Real Life”, an Observational Quality Control Survey

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Daniel; Drozdov, Daniel; Rüegger, Kristina; Litke, Alexander; Arici, Birsen; Regez, Katharina; Guglielmetti, Merih; Schild, Ursula; Conca, Antoinette; Schäfer, Petra; Bossart Kouegbe, Rita; Reutlinger, Barbara; Blum, Claudine; Schuetz, Philipp; Irani, Sarosh; Huber, Andreas; Bürgi, Ulrich; Müller, Beat; Albrich, Werner C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An intervention trial found a trend for shorter length of stay (LOS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) when the CURB65 score was combined with the prognostic biomarker proadrenomedullin (ProADM) (CURB65-A). However, the efficacy and safety of CURB65-A in real life situations remains unclear. Methods: From September, 2011, until April, 2012, we performed a post-study prospective observational quality control survey at the cantonal Hospital of Aarau, Switzerland of consecutive adults with CAP. The primary endpoint was length of stay (LOS) during the index hospitalization and within 30 days. We compared the results with two well-defined historic cohorts of CAP patients hospitalized in the same hospital with the use of multivariate regression, namely 83 patients in the observation study without ProADM (OPTIMA I) and the 169 patients in the intervention study (OPTIMA II RCT). Results: A total of 89 patients with confirmed CAP were included. As compared to patients with CURB65 only observed in the OPTIMA I study, adjusted regression analysis showed a significant shorter initial LOS (7.5 vs. 10.4 days; −2.32; 95% CI, −4.51 to −0.13; p = 0.04) when CURB65-A was used in clinical routine. No significant differences were found for LOS within 30 days. There were no significant differences in safety outcomes in regard to mortality and ICU admission between the cohorts. Conclusion: This post-study survey provides evidence that the use of ProADM in combination with CURB65 (CURB65-A) in “real life” situations reduces initial LOS compared to the CURB65 score alone without apparent negative effects on patient safety. PMID:26237261

  18. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers.

  19. The linear quadratic optimal control problem for infinite dimensional systems over an infinite horizon - Survey and examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensoussan, A.; Delfour, M. C.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Available published results are surveyed for a special class of infinite-dimensional control systems whose evolution is characterized by a semigroup of operators of class C subscript zero. Emphasis is placed on an approach that clarifies the system-theoretic relationship among controllability, stabilizability, stability, and the existence of a solution to an associated operator equation of the Riccati type. Formulation of the optimal control problem is reviewed along with the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a general system of equations and several theorems concerning L2 stability. Examples are briefly discussed which involve second-order parabolic systems, first-order hyperbolic systems, and distributed boundary control.

  20. Water prospection in volcanic islands by Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) surveying: The case study of the islands of Fogo and Santo Antão in Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Madeira, J.; Bernardo, I.; Soares, A.; Esteves, M.; Adão, F.

    2016-11-01

    Water demand in islands, focused in agriculture, domestic use and tourism, is usually supplied by groundwater. Thus the information about groundwater distribution is an important issue in islands water resources management. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) provides underground resistivity distribution at greater depths and is of easier application than other methods. In this study TDEM technique was used for groundwater prospection in two volcanic islands with water supply problems, the islands of Fogo and Santo Antão in the Republic of Cape Verde. The 10 islands of Cape Verde Archipelago, located off the coast of Senegal (W Africa), present a semi-arid climate and thus suffer from irregular and scarce precipitation. In the Island of Fogo 26 TDEM soundings, presenting an area distribution, were performed on the SW flank of the volcanic edifice. These allowed obtaining a 3D model composed of 5 layers parallel to the topographic surface separated by 50 m depth down to - 250 m. The results indicate the presence of the water-table at a depth of 150 m in the lower ranges of the W flank of the island, and at > 200 m depth in the area above 250 m above sea level (a.s.l.). In the Island of Santo Antão 32 TDEM soundings, distributed along 5 linear profiles, were obtained on the north-eastern half of the island. The profiles are located in two regions exposed to different humidity conditions to the N and S of the main water divide. The northern flank receives the dominant trade winds first and most of the precipitation and, therefore, the water-table is shallower ( 50 m depth) than in the S ( 100 m depth). Our study demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the TDEM method for groundwater prospection in high resistivity contexts such as in volcanic islands.

  1. Nucleon decay experiments: status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.; Beier, E.W.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Ernwein, J.; Gaisser, T.K.; Seidel, S.; Sulak, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    We survey the current status and future prospects of experiments to search for nucleon decay. Results from current experiments are summarized, and the background rejection capabilities of various techniques are described. We discuss the prospects for improved sensitivity in the new experiments that are now coming into operation, and the opportunities for the next generation of detectors. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Safety and efficacy of excision and direct closure in acute burns surgery: outcome analysis in a prospective series of 100 patients and a survey of UK burns surgeons' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bain, Charles J; Wang, Tim; McArthur, Gordon; Williams, Greg; Atkins, Joanne; Jones, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Many burns surgeons avoid excision and direct closure of acute burns owing to concerns over wound dehiscence, scarring and infection. There is no evidence in the literature to support this practice. We present outcomes of a prospective series of 100 patients who underwent excision and direct closure of 138 burns over a 2-year period, along with results from a survey sent to 33 senior burns surgeons to gauge attitudes towards direct closure in burns surgery. 47% of survey respondents never perform direct closure. Dehiscence was cited as the most common concern, followed by hypertrophic scarring (HTS). In our cohort, the superficial dehiscence rate was 12% and the HTS rate was 16%, with no scarring contractures. Patients with healing time greater than 14 days were more likely to develop HTS (p=0.008), as were those with wound dehiscence (p=0.014). Patients undergoing part-grafting in addition to direct closure took significantly longer to heal than those undergoing direct closure alone (p=0.0002), with the donor site or graft delaying healing in the majority. Excision and direct closure of acute burn wounds avoids donor site morbidity and has an acceptable complication rate. It is a safe and effective treatment for full thickness burns in selected cases.

  3. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  4. Optimising UAV topographic surveys processed with structure-from-motion: Ground control quality, quantity and bundle adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Niethammer, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithms are greatly facilitating the production of detailed topographic models based on images collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, SfM-based software does not generally provide the rigorous photogrammetric analysis required to fully understand survey quality. Consequently, error related to problems in control point data or the distribution of control points can remain undiscovered. Even if these errors are not large in magnitude, they can be systematic, and thus have strong implications for the use of products such as digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos. Here, we develop a Monte Carlo approach to (1) improve the accuracy of products when SfM-based processing is used and (2) reduce the associated field effort by identifying suitable lower density deployments of ground control points. The method highlights over-parameterisation during camera self-calibration and provides enhanced insight into control point performance when rigorous error metrics are not available. Processing was implemented using commonly-used SfM-based software (Agisoft PhotoScan), which we augment with semi-automated and automated GCPs image measurement. We apply the Monte Carlo method to two contrasting case studies - an erosion gully survey (Taurodont, Morocco) carried out with an fixed-wing UAV, and an active landslide survey (Super-Sauze, France), acquired using a manually controlled quadcopter. The results highlight the differences in the control requirements for the two sites, and we explore the implications for future surveys. We illustrate DEM sensitivity to critical processing parameters and show how the use of appropriate parameter values increases DEM repeatability and reduces the spatial variability of error due to processing artefacts.

  5. Mid- to Long-Term Outcomes of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Treatment of Symptomatic Cervical Disc Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Eight Prospective Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Lv, Guohua; Ren, Siying; Johansen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the mid- to long-term outcomes of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of 1-level or 2-level symptomatic cervical disc disease. Methods Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials that reported mid- to long-term outcomes (at least 48 months) of CDA versus ACDF. All data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dichotomous variables. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95%CIs were calculated for continuous variables. A random effect model was used for heterogeneous data; otherwise, a fixed effect model was used. Results Eight prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved in this meta-analysis, including 1317 and 1051 patients in CDA and ACDF groups, respectively. Patients after an ACDF had a significantly lower rate of follow-up than that after CDA. Pooled analysis showed patients in CDA group achieved significantly higher rates of overall success, Neck Disability Index (NDI) success, neurological success and significantly lower rates of implant/surgery-related serious adverse events and secondary procedure compared with that in ACDF group. The long-term functional outcomes (NDI, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) neck and arm pain scores, the Short Form 36 Health Survey physical component score (SF-36 PCS)), patient satisfaction and recommendation, and the incidence of superior adjacent segment degeneration also favored patients in CDA group with statistical difference. Regarding inferior adjacent segment degeneration, patients in CDA group had a lower rate without statistical significance. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that cervical disc arthroplasty was superior over anterior discectomy and fusion for the treatment of symptomatic cervical disc disease in

  6. Return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick-leave for burnout - a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present study the effect of a workplace-oriented intervention for persons on long-term sick leave for clinical burnout, aimed at facilitating return to work (RTW) by job-person match through patient-supervisor communication, was evaluated. We hypothesised that the intervention group would show a more successful RTW than a control group. Methods In a prospective controlled study, subjects were identified by the regional social insurance office 2-6 months after the first day on sick leave. The intervention group (n = 74) was compared to a control group who had declined participation, being matched by length of sick leave (n = 74). The RTW was followed up, using sick-listing register data, until 1.5 years after the time of intervention. Results There was a linear increase of RTW in the intervention group during the 1.5-year follow-up period, and 89% of subjects had returned to work to some extent at the end of the follow-up period. The increase in RTW in the control group came to a halt after six months, and only 73% had returned to work to some extent at the end of the 1.5-year follow-up. Conclusions We conclude that the present study demonstrated an improvement of long-term RTW after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on long-term sick leave due to burnout. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01039168. PMID:20515510

  7. iDNA from terrestrial haematophagous leeches as a wildlife surveying and monitoring tool - prospects, pitfalls and avenues to be developed.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Sollmann, Rahel; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Siddall, Mark E; Yu, Douglas W; Wilting, Andreas; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) from terrestrial haematophagous leeches has recently been proposed as a powerful non-invasive tool with which to detect vertebrate species and thus to survey their populations. However, to date little attention has been given to whether and how this, or indeed any other iDNA-derived data, can be combined with state-of-the-art analytical tools to estimate wildlife abundances, population dynamics and distributions. In this review, we discuss the challenges that face the application of existing analytical methods such as site-occupancy and spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models to terrestrial leech iDNA, in particular, possible violations of key assumptions arising from factors intrinsic to invertebrate parasite biology. Specifically, we review the advantages and disadvantages of terrestrial leeches as a source of iDNA and summarize the utility of leeches for presence, occupancy, and spatial capture-recapture models. The main source of uncertainty that attends species detections derived from leech gut contents is attributable to uncertainty about the spatio-temporal sampling frame, since leeches retain host-blood for months and can move after feeding. Subsequently, we briefly address how the analytical challenges associated with leeches may apply to other sources of iDNA. Our review highlights that despite the considerable potential of leech (and indeed any) iDNA as a new survey tool, further pilot studies are needed to assess how analytical methods can overcome or not the potential biases and assumption violations of the new field of iDNA. Specifically we argue that studies to compare iDNA sampling with standard survey methods such as camera trapping, and those to improve our knowledge on leech (and other invertebrate parasite) physiology, taxonomy, and ecology will be of immense future value. PMID:26430464

  8. A comparison of small monetary incentives to convert survey non-respondents: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maximizing response rates is critically important in order to provide the most generalizable and unbiased research results. High response rates reduce the chance of respondents being systematically different from non-respondents, and thus, reduce the risk of results not truly reflecting the study population. Monetary incentives are often used to improve response rates, but little is known about whether larger incentives improve response rates in those who previously have been unenthusiastic about participating in research. In this study we compared the response rates and cost-effectiveness of a $5 versus $2 monetary incentive accompanying a short survey mailed to patients who did not respond or refused to participate in research study with a face-to-face survey. Methods 1,328 non-responders were randomly assigned to receive $5 or $2 and a short, 10-question survey by mail. Reminder postcards were sent to everyone; those not returning the survey were sent a second survey without incentive. Overall response rates, response rates by incentive condition, and odds of responding to the larger incentive were calculated. Total costs (materials, postage, and labor) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were also calculated and compared by incentive condition. Results After the first mailing, the response rate within the $5 group was significantly higher (57.8% vs. 47.7%, p < .001); after the second mailing, the difference narrowed by 80%, resulting in a non-significant difference in cumulative rates between the $5 and $2 groups (67.3% vs. 65.4%, respectively, p = .47). Regardless of incentive or number of contacts, respondents were significantly more likely to be male, white, married, and 50-75 years old. Total costs were higher with the larger versus smaller incentive ($13.77 versus $9.95 per completed survey). Conclusions A $5 incentive provides a significantly higher response rate than a $2 incentive if only one survey mailing is used but not if two survey

  9. Awareness of dengue and practice of dengue control among the semi-urban community: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Ren, Wong Yih; Man, Chan Yuk; Fern, Koh Pei; Qiqi, Chua; Ning, Choo Ning; Ee, Clarice Wong Syun

    2011-12-01

    Primary prevention is the most effective measure in dengue prevention and control. The objectives were (i) to determine the level of knowledge and practice of dengue control amongst the study community, and (ii) to explore the factors affecting practice of dengue control in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-urban Town of Malaysia, using a structured questionnaire covering sociodemography, knowledge related to dengue, knowledge related to Aedes mosquito and preventive measures against the disease. For comparison of survey responses, chi-square test was applied for categorical data. To explore the factors affecting the practice of dengue control, a linear regression model was introduced. Almost all of the respondents (95%) had heard about dengue. Overall, misconceptions of dengue transmission were identified and the practice of dengue control in the study population was insufficient. About half (50.5%) had misconceptions that Aedes can breed in dirty water and the preferred biting time is dusk or sunset (45.6%). Only 44.5% of the households surveyed had covered their water containers properly. Significant associations were found between knowledge scores of dengue and age (P = 0.001), education level (P = 0.001), marital status (P = 0.012), and occupation (P = 0.007). In regression analysis, only the knowledge of dengue was significantly and positively associated with practice on dengue control. A future study with larger samples and more variables to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of dengue control is recommended.

  10. Control of the Public Health IT Physical Infrastructure: Findings From the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in information technology (IT) infrastructure in public health, there is still much that can be done to improve the adoption of IT in state and local health departments, by better understanding the impact of governance and control structures of physical infrastructure. Objective: To report out the current status of the physical infrastructure control of local health departments (LHDs) and to determine whether there is a significant association between an LHD's governance status and control of the physical infrastructure components. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included control of LHD physical infrastructure components. Predictors of interest included LHD governance category. Results: The majority of the control of the physical infrastructure components in LHDs resides in external entities. The type of governance structure of the LHD is significantly associated with the control of infrastructure. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to determine best practices in IT governance and control of physical infrastructure for public health. PMID:27684612

  11. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  12. 0.2-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of internal lesions of the knee joint: a prospective arthroscopically controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Riel, K A; Reinisch, M; Kersting-Sommerhoff, B; Hof, N; Merl, T

    1999-01-01

    The results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with those of arthroscopy in a prospective series of 244 patients. A dedicated system for MRI of limbs and peripheral joints--the 0.2-T Artoscan (Esaote, Italy)--was used for imaging knee joint lesions. T1-weighted spin-echo sagittal images, T2-weighted gradient-echo coronal images, and axial views for lesions of the femoropatellar joint were acquired. Paraxial sagittal and oblique coronal views were obtained for imaging of the cruciate ligaments. This protocol allowed excellent visualization of the cruciate ligaments and medial and lateral meniscus in almost all patients. Compared with arthroscopy performed within 48 h after imaging, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were respectively 93%, 97%, and 95% for tears of the medial meniscus; 82%, 96%, and 93% for tears of the lateral meniscus; 100%, 100%, and 100% for tears of the posterior cruciate ligament; 98%, 98%, and 97% for tears of the anterior cruciate ligament; and 72%, 100%, and 92% for full-thickness articular cartilage lesions. The examination can be performed within 30-45 min at lower cost than diagnostic arthroscopy. MRI with a 0.2-T magnet is a safe and valuable adjunct to the clinical examination of the knee and an aid to efficient preoperative planning.

  13. Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Kochhar, R.; Patel, F.; Dhar, A.; Sharma, S.C.; Ayyagari, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Goenka, M.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Mehta, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study, 37 consecutive patients with radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis were randomized to receive a four-week course of either 3.0 g oral sulfasalazine plus 20 mg twice daily rectal prednisolone enemas (group I, N = 18) or 2.0 g twice daily rectal sucralfate enemas plus oral placebo (group II, N = 19). The two groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, duration of symptoms, and clinical and endoscopic staging of the disease. Fifteen patients in group I and 17 in group II completed the trial. At four weeks, both groups showed significant clinical improvement (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II). When the two groups were compared, sucralfate enemas showed a significantly better response as assessed clinically (P less than 0.05), although endoscopically the response was not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). We conclude that both treatment regimens are effective in the management of radiation proctitis. Sucralfate enemas give a better clinical response, are tolerated better, and because of the lower cost should be the preferred mode of short-term treatment.

  14. The Effect of a Freely Available Flipped Classroom Course on Health Care Worker Patient Safety Culture: A Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Lowell; Gomersall, Charles David; Samy, Winnie; Joynt, Gavin Matthew; Leung, Czarina CH; Wong, Wai-Tat

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety culture is an integral aspect of good standard of care. A good patient safety culture is believed to be a prerequisite for safe medical care. However, there is little evidence on whether general education can enhance patient safety culture. Objective Our aim was to assess the impact of a standardized patient safety course on health care worker patient safety culture. Methods Health care workers from Intensive Care Units (ICU) at two hospitals (A and B) in Hong Kong were recruited to compare the changes in safety culture before and after a patient safety course. The BASIC Patient Safety course was administered only to staff from Hospital A ICU. Safety culture was assessed in both units at two time points, one before and one after the course, by using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. Responses were coded according to the Survey User’s Guide, and positive response percentages for each patient safety domain were compared to the 2012 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ICU sample of 36,120 respondents. Results We distributed 127 questionnaires across the two hospitals with an overall response rate of 74.8% (95 respondents). After the safety course, ICU A significantly improved on teamwork within hospital units (P=.008) and hospital management support for patient safety (P<.001), but decreased in the frequency of reporting mistakes compared to the initial survey (P=.006). Overall, ICU A staff showed significantly greater enhancement in positive responses in five domains than staff from ICU B. Pooled data indicated that patient safety culture was poorer in the two ICUs than the average ICU in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality database, both overall and in every individual domain except hospital management support for patient safety and hospital handoffs and transitions. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that a structured, reproducible short course on patient safety may be associated with an

  15. Final Results of a Prospective Study Comparing the Local Control of Short-Course and Long-Course Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Lange, Marisa; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Bajrovic, Amira; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Rudat, Volker; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Many patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) live long enough to develop a recurrence in the irradiated spinal area. This is the first prospective study that has compared local control of different radiotherapy schedules for MSCC. Methods and Materials: A total of 265 patients treated with radiotherapy alone were included in this prospective nonrandomized study. The primary goal was to compare local control from short-course (1 x 8 Gy/5 x 4 Gy, n = 131) and long-course radiotherapy (10 x 3 Gy/15 x 2.5 Gy/20 x 2 Gy, n = 134). Secondary end points were motor function and survival. The analysis of local control (no MSCC recurrence in the irradiated spinal area) included the 224 patients with improvement or no change of motor deficits during radiotherapy. Eleven additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: One-year local control was 61% after short-course and 81% after long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis (MVA), improved local control was associated with long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.018). Motor function improved in 37% after short-course and 39% after long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.95). Improved motor function was associated with better performance status (p = 0.015), favorable tumor type (p = 0.034), and slower development of motor deficits (p < 0.001). One-year survival rates were 23% after short-course and 30% after long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.28). On MVA, improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), no visceral metastases (p < 0.001), involvement of only one to three vertebrae (p = 0.040), ambulatory status (p = 0.038), and bisphosphonate administration after radiotherapy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Long-course radiotherapy was associated with better local control, similar functional outcome, and similar survival compared to short-course radiotherapy. Patients with a relatively favorable expected survival should receive long-course radiotherapy.

  16. Antidoping control in Brazil: history, current situation, and prospects for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Pereira dos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Ribeiro, Sergio Luiz Galan; Santos, Azenildo Moura

    2014-07-01

    Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions. PMID:24832912

  17. Invasive Candida infections in surgical patients in intensive care units: a prospective, multicentre survey initiated by the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Klingspor, L; Tortorano, A M; Peman, J; Willinger, B; Hamal, P; Sendid, B; Velegraki, A; Kibbler, C; Meis, J F; Sabino, R; Ruhnke, M; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Salonen, J; Dóczi, I

    2015-01-01

    A prospective, observational, multicentre study of invasive candidosis (IC) in surgical patients in intensive care units (ICUs) was conducted from 2006 to 2008 in 72 ICUs in 14 European countries. A total of 779 patients (62.5% males, median age 63 years) with IC were included. The median rate of candidaemia was 9 per 1000 admissions. In 10.8% the infection was already present at the time of admission to ICU. Candida albicans accounted for 54% of the isolates, followed by Candida parapsilosis 18.5%, Candida glabrata 13.8%, Candida tropicalis 6%, Candida krusei 2.5%, and other species 5.3%. Infections due to C. krusei (57.9%) and C. glabrata (43.6%) had the highest crude mortality rate. The most common preceding surgery was abdominal (51.5%), followed by thoracic (20%) and neurosurgery (8.2%). Candida glabrata was more often isolated after abdominal surgery in patients ≥60 years, and C. parapsilosis was more often isolated in neurosurgery and multiple trauma patients as well as children ≤1 year of age. The most common first-line treatment was fluconazole (60%), followed by caspofungin (18.7%), liposomal amphotericin B (13%), voriconazole (4.8%) and other drugs (3.5%). Mortality in surgical patients with IC in ICU was 38.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that factors independently associated with mortality were: patient age ≥60 years (hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, p 0.001), central venous catheter (HR 1.8, p 0.05), corticosteroids (HR 1.5, p 0.03), not receiving systemic antifungal treatment for IC (HR 2.8, p <0.0001), and not removing intravascular lines (HR 1.6, p 0.02).

  18. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) before External Cephalic Version (ECV): A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Joscha; Peiffer, Swati; Sänger, Nicole; Herrmann, Eva; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 37(0/7) (259 days) weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (n = 122). Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (n = 17), successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (n = 17) successful ECV (P > 0.05). The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (P > 0.05). In the control group (n = 122) 27.3% (n = 33) had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (P = 0.05) and hypnosis and NLP (P = 0.03). Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone.

  19. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study of Laser-Assisted Hatching on the Outcome of First Fresh IVF-ET Cycle in Advanced Age Women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenhao; Hongwei, Tan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Na; Li, Mingzhao; Li, Wei; Shi, Juanzi

    2016-10-01

    There is no sufficient data to conclude the benefit of assisted hatching (AH) for advanced age patients. However, AH is routinely performed for advanced age patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China based on some retrospective evidence. It is important to assess the benefit of AH procedure for advanced age patients, especially by analyzing the data from China. This is a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of laser AH in the advanced age patients undergoing IVF. A total of 256 patients conformed to the inclusion criteria, and 78 were excluded by exclusion criteria. A total of 178 patients were eligible and randomized to 2 groups (82 AH group and 96 control group). Laser AH (zona thinning) was performed in the AH group. There were no statistical significance in basic clinical parameters between the 2 groups. No difference was found in implantation rate (AH vs control, 32.45% vs 39.29%) and clinical pregnancy rate (AH vs control, 48.78% vs 59.38%). Our data did not find any benefit of laser AH in improving implantation or pregnancy rates in advanced age women. Due to the potential risk and increasing financial burden, AH should not be routinely performed in first fresh IVF embryo transfer cycle for advanced age women.

  20. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) before External Cephalic Version (ECV): A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Joscha; Peiffer, Swati; Sänger, Nicole; Herrmann, Eva; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 37(0/7) (259 days) weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (n = 122). Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (n = 17), successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (n = 17) successful ECV (P > 0.05). The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (P > 0.05). In the control group (n = 122) 27.3% (n = 33) had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (P = 0.05) and hypnosis and NLP (P = 0.03). Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone. PMID:22778774

  1. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) before External Cephalic Version (ECV): A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Joscha; Peiffer, Swati; Sänger, Nicole; Herrmann, Eva; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 370/7 (259 days) weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (n = 122). Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (n = 17), successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (n = 17) successful ECV (P > 0.05). The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (P > 0.05). In the control group (n = 122) 27.3% (n = 33) had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (P = 0.05) and hypnosis and NLP (P = 0.03). Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone. PMID:22778774

  2. Pneumococcal Colonization Rates in Patients Admitted to a United Kingdom Hospital with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: a Prospective Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrea M; Johnstone, Catherine M K; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; Banyard, Antonia; Hancock, Carole A; Wright, Angela D; Macfarlane, Laura; Ferreira, Daniela M; Gordon, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Current diagnostic tests are ineffective for identifying the etiological pathogen in hospitalized adults with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). The association of pneumococcal colonization with disease has been suggested as a means to increase the diagnostic precision. We compared the pneumococcal colonization rates and the densities of nasal pneumococcal colonization by (i) classical culture and (ii) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targetinglytAin patients with LRTIs admitted to a hospital in the United Kingdom and control patients. A total of 826 patients were screened for inclusion in this prospective case-control study. Of these, 38 patients were recruited, 19 with confirmed LRTIs and 19 controls with other diagnoses. Nasal wash (NW) samples were collected at the time of recruitment. Pneumococcal colonization was detected in 1 patient with LRTI and 3 controls (P= 0.6) by classical culture. By qPCR, pneumococcal colonization was detected in 10 LRTI patients and 8 controls (P= 0.5). Antibiotic usage prior to sampling was significantly higher in the LRTI group than in the control group (19 versus 3;P< 0.001). With a clinically relevant cutoff of >8,000 copies/ml on qPCR, pneumococcal colonization was found in 3 LRTI patients and 4 controls (P> 0.05). We conclude that neither the prevalence nor the density of nasal pneumococcal colonization (by culture and qPCR) can be used as a method of microbiological diagnosis in hospitalized adults with LRTI in the United Kingdom. A community-based study recruiting patients prior to antibiotic therapy may be a useful future step.

  3. Pneumococcal Colonization Rates in Patients Admitted to a United Kingdom Hospital with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: a Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Catherine M. K.; Gritzfeld, Jenna F.; Banyard, Antonia; Hancock, Carole A.; Wright, Angela D.; Macfarlane, Laura; Ferreira, Daniela M.

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests are ineffective for identifying the etiological pathogen in hospitalized adults with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). The association of pneumococcal colonization with disease has been suggested as a means to increase the diagnostic precision. We compared the pneumococcal colonization rates and the densities of nasal pneumococcal colonization by (i) classical culture and (ii) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting lytA in patients with LRTIs admitted to a hospital in the United Kingdom and control patients. A total of 826 patients were screened for inclusion in this prospective case-control study. Of these, 38 patients were recruited, 19 with confirmed LRTIs and 19 controls with other diagnoses. Nasal wash (NW) samples were collected at the time of recruitment. Pneumococcal colonization was detected in 1 patient with LRTI and 3 controls (P = 0.6) by classical culture. By qPCR, pneumococcal colonization was detected in 10 LRTI patients and 8 controls (P = 0.5). Antibiotic usage prior to sampling was significantly higher in the LRTI group than in the control group (19 versus 3; P < 0.001). With a clinically relevant cutoff of >8,000 copies/ml on qPCR, pneumococcal colonization was found in 3 LRTI patients and 4 controls (P > 0.05). We conclude that neither the prevalence nor the density of nasal pneumococcal colonization (by culture and qPCR) can be used as a method of microbiological diagnosis in hospitalized adults with LRTI in the United Kingdom. A community-based study recruiting patients prior to antibiotic therapy may be a useful future step. PMID:26791364

  4. The role of parental control and modelling in predicting a child's diet and relationship with food after they leave home. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Emma; Ogden, Jane

    2014-05-01

    Research indicates that parental control and parental modelling are key factors in shaping a child's eating behaviour. To date, however, little is known about how these factors influence a child's diet once they have left home. This prospective study evaluated the extent to which a parent's own behaviour and their use of control over food whilst their child was still living at home predicted their child's relationship with food once they had begun to live independently. Parent/child dyads (n=93) took part in the study. Parents completed baseline measures of parental control practices (overt control, covert control and pressure to eat), their own diet (unhealthy snacks, unhealthy meals, healthy foods) and eating behaviours (emotional, uncontrolled and restrained eating). At one year follow up, once their child had left home, the child completed measures of their own diet and eating behaviours. The results showed a clear role for modelling with concordance between a child's intake of unhealthy snacks and emotional eating and their parents' own reports of these behaviours. Furthermore, the child's intake of healthy foods was also predicted by their parent's behaviour although there was both concordance and discordance between parents and their children. No role for parental control was found for any measure of diet or eating behaviour. It is concluded that a parent's own behaviour rather than parental control has a stronger longer lasting influence once a child has left home and that although this mostly involves a child copying their parent's behaviour (action) at times it also involves the opposite (reaction). PMID:24480669

  5. Adolescent survey non-response and later risk of death. A prospective cohort study of 78 609 persons with 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Rimpelä, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-response in survey studies is a growing problem and, being usually selective, it leads to under- or overestimation of health outcomes in the follow-up. We followed both respondents and non-respondents by registry linkage to determine whether there is a risk of death, related to non-response at baseline. Methods Sample data of biennial surveys to 12-18-year-old Finns in 1979–1997 were linked with national death registry up to 2001. The number of respondents was 62 528 (79.6%) and non-respondents 16 081 (20.4%). The average follow-up was 11.1 years, totalling 876 400 person-years. The risk of death between non-respondents and respondents was estimated by hazard ratios (HR). Results The number of deaths per 100 000 person-years were 229 in non-respondents and 447 in respondents (HR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.6). The hazard ratios of death were for intoxication 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9–5.4), for disease 3.1 (95% CI: 2.2–4.1), for violence-related injury 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5–2.6) and for unintentional injury 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3–2.4) in non-respondents vs. respondents. The association between non-response and death increased with age at baseline, and the increase persisted after the age of 25. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly increased rates of death among adolescent non-respondents in a follow-up. The highest hazard ratios were seen in disease- and violence-related deaths. The death rate varied between respondents and non-respondents by death type. Increased rates of death persisted beyond the age of 25. PMID:17519009

  6. Effect of diaper cream and wet wipes on skin barrier properties in infants: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Lünnemann, Lena; Stroux, Andrea; Kottner, Jan; Serrano, José; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different diaper care procedures on skin barrier function in infants has been minimally investigated and may be assessed using objective methods. In a single-center, prospective trial, 89 healthy 9-month-old infants (±8 wks) were randomly assigned to three diaper care regimens: group I used water-moistened washcloths at diaper changes (n = 30), group II additionally applied diaper cream twice daily (n = 28), and group III used wet wipes and diaper cream twice daily (n = 31). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration (SCH), skin pH, interleukin 1α (IL-1α) levels, and microbiologic colonization were measured in diapered skin (upper outer quadrant of the buttocks), nondiapered skin (upper leg), and if diaper dermatitis (DD) occurred, using the most affected skin area at day 1 and weeks 4 and 8. Skin condition was assessed utilizing a neonatal skin condition score and diaper rash grade. On diapered skin, SCH decreased in groups II and III, whereas TEWL values were reduced in group II only. Skin pH increased in groups II and III. In general, SCH, skin pH, and IL-1α levels were higher in healthy diapered skin than in nondiapered skin. The incidence and course of DD was comparable in all groups. Areas with DD had greater TEWL and skin pH than unaffected skin areas. Infants who received diaper cream had lower SCH and TEWL and higher pH levels in the diapered area than on nondiapered skin. No correlation with the occurrence of DD was found.

  7. Lurasidone adjunctive with lithium or valproate for bipolar depression: A placebo-controlled trial utilizing prospective and retrospective enrolment cohorts.

    PubMed

    Suppes, Trisha; Kroger, Hans; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2016-07-01

    In this study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of lurasidone as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate, patients with bipolar I depression were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone (N = 180) or placebo (N = 176), added to background treatment with lithium or valproate. All patients were treated with lithium or valproate for a minimum of 4 weeks prior to screening. This was confirmed either by prospective treatment after study enrolment (run-in cohort), or retrospectively, with blood levels of lithium and valproate at screening (non-run-in cohort). Primary and key secondary endpoints were change from baseline to week 6 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and depression severity score on the Clinical Global Impressions scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP-S), respectively. Treatment with lurasidone was associated with non-significant improvement at week 6 vs. placebo for the MADRS total score (-11.8 vs -10.4; P = 0.176), and the CGI-BP-S score (-1.36 vs -1.13; P = 0.095). Significant separation from placebo was observed from weeks 2-5 for the MADRS and weeks 3-5 for the CGI-BP-S. Improvement in the placebo-subtracted MADRS total score was notably larger at week 6 for the non-run-in cohort compared to the run-in cohort (LS mean difference in endpoint change scores, -4.6; P = 0.009). Adverse events most frequently reported for lurasidone were akathisia, somnolence, and extrapyramidal side effects. In conclusion, lurasidone adjunctive with lithium or valproate demonstrated significant improvement in depressive symptoms based on the MADRS from weeks 2-5 but not at the primary week 6 endpoint. PMID:27089521

  8. A prospective randomized control study comparing classic laryngeal mask airway with Guedel's airway for tracheal tube exchange and smooth extubation

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shruti; Nazir, Nazia; Khan, Rashid M.; Ahmed, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Extubation in deep plane of anesthesia followed by Guedel's oropharyngeal airway (OPA™) insertion is a routine method to avoid hemodynamic changes associated with tracheal extubation. Exchange of endotracheal tube (ETT) with Classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA™) prior to emergence from anesthesia also serves similar purpose. We had compared the hemodynamic changes involved during this ETT/LMA™ and ETT/OPA™ exchange technique. Material and Methods: This was a randomized prospective study on ASA I and 2 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. These patients were randomly divided into two groups i.e. OPA group and LMA group of 50 patients each. Hemodynamic parameters i.e. systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during exchange of ETT with OPA™ or LMA™. Coughing / bucking during removal of OPA™ and LMA™, and presence of post operative sore throat for both the groups were also graded and recorded. Data within the groups have been analyzed using paired “t” test while those between the groups were analyzed using unpaired “t” test. Chi square test was used to analyze grades of coughing and post operative sore throat. Results: In both groups, hemodynamic parameters rose significantly as OPA™/LMA™ was placed (P < 0.05) and then started declining. Hemodynamic parameters continued to fall in LMA group after extubation. However in OPA group, hemodynamic parameters continued to rise even after extubation and declined only when OPA™ was removed. There was no statistical significant difference between the LMA and OPA group in respect to coughing and post operative sore throat. Conclusion: LMA™ is superior to OPA™ for exchange of ETT as it provides greater hemodynamic stability. PMID:27746550

  9. Prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis, compared to atopic dermatitis and normal controls--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Vera; Ramot, Yuval; Siam, Rula; Siam, Ihab; Hadayer, Noa; Strauss-Liviatan, Nurith; Hochberg, Malka

    2014-12-01

    There are discrepancies in the literature regarding the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis compared to atopic dermatitis patients and normal controls. We enrolled 232 psoriatic patients, 190 atopic dermatitis patients and 202 normal controls, between the years 2010 and 2013. The prevalence of tinea pedis was 13.8% in psoriasis patients, not significantly different from that in atopic dermatitis patients 8.4% (P = 0.092)), but significantly higher than in normal controls 7.4% (P = 0.043). Both gender and age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis and normal controls, while only age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in atopic dermatitis. Regarding gender, there was higher prevalence of tinea pedis in men: 19.1% (P = 0.019) in psoriasis and 12.1% (P = 0.013) in normal controls. Age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in normal controls (P < 0.001), psoriasis patients (P = 0.001) and atopic dermatitis patients (P = 0.001), with higher prevalence with increasing age. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species in psoriasis (71.9%), atopic dermatitis (75.0%) and normal controls (73.3%). Our study found a relatively high prevalence of tinea pedis among psoriasis patients.

  10. Prospective survey of veterinary practitioners’ primary assessment of equine colic: clinical features, diagnoses, and treatment of 120 cases of large colon impaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Large colon impactions are a common cause of colic in the horse. There are no scientific reports on the clinical presentation, diagnostic tests and treatments used in first opinion practice for large colon impaction cases. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation, diagnostic approach and treatment at the primary assessment of horses with large colon impactions. Methods Data were collected prospectively from veterinary practitioners on the primary assessment of equine colic cases over a 12 month period. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of primary large colon impaction and positive findings on rectal examination. Data recorded for each case included history, signalment, clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment on primary assessment and final case outcome. Case outcomes were categorised into three groups: simple medical (resolved with single treatment), complicated medical (resolved with multiple medical treatments) and critical (required surgery, were euthanased or died). Univariable analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test, Kruskal Wallis with Dunn’s post-hoc test and Chi squared analysis were used to compare between different outcome categories. Results 1032 colic cases were submitted by veterinary practitioners: 120 cases met the inclusion criteria for large colon impaction. Fifty three percent of cases were categorised as simple medical, 36.6% as complicated medical, and 9.2% as critical. Most cases (42.1%) occurred during the winter. Fifty nine percent of horses had had a recent change in management, 43% of horses were not ridden, and 12.5% had a recent / current musculoskeletal injury. Mean heart rate was 43bpm (range 26-88) and most cases showed mild signs of pain (67.5%) and reduced gut sounds (76%). Heart rate was significantly increased and gut sounds significantly decreased in critical compared to simple medical cases (p<0.05). Fifty different treatment combinations were used, with NSAIDs (93%) and oral

  11. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities.

  12. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    PubMed

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  13. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    PubMed

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  14. Prospects and recommendations for risk mapping to improve strategies for effective malaria vector control interventions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Temitope O; Fuller, Douglas O; Quinones, Martha L; Xue, Rui-De; Herrera, Socrates V; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Ulrich, Jill N; Qualls, Whitney A; Beier, John C

    2015-12-23

    With malaria control in Latin America firmly established in most countries and a growing number of these countries in the pre-elimination phase, malaria elimination appears feasible. A review of the literature indicates that malaria elimination in this region will be difficult without locally tailored strategies for vector control, which depend on more research on vector ecology, genetics and behavioural responses to environmental changes, such as those caused by land cover alterations, and human population movements. An essential way to bridge the knowledge gap and improve vector control is through risk mapping. Malaria risk maps based on statistical and knowledge-based modelling can elucidate the links between environmental factors and malaria vectors, explain interactions between environmental changes and vector dynamics, and provide a heuristic to demonstrate how the environment shapes malaria transmission. To increase the utility of risk mapping in guiding vector control activities, definitions of malaria risk for mapping purposes must be standardized. The maps must also possess appropriate scale and resolution in order to become essential tools in integrated vector management (IVM), so that planners can target areas in greatest need of control measures. Fully integrating risk mapping into vector control programmes will make interventions more evidence-based, making malaria elimination more attainable.

  15. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  16. Ultrasound guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine for patients undergoing robotic assisted hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Jacob; Delaney, Daniel; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Ghebre, Rahel G.; Downs, Levi S.; Carson, Linda; Mullany, Sally; Teoh, Deanna; Geller, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimal pain control after major surgery contributes to a patient’s recovery and satisfaction. The use of liposomal bupivacaine in subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for postoperative pain control after robot assisted abdominal surgery has yet to be studied. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled observer-blinded study comparing bilateral subcostal TAP blocks with bupivacaine to bilateral subcostal TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine. These were performed prior to the patient undergoing robot assisted hysterectomy. The patients’ pain scores, opioid use, side effects, and satisfaction were followed for 72 h after injection. Results Total opioid use in the first 72 h after injection was significantly decreased in the group that received liposomal bupivacaine compared to bupivacaine. Patients in the liposomal bupivacaine group had significantly lower maximal pain scores at all time periods studied as well as decreased incidence of nausea/vomiting. There was a trend toward decreased length of stay in the liposomal bupivacaine group. Conclusion Subcostal TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine decreased the total opioid requirement for the first 72 h after robot assisted hysterectomy when compared to subcostal TAP blocks with bupivacaine. PMID:26056753

  17. Patient-Specific CT-Based Instrumentation versus Conventional Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on Clinical Outcomes and In-Hospital Data

    PubMed Central

    Kotela, Andrzej; Lorkowski, Jacek; Kucharzewski, Marek; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Śliwiński, Zbigniew; Frańczuk, Bogusław; Łęgosz, Paweł  ; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a frequently performed procedure in orthopaedic surgery. Recently, patient-specific instrumentation was introduced to facilitate correct positioning of implants. The aim of this study was to compare the early clinical results of TKA performed with patient-specific CT-based instrumentation and conventional technique. A prospective, randomized controlled trial on 112 patients was performed between January 2011 and December 2011. A group of 112 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group comprised 52 patients who received the Signature CT-based implant positioning system, and the control group consisted of 60 patients with conventional instrumentation. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the KSS scale, WOMAC scale, and VAS scales to assess knee pain severity and patient satisfaction with the surgery. Specified in-hospital data were recorded. Patients were followed up for 12 months. At one year after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to clinical outcomes and in-hospital data, including operative time, blood loss, hospital length of stay, intraoperative observations, and postoperative complications. Further high-quality investigations of various patient-specific systems and longer follow-up may be helpful in assessing their utility for TKA. PMID:26301241

  18. Effect of multifaceted intervention promoting early switch from intravenous to oral acetaminophen for postoperative pain: controlled, prospective, before and after study

    PubMed Central

    Ripouteau, Claire; Conort, Ornella; Lamas, Jean Paul; Auleley, Guy-Robert; Hazebroucq, Georges; Durieux, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Problem Need to improve the efficiency of postoperative pain management by early switching from intravenous to oral acetaminophen. Design Implementation of local guidelines aimed at improving nurses' and doctors' behaviour. A controlled, prospective, before and after study evaluated its impact on appropriateness and costs. Background and setting Orthopaedic surgery department (intervention) and all other surgical departments (control) of a university hospital. Five anaesthetists and 30 nurses of orthopaedic department participated in study. Key measures for improvement Reducing number of acetaminophen injections per patient, reducing consumption of acetaminophen injections; cost savings over a one year period. Strategies for improvement Multifaceted intervention included a local consensus process, short educational presentation, poster displayed in all nurses' offices, and feedback of practices six months after implementation of guidelines. Effects of change Mean number of acetaminophen injections per patient decreased from 6.81 before intervention to 2.36 six months after. Monthly consumption of acetaminophen injections per 100 patients decreased by 320.9 (95% confidence interval 192.4 to 449.4) in intervention department and remained unchanged in control departments. Annual cost reduction was projected to be £15 100. Lessons learnt Simple and locally implemented guidelines can improve practices and cut costs. Educational interventions can improve professionals' behaviour when they are based on actual working practices, use interactive techniques such as discussion groups, and are associated with other effective implementation strategies. PMID:11110743

  19. Young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs prospectively predict their actions: findings from an Australian National Survey of Youth.

    PubMed

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2012-04-30

    Little is known about whether mental health first aid knowledge and beliefs of young people actually translate into actual behavior. This study examined whether young people's first aid intentions and beliefs predicted the actions they later took to help a close friend or family member with a mental health problem. Participants in a 2006 national survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their first aid intentions and beliefs based on one of four vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, psychosis, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they reported on actions they had taken to help any family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview. Of the 2005 participants interviewed at follow-up, 608 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Overall, young people's first aid intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of particular first aid actions predicted the actions they actually took to assist a close other. However, the belief in and intention to encourage professional help did not predict subsequent action. Findings suggest that young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs may be valid indicators of their subsequent actions.

  20. Controlling for Rater Effects When Comparing Survey Items with Incomplete Likert Data. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Sun, Anji

    This study was concerned with ranking items with Likert scale data when the items are subject to systematic (nonrandom) patterns of nonresponse. Researchers applied the rating scale model of D. Andrich (1978) to data from a survey in which the item response rate varied from less than 1% to over 90%. Data were from a section of the Student Opinion…

  1. 76 FR 2398 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69681) and allowed 60.... Affected public: Individuals. Types of Respondents: U.S. adults and adolescents (persons 12 years of age... Adolescents Adolescent Pilot 6 1 2/60 .20 Adolescent 1,100 1 2/60 36.67 Survey. Total 17,156 2,176.87...

  2. Multifactor Screener in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement: Scoring Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables, using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  3. The efficacy of peritubal analgesic infiltration in postoperative pain following percutaneous nephrolithotomy – A prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lojanapiwat, Bannakij; Chureemas, Tanarit; Kittirattarakarn, Pruit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the efficacy of peritubal infiltration in postoperative pain following percutaneous nephrolithotomy in general PCNL patients and PCNL patients with supracostal renal access. Patients and Methods: A total of 105 PCNL patients were randomized into two groups, 53 patients receiving peritubal analgesic infiltration (study group) and 52 patients as the control group. Of these patients, supracostal access was performed in 22 patients of study group and 23 patients of control group. The study group received peritubal injection with 10mL of bupivacain. Postoperative pain as the primary outcome was assessed by using visual analogue scale at 1, 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. The secondary outcomes were the total postoperative morphine usage in 24 hours and time of the first analgesic demand. Results: The average VAS pain at 1 and 4 hours after the operation in the study group were significant lower in the control group (P≤0.001 and 0.026). Doses of morphine usage for controlling postoperative pain and the first analgesic demand were significantly lower and longer in study group. Among patients submitted to supracostal access, the average VAS pain at 1 hour after operation in the study group was lower (P=0.018). Doses of morphine usage for controlling postoperative pain also was lower in the study group (P=0.012). Conclusion: The peritubal local anesthetic infiltration is effective in alleviating immediate postoperative pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy even with supracostal access. PMID:26689520

  4. Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Patterns Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-Up Survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of dietary pattern is increasingly popular in nutritional epidemiology. However, few studies have examined the validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns. We assessed the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Methods The participants were a subsample (244 men and 254 women) from the JPHC Study. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns from 28- or 14-day dietary records and 2 FFQs. To assess reproducibility and validity, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between dietary pattern scores derived from FFQs separated by a 1-year interval, and between dietary pattern scores derived from dietary records and those derived from a FFQ completed after the dietary records, respectively. Results We identified 3 Japanese dietary patterns from the dietary records and 2 FFQs: prudent, westernized, and traditional. Regarding reproducibility, Spearman correlation coefficients between the 2 FFQs ranged from 0.55 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men and the prudent Japanese pattern in women to 0.77 for the traditional Japanese pattern in men. Regarding validity, the corresponding values between dietary records and the FFQ ranged from 0.32 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men to 0.63 for the traditional Japanese pattern in women. Conclusions Acceptable reproducibility and validity was shown by the 3 dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis based on the FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study. PMID:22343330

  5. Patient’s self-evaluation of two education programs for age-related skin changes in the face: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Linda M; Alderman, Jane E; Cussell, Garry; Goldston, John; Hamilton, Neal; Lim, Adrian C; Goodman, Greg J; Halstead, Michael B; Rogers, John D

    2011-01-01

    Background: An interactive software program (HOYS) has been developed utilizing a database of digital images depicting various aspects and degrees of aging of exposed skin across seven geographic regions, representing a total of 35 facial and extrafacial subregions. A five-point photonumeric rating scale, which portrays age-related skin changes across five decades for each of these subregions, underpins this patient-based interactive self-assessment program. Based on the resulting outputs from this program, an individualized treatment prioritization list is generated for each region where significant differences between the patient’s chronological and esthetic ages exist. This provides guidance for the patient and the treating physician on treatment options. Methods: To evaluate the utility of HOYS in the clinic, relative to education programs currently used in Australian private esthetic clinics, a total of 95 esthetically-orientated patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Results: Compared with a prospective cohort of patients completing a standard education program commonly utilized in Australian esthetic clinics, patients receiving the HOYS education program reported greater empowerment through improved knowledge of specific age-related skin changes. This was associated with a clearer understanding of treatment options available to them, and a perceived ability to participate in the selection of the treatments potentially administered to improve their appearance. These differences between the two education groups were highly significant. Conclusion: Patients completing the HOYS patient education program have an improved understanding of age-related changes to exposed skin of their face, neck, décolletage, and hands. Due to the patient-specific nature of the program, these patients perceive a greater role in the deciding which esthetic treatments should be subsequently administered to enhance their appearance

  6. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Ramipril In Aortic Stenosis (RIAS trial)

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Sacha; Loudon, Margaret; Francis, Jane M.; Joseph, Jubin; Gerry, Stephen; Karamitsos, Theodoros D.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Banning, Adrian P.; Neubauer, Stefan; Myerson, Saul G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve left ventricular (LV) remodelling and outcome in heart failure and hypertensive heart disease. They may be similarly beneficial in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), but historical safety concerns have limited their use, and no prospective clinical trials exist. Methods and results We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 100 patients with moderate or severe asymptomatic AS to examine the physiological effects of ramipril, particularly LV mass (LVM) regression. Subjects were randomized to ramipril 10 mg daily (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 1 year, and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and exercise testing at 0, 6, and 12 months, with follow-up data available in 77 patients. There was a modest but progressive reduction in LVM (the primary end point) in the ramipril group vs. the placebo group (mean change −3.9 vs. +4.5 g, respectively, P = 0.0057). There were also trends towards improvements in myocardial physiology: the ramipril group showed preserved tissue Doppler systolic velocity compared with placebo (+0.0 vs. −0.5 cm/s, P = 0.04), and a slower rate of progression of the AS (valve area 0.0 cm2 in the ramipril group vs. −0.2 cm2 in the placebo arm, P = 0.067). There were no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events. Conclusion ACE inhibition leads to a modest, but progressive reduction in LVM in asymptomatic patients with moderate–severe AS compared with placebo, with trends towards improvements in myocardial physiology and slower progression of valvular stenosis. A larger clinical outcome trial to confirm these findings and explore their clinical relevance is required. PMID:25796267

  7. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders: study protocol for a nationwide prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christoffer Torgaard; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Andersen, Per Kragh; Giacco, Domenico; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Larger studies are needed to estimate the effect of patient-controlled hospital admission on the use of coercion and of healthcare services. Design and methods We aim to recruit at least 315 patients who are offered a contract for patient-controlled hospital admissions in eight different hospitals in Denmark. Patients will be followed-up for at least 1 year to compare the use of coercive measures and of healthcare services, the use of medications and suicidal behaviour. Descriptive statistics will be used to investigate hospitalisations, global assessment of functioning (GAF) and patient satisfaction with treatment. To minimise selection bias, we will match individuals using patient-controlled hospital admission and controls with a 1:5 ratio via a propensity score based on the following factors: sex, age group, primary diagnosis, substance abuse as secondary diagnosis, coercion, number of psychiatric bed days, psychiatric history, urbanity and suicidal behaviour. Additionally, a historical control study will be undertaken in which patients serve as their own control group prior to index date. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority (j.nr.: 3-3013-934/1/) and by The Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr.: 2012-58-0004). The study was categorised as a register study by The Danish Health Research Ethics Committee and therefore no further approval was needed (j.nr.: H-2-2014-FSP70

  8. Survey of Visual and Force/Tactile Control of Robots for Physical Interaction in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriel J.; Corrales, Juan A.; Pomares, Jorge; Torres, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Sensors provide robotic systems with the information required to perceive the changes that happen in unstructured environments and modify their actions accordingly. The robotic controllers which process and analyze this sensory information are usually based on three types of sensors (visual, force/torque and tactile) which identify the most widespread robotic control strategies: visual servoing control, force control and tactile control. This paper presents a detailed review on the sensor architectures, algorithmic techniques and applications which have been developed by Spanish researchers in order to implement these mono-sensor and multi-sensor controllers which combine several sensors. PMID:22303146

  9. Assessing the efficiency of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for stones in renal units with impaired function: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anand; Sinha, Tapan; Karan, S C; Sandhu, A S; Gupta, S K; Sethi, G S; Talwar, R; Narang, V; Adlakha, N; Agarwal, A

    2006-08-01

    The objective was to determine the efficiency of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in clearing stones from renal units with impaired function. Thirty-five patients with poorly functioning kidneys determined by intravenous urogram and 99mtechnetium diethylene triamine pentacetic acid renal dynamic scan underwent ESWL. Stone clearance was assessed at 3 months and compared with that in normally functioning kidneys. The study group was divided into two subgroups. Those with split glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the concerned kidney between 10 and 20 ml/min were in group 1. Group 2 consisted of patients with split GFR between 20 and 30 ml/min. A control group (group 3) was formed from patients with urolithiasis and normally functioning kidneys. The overall retreatment rate was 84.4%. The overall stone clearance rate in the study group was 34.2% while it was 57.7% in the control group. The stone clearance rate in group 2 was 40%. The difference in stone clearance rate between the study and control groups was statistically significant (P=0.023) but that between group 2 and the control group was not (P=0.159). The incidence of steinstrasse between the study group 2 and control group was not statistically significant (P=0.408). The clearance rate for ureteral stones was comparable in all the three groups. The stone-free rate and rate of steinstrasse for renal stones in kidneys with moderately impaired function were comparable to normally functioning kidneys. However, kidneys with severely impaired function had poor results. The clearance rate for ureteral stones was not influenced by the impairment of renal function.

  10. Normobaric Hyperoxia for Treatment of Pneumocephalus after Posterior Fossa Surgery in the Semisitting Position: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bujung; Biertz, Frank; Raab, Peter; Scheinichen, Dirk; Ertl, Philipp; Grosshennig, Anika; Nakamura, Makoto; Hermann, Elvis J.; Lang, Josef M.; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Krauss, Joachim K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Supratentorial pneumocephalus after posterior fossa surgery in the semisitting position may lead to decreased alertness and other symptoms. We here aimed to prove the efficacy of normobaric hyperoxia on the absorption of postoperative pneumocephalus according to a standardized treatment protocol. Methods and Findings We enrolled 44 patients with postoperative supratentorial pneumocephalus (> 30 ml) after posterior fossa surgery in a semisitting position. After randomisation procedure, patients received either normobaric hyperoxia at FiO2 100% over an endotracheal tube for 3 hours (treatment arm) or room air (control arm). Routine cranial CT scans were performed immediately (CT1) and 24 hours (CT2) after completion of surgery and were rated without knowledge of the therapy arm. Two co-primary endpoints were assessed: (i) mean change of pneumocephalus volume, and (ii) air resorption rate in 24 hours. Secondary endpoints were subjective alertness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale) postoperatively and attention (Stroop test), which were evaluated preoperatively and 24 hours after surgery. The mean change in pneumocephalus volume was higher in patients in the treatment arm as compared to patients in the control arm (p = 0.001). The air resorption rate was higher in patients in the treatment arm as compared to patients in the control arm (p = 0.0015). Differences were more pronounced in patients aged 52 years and older. No difference between patients in treatment arm and control arm was observed for the Stroop test. The distribution of scores in the Stanford Sleepiness Scale differed in the treatment arm as compared to the control arm, and there was a difference in mean values (p = 0.015). Conclusions Administration of normobaric hyperoxia at FiO2 100% via an endotracheal tube for 3 hours is safe and efficacious in the treatment of pneumocephalus after posterior fossa surgery in the semisitting position. Largest benefit was found in elderly patients and particularly

  11. 1978 Houston-Galveston and Texas Gulf Coast vertical-control surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, E.I.

    1980-11-01

    Comparisons between leveling surveys of different epochs are used to determine vertical displacement of permanent bench marks. Displacement of bench marks usually represents the movement of the surrounding area. In this report, the 1978 Houston-Galveston and Texas Gulf Coast releveling surveys are compared to the 1963, 1973, and 1976 releveling results. The changes in elevations of bench marks common to two or more epochs are tabulated and plotted in Appendix A. From these differences, contour maps were prepared for the 1963 to 1978 and 1973 to 1978 epochs in the 2/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ area of maximum subsidence. Annual subsidence rates computed for the 1973 to 1978 period are about 25% less in the maximum subsidence area than the rates computed for the 1963 to 1973 period.

  12. Preliminary survey report: control technology for gallium arsenide processing at Hewlett Packard, San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, K.L.

    1987-04-01

    A walk-through survey of the Hewlett Packard Company facility in San Jose, California, was prompted by an interest in the use of gallium arsenide as an alternative to silicon for the semiconductor industry. This facility produced gallium-arsenide and gallium phosphide Potential hazards existed from solvents, acids, and gases employed in wafer production. Some of the solvents included fluorocarbon compounds, xylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane Arsine, phosphine, hydrogen, and silane gases were used in the production processes. Worker exposures to gallium arsenide or arsenic dust were lower during the cleaning operation than they had been in other similar facilities, perhaps due to the small size of the crystal pullers used at this particular facility. According to the author, this facility is a possible candidate for an in-depth industry survey, but may not be representative of the entire industry.

  13. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    PubMed

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  14. Prospective, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of an Octenidine-based hydrogel on bacterial colonisation and epithelialization of skin graft wounds in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    W, Eisenbeiß; F, Siemers; G, Amtsberg; P, Hinz; B, Hartmann; T, Kohlmann; A, Ekkernkamp; U, Albrecht; O, Assadian; A, Kramer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Moist wound treatment improves healing of skin graft donor site wounds. Microbial colonised wounds represent an increased risk of wound infection; while antimicrobially active, topical antiseptics may impair epithelialization. Objectives: The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to examine the influence of an Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) hydrogel on bacterial colonisation and epithelialization of skin graft donor sites. Methods: The study was designed as a randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. Skin graft donor sites from a total of 61 patients were covered either with 0.05% OCT (n=31) or an OCT-free placebo wound hydrogel (n=30). Potential interaction with wound healing was assessed by measuring the time until 100% re-epithelialization. In addition, microbial wound colonisation was quantitatively determined in all skin graft donor sites. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the time for complete epithelialization of skin graft donor sites in the OCT and the placebo group (7.3±0.2 vs. 6.9±0.2 days; p=0.236). Microbial wound colonisation was significantly lower in the OCT group than in the placebo group (p=0.014). Conclusions: The OCT-based hydrogel showed no delay in wound epithelialization and demonstrated a significantly lower bacterial colonisation of skin graft donor site wounds. PMID:23071904

  15. Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Outcomes in Children With Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy Admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasmine; Singhi, Pratibha; Singhi, Sunit; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Saini, Arushi Gahlot

    2016-05-01

    The authors prospectively compared the neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes in 50 consecutive children with sepsis-associated encephalopathy admitted to intensive care unit with healthy controls. Children with sepsis-associated encephalopathy had significantly worse mean verbal IQ, full-scale IQ, General Development Score, and its physical, adaptive, social-emotional, cognitive, and communication subscales. Significant proportion of cases (52% vs 32% in controls) had low intelligence. Decline in school performance (44%), disobedience (28%), and stubbornness/irritable behavior (26%) were the most common behavior changes. Children with Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤10 and ≤8 had impairments in full-scale IQ even though overall Glasgow Coma Scale score did not show significant correlation with developmental outcomes. In conclusion, children with sepsis-associated encephalopathy have delayed neurodevelopment, low verbal IQ, decline in school performance and low intelligence at short-term follow-up. Irritability, shock and duration of sedation are associated with poor behavioral outcomes, especially scholastic performance. PMID:26500243

  16. Cadmium exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and case-control studies among individuals without occupational exposure history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Sekikawa, Akira; He, Ka

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed-effect model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.58-2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.04-3.05) but not in women (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.63-1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference.

  17. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  18. Survey of piloting factors in V/STOL aircraft with implications for flight control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Craig, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight control system design factors involved for pilot workload relief are identified. Major contributors to pilot workload include configuration management and control and aircraft stability and response qualities. A digital fly by wire stability augmentation, configuration management, and configuration control system is suggested for reduction of pilot workload during takeoff, hovering, and approach.

  19. Effect of nebulized colistin on the ventilator circuit: a prospective pilot case- control study from a single cancer center.

    PubMed

    Ghonimat, Iyad M; Nazer, Lama H; Aqel, Flsteen; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Hawari, Feras I; Le, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Nebulized colistin (NC) is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug- resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC) components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult medical/surgical intensive care unit at King Hussein Cancer Center. In the case group, 22 (88%) patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit). The median number of changes (range) per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2 (1-3), 2 (1-6), and 1 (1-2), respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  20. The effect of early warm plastic bag application on postoperative pain after hemorrhoidectomy: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Balta, Ahmet Ziya; Ozdemir, Yavuz; Sucullu, Ilker; Filiz, Ali Ilker; Yucel, Ergun; Akin, Mehmet Levhi

    2015-02-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy is used for the surgical treatment of high-grade hemorrhoids. The most prominent complaint after hemorrhoidectomy is pain. Postoperative pain management is still a big problem after surgery in patients with hemorrhoidectomy. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early application of warm bag on postoperative pain after hemorrhoidectomy. All patients were randomly divided into warm plastic bag and control groups by using sealed envelopes, which were prepared preoperatively. After standard spinal anesthesia, all patients underwent standard Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy using Ligasure™. Although the study group received the warm bag application, the control group did not receive such a treatment. Two separate visual analog scale (VAS) measurements were performed for postoperative pain assessments on postoperative days, one during the resting state and the other one during the straining phase after the onset of peristaltic bowel movement. Postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower among the warm plastic bag group as compared with the control group on Days 1 and 3 for the resting state and on Day 3 for defecation. Additionally, a significant difference existed between the two groups in terms of the need for additional anesthesia. Local thermal application appears to be a safe and effective method for pain relief after hemorrhoidectomy.

  1. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to ‘boost their vigour, resilience and performance’. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach. PMID:24535390

  2. Monitoring Fine-Grained Sediment in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona - Control Network and Conventional Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Roderic A.; Kohl, Keith; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam was initiated to survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents the methods used to establish the high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) control network required for this effort as well as the conventional surveying techniques used in the study. Using simultaneous, dual-frequency GPS vector-based methods, the network points were determined to have positioning accuracies of less than 0.03 meters (m) and ellipsoidal height accuracies of between 0.01 and 0.10 m at a 95-percent degree of confidence. We also assessed network point quality with repeated, electronic (optical) total-station observations at 39 points for a total of 362 measurements; the mean range was 0.022 m in horizontal and 0.13 in vertical at a 95-percent confidence interval. These results indicate that the control network is of sufficient spatial and vertical accuracy for collection of airborne and subaerial remote-sensing technologies and integration of these data in a geographic information system on a repeatable basis without anomalies. The monitoring methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches over various time intervals. The reaches varied from 1.3 to 6.4 kilometers in length. Field results from surveys in 2000, 2002, and 2004 are described, during which conventional surveying was used to collect more than 3000 points per day. Ground points were used as checkpoints and to supplement areas just below or above the water surface, where remote-sensing data are not collected or are subject to greater error. An accuracy of +or- 0.05 m was identified as the minimum precision of individual ground points. These results are important for assessing digital elevation model (DEM) quality and identifying detection limits of significant change among surfaces generated from remote-sensing technologies.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Brennan, Paul; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non–type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers. PMID:25667279

  4. Head Trauma with or without Mild Brain Injury Increases the Risk of Future Traumatic Death: A Controlled Prospective 15-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Vaaramo, Kalle; Puljula, Jussi; Tetri, Sami; Juvela, Seppo; Hillbom, Matti

    2015-10-15

    Patients who have recovered from traumatic brain injury (TBI) show an increased risk of premature death. To investigate long-term mortality rates in a population admitted to the hospital for head injury (HI), we conducted a population-based prospective case-control, record-linkage study, All subjects who were living in Northern Ostrobothnia, and who were admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 because of HI (n=737), and 2196 controls matched by age, gender, and residence randomly drawn from the population of Northern Ostrobothnia were included. Death rate and causes of death in HI subjects during 15 years of follow-up was compared with the general population controls. The crude mortality rates were 56.9, 18.6, and 23.8% for subjects having moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), mild TBI, and head injury without TBI, respectively. The corresponding approximate annual mortality rates were 6.7%, 1.4%, and 1.9%. All types of index HI predicted a significant risk of traumatic death in the future. Subjects who had HI without TBI had an increased risk of both death from all causes (hazard ratio 2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.57-2.55) and intentional or unintentional traumatic death (4.01, 2.20-7.30), compared with controls. The main founding was that even HI without TBI carries an increased risk of future traumatic death. The reason for this remains unknown and further studies are needed. To prevent such premature deaths, post-traumatic therapy should include an interview focusing on lifestyle factors.

  5. Glycemic Control Modifies Difference in Mortality Risk Between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis in Incident Dialysis Patients With Diabetes: Results From a Nationwide Prospective Cohort in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Although numerous studies have tried to elucidate the best dialysis modality in end-stage renal disease patients with diabetes, results were inconsistent and varied with the baseline characteristics of patients. Furthermore, none of the previous studies on diabetic dialysis patients accounted for the impact of glycemic control. We explored whether glycemic control had modifying effect on mortality between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in incident dialysis patients with diabetes. A total of 902 diabetic patients who started dialysis between August 2008 and December 2013 were included from a nationwide prospective cohort in Korea. Based on the interaction analysis between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and dialysis modalities for patient survival (P for interaction = 0.004), subjects were stratified into good and poor glycemic control groups (HbA1c< or ≥8.0%). Differences in survival rates according to dialysis modalities were ascertained in each glycemic control group after propensity score matching. During a median follow-up duration of 28 months, the relative risk of death was significantly lower in PD compared with HD in the whole cohort and unmatched patients (whole cohort, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47-0.90, P = 0.01; patients with available HbA1c [n = 773], HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46-0.91, P = 0.01). In the good glycemic control group, there was a significant survival advantage of PD (HbA1c <8.0%, HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.94, P = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in survival rates between PD and HD in the poor glycemic control group (HbA1c ≥8.0%, HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.46-2.76, P = 0.80). This study demonstrated that the degree of glycemic control modified the mortality risk between dialysis modalities, suggesting that glycemic control might partly contribute to better survival of PD in incident dialysis patients with diabetes.

  6. Effects of interleukin-3 following chemotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A prospective, controlled phase I/II study.

    PubMed

    Hovgaard, D J; Nissen, N I

    1995-02-01

    The effect of rhIL-3 was investigated in 32 patients with newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a phase I/II trial. All patients received 6 cycles of standard CHOP chemotherapy, and each patient was his own control where rhIL-3 was given as a daily s.c. injection for 14 days (day 2-15) in cycle 2 and 4, while cycle 1 and 3 were control cycles. Five dose levels were examined (0.5 - 1 - 5 - 7.5 - 10 micrograms/kg). Compared to the other more lineage-specific hemopoietic growth factors G- and GM-CSF, the effect of rhIL-3 on the hemopoiesis was less dramatic and more delayed, i.e. the most apparent effect was observed in the 2 weeks of treatment. Thus, the neutrophil counts from days 15 to 22 following CHOP were significantly raised and the duration of neutropenia was shorter (significantly only at 10 micrograms/kg), while the nadir values were unaffected. Platelet recovery from days 12-22 was significantly increased and nadir values occurred earlier compared to control cycles, but were only increased in some subsets. Other cell populations affected moderately in the recovery period were eosinophils and monocytes. Reticulocytes increased, but no effect on hemoglobin or RBC transfusion requirement was noted. Only moderate adverse reactions occurred such as fever, chills, flushing of the face and flu-like symptoms. There was no evidence of stimulation of tumor growth. Most significant, the rhIL-3 treatment at all but the lowest dose levels led to an improved tolerance to chemotherapy, as indicated by a decline in number of delayed cycles. A conclusion concerning the role of rhIL-3 as post-chemotherapy adjuvant should await studies using rhIL-3 in combination with more lineage-restricted hemopoietic growth factors.

  7. Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures: non-invasive dynamic external fixator versus volar locking plate – functional and radiological outcome in a prospective case-controlled series

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ali S.; Rammappa, Manju; Lee, Ling; Nanda, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Distal radius fracture (DRF) is a common injury and various treatment modalities including open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plate are available. More recently, a non-invasive external fixator has been used. Aims: To prospectively compare the use of a non-invasive external fixator with early dynamisation for DRF against ORIF with volar locking plate control group. Methods: Consecutive patients with closed DRF were included in a prospective case-controlled study. Patients were assigned to non-invasive external fixator or ORIF. Minimum follow-up was two years. Follow-up was at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 26 and at one and two-year post-operatively. The outcome measures included demographic details, injury mechanism, AO fracture type, risk factors, body mass index (BMI), ulnar styloid fracture and dorsal comminution, radiographs, grip strength and DASH score. Results: Consecutive 50 patients were treated either with non-invasive external fixator (25/50) or with ORIF (25/50) and the mean age of the two groups was 53 years (SD 17.1) and 49 years (SD 19.5), respectively. Demographics were matched in two groups. In the non-invasive external fixator group, there were 10 AO Type-A, 5 Type-B and 10 Type-C fractures. The ORIF group included 8 Type-A, 6 Type-B and 11 Type-C fractures. The mean DASH score at three-months and one-year post-injury in non-invasive fixator group was 12.2 (SD 3.1) and 3.5 (SD 0.7), respectively, significantly greater than those of ORIF group 14.5 (SD 5.6) and 11.2 (SD 4.4), respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: DRF treated with non-invasive external fixator can give functional results superior to ORIF at three-months and the trend is maintained at one and two-year post-operatively. PMID:27163089

  8. Parent misperception of control in childhood/adolescent asthma: the Room to Breathe survey.

    PubMed

    Carroll, W D; Wildhaber, J; Brand, P L P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine how often asthma control is achieved in children and adolescents, and how asthma affects parents' and children's daily lives. Interviews, including the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), were conducted with 1,284 parents of asthmatic children (aged 4-15 yrs), as well as with the children themselves (aged 8-15 yrs; n=943), in Canada, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, South Africa and the UK. Parents reported mild asthma attacks at least weekly in 11% of children, and serious attacks (requiring oral corticosteroids or hospitalisation) at least annually in 35%. Although 73% of parents described their child's asthma as mild or intermittent, 40% of children/adolescents had C-ACT scores ≤ 19, indicating inadequate control, and only 14.7% achieved complete Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-defined control and just 9.2% achieved Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)/British Thoracic Society (BTS)-defined control. Guideline-defined asthma control was significantly less common than well-controlled asthma using the C-ACT (p<0.001). Asthma restricted the child's activities in 39% of families and caused lifestyle changes in 70%. Complete asthma control is uncommon in children worldwide. Guideline-defined control measures appear to be more stringent than those defined by C-ACT or families. Overall, parents underestimate their child's asthma severity and overestimate asthma control. This is a major potential barrier to successful asthma treatment in children.

  9. Alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacements: do they perform like natural joints? Prospective cohort study with a historical control.

    PubMed

    Wojczyńska, A; Leiggener, C S; Bredell, M; Ettlin, D A; Erni, S; Gallo, L M; Colombo, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the biomechanics of existing total alloplastic reconstructions of temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Fifteen patients with unilateral or bilateral TMJ total joint replacements and 15 healthy controls were evaluated via dynamic stereometry technology. This non-invasive method combines three-dimensional imaging of the subject's anatomy with jaw tracking. It provides an insight into the patient's jaw joint movements in real time and provides a quantitative evaluation. The patients were also evaluated clinically for jaw opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements, pain, interference with eating, and satisfaction with the joint replacements. The qualitative assessment revealed that condyles of bilateral total joint replacements displayed similar basic motion patterns to those of unilateral prostheses. Quantitatively, mandibular movements of artificial joints during opening, protrusion, and laterotrusion were all significantly shorter than those of controls. A significantly restricted mandibular range of motion in replaced joints was also observed clinically. Fifty-three percent of patients suffered from chronic pain at rest and 67% reported reduced chewing function. Nonetheless, patients declared a high level of satisfaction with the replacement. This study shows that in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of complex therapeutic measures, a multidisciplinary approach is needed.

  10. Clinical outcomes of immediate/early loading of dental implants. A literature review of recent controlled prospective clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Gottlow, J

    2008-06-01

    Two previous reviews have evaluated the clinical outcomes of immediate/early loading of dental implants based on studies published until 2005.(1,2) The aim of the present paper was to review controlled clinical studies on the subject published since 2005 including at least 10 patients in each group followed for at least one year in function. Six comparative studies were found and none of these showed any differences in survival rates or marginal bone loss after one to five years. Most authors used specified inclusion criteria to avoid known risk factors such as soft bone, short implants and bruxism. Data from one randomized study in the edentulous maxilla showed no differences between early and delayed loading in consecutive clinical routine cases including short implants and soft bone. Three additional studies comparing different surfaces or implant designs under immediate loading were reviewed. No differences between implants with a moderately rough or smooth surface topography were observed. The data add to the previous bulk of evidence that various designs of implants can be loaded shortly after their placement in both the mandible and the maxilla. However, one study reported on marginal bone loss around a novel one-piece implant design leading to implant failure which was not seen for control two-piece implants.(3). PMID:18498589

  11. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Campos, Hannia; Ma, Jing; Stampfer1, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating fatty acids are highly correlated with each other and analyzing fatty acid patterns could better capture their interactions and their relation to prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the associations between data-derived blood fatty acid patterns and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the Physicians’ Health Study. Fatty acids levels were measured in whole blood samples of 476 cases and their matched controls by age and smoking status. Fatty acid patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Two patterns explaining 40.9% of total variation in blood fatty acid levels were identified. Pattern 1, which mainly reflects polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, was suggestively positively related to prostate cancer risk (ORquintile 5 vs. quintile 1=1.37, 95%CI=0.91–2.05, Ptrend=0.07). Pattern 2, which largely reflects de novo lipogenesis, was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer risk (ORquintile5 vs quintile1=1.63, 95%CI=1.04–2.55, Ptrend=0.02). This association was similar across tumor stage, grade, clinical aggressiveness categories and follow-up time. Conclusion The two patterns of fatty acids we identified were consistent with known interactions between fatty acid intake and metabolism. A pattern suggestive of higher activity in the de novo lipogenesis pathway was related to higher risk of prostate cancer. PMID:27488836

  12. Partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) reactor and its working mechanism: a new prospective chemical technology for phosphorus pollution control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Abbas, Ghulam; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus pollution control and phosphorus recycling, simultaneously, are focus of attention in the wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel reactor named partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) was invented for phosphorus control. The working performance and process mechanism of PEC reactor were investigated. The results showed that the PEC technology was highly efficient and cost-effective. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) reached up to 2.86 ± 0.04 kg P/(m(3) d) with a phosphorus removal rate of over 97%. The precipitant consumption was reduced to 2.60-2.76 kg Fe(II)/kg P with low operational cost of $ 0.632-0.673/kg P. The peak phosphorus content in precipitate was up to 30.44% by P2O5, which reveal the benefit of the recycling phosphorus resource. The excellent performance of PEC technology was mainly attributed to the partitionable-space and 'flocculation filter'. The partition limited the trans-regional back-mixing of reagents along the reactor, which promoted the precipitation reaction. The 'flocculation filter' retained the microflocs, enhancing the flocculation process.

  13. Cellulite treatment: a myth or reality: a prospective randomized, controlled trial of two therapies, endermologie and aminophylline cream.

    PubMed

    Collis, N; Elliot, L A; Sharpe, C; Sharpe, D T

    1999-09-01

    Cellulite is a common phenomenon that particularly affects the thighs and buttocks of women. Little scientific evidence exists to support any of the many advertised treatments for it. A total of 52 of 69 women, who were divided into three groups, completed a 12-week, randomized, controlled trial in which the effectiveness of two different treatments for cellulite was assessed. The patients acted as their own controls. The treatments investigated were twice-daily application of aminophylline cream and twice-weekly treatment with Endermologie ES1. Group 1 (double blind) received aminophylline to one thigh/buttock and a placebo cream to the other. Group 2 (singly blind) received Endermologie to one thigh/buttock. Group 3 received Endermologie to both sides and used the same cream regimen as group 1. Results were assessed subjectively by the patient and by clinical examination and photographic assessment by the surgeon (before and after the trial). Morphologic assessment included body mass index, thigh girth at two points, and thigh fat depth measurement by ultrasound. No statistical difference existed in measurements between legs for any of the treatment groups (paired t test, p > 0.4). The best subjective assessment, by the patients themselves, revealed that only 3 of 35 aminophylline-treated legs and 10 of 35 Endermologie-treated legs had their cellulite appearance improved. The authors do not believe that either of these two treatments is effective in improving the appearance of cellulite.

  14. Haemonchus contortus: parasite problem No. 1 from tropics - Polar Circle. Problems and prospects for control based on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Peter, J Waller; Chandrawathani, P

    2005-12-01

    There is no doubt that on a global basis, Haemonchus contortus is by far the most important parasite of small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is particularly more so now, with the development of high levels of resistance to both the broad and narrow spectrum anthelmintic drugs in H. contortus throughout the world. Epidemiological studies describe the lower environmental limits for haemonchosis to occur in sheep, as being a mean monthly temperature of 18C and approximately 50mm rainfall. Thus it has been generally recognised that H. contortus is a problem parasite restricted to the warm, wet countries where sheep and goats are raised. However, recent evidence shows that this parasite is apparently common even in northern Europe. Thus the need for sustainable control strategies for H. contortus is becoming much more pressing. This report highlights two examples of sustainable and highly efficient control programmes for H. contortus, that can be implemented in regions at the extremes of its geographic range (Malaysia and Sweden), where the authors have had direct involvement.

  15. Expectation-induced placebo responses fail to accelerate wound healing in healthy volunteers: results from a prospective controlled experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Vits, Sabine; Dissemond, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kriegler, Lisa; Körber, Andreas; Schedlowski, Manfred; Cesko, Elvir

    2015-12-01

    Placebo responses have been shown to affect the symptomatology of skin diseases. However, expectation-induced placebo effects on wound healing processes have not been investigated yet. We analysed whether subjects' expectation of receiving an active drug accelerates the healing process of experimentally induced wounds. In 22 healthy men (experimental group, n = 11; control group, n = 11) wounds were induced by ablative laser on both thighs. Using a deceptive paradigm, participants in the experimental group were informed that an innovative 'wound gel' was applied on one of the two wounds, whereas a 'non-active gel' was applied on the wound of the other thigh. In fact, both gels were identical hydrogels without any active components. A control group was informed to receive a non-active gel on both wounds. Progress in wound healing was documented via planimetry on days 1, 4 and 7 after wound induction. From day 9 onwards wound inspections were performed daily accompanied by a change of the dressing and a new application of the gel. No significant differences could be observed with regard to duration or process of wound healing, either by intraindividual or by interindividual comparisons. These data document no expectation-induced placebo effect on the healing process of experimentally induced wounds in healthy volunteers. PMID:24373522

  16. Expectation-induced placebo responses fail to accelerate wound healing in healthy volunteers: results from a prospective controlled experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Vits, Sabine; Dissemond, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kriegler, Lisa; Körber, Andreas; Schedlowski, Manfred; Cesko, Elvir

    2015-12-01

    Placebo responses have been shown to affect the symptomatology of skin diseases. However, expectation-induced placebo effects on wound healing processes have not been investigated yet. We analysed whether subjects' expectation of receiving an active drug accelerates the healing process of experimentally induced wounds. In 22 healthy men (experimental group, n = 11; control group, n = 11) wounds were induced by ablative laser on both thighs. Using a deceptive paradigm, participants in the experimental group were informed that an innovative 'wound gel' was applied on one of the two wounds, whereas a 'non-active gel' was applied on the wound of the other thigh. In fact, both gels were identical hydrogels without any active components. A control group was informed to receive a non-active gel on both wounds. Progress in wound healing was documented via planimetry on days 1, 4 and 7 after wound induction. From day 9 onwards wound inspections were performed daily accompanied by a change of the dressing and a new application of the gel. No significant differences could be observed with regard to duration or process of wound healing, either by intraindividual or by interindividual comparisons. These data document no expectation-induced placebo effect on the healing process of experimentally induced wounds in healthy volunteers.

  17. Walk-through survey report: control technology for fermentation processes at Novo Biochemical Industries, Inc. , Franklinton, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, K.F.

    1983-09-01

    A walkthrough survey of control technology for fermentation processes at Novo Biochemical Industries, Incorporated (SIC-2869), Franklinton, North Carolina was conducted in June, 1983. The company produced two industrial enzymes, alpha-amylase and amyl glucosidase, from microbial strains of Bacillus and Aspergillus. Engineering controls included enclosure of the production process and local exhaust ventilation of all bag dumping stations. Employee contact with the production process was minimal except for equipment maintenance and manual broth sample extraction. The majority of the large scale processes were computer controlled or monitored. All employees were required to maintain a clean work environment. The company used a computerized preventive-maintenance program. Routine industrial hygiene monitoring for active aerosilized liquid enzymes was conducted. The company had a relatively complete medical and biological monitoring program. Appropriate personal-protective equipment was required in all departments of the facility. The company employed a standardized procedure for entering a deep tank reactor vessel. The author concludes that the company employs state of the art technology and provides a work environment that minimizes potential exposure to microorganisms, process chemical intermediates, and biological products. An indepth survey of the facility is recommended.

  18. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan: knowledge, attitude and practice case-control survey.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, M; Elsony, A; Aro, A R

    2014-03-13

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population.

  19. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  20. The Effect of Floral Resources on Parasitoid and Host Longevity: Prospects for Conservation Biological Control in Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  1. A CONTROLLED RESUSCITATION STRATEGY IS FEASIBLE AND SAFE IN HYPOTENSIVE TRAUMA PATIENTS: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Martin A.; Meier, Eric N.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Newgard, Craig D.; Brasel, Karen; Egan, Debra; Witham, William; Williams, Carolyn; Daya, Mohamud; Beeson, Jeff; McCully, Belinda H.; Wheeler, Stephen; Kannas, Delores; May, Susanne; McKnight, Barbara; Hoyt, David B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optimal resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients has not been defined. This trial was performed to assess the feasibility and safety of controlled resuscitation (CR) versus standard resuscitation (SR) in hypotensive trauma patients. METHODS Patients were enrolled and randomized in the out-of-hospital setting. 19 EMS systems in the Resuscitation Outcome Consortium participated. Eligible patients had an out-of-hospital systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤ 90 mmHg. CR patients received 250 cc of fluid if they had no radial pulse or a SBP < 70 mmHg and additional 250 cc boluses to maintain a radial pulse or a SBP ≥ 70 mmHg. SR group patients received 2 liters initially and additional fluid as needed to maintain a SBP ≥ 110 mmHg. The crystalloid protocol was maintained until hemorrhage control or 2 hours after hospital arrival. RESULTS 192 patients were randomized (97 CR and 95 SR). The CR and SR groups were similar at baseline. Average crystalloid volume administered during the study period was 1.0 liter (SD 1.5) in the CR group and 2.0 liters (SD 1.4) in the SR group, a difference of 1.0 liter (95% CI: 0.6 to 1.4). ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, renal injury and renal failure did not differ between groups. At 24 hours after admission, there were 5 deaths (5%) in the CR group and 14 (15%) in the SR group (adjusted odds ratio 0.39 [95% CI: 0.12, 1.26]). Among patients with blunt trauma, 24-hour mortality was 3% (CR) and 18% (SR) with an adjusted OR of 0.17 (0.03, 0.92). There was no difference among patients with penetrating trauma: 9% vs 9%, adjusted OR 1.93 (0.19, 19.17). CONCLUSION Controlled resuscitation is achievable in out-of-hospital and hospital settings and may offer an early survival advantage in blunt trauma. A large-scale, Phase III trial to examine its effects on survival and other clinical outcomes is warranted. PMID:25807399

  2. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis Exacerbates the Severity of Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice. A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Animal Study.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pretreated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund's adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8 weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT (µCT) and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by µCT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening, lamina dura loss, and cortex thinning. ZA prevented these changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could

  4. Weight control practices in adults: results of a multistate telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Serdula, M K; Williamson, D F; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Heaton, A; Byers, T

    1994-11-01

    In this study, data collected in 1989 in a random-digit dialing telephone survey of 60,590 adults in 38 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed. Approximately 38% of women and 24% of men reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Methods reported were counting calories (24% of women, 14% of men), participating in organized weight loss programs (10%, 3%), taking special supplements (10%, 7%), taking diet pills (4%, 2%), and fasting for 24 hours or longer (5%, 5%). Among both sexes, only half of those trying to lose weight reported using the recommended method of caloric restriction combined with physical activity. PMID:7977925

  5. Stereotactic Radiosurgery of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastases: Prospective Evaluation of Target Margin on Tumor Control

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Chang, Steven D.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Given the neurocognitive toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBRT), approaches to defer or avoid WBRT after surgical resection of brain metastases are desirable. Our initial experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) targeting the resection cavity showed promising results. We examined the outcomes of postoperative resection cavity SRS to determine the effect of adding a 2-mm margin around the resection cavity on local failure (LF) and toxicity. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 120 cavities in 112 patients treated from 1998-2009. Factors associated with LF and distant brain failure (DF) were analyzed using competing risks analysis, with death as a competing risk. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method; variables associated with OS were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards and log rank tests. Results: The 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF and DF, with death as a competing risk, were 9.5% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, expansion of the cavity with a 2-mm margin was associated with decreased LF; the 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF with and without margin were 3% and 16%, respectively (P=.042). The 12-month toxicity rates with and without margin were 3% and 8%, respectively (P=.27). On multivariate analysis, melanoma histology (P=.038) and number of brain metastases (P=.0097) were associated with higher DF. The median OS time was 17 months (range, 2-114 months), with a 12-month OS rate of 62%. Overall, WBRT was avoided in 72% of the patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant SRS targeting the resection cavity of brain metastases results in excellent local control and allows WBRT to be avoided in a majority of patients. A 2-mm margin around the resection cavity improved local control without increasing toxicity compared with our prior technique with no margin.

  6. Research: Treatment Effect of oral nutritional supplementation on wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D G; Hanft, J R; Driver, V R; Smith, A P S; Lazaro-Martinez, J L; Reyzelman, A M; Furst, G J; Vayser, D J; Cervantes, H L; Snyder, R J; Moore, M F; May, P E; Nelson, J L; Baggs, G E; Voss, A C

    2014-01-01

    Aims Among people with diabetes, 10–25% will experience a foot ulcer. Research has shown that supplementation with arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate may improve wound repair. This study tested whether such supplementation would improve healing of foot ulcers in persons with diabetes. Methods Along with standard of care, 270 subjects received, in a double-blinded fashion, (twice per day) either arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate or a control drink for 16 weeks. The proportion of subjects with total wound closure and time to complete healing was assessed. In a post-hoc analysis, the interaction of serum albumin or limb perfusion, as measured by ankle–brachial index, and supplementation on healing was investigated. Results Overall, there were no group differences in wound closure or time to wound healing at week 16. However, in subjects with an albumin level of ≤ 40 g/l and/or an ankle–brachial index of < 1.0, a significantly greater proportion of subjects in the arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate group healed at week 16 compared with control subjects (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). Those with low albumin or decreased limb perfusion in the supplementation group were 1.70 (95% CI 1.04–2.79) and 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.38) times more likely to heal. Conclusions While no differences in healing were identified with supplementation in non-ischaemic patients or those with normal albumin, addition of arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as an adjunct to standard of care may improve healing of diabetic foot ulcers in patients with risk of poor limb perfusion and/or low albumin levels. Further investigation involving arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate in these high-risk subgroups might prove clinically valuable. PMID:24867069

  7. Prospective Associations between Plasma Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Overall and Breast Cancer Risk – Modulation by Antioxidants: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pouchieu, Camille; Chajès, Véronique; Laporte, François; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanistic data suggest that different types of fatty acids play a role in carcinogenesis and that antioxidants may modulate this relationship but epidemiologic evidence is lacking. Our aim was to investigate the association between plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs) and overall and breast cancer risk and to evaluate the potential modulatory effect of an antioxidant supplementation on these relationships. Methods A nested case-control study included all first incident cancer cases diagnosed in the SU.VI.MAX study between 1994 and 2002 (n = 250 cases, one matched control/case). Participants to the SU.VI.MAX randomized controlled trial received either vitamin/mineral antioxidants or placebo during this intervention period. Baseline fatty acid composition of plasma total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was performed overall and stratified by intervention group. Results Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (Ptrend = 0.002), the dihomo-γ-linolenic/linoleic acids ratio (Ptrend = 0.001), mead acid (Ptrend = 0.0004), and palmitoleic acid (Ptrend = 0.02) were inversely associated with overall cancer risk. The arachidonic/dihomo-γ-linolenic acids ratio (Ptrend = 0.02) and linoleic acid (Ptrend = 0.02) were directly associated with overall cancer risk. Similar results were observed for breast cancer specifically. In stratified analyses, associations were only observed in the placebo group. Notably, total PUFAs were directly associated with overall (Ptrend = 0.02) and breast cancer risk in the placebo group only. Conclusion Specific SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs were prospectively differentially associated with cancer risk. In addition, this study suggests that antioxidants may modulate these associations by counteracting the potential effects of these fatty acids on carcinogenesis. PMID:24587366

  8. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Francesca; Belmonti, Simone; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Morandi, Matteo; Rossetti, Barbara; Tordini, Giacinta; Cauda, Roberto; De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Montagnani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18–65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50) received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50) received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100) were also enrolled as baseline controls. Results Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group. Conclusions In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433 PMID:27258647

  9. Radiofrequency radiation hazard survey, 141 Tactical Control System, Ramey PR. Final report for period ending 29 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, N.D.

    1990-05-01

    At the request of 156th TAC Clinic Bioenvironmental Engineer, AFOEHL personnel surveyed radio frequency radiation (RFR) hazards from the AN/TPS-43E transportable radar at the 141st Tactical Control Squadron, Ramey PR. During the survey, final installation checks were being performed on a new AN/FPS-93 radar, so a RFR hazard survey was performed on that unit as well. Measurements showed no hazard from either radar while the antennas are rotating. The AN/TPS-43E is mechanically interlocked so it will not radiate while the antenna is stopped. Operating instructions should specify immediate deactivation of the radar transmitter in case of interlock failure. The AN/FPS-93 will produce a hazard if the transmitter is operated while the antenna is stopped. The hazardous area is along the beam axis and is only accessible by persons climbing on the interior or exterior of the radome, or on the antenna structure itself. The unit Radiation Safety Officer should be notified when individuals are working on or in the radome to assure that they are not exposed to the direct beam of the radar. In the future, an AN/FPS-6 radar will be installed at the site. A theoretical evaluation is included which should be verified by direct measurement when operational.

  10. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  11. Adaptive Control of Small Outboard-Powered Boats for Survey Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, T.S.; VanZwieten, J.H.; Fisher, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Four autopilot controllers have been developed in this work that can both hold a desired heading and follow a straight line. These PID, adaptive PID, neuro-adaptive, and adaptive augmenting control algorithms have all been implemented into a numerical simulation of a 33-foot center console vessel with wind, waves, and current disturbances acting in the perpendicular (across-track) direction of the boat s desired trajectory. Each controller is tested for its ability to follow a desired heading in the presence of these disturbances and then to follow a straight line at two different throttle settings for the same disturbances. These controllers were tuned for an input thrust of 2000 N and all four controllers showed good performance with none of the controllers significantly outperforming the others when holding a constant heading and following a straight line at this engine thrust. Each controller was then tested for a reduced engine thrust of 1200 N per engine where each of the three adaptive controllers reduced heading error and across-track error by approximately 50% after a 300 second tuning period when compared to the fixed gain PID, showing that significant robustness to changes in throttle setting was gained by using an adaptive algorithm.

  12. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  13. Evaluation of the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PreCaP) for the hospitalized elderly: a prospective nonrandomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Asmus-Szepesi, Kirsten J; Flinterman, Linda E; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Nieboer, Anna P; Bakker, Ton J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-01-01

    Background The hospitalized elderly are at risk of functional decline. We evaluated the effects and care costs of a specialized geriatric rehabilitation program aimed at preventing functional decline among at-risk hospitalized elderly. Methods The prospective nonrandomized controlled trial reported here was performed in three hospitals in the Netherlands. One hospital implemented the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP), while two other hospitals providing usual care served as control settings. Within the PReCaP hospital we compared patients pre-implementation with patients post-implementation of the PReCaP (“within-hospital analysis”), while our nonrandomized controlled trial compared patients of the PReCaP hospital post-implementation with patients from the two control hospitals providing usual care (“between-hospital analysis”). Hospitalized patients 65 years or older and at risk of functional decline were interviewed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months using validated questionnaires to score functioning, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We estimated costs per unit of care from hospital information systems and national data sources. We used adjusted general linear mixed models to analyze functioning and HRQoL. Results Between-hospital analysis showed no difference in activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) between PReCaP patients and control groups. PReCaP patients did have slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2–0.6]), lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; −0.9 [95% −1.1 to −0.6]) and higher perceived health (Short-Form 20; 5.6 [95% CI 2.8–8.4]) than control patients. Analyses within the PReCaP hospital comparing patients pre-and post-implementation of the PReCaP showed no improvement over time in functioning, depression, and HRQoL. One-year health care costs were higher for PRe

  14. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15–24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Results Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15–24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15–24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). Conclusions This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. Trial registration The trial was

  15. Consumer education needed on norovirus prevention and control: findings from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Brophy, Jenna E; Hall, Aron J; Fraser, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States; however, little is known about consumers' knowledge of NoV infection and their understanding of how to prevent and control associated illness. A nationally representative Web-enabled panel survey of U.S. adults (n = 1,051) was conducted to collect information on consumers' awareness and knowledge of NoVs. Respondents who had heard of NoVs were asked 22 true-and-false questions on the transmission, prevention, and control of NoVs. Forty-seven percent of respondents reported awareness of NoVs, and 85% of respondents had heard of the terms "cruise ship virus," "the stomach bug," or "the stomach flu," which are commonly used to describe NoVs. Of those respondents who had previously heard of NoV or other terms used by consumers to describe NoV (n = 948), 36% correctly answered 11 or more of the 22 true-and-false questions, suggesting that consumers have limited knowledge on how to prevent and control NoV infection. Most consumers do not understand that the primary mode of transmission for NoV infection is fecal to oral, and many have the misperception that meat and poultry are sources of NoV infection. There is the need to educate consumers about how to prevent and control NoV infection. Although there is a proliferation of food safety education materials available, most focus on foodborne bacteria rather than viruses. The survey results will be used to revise existing consumer food safety educational materials to include information on NoV prevention and control.

  16. Predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah; Zanna, Mark P.; Fotuhi, Omid

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Limited longitudinal studies on smoking cessation have been reported in Asia, and it remains unclear whether determinants of quitting are similar to those found in Western countries. This study examined prospective predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Methods: Four thousand and four smokers were surveyed in Malaysia and Thailand in 2005. Of these, 2,426 smokers were followed up in 2006 (61% retention). Baseline measures of sociodemographics, dependence, and interest in quitting were used to predict both making quit attempts and point prevalence maintenance of cessation. Results: More Thai than Malaysian smokers reported having made quit attempts between waves, but among those who tried, the rates of staying quit were not considerably different between Malaysians and Thais. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking fewer cigarettes per day, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more immediate quitting intentions were predictive of both making a quit attempt and staying quit in both countries. Previous shorter quit attempts and higher health concerns about smoking were only predictive of making an attempt, whereas prior abstinence for 6 months or more and older age were associated with maintenance. Discussion: In Malaysia and Thailand, predictors of quitting activity appear to be similar. However, as in the West, predictors of making quit attempts are not all the same as those who predict maintenance. The actual predictors differ in potentially important ways from those found in the West. We need to determine the relative contributions of cultural factors and the shorter history of efforts to encourage quitting in Asia. PMID:20889478

  17. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  18. Prospects for developing odour baits to control Glossina fuscipes spp., the major vector of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Omolo, Maurice O; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mpiana, Serge; Esterhuizen, Johan; Lindh, Jenny; Lehane, Mike J; Solano, Philippe; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste; Vale, Glyn A; Torr, Steve J; Tirados, Inaki

    2009-01-01

    We are attempting to develop cost-effective control methods for the important vector of sleeping sickness, Glossina fuscipes spp. Responses of the tsetse flies Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (in Kenya) and G. f. quanzensis (in Democratic Republic of Congo) to natural host odours are reported. Arrangements of electric nets were used to assess the effect of cattle-, human- and pig-odour on (1) the numbers of tsetse attracted to the odour source and (2) the proportion of flies that landed on a black target (1x1 m). In addition responses to monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) were assessed in Kenya. The effects of all four odours on the proportion of tsetse that entered a biconical trap were also determined. Sources of natural host odour were produced by placing live hosts in a tent or metal hut (volumes approximately 16 m(3)) from which the air was exhausted at approximately 2000 L/min. Odours from cattle, pigs and humans had no significant effect on attraction of G. f. fuscipes but lizard odour doubled the catch (P<0.05). Similarly, mammalian odours had no significant effect on landing or trap entry whereas lizard odour increased these responses significantly: landing responses increased significantly by 22% for males and 10% for females; the increase in trap efficiency was relatively slight (5-10%) and not always significant. For G. f. quanzensis, only pig odour had a consistent effect, doubling the catch of females attracted to the source and increasing the landing response for females by approximately 15%. Dispensing CO(2) at doses equivalent to natural hosts suggested that the response of G. f. fuscipes to lizard odour was not due to CO(2). For G. f. quanzensis, pig odour and CO(2) attracted similar numbers of tsetse, but CO(2) had no material effect on the landing response. The results suggest that identifying kairomones present in lizard odour for G. f. fuscipes and pig odour for G. f. quanzensis may improve the performance of targets for controlling these species

  19. Prospects for Developing Odour Baits To Control Glossina fuscipes spp., the Major Vector of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Maurice O.; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mpiana, Serge; Esterhuizen, Johan; Lindh, Jenny; Lehane, Mike J.; Solano, Philippe; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste; Vale, Glyn A.; Torr, Steve J.; Tirados, Inaki

    2009-01-01

    We are attempting to develop cost-effective control methods for the important vector of sleeping sickness, Glossina fuscipes spp. Responses of the tsetse flies Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (in Kenya) and G. f. quanzensis (in Democratic Republic of Congo) to natural host odours are reported. Arrangements of electric nets were used to assess the effect of cattle-, human- and pig-odour on (1) the numbers of tsetse attracted to the odour source and (2) the proportion of flies that landed on a black target (1×1 m). In addition responses to monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) were assessed in Kenya. The effects of all four odours on the proportion of tsetse that entered a biconical trap were also determined. Sources of natural host odour were produced by placing live hosts in a tent or metal hut (volumes≈16 m3) from which the air was exhausted at ∼2000 L/min. Odours from cattle, pigs and humans had no significant effect on attraction of G. f. fuscipes but lizard odour doubled the catch (P<0.05). Similarly, mammalian odours had no significant effect on landing or trap entry whereas lizard odour increased these responses significantly: landing responses increased significantly by 22% for males and 10% for females; the increase in trap efficiency was relatively slight (5–10%) and not always significant. For G. f. quanzensis, only pig odour had a consistent effect, doubling the catch of females attracted to the source and increasing the landing response for females by ∼15%. Dispensing CO2 at doses equivalent to natural hosts suggested that the response of G. f. fuscipes to lizard odour was not due to CO2. For G. f. quanzensis, pig odour and CO2 attracted similar numbers of tsetse, but CO2 had no material effect on the landing response. The results suggest that identifying kairomones present in lizard odour for G. f. fuscipes and pig odour for G. f. quanzensis may improve the performance of targets for controlling these species. PMID:19434232