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Sample records for prospective randomized placebo-controlled

  1. [Periprostatic anaesthesic infiltration for prostatic biopsy: a prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study].

    PubMed

    Valero, Gonzalo; González, E U Roxana

    2005-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of periprostatic infiltration with lidocaine to reduce pain of prostatic biopsy. In a thirteen months period of time, 115 patients were randomized to receive 10 ml of lidocaine 1% (n=60) or saline (n=55). Evaluating the pain with visual analogue scale (0-10), the first group referred average pain of 3.83 and the second group of 6.87, being this difference clearly significant (p<0.005). There were not complications from anesthesic puncture. The periprostatic infiltration is easy to perform without complications and it is effective in reducing the pain of this procedure. It should be used as a routine procedure in prostatic biopsy.

  2. Phenobarbital for acute alcohol withdrawal: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Jonathan; Clements, Carter; Simon, Barry; Vieaux, Jules; Graffman, Sarah; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Cisse, Bitou; Lam, Joseph; Alter, Harrison

    2013-03-01

    Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AAWS) is encountered in patients presenting acutely to the Emergency Department (ED) and often requires pharmacologic management. We investigated whether a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) phenobarbital combined with a standardized lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol decreases intensive care unit (ICU) admission in ED patients with acute alcohol withdrawal. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of i.v. phenobarbital (10 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline) or placebo (100 mL normal saline). All patients were placed on the institutional symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol. The primary outcome was initial level of hospital admission (ICU vs. telemetry vs. floor ward). There were 198 patients enrolled in the study, and 102 met inclusion criteria for analysis. Fifty-one patients received phenobarbital and 51 received placebo. Baseline characteristics and severity were similar in both groups. Patients that received phenobarbital had fewer ICU admissions (8% vs. 25%, 95% confidence interval 4-32). There were no differences in adverse events. A single dose of i.v. phenobarbital combined with a symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol resulted in decreased ICU admission and did not cause increased adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiac shock wave therapy for chronic refractory angina pectoris. A prospective placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Jean-Paul; Capoferri, Mauro; Wahl, Andreas; Eshtehardi, Parham; Hess, Otto Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) delivered to the myocardium increases capillary density and regional myocardial blood flow in animal experiments. In addition, nonenzymatic nitric oxide production and the upregulation of vascular growth factor's mRNA by CSWT have been described. The aim of the study was therefore to test its potential to relieve symptoms in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Twenty-one patients (mean age 68.2 ± 8.3 years, 19 males) with chronic refractory angina pectoris and evidence of inducible myocardial ischemia during MIBI-SPECT imaging, were randomized into a treatment (n = 11) and a placebo arm (n = 10). The region of exercise-induced ischemia was treated with echocardiographic guidance during nine sessions over a period of 3 months. One session of CSWT consisted of 200 shots/spot (9--12 spots/session) with an energy intensity of 0.09 mJ/mm(2) . In the control group acoustic simulation was performed without energy application. Medication was kept unchanged during the whole treatment period. In the treatment group, symptoms improved in 9/11 patients, and the ischemic threshold, determined by cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing, increased from 80 ± 28 to 95 ± 28 W (P= 0.036). In the placebo arm, only 2/10 patients reported an improvement and the ischemic threshold remained unchanged (98 ± 23 to 107 ± 23 W; P= 0.141). The items "physical functioning" (P= 0.043), "general health perception" (P= 0.046), and "vitality" (P= 0.035) of the SF-36 questionnaire significantly improved in the treatment arm, whereas in the placebo arm, no significant change was noted. Neither arrhythmias, troponin rise nor complications were observed during treatment. This placebo controlled trial shows a significant improvement in symptoms, quality of life parameters and ischemic threshold during exercise in patients with chronic refractory angina pectoris treated with CSWT. Thus, CSWT represents a new option for the treatment of patients with

  4. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile dysfunction? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anne B; Persiani, Marie; Boie, Sidsel; Hanna, Milad; Lund, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) can be used as a treatment for men with erectile dysfunction of organic origin. This prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study included 112 men unable to have intercourse either with or without medication. Erectile dysfunction was assessed at screening and 5, 12 and 24 weeks after treatment. Assessment was performed by interview and using the Erection Hardness Scale (EHS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) questionnaire. The men were randomly assigned either to LI-ESWT (n = 51, active group) or placebo (n = 54, placebo group). They received five treatments over 5 weeks. Both the participants and the doctors were blinded to the treatment. After 10 weeks, the placebo group received active treatment (active placebo group). Twenty-nine men (57%, active group) were able to obtain an erection after treatment and to have sexual intercourse without the use of medication. In the placebo group, only five men (9%) showed similar results (p = 0.0001). The EHS after 5 weeks showed that men in the active group experienced a significant improvement in their erectile dysfunction, but no significant result was found with the use of the IIEF - Erectile Function domain. This placebo-controlled study over 5 weeks shows that 57% of the men who suffered from erectile dysfunction had an effect from LI-ESWT. After 24 weeks, seven (19%, active group) and nine (23%, active placebo group) men were still able to have intercourse without medication. This study shows a possible cure in some patients, but more research, longer follow-up in the placebo group and an international multicentre randomized study are needed.

  5. Effect of radial shock wave therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yung-Tsan; Ke, Ming-Jen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chih-Ya; Lin, Ching-Yueh; Li, Tsung-Ying; Shih, Feng-Mei; Chen, Liang-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Three recent studies demonstrated the positive effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for treating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, none have entirely proved the effects of ESWT on CTS because all studies had a small sample size and lacked a placebo-controlled design. Moreover, radial ESWT (rESWT) has not been used to treat CTS. We conducted a prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study to assess the effect of rESWT for treating CTS. Thirty-four enrolled patients (40 wrists) were randomized into intervention and control groups (20 wrists in each). Participants in the intervention group underwent three sessions of rESWT with nightly splinting, whereas those in the control group underwent sham rESWT with nightly splinting. The primary outcome was visual analog scale (VAS), whereas the secondary outcomes included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. Evaluations were performed before treatment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the third rESWT session. A significantly greater improvement in the VAS, BCTQ scores, and CSA of the median nerve was noted in the intervention group throughout the study as compared to the control group (except for BCTQ severity at week 12 and CSA at weeks 1 and 4) (p < 0.05). This is the first study to assess rESWT in a randomized placebo-controlled trial and demonstrate that rESWT is a safe and effective method for relieving pain and disability in patients with CTS. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:977-984, 2016.

  6. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  7. Multicenter prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of Rheopheresis to treat nonexudative age-related macular degeneration: interim analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Jose S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Rheopheresis blood filtration to treat intermediate- to late-stage preangiogenic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with soft drusen. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: First 43 randomized patients (28 Rheopheresis and 15 placebo-control patients) with available baseline and 3-month postbaseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurements and intermediate- to late-stage preangiogenic AMD with multiple large soft drusen and elevated serum levels of targeted macromolecules. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive eight Rheopheresis or eight placebo procedures over 10 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ETDRS BCVA measurements at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postbaseline. RESULTS: In primary eyes, the mean LogMAR line difference between Rheopheresis and placebo-control eyes was 1.6 lines at 12 months postbaseline; the difference was significant throughout the first posttreatment year (P = .0011, repeated measures analysis). Thirteen percent of Rheopheresis compared with 0% of placebo-control eyes had a > or = 3-line improvement in BCVA at 12 months postbaseline. Four percent of Rheopheresis compared with 18% of placebo-control eyes had a > or = 3-line loss in BCVA. The subgroup of patients whose primary eyes had baseline BCVA worse than 20/40 demonstrated a mean LogMAR difference between Rheopheresis and placebo-control eyes equaling 3.0 lines at 12 months postbaseline; the difference was significant throughout the first posttreatment year (P = .0014, repeated measures analysis). Sixteen percent of Rheopheresis compared with 0% of the placebo-control eyes had a > or = 3-line improvement in BCVA at 12 months postbaseline. Five percent of Rheopheresis compared with 29% of placebo-control eyes had a > or = 3-line loss in BCVA. Fifty-eight percent of Rheopheresis eyes improved to 20/40 or better, compared with 14% of placebo-control

  8. A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Terlipressin for Type 1 Hepatorenal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SANYAL, ARUN J.; BOYER, THOMAS; GARCIA–TSAO, GUADALUPE; REGENSTEIN, FREDERICK; ROSSARO, LORENZO; APPENRODT, BEATE; BLEI, ANDRES; GÜLBERG, VEIT; SIGAL, SAMUEL; TEUBER, PETER

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) type 1 is a progressive functional renal failure in subjects with advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of terlipressin, a systemic arterial vasoconstrictor, for cirrhosis type 1 HRS. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of terlipressin was performed. Subjects with type 1 HRS were randomized to terlipressin (1 mg intravenously every 6 hours) or placebo plus albumin in both groups. The dose was doubled on day 4 if the serum creatinine (SCr) level did not decrease by 30% of baseline. Treatment was continued to day 14 unless treatment success, death, dialysis, or transplantation occurred. Treatment success was defined by a decrease in SCr level to ≤1.5 mg/dL for at least 48 hours by day 14 without dialysis, death, or relapse of HRS type 1. Results Fifty-six subjects were randomized to each arm. Treatment success with terlipressin was double that with placebo (25% vs 12.5%, P = .093). SCr level improved from baseline to day 14 on terlipressin (−0.7 mg/dL) as compared with placebo (0 mg/dL), P < .009. Terlipressin was superior to placebo for HRS reversal (34% vs 13%, P= .008), defined by decrease in SCr level ≤1.5 mg/dL. Overall and transplantation-free survival was similar between study groups; HRS reversal significantly improved survival at day 180. One nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred with terlipressin, but the total adverse event rate was similar to placebo. Conclusions Terlipressin is an effective treatment to improve renal function in HRS type 1. PMID:18471513

  9. Erythropoietin improves long-term neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients: a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chen, Shu-Feng; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lan, Min-Yu; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Liu, Chu-Feng; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2015-02-25

    Mortality and disability following ischemic stroke (IS) remains unacceptably high with respect to the conventional therapies. This study tested the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on long-term neurological outcome in patients after acute IS. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two consecutive doses of EPO (5,000 IU/dose, subcutaneously administered at 48 hours and 72 hours after acute IS) on improving the 90-day combined endpoint of recurrent stroke or death that has been previously reported. A secondary objective was to evaluate the long-term (that is, five years) outcome of patients who received EPO. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted between October 2008 and March 2010 in a tertiary referral center. IS stroke patients who were eligible for EPO therapy were enrolled into the study. The results showed that long-term recurrent stroke and mortality did not differ between group 1 (placebo-control; n = 71) and group 2 (EPO-treated; n = 71). Long-term Barthel index of <35 (defining a severe neurological deficit) was lower in group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.007). Multiple-stepwise logistic-regression analysis showed that EPO therapy was significantly and independently predictive of freedom from a Barthel index of <35 (P = 0.029). Long-term major adverse neurological event (MANE; defined as: death, recurrent stroke, or long-term Barthel index < 35) was lower in group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.04). Log-Rank test showed that MANE-free rate was higher in group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.031). Multiple-stepwise Cox-regression analysis showed that EPO therapy and higher Barthel Index at day 90 were independently predictive of freedom from long-term MANE (all P <0.04). EPO therapy significantly improved long-term neurological outcomes in patients after IS. ISRCTN71371114 . Registered 10 October 2008.

  10. Randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, K D; Hassanein, K

    2000-03-01

    Use of prolotherapy (injection of growth factors or growth factor stimulators). Determine the effects of dextrose prolotherapy on knee osteoarthritis with or without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity. Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient physical medicine clinic. Six months or more of pain along with either grade 2 or more joint narrowing or grade 2 or more osteophytic change in any knee compartment. A total of 38 knees were completely void of cartilage radiographically in at least 1 compartment. Three bimonthly injections of 9 cc of either 10% dextrose and .075% lidocaine in bacteriostatic water (active solution) versus an identical control solution absent 10% dextrose. The dextrose-treated joints then received 3 further bimonthly injections of 10% dextrose in open-label fashion. Visual analogue scale for pain and swelling, frequency of leg buckling, goniometrically measured flexion, radiographic measures of joint narrowing and osteophytosis, and KT1000-measured anterior displacement difference (ADD). All knees: Hotelling multivariate analysis of paired observations between 0 and 6 months for pain, swelling, buckling episodes, and knee flexion range revealed significantly more benefit from the dextrose injection (P = .015). By 12 months (6 injections) the dextrose-treated knees improved in pain (44% decrease), swelling complaints (63% decrease), knee buckling frequency (85% decrease), and in flexion range (14 degree increase). Analysis of blinded radiographic readings of 0- and 12-month films revealed stability of all radiographic variables except for 2 variables which improved with statistical significance. (Lateral patellofemoral cartilage thickness [P = .019] and distal femur width in mm [P = .021]. Knees with ACL laxity: 6-month (3 injection) data revealed no significant improvement. However, Hotelling multivariate analysis of paired values at 0 and 12 months for pain, swelling, joint flexion, and joint laxity in the

  11. Corticosteroid Injection for the Treatment of Morton's Neuroma: A Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lizano-Díez, Xavier; Ginés-Cespedosa, Alberto; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; González-Lucena, Gemma; Gamba, Carlo; de Zabala, Santiago; Solano-López, Alberto; Rigol-Ramón, Pau

    2017-09-01

    The effectiveness of corticosteroid injection for the treatment of Morton's neuroma is unclear. In addition, most of the studies related to it are case-control or retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between corticosteroid injection associated with local anesthetic and local anesthetic alone (placebo control group) for the treatment of Morton's neuroma. Forty-one patients with a diagnosis of Morton's neuroma were randomized to receive 3 injections of either a corticosteroid plus a local anesthetic or a local anesthetic alone. The patients and the researcher who collected data were blinded to the treatment groups. The visual analog scale for pain and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Score (metatarsophalangeal/interphalangeal score) were obtained at baseline, after each injection, and at 3 and 6 months after the last injection. There were no significant between-group differences in terms of pain and function improvement at 3 and 6 months after treatment completion in comparison with baseline values. At the end of the study, 17 (48.5%) patients requested surgical excision of the neuroma: 7 (44%) in the experimental group and 10 (53%) in the control group ( P = 1.0). The injection of a corticosteroid plus a local anesthetic was not superior to a local anesthetic alone in terms of pain and function improvement in patients with Morton's neuroma. Level I, randomized controlled trial.

  12. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested.

  13. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. PMID:27980437

  14. Are postoperative intravenous antibiotics necessary after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tan, S K; Lo, J; Zwahlen, R A

    2011-12-01

    Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is often administered intravenously, despite an increased morbidity rate compared with oral application. This study investigates whether a postoperative oral antibiotic regimen is as effective as incorporation of intravenous antibiotics after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. 42 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery between December 2008 and May 2010 were randomly allocated to 2 placebo-controlled postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis groups. Group 1 received oral amoxicillin 500mg three times daily; group 2 received intravenous ampicillin 1g four times daily, during the first two postoperative days. Both groups subsequently took oral amoxicillin for three more days. Clinically, the infection rate was assessed in both study groups for a period of 6 weeks after the surgery. 9 patients (21.4%) developed infection. No adverse drug event was detected. No significant difference (p=0.45) was detected in the infection rate between group 1 (3/21) and group 2 (6/21). Age, type of surgical procedures, duration of the operative procedure, surgical procedure-related events, blood loss, and blood transfusion were all found not related to infection (p>0.05). Administration of more cost-effective oral antibiotic prophylaxis, which causes less comorbidity, can be considered to be safe in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with segmentalizations. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptomatic improvement with gluten restriction in irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sunil V; Gambhire, Pravir A; Jain, Samit S; Surude, Ravindra G; Shah, Vinaya B; Contractor, Qais Q; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity has been debated. Indeed, the intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms of many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but without celiac disease or wheat allergy have been shown to improve on a gluten-free diet. Therefore, this study set out to evaluate the effects of gluten on IBS symptoms. Methods We performed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled rechallenge trial in a tertiary care hospital with IBS patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria. Patients with celiac disease and wheat allergy were appropriately excluded. The participants were administered a gluten-free diet for 4 weeks and were asked to complete a symptom-based questionnaire to assess their overall symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, wind, and tiredness on the visual analog scale (0-100) at the baseline and every week thereafter. The participants who showed improvement were randomly assigned to one of two groups to receive either a placebo (gluten-free breads) or gluten (whole cereal breads) as a rechallenge for the next 4 weeks. Results In line with the protocol analysis, 60 patients completed the study. The overall symptom score on the visual analog scale was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the patients in the gluten intervention group scored significantly higher in terms of abdominal pain, bloating, and tiredness (P<0.05), and their symptoms worsened within 1 week of the rechallenge. Conclusions A gluten diet may worsen the symptoms of IBS patients. Therefore, some form of gluten sensitivity other than celiac disease exists in some of them, and patients with IBS may benefit from gluten restrictions. PMID:27799885

  16. Symptomatic improvement with gluten restriction in irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zanwar, Vinay G; Pawar, Sunil V; Gambhire, Pravir A; Jain, Samit S; Surude, Ravindra G; Shah, Vinaya B; Contractor, Qais Q; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-10-01

    The existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity has been debated. Indeed, the intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms of many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but without celiac disease or wheat allergy have been shown to improve on a gluten-free diet. Therefore, this study set out to evaluate the effects of gluten on IBS symptoms. We performed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled rechallenge trial in a tertiary care hospital with IBS patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria. Patients with celiac disease and wheat allergy were appropriately excluded. The participants were administered a gluten-free diet for 4 weeks and were asked to complete a symptom-based questionnaire to assess their overall symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, wind, and tiredness on the visual analog scale (0-100) at the baseline and every week thereafter. The participants who showed improvement were randomly assigned to one of two groups to receive either a placebo (gluten-free breads) or gluten (whole cereal breads) as a rechallenge for the next 4 weeks. In line with the protocol analysis, 60 patients completed the study. The overall symptom score on the visual analog scale was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the patients in the gluten intervention group scored significantly higher in terms of abdominal pain, bloating, and tiredness (P<0.05), and their symptoms worsened within 1 week of the rechallenge. A gluten diet may worsen the symptoms of IBS patients. Therefore, some form of gluten sensitivity other than celiac disease exists in some of them, and patients with IBS may benefit from gluten restrictions.

  17. Lack of efficacy of manual therapy in children and adolescents with suspected cervicogenic headache: results of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Borusiak, Peter; Biedermann, Heiner; Bosserhoff, Stephanie; Opp, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Clinical trials concerning cervical spine manipulation and mobilization in children and adolescents with cervicogenic headache are lacking. We performed a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded trial in 52 children and adolescents (21 boys, 31 girls) aged 7-15. After prospective baseline documentation for 2 months patients were either assigned to placebo or true manipulation with another 2-month follow-up. Main outcome measures were defined as: percentage of days with headache, total duration of headache, days with school absence due to headache, consume of analgesics, intensity of headache. We did not find a significant difference comparing the groups with placebo and true manipulation with respect to the defined main outcome measures. We were not able to show an efficacy of cervical spine manipulation in 52 children and adolescents.

  18. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of therapy with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic- Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size. At the end of 6-month trial, unblinding revealed that patients who initially received the placebo were switched to Urtica dioica. Both groups continued the medication up to 18 months. 558 patients (90%) completed the study (287/305, 91% in the Urtica dioica group, and 271/315, 86% in the placebo group). By intention- to-treat analysis, at the end of 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Both IPSS and Qmax showed greater improvement with drug than with placebo. The IPSS went from 19.8 down to 11.8 with Urtica dioica and from 19.2 to 17.7 with placebo (P = 0.002). Peak flow rates improved by 3.4 mL/s for placebo recipients and by 8.2 mL/s for treated patients (P < 0.05). In Urtica dioica group, PVR decreased from an initial value of 73 to 36 mL (P < 0.05). No appreciable change was seen in the placebo group. Serum PSA and testosterone levels were unchanged in both groups. A modest decrease in prostate size as measured by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was seen in Urtica dioica group (from 40.1 cc initially to 36.3 cc; P < 0.001). There was no change in the prostate volume at the end of study with placebo. At 18-month follow-up, only patients who continued therapy, had a favorable treatment variables value. No side effects were identified in either group. In the present study, Urtica dioica

  19. Perioperative ketorolac in high risk breast cancer patients. Rationale, feasibility and methodology of a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forget, Patrice; Berlière, Martine; van Maanen, Aline; Duhoux, Francois P; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Coulie, Pierre G; Bouche, Gauthier; De Kock, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Ketorolac, a NSAID routinely used during surgery proposed to have anticancer effects, is a promising way to improve postoperative oncological outcome. This effect may be particularly prominent in patients with elevated preoperative inflammatory scores, like the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. In this paper, we describe the rationale, the preliminary analyses in our patients, the feasibility and the methodology of a prospective randomized trial called "Ketorolac in Breast Cancer trial" (KBCt) (NCT01806259). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wound infiltration with bupivacaine and intramuscular diclofenac reduces postoperative tramadol consumption in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Tugsan Egemen; Bozlu, Murat; Atici, Sebnem; Cayan, Selahittin; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2011-12-01

    To assess the impact of wound infiltration with bupivacaine and i.m. diclofenac administration on patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) tramadol consumptions and postoperative pain in patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) under general anesthesia. Previous studies have found only limited or no benefits of local anesthetics for postoperative opioid consumption and pain relief after RRP. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 96 men who underwent RRP were randomized into 2 groups. Each group (n = 48) received either wound infiltration with 0.5% bupivacaine during surgical closure and i.m. 75 mg diclofenac (group BD) or wound infiltration with saline during surgical closure and i.m. saline (group P). PCA with i.v. tramadol was used for postoperative analgesia. PCA tramadol consumptions and pain scores were collected at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. The mean cumulative tramadol consumption was significantly lower in group BD (184.43 ± 38.58 mg) compared with group P (269.52 ± 52.46) at 24 hours (P <.001). The pain scores were significantly lower in group BD compared with group P (P <.05). The number of patients who required rescue antiemetic and analgesic was lower in group BD than in group P, revealing a significant difference (P <.05). Patients' satisfaction scores were significantly higher in group BD than in group P (P <.001). This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated that wound infiltration with bupivacaine during surgical closure combined with i.m. diclofenac administration might decrease in 24 hours with PCA tramadol consumption in patients who underwent RRP under general anesthesia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intravenous paracetamol for relief of pain during transrectal-ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Kulaksizoglu, Haluk; Haliloglu, Ahmet H; Tanidik, Seher; Piskin, Mehmet M; Yurdakul, Talat

    2015-11-01

    Transrectal-ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx) is the standard procedure for diagnosing prostate cancer. The procedure does cause some pain and discomfort; therefore, an adequate analgesia is necessary to ensure patient comfort, which can also facilitate good-quality results. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study aimed to determine if intravenous (IV) paracetamol can reduce the severity of pain associated with TRUS-PBx. The study included 104 patients, scheduled to undergo TRUS-PBx with a suspicion of prostate cancer, that were prospectively randomized to receive either IV paracetamol (paracetamol group) or placebo (placebo group) 30 minutes prior to TRUS-PBx. All patients had 12 standardized biopsy samples taken. Pain was measured using a 10-point visual analog pain scale during probe insertion, during the biopsy procedure, and 1 hour postbiopsy. All biopsies were performed by the same urologist, whereas a different urologist administered the visual analog pain scale. There were not any significant differences in age, prostate-specific antigen level, or prostate volume between the two groups. The pain scores were significantly lower during probe insertion, biopsy procedure, and 1 hour postbiopsy in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, the IV administration of paracetamol significantly reduced the severity of pain associated with TRUS-PBx. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Silver sucrose octasulfate nasal applications and wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, Giancarlo; Blandamura, Stella; Fasanaro, Elena; Favaretto, Niccolo'; Andrea, Lovato; Giacomelli, Luciano; Bartolini, Andrea; Staffieri, Claudia; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario; Marioni, Gino; Staffieri, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled investigation (approved by the Ethical Committee of Padova University Hospital [Italy]) was to assess the effect of a nasal gel containing a combination of silver sucrose octasulfate and potassium sucrose octasulfate (Silsos gel® [SG]) in wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis in terms of: nasal symptoms (SNOT22), endoscopic appearance of the sinonasal mucosa (Lund-Kennedy score), nasal air flow (anterior active rhinomanometry), evidence of mucosal inflammatory processes (nasal cytology and histology), and microbiological growth. Thirty-four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were randomized on a 1:1 ratio to receive after ESS either SG or placebo (contained only the excipients [carbopol and propylene glycol] in the same concentrations as in SG). Judging from the present prospective investigation on patients who underwent ESS for chronic rhinosinusitis, treatment with SG seems to enable a significantly faster improvement in specific symptoms (assessed on the validated SNOT22 scale) than placebo. Patients treated with SG also had a quicker improvement in the endoscopic appearance of their nasal mucosa after ESS than patients treated with placebo. These endoscopic improvements in the SG group were also confirmed at the long-term follow-up, while the same did not apply to the placebo-treated group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Topical steroid application versus circumcision in pediatric patients with phimosis: a prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Centonze, Antonella; Alicchio, Francesca; Savanelli, Antonio; Settimi, Alessandro

    2008-04-01

    Topical steroids have been advocated as an effective alternative treatment to circumcision in boys with phimosis. We evaluated the effectiveness of topical steroid therapy compared to a placebo neutral cream in 240 patients with phimosis. A prospective study was carried out over a 24-months period, on an out-patient basis on two groups of patients with phimosis. One-hundred twenty patients applied a steroid cream twice a day for 4 weeks, and another group of 120 pts used a placebo cream twice a day for 4 weeks. Patients were assigned to either group by a computer-generated random choice. All patients in our series completed the two treatment periods without interruption. At a median follow-up of 20 months (6-30 months) therapeutic success was obtained in 43.75% (99/240) of cases, independently of the protocol. In particular, therapeutic success was obtained in 65.8% (79/120) of cases in the steroids group and in 16.6% (20/120) of cases in the placebo group, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.0001, Mann-Withney test). Our study shows that topical steroids represent a good alternative to surgery in case of phimosis. Steroid therapy using monometasone furoate 0.1% in our series gave better results that placebo with an overall efficacy of 65.8%. In patients where a phimotic ring persist after steroid therapy, circumcision is mandatory.

  4. Prospective molecular marker analyses of EGFR and KRAS from a randomized, placebo-controlled study of erlotinib maintenance therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Wolfram; Triller, Nadja; Blasinska-Morawiec, Maria; Curescu, Stefan; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Manikhas, Georgy Moiseevich; Mazieres, Julien; Whittom, Renaud; Ward, Carol; Mayne, Karen; Trunzer, Kerstin; Cappuzzo, Federico

    2011-11-01

    The phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN; BO18192) study found that erlotinib maintenance therapy extended progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had nonprogressive disease following first-line platinum-doublet chemotherapy. This study included prospective analysis of the prognostic and predictive value of several biomarkers. Mandatory diagnostic tumor specimens were collected before initiating first-line chemotherapy and were tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression by using immunohistochemistry (IHC), EGFR gene copy number by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and EGFR and KRAS mutations by using DNA sequencing. An EGFR CA simple sequence repeat in intron 1 (CA-SSR1) polymorphism was evaluated in blood. All 889 randomly assigned patients provided tumor samples. EGFR IHC, EGFR FISH, KRAS mutation, and EGFR CA-SSR1 repeat length status were not predictive for erlotinib efficacy. A profound predictive effect on PFS of erlotinib relative to placebo was observed in the EGFR mutation-positive subgroup (hazard ratio [HR], 0.10; P < .001). Significant PFS benefits were also observed with erlotinib in the wild-type EGFR subgroup (HR, 0.78; P = .0185). KRAS mutation status was a significant negative prognostic factor for PFS. This large prospective biomarker study found that patients with activating EGFR mutations derive the greatest PFS benefit from erlotinib maintenance therapy. No other biomarkers were predictive for outcomes with erlotinib, although the study was not powered for clinical outcomes in biomarker subgroups other than EGFR IHC-positive [corrected]. KRAS mutations were prognostic for reduced PFS. The study demonstrated the feasibility of prospective tissue collection for biomarker analyses in NSCLC.

  5. The efficacy of intravenous ketorolac for pain relief in single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rhiu, S; Chung, S A; Kim, W K; Chang, J H; Bae, S J; Lee, J B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of preoperative intravenous ketorolac in reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain and improving patient satisfaction in patients undergoing single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery. Methods A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed with 67 patients who underwent horizontal recti muscle surgery with adjustable sutures. The test group received intravenous ketorolac (60 mg) before surgery, and the control group received intravenous normal saline. Topical 0.5% proparacaine was administered to both groups during surgery. Vital signs including heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every 10 min throughout the surgery. The patients were asked to rate their maximum intraoperative and postoperative pain scores using a numerical pain rating scale. Patient satisfaction was also assessed using a five-point analogue scale. Results The ketorolac-premedicated patients had less pain both during and after surgery (P=0.033 and P=0.024, respectively). There were no differences in vital signs during surgery and patient satisfaction between the two groups. Conclusions Intravenous ketorolac, when administered preoperatively for single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under topical anaesthesia, was effective in reducing pain during and after surgery. PMID:21102493

  6. Eprinomectin treatment of psoroptic mange in hunter/jumper and dressage horses: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ural, K; Ulutas, B; Kar, S

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy of topical eprinomectin for the treatment of psoroptic mange infestation in horses. 24 privately owned hunter/jumper and dressage horses were diagnosed with psoroptic mange infestation based on physical findings and skin scraping results were enrolled and randomly assigned to either topical eprinomectin pour-on solution (at a dose of 500microg/kg body weight weekly once for four applications) treatment group or a placebo group (purified water). Clinical evaluations and skin scrapings were done by the same veterinary investigator at the beginning, during and at the end of the treatment. Both owners and veterinary investigator were blinded to the allocation to the groups. The efficacy of eprinomectin was assessed both clinically and parasitologically by the presence or absence of viable mites. Horses were scraped for psoroptic mites on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 40 for follow-up. Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences between the eprinomectin treatment and placebo in the number of horses without mites (cure rates) on each assessment date. It was found that significantly fewer eprinomectin treated horses had P. equi mites detected on skin scrapings (p<0.01) than the placebo group. In conclusion, eprinomectin was effective and safe therapy against natural infestations of P. equi in the horses included in this study.

  7. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    PubMed

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  8. Efficacy of 10% sucralfate ointment after anal fistulotomy: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alvandipour, Mina; Ala, Shahram; Tavakoli, Hasan; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid; Shiva, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    The most frequent problems after anal fistulotomy are pain, bleeding, and delayed or impaired wound healing. Topical Sucralfate preparation has been used to treat a wide variety of wounds. In this study, we investigate effects of 10% sucralfate ointment on wound healing and postoperative pain after fistulotomy. A total of 41 patients undergoing anorectal fistulotomy were included in this randomized, blinded, controlled trial and were randomly allocated to either sucralfate ointment (every 12 h) or placebo. The patients were visited weekly for up to 5 weeks. The intensity of pain and the wound healing were assessed. The sucralfate group had significantly less pain at rest (1.92 ± 0.88 vs 2.96 ± 0.98; P = 0.002) and on defecation (1.68 ± 0.92 vs 3.08 ± 1.12; p < 0.001) than the placebo group from 1st to 5th post-operative visits. Complete wound healing was achieved after 8.15 ± 1 weeks in placebo group versus 5.9 ± 0.8 weeks in sucralfate group (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the frequencies of postoperative complications between the two groups. Compared with placebo, sucralfate ointment reduced postoperative pain at rest and on defecation and improves wound healing in patients undergoing fistulotomy. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tenoxicam 20 mg or 40 mg after thoracotomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Merry, A F; Sidebotham, D A; Middleton, N G; Calder, M V; Webster, C S

    2002-04-01

    Forty-five adults undergoing thoracotomy were randomized to receive placebo, tenoxicam 20 mg or tenoxicam 40 mg IV during chest wall closure. All patients received intraoperative fentanyl and intercostal blocks followed by morphine by patient-controlled analgesia. Patient numbers 13 to 45 also received thoracic epidural analgesia by continuous infusion of bupivacaine 0.125%, patient numbers 25 to 45 having fentanyl 2 microg/ml added to the epidural infusion. Efficacy parameters and adverse reactions were assessed over the first 24 hours postoperatively. On a 100 mm visual analogue scale, mean (SD) pain at rest (adjusted area under curve for hours 1 to 24) was 25.8 (12.5), 17.4 (14.8) and 16.5 (13.3) mm for groups receiving placebo, 20 mg and 40 mg tenoxicam, respectively (ANOVA: P<0.05). There were no significant differences between study groups postoperatively in pain on coughing, opioid consumption, blood gas measurements, nausea, vomiting, sedation, blood loss, haemoglobin or serum creatinine. One patient in each tenoxicam group reported epigastric pain, rated moderate. These data support the inclusion of tenoxicam 20 mg IV in the management of pain at rest for patients undergoing thoracotomy, but do not show additional benefit for a higher dose.

  10. Intravenous Lidocaine for Effective Pain Relief After a Laparoscopic Colectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, EunJin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Park, Yong Hee; Yang, So Young; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Seung Won

    2015-01-01

    A perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion has been reported to decrease postoperative pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous lidocaine in reducing postoperative pain for laparoscopic colectomy patients. Fifty-five patients scheduled for an elective laparoscopic colectomy were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group L received an intravenous bolus injection of lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg before intubation, followed by 2 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation. Group C received the same dosage of saline at the same time. Postoperative pain was assessed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery by using the visual analog scale (VAS). Fentanyl consumption by patient-controlled plus investigator-controlled rescue administration and the total number of button pushes were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. In addition, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were checked on the operation day and postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 5. VAS scores were significantly lower in group L than group C until 24 hours after surgery. Fentanyl consumption was lower in group L than group C until 12 hours after surgery. Moreover, additional fentanyl injections and the total number of button pushes appeared to be lower in group L than group C (P < 0.05). The CRP level tended to be lower in group L than group C, especially on postoperative day1 and 2 and appeared to be statistically significant. The satisfaction score was higher in group L than group C (P = 0.024). Intravenous lidocaine infusion during an operation reduces pain after a laparoscopic colectomy. PMID:25785316

  11. Intravenous lidocaine for effective pain relief after a laparoscopic colectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, EunJin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Park, Yong Hee; Yang, So Young; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Seung Won

    2015-03-01

    A perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion has been reported to decrease postoperative pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous lidocaine in reducing postoperative pain for laparoscopic colectomy patients. Fifty-five patients scheduled for an elective laparoscopic colectomy were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group L received an intravenous bolus injection of lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg before intubation, followed by 2 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation. Group C received the same dosage of saline at the same time. Postoperative pain was assessed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery by using the visual analog scale (VAS). Fentanyl consumption by patient-controlled plus investigator-controlled rescue administration and the total number of button pushes were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. In addition, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were checked on the operation day and postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 5. VAS scores were significantly lower in group L than group C until 24 hours after surgery. Fentanyl consumption was lower in group L than group C until 12 hours after surgery. Moreover, additional fentanyl injections and the total number of button pushes appeared to be lower in group L than group C (P < 0.05). The CRP level tended to be lower in group L than group C, especially on postoperative day 1 and 2 and appeared to be statistically significant. The satisfaction score was higher in group L than group C (P = 0.024). Intravenous lidocaine infusion during an operation reduces pain after a laparoscopic colectomy.

  12. The effectiveness of low laser therapy in subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized placebo controlled double‐blind prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; AY, Saime; Evcik, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Conflicting results were reported about the effectiveness of Low level laser therapy on musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of 850‐nm gallium arsenide aluminum (Ga‐As‐Al) laser therapy on pain, range of motion and disability in subacromial impingement syndrome. METHODS: A total of 52 patients (33 females and 19 males with a mean age of 53.59±11.34 years) with subacromial impingement syndrome were included. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I (n = 30, laser group) received laser therapy (5 joule/cm2 at each point over maximum 5‐6 painful points for 1 minute). Group II (n = 22, placebo laser group) received placebo laser therapy. Initially cold pack (10 minutes) was applied to all of the patients. Also patients were given an exercise program including range of motion, stretching and progressive resistive exercises. The therapy program was applied 5 times a week for 14 sessions. Pain severity was assessed by using visual analogue scale. Range of motion was measured by goniometer. Disability was evaluated by using Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. RESULTS: In group I, statistically significant improvements in pain severity, range of motion except internal and external rotation and SPADI scores were observed compared to baseline scores after the therapy (p<0.05). In Group II, all parameters except range of motion of external rotation were improved (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were recorded between the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Low level laser therapy seems to have no superiority over placebo laser therapy in reducing pain severity, range of motion and functional disability. PMID:21120304

  13. Effects of tigecycline and doxycycline on inflammation and hemodynamics in porcine endotoxemia: a prospective, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    von Seth, Magnus; Sjölin, Jan; Larsson, Anders; Eriksson, Mats; Hillered, Lars; Lipcsey, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics might, apart from an antimicrobial effect, also exert anti-inflammatory effects. The novel antibiotic tigecycline, potentially useful in septic shock from gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, is structurally related to antibiotics with known anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-inflammatory effects have not been previously explored in vivo. Using a sterile integrative porcine sepsis model, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and circulatory effects of tigecycline in comparison with doxycycline and placebo. Eighteen pigs were randomized to receive tigecycline 100 mg, doxycycline 200 mg, or placebo and subjected to 6-h endotoxin infusion at 0.5 μg kg(-1) h(-1). Markers of inflammation, nitric oxide production, vascular permeability, hemodynamics, organ dysfunction, tissue metabolism, and acid-base parameters were monitored. Peak plasma tumor necrosis factor-α was lower in the doxycycline group (P = 0.031) but not in the tigecycline group (P = 0.86) compared with placebo, with geometric mean plasma concentrations of 16, 79, and 63 ng mL(-1), respectively. Mean arterial pressure was higher 4 to 6 h in the tigecycline group, with values at 6 h of 107 ± 9 mmHg compared with the placebo and doxycycline groups (85 ± 27 mmHg and 90 ± 32 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.025). The white blood cell and the neutrophil granulocyte counts were less reduced in the doxycycline group but not in the tigecycline group at 4 to 6 h (P = 0.009 and P = 0.019, respectively). Other markers of inflammation, organ dysfunction, tissue metabolism, and acid-base parameters were unaffected by tigecycline. Consistent with known anti-inflammatory properties, doxycycline yielded decreased tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Tigecycline did not affect cytokine levels but counteracted hypotension and hypoperfusion.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. Methods and Findings We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20–60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Conclusion Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Trial Registration Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446) PMID:28060936

  15. Boswellia serrata acts on cerebral edema in patients irradiated for brain tumors: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Kirste, Simon; Treier, Markus; Wehrle, Sabine Jolie; Becker, Gerhild; Abdel-Tawab, Mona; Gerbeth, Kathleen; Hug, Martin Johannes; Lubrich, Beate; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Momm, Felix

    2011-08-15

    Patients irradiated for brain tumors often suffer from cerebral edema and are usually treated with dexamethasone, which has various side effects. To investigate the activity of Boswellia serrata (BS) in radiotherapy-related edema, we conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot trial. Forty-four patients with primary or secondary malignant cerebral tumors were randomly assigned to radiotherapy plus either BS 4200 mg/day or placebo. The volume of cerebral edema in the T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence was analyzed as a primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were toxicity, cognitive function, quality of life, and the need for antiedematous (dexamethasone) medication. Blood samples were taken to analyze the serum concentration of boswellic acids (AKBA and KBA). Compared with baseline and if measured immediately after the end of radiotherapy and BS/placebo treatment, a reduction of cerebral edema of >75% was found in 60% of patients receiving BS and in 26% of patients receiving placebo (P = .023). These findings may be based on an additional antitumor effect. There were no severe adverse events in either group. In the BS group, 6 patients reported minor gastrointestinal discomfort. BS did not have a significant impact on quality of life or cognitive function. The dexamethasone dose during radiotherapy in both groups was not statistically different. Boswellic acids could be detected in patients' serum. BS significantly reduced cerebral edema measured by MRI in the study population. BS could potentially be steroid-sparing for patients receiving brain irradiation. Our findings will need to be further validated in larger studies. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  16. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study of the effects of irbesartan on aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome (AIMS trial): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. There are approximately 18,000 patients in the UK with MFS. Current treatment includes careful follow-up, beta blockers, and prophylactic surgical intervention; however, there is no known treatment which effectively prevents the rate of aortic dilatation in MFS. Preclinical, neonatal, and pediatric studies have indicated that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may reduce the rate of aortic dilatation. This trial will investigate the effects of irbesartan on aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome. Methods/Design The Aortic Irbesartan Marfan Study (AIMS) is an investigator-led, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III, multicenter trial. Currently, 26 centers in the UK will recruit 490 clinically confirmed MFS patients (aged ≥6 to ≤40 years) using the revised Ghent diagnostic criteria. Patients will be randomized to irbesartan or placebo. Aortic root dilatation will be measured by transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and annually thereafter. The primary outcome is the absolute change in aortic root diameter per year measured by echocardiography. The follow-up period will be a minimum of 36 months with an expected mean follow-up period of 48 months. Discussion This is the first clinical trial to evaluate the ARB irbesartan versus placebo in reducing the rate of aortic root dilatation in MFS. Not only will this provide useful information on the safety and efficacy of ARBs in MFS, it will also provide a rationale basis for potentially lifesaving therapy for MFS patients. Trial registration ISRCTN, 90011794 PMID:24289736

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective clinical trial of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in median sternotomy wound.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin Yoong; Lau, Chee Lan; Adeeb, Syed Mohd; Somasundaram, Sathappan; Nasir-Zahari, Mohd

    2005-09-15

    Hypertrophic scarring caused by sternotomy is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the decision of surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period. The authors conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective clinical trial. The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, sternal wounds were divided into the upper half and the lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated. One hundred wounds in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gels. The median age was 61 years and there were 34 men and 16 women. Ethnic distribution was 28 Malays, 18 Chinese, and four Indians. No side effect caused by the silicone gel was noted. Ninety-eight percent of patients had moderate to good compliance. The incidence of sternotomy scar was 94 percent. At the third month postoperatively, the silicone gel wounds were scored lower when compared with the control wounds. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation (p = 0.02), vascularity (p = 0.001), pliability (p = 0.001), height (p = 0.001), pain (p = 0.001), and itchiness (p = 0.02). The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in sternotomy wounds is promising. There are no side effects and patients' compliance is satisfactory. This study may popularize the use of silicone gel in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

  18. Simvastatin effects on androgens, inflammatory mediators, and endogenous pituitary gonadotropins among patients with PCOS undergoing IVF: results from a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Batool; Abediasl, Jhila; Tehraninejad, Ensiyeh; Rahmanpour, Haleh; Sills, Eric Scott

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate effects of simvastatin on selected biochemical parameters and reproductive outcome among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). Patients with PCOS were randomized to receive either oral simvastatin, 20 mg/d (n = 32), or placebo (n = 32) in a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (NCT 005-75601) in parallel with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF. All patients were determined to be at average risk for cardiovascular disease, based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) measurement at entry. After an 8-week treatment interval concluding at periovulatory human chorionic gonadotropin administration, selected clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. Mean serum total testosterone level decreased by 25% in the simvastatin group, compared to a 10% reduction in the placebo group (P < 0.001). A trend of lower serum luteinizing hormone levels was noted in experimental and control groups (29% vs 22%, respectively), although this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Neither fasting insulin nor quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were significantly impacted by simvastatin (P > 0.05). As expected, total cholesterol was not modified among placebo patients but was significantly reduced after simvastatin (P = 0.001). In addition, hsCRP and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 were both significantly lower after simvastatin therapy compared to controls (P ≤ 0.005 for both). At study completion, no important change in body mass index was observed in either group (P ≥ 0.60). Although oocyte maturation, fertilization, and clinical pregnancy rates were all higher after simvastatin, none of these improvements were statistically significant. This report presents data from the first prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical investigation of simvastatin in the setting of PCOS and IVF. Simvastatin seems to be compatible with gonadotropin therapy for IVF and can

  19. A Prospective, Randomized, Masked, and Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Study of Intraarticular Allogeneic Adipose Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Robert; Carlson, Kim; Gaynor, Jamie; Gustafson, Scott; Dhupa, Sarit; Clement, Keith; Hoelzler, Michael; McCarthy, Tim; Schwartz, Pamela; Adams, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with a high prevalence in dogs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to treat humans, dogs, and horses with OA. This report describes a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical efficacy study of intraarticular allogeneic adipose stem cells for the treatment of dogs with OA. Health assessments and measurements of pain and activity impairment were performed at baseline and at selected time points through day 60. The primary outcome variable was the owner Client-Specific Outcome Measurement (CSOM) and secondary measures included veterinary pain on manipulation, veterinary global score, and owner global score. The dogs were treated with either a saline placebo or a single dose of allogeneic adipose-derived MSCs in either one or two joints. Seventy-four dogs were statistically analyzed for efficacy outcomes. Success in the primary outcome variable, CSOM, was statistically improved in the treated dogs compared to the placebo dogs (79.2 versus 55.4%, p = 0.029). The veterinary pain on manipulation score (92.8 versus 50.2%, p = 0.017) and the veterinary global score (86.9 versus 30.8%, p = 0.009) were both statistically improved in treated dogs compared to placebo. There was no detected significant difference between treated and placebo dogs in the incidence of adverse events or negative health findings. Allogeneic adipose-derived stem cell treatment was shown to be efficacious compared to placebo. This large study of dogs also provides valuable animal clinical safety and efficacy outcome data to our colleagues developing human stem cell therapy. PMID:27695698

  20. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidant Defenses and Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: a Placebo-Controlled, Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia Miranda de Figueiredo; Braga, Camila Bitu Moreno; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Domenici, Fernanda Aparecida; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Feres, Omar; da Rocha, José Joaquim Ribeiro; da Cunha, Selma Freire de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of oral zinc supplementation on antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress markers during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Twenty-four patients who had undergone surgical resection of colorectal cancer participated in this placebo-controlled, prospective randomized study. The supplementation was started in the perioperative period, in which 10 patients received 70 mg of zinc (zinc group, n = 10) and 14 patients received placebo (placebo group, n = 14) for 16 weeks. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen (capecitabine, capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin or 5-fluorouracil). Vitamin C, vitamin E, antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid peroxidation markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-isoprostane were determined before the first, second, third, and fourth chemotherapy cycles. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc group presented higher SOD values before the first, second, and fourth chemotherapy cycles and lower GPx values before the third cycle. There were no statistical differences between the study groups in vitamin C, vitamin E, MDA, or 8-isoprostane plasma values. Longitudinal analysis revealed decreased vitamin E concentration in the placebo group before the second and fourth cycles as compared with the initial values. Zinc supplementation during chemotherapy cycles increased SOD activity and maintained vitamin E concentrations. Although no effect of zinc supplementation on oxidative stress markers was observed, the increase in SOD activity indicates a production of stable free radicals, which may have a positive effect in cancer treatment.

  1. Effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on scar pain in burn patients: A prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Soo; Joo, So Young; Cui, Huisong; Cho, Sung-Rae; Yim, Haejun; Seo, Cheong Hoon

    2016-08-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been used to reduce pain in patients with various musculoskeletal diseases and wounds. We investigated the effect of ESWT on scar pain after complete wound epithelialization in burn patients. A prospective, single-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted from February 2014 to 2015. Forty patients with burn scar pain despite standard therapy (medication, physical therapy, and burn rehabilitation massage therapy) were randomized into ESWT or control (sham ESWT) groups. ESWT was administered at 100 impulses/cm (0.05-0.15 mJ/mm) once per week for 3 weeks. The treatment effects were assessed using the numerical rating scale (NRS), pain threshold, Nirschl pain phase system, and Roles and Maudsley scores. The characteristics of patients between the 2 study groups were balanced (P >0.05) for age, sex, and total burn surface area (%). In both groups, the NRS, pain threshold (Ib/cm), and Nirschl pain phase system values significantly improved (P <0.05) after 3 sessions of ESWT or sham therapy, and there were significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of these 3 variables (P <0.001, P <0.001, P = 0.013, respectively). The Roles and Maudsley scores significantly improved; among 20 patients, 17 reported a score of poor (85%) and 3 reported fair (15%) before ESWT, whereas 3 reported poor (15%), 8 reported fair (40%), 5 reported good (25%), and 4 reported excellent (20%) after ESWT (P = 0.004). The scores did not improve in the control group (P = 0.128). ESWT significantly reduced scar pain in burn patients after wound recovery.

  2. Randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled double-blind study of dextrose prolotherapy for osteoarthritic thumb and finger (DIP, PIP, and trapeziometacarpal) joints: evidence of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Reeves, K D; Hassanein, K

    2000-08-01

    To determine the clinical benefit of dextrose prolotherapy (injection of growth factors or growth factor stimulators) in osteoarthritic finger joints. Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient physical medicine clinic. Six months of pain history was required in each joint studied as well as one of the following: grade 2 or 3 osteophyte, grade 2 or 3 joint narrowing, or grade 1 osteophyte plus grade 1 joint narrowing. Distal interphalangeal (DIP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and trapeziometacarpal (thumb CMC) joints were eligible. Thirteen patients (with seventy-four symptomatic osteoarthitic joints) received active treatment, and fourteen patients (with seventy-six symptomatic osteoarthritic joints) served as controls. One half milliliter (0.5 mL) of either 10% dextrose and 0.075% xylocaine in bacteriostatic water (active solution) or 0.075% xylocaine in bacteriostatic water (control solution) was injected on medial and lateral aspects of each affected joint. This was done at 0, 2, and 4 months with assessment at 6 months after first injection. One-hundred millimeter (100 mm) Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain at rest, pain with joint movement and pain with grip, and goniometrically-measured joint flexion. Pain at rest and with grip improved more in the dextrose group but not significantly. Improvement in pain with movement of fingers improved significantly more in the dextrose group (42% versus 15% with a p value of .027). Flexion range of motion improved more in the dextrose group (p = .003). Side effects were minimal. Dextrose prolotherapy was clinically effective and safe in the treatment of pain with joint movement and range limitation in osteoarthritic finger joints.

  3. Effects of nonpathogenic gram-negative bacterium Vitreoscilla filiformis lysate on atopic dermatitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gueniche, A; Knaudt, B; Schuck, E; Volz, T; Bastien, P; Martin, R; Röcken, M; Breton, L; Biedermann, T

    2008-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with elevated IgE levels and Th2 responses. The oral administration of nonpathogenic bacteria such as probiotics may improve the course of atopic diseases. It is believed that nonpathogenic bacteria prevent the development of allergic diseases by modulating intestinal immune responses. However, the effects of oral probiotics on AD could not be reproduced in all studies and the direct immunomodulation of the skin-associated immune response by nonpathogenic bacteria has not yet been investigated. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study with a cream containing a 5% lysate of the nonpathogenic bacteria Vitreoscilla filiformis. Seventy-five volunteers with AD (6-70 years of age) were randomized to receive either V. filiformis cream 5% or vehicle cream daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated by the SCORe of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), assessment of microflora, and the patient's assessment of itch and loss of sleep. Compared with placebo, V. filiformis lysate significantly decreased SCORAD levels (P=0.0044) and pruritus (P=0.0171). Active cream significantly decreased loss of sleep from day 0 to day 29 (P=0.0074). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of cutaneous microbial colonization revealed that V. filiformis lysate reduced Staphylococcus aureus colonization of the skin. The skin barrier as determined by TEWL also improved significantly with the cream alone. V. filiformis lysate significantly improved AD. This may be in part due to reduction of S. aureus, but seems to relate in most parts to a direct immunomodulatory effect on skin-associated immune responses.

  4. The role of preoperative prophylactic antibiotic administration in periapical endodontic surgery: a randomized, prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, J A H; Frenken, J W H; Valkenburg, P; van den Akker, H P

    2005-12-01

    To determine the value of clindamycin prophylaxis in the prevention of postoperative wound infections in patients undergoing endodontic surgery. This study included 256 patients undergoing endodontic surgery in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing oral administration of an oral placebo versus a preoperative 600 mg dose of clindamycin. After randomization the study medication was administered orally 1 h before surgery in a double-blind fashion. For a period of 4 weeks the postoperative course was observed according to clinical parameters of infection. Primary end-point was infection at the surgical site. The mean age of the study population was 44.4 years (SD 11.4, range 18-82 years) with a sex distribution of 147 females (47.4%) and 109 males (42.6%). Mean age of the patients in the clindamycin group was 44.7 years (SD 12.0), and the mean age in the placebo group was 44.1 years (SD 10.8) (P = 0.49). In the clindamycin group, the mean duration of surgery was 32.3 min (SD 8.8) and in the placebo group the mean duration of surgery was 32.5 min (SD 8.4) (P = 0.89). Two infections [1.6%; 95 confidence interval (CI): 0.48-4.72] were identified in the clindamycin group and four (3.2%; 95 CI: 0.42-1.33) in the placebo group (P = 0.448). No statistically significant difference was found between clindamycin prophylaxis and placebo with regard to the prevention of postoperative infection in endodontic surgical procedures.

  5. The efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy for temporomandibular joint hypermobility: a preliminary prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Refai, Hamida; Altahhan, Obada; Elsharkawy, Rehab

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy for the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility. A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study using a placebo control was carried out. Twelve patients with painful subluxation or dislocation of the TMJ were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 equal-sized groups. Patients in the active group received 4 injections of dextrose solution (2 mL of 10% dextrose and 1 mL of 2% mepivacaine) for each TMJ, each 6 weeks apart, whereas patients in the placebo group received injections of placebo solution (2 mL of saline solution and 1 mL of 2% mepivacaine) on the same schedule. A verbal scale expressing TMJ pain on palpation, maximal mouth opening (MMO), clicking sound, and frequency of luxations (number of locking episodes per month) were assessed at each injection appointment just before the injection procedure and 3 months after the last injection. The collected data were then statistically analyzed. By the end of the study, each group showed significant improvement in TMJ pain on palpation and number of locking episodes and insignificant improvement in clicking sound. With the exception of the MMO, there were no statistically significant differences throughout the study intervals between the active and placebo groups. The active group showed a significant reduction in MMO at the 12th week postoperatively. Differences compared with mean baseline value remained significant at the end of the follow-up period. On the other hand, the placebo group showed an insignificant difference in MMO throughout the study periods. For the last 2 intervals, the placebo group showed statistically significantly higher mean MMO values than the active group. By the end of the 12th postoperative week, the percentages of decrease in MMO were significantly greater in the active group. Prolotherapy with 10% dextrose appears promising for the treatment of symptomatic TMJ hypermobility, as evidenced by the

  6. A comparison between intravenous lidocaine and ketamine on acute and chronic pain after open nephrectomy: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Jendoubi, Ali; Naceur, Imed Ben; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Trifa, Mehdi; Ghedira, Salma; Chebil, Mohamed; Houissa, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of analgesic adjuncts such as intravenous (IV) ketamine and lidocaine. Objectives: To compare the effects of perioperative IV lidocaine and ketamine on morphine requirements, pain scores, quality of recovery, and chronic pain after open nephrectomy. Study Design: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Settings: The study was conducted in Charles Nicolle University Hospital of Tunis. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly allocated to receive IV lidocaine: bolus of 1.5 mg/kg at the induction of anesthesia followed by infusion of 1 mg/kg/h intraoperatively and for 24 h postoperatively or ketamine: bolus of 0.15 mg/kg followed by infusion of 0.1 mg/kg/h intraoperatively and for 24 h postoperatively or an equal volume of saline (control group [CG]). Measurements: Morphine consumption, visual analog scale pain scores, time to the first passage of flatus and feces, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), 6-min walk distance (6MWD) at discharge, and the incidence of chronic neuropathic pain using the “Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire” at 3 months. Results: Ketamine and lidocaine reduced significantly morphine consumption (by about 33% and 42%, respectively) and pain scores compared with the CG (P < 0.001). Lidocaine and ketamine also significantly improved bowel function in comparison to the CG (P < 0.001). Ketamine failed to reduce the incidence of PONV. The 6 MWD increased significantly from a mean ± standard deviation of 27 ± 16.2 m in the CG to 82.3 ± 28 m in the lidocaine group (P < 0.001). Lidocaine, but not ketamine, reduced significantly the development of neuropathic pain at 3 months (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Ketamine and lidocaine are safe and effective adjuvants to decrease opioid consumption and control early pain. We also suggest that lidocaine infusion serves as an interesting alternative to improve the functional walking capacity and prevent chronic

  7. Efficacy of augmenting a subacromial continuous-infusion pump with a preoperative interscalene block in outpatient arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, James R; Componovo, Roger; Barfield, William R; Liles, Laura; Nietert, Paul

    2011-05-01

    This study's purpose was to determine the effectiveness of adding a preoperative interscalene brachial plexus block to standard postoperative management, including oral narcotics and a subacromial bupivacaine infusion pump, after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. After performing a prospective power analysis and obtaining institutional board approval, we conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 53 patients separated into a preoperative interscalene brachial plexus group and a control group. Group 1 received an interscalene block with 30 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine. Group 2 received a placebo with 10 mL of saline solution. All patients postoperatively received an arthroscopically placed subacromial infusion pump catheter for 72 hours and oral narcotics. Pain scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) and narcotic pill use were recorded at 6, 12, 20, 32, 40, 52, 60, 72, and 80 hours. Preoperative pain scores between groups were not significant (P > .05). A statistically significant difference was found for decreased pain scores at 6 hours after discharge in patients receiving an interscalene block (P = .001) (VAS of 30.9 in group 1 v 61.8 in group 2). There was also a decrease in the number of narcotic pills taken at the 6-hour time interval (P = .1) (0.6 pills v 1.1 pills). Group 1 had a rebound phenomenon 20 hours after discharge. Pain scores spiked as the effects of the block wore off (P = .08) (net change in VAS score increase, 25.0 v 10.3). No other statistical or clinical differences were observed. The addition of a preoperative interscalene block to a postoperative subacromial infusion pump provided significant improvement of pain control only at 6 hours after discharge. Twelve hours after discharge, this benefit had disappeared. A rebound phenomenon of increased pain at 20 hours was seen after the interscalene block had worn off. After 20 hours, no statistically significant or clinically applicable differences were found. Level I, randomized controlled trial

  8. [Epidural anaesthesia: Simulated intravascular test dose with S(+) ketamine, lidocaine and adrenaline. A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo controlled study].

    PubMed

    Higueras, R; Errando, C L; Soriano-Bru, J L

    2015-02-01

    The use of a test dose in epidural anaesthesia is a safety recommendation. However specificity and sensitivity of the drugs used with this indication have been not conclusive. The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the adverse effects of a simulated intravascular test dose of adrenaline, lidocaine and S(+)-ketamine. A prospective, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study was designed. ASA I patients scheduled for elective surgery were included. These were randomized to the following study groups: S(+)-ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (S+K group), 5% lidocaine 1.5 mg.kg-1 (L5% group), adrenaline 15μg (ADR group), and physiological saline 3 ml (SF group; control group). An evaluation was made during the first 15 minutes after the study drug was administered. Variables including heart rate (HR) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP and dBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SpO2 were recorded at 0 min (baseline) and at 2, 5, 8, 10 and 15 minutes after drug injection. An increase of at least 20 beats per minute (bpm) in relation to the baseline measurement was considered a positive result, as was an increase sBP >15 mmHg. The clinical effects described as related to iv injection of the study drugs recorded were: sedation-hypnosis, dizziness, nystagmus, metallic taste perception, perioral or facial paresthesias, tinnitus, as well as any other effect the patients mentioned. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as was the percent increase in the parameters in order to see if these were clinically useful. A total of 80 patients, 20 per group, were included. The sBP, dBP, and MAP were significantly raised at the 2, 5, 8 and 10 minutes measurements in the S(+)K group compared to the rest of the groups (P<.05), as well as HR in the 2, 5, 8, 10 and 15 minute measurements in the S(+)K compared to the rest of the groups (P<.05). Sensitivity and specificity were high, and significant in the S(+)K group from minute 2 to minute 8

  9. Metformin administration versus laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Orio, Francesco; Nardo, Luciano Giovanni; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; Corea, Domenico; Doldo, Patrizia; Lombardi, Gaetano; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; Zullo, Fulvio

    2004-10-01

    At present, it is unclear what the role is of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) and of metformin administration as second-line treatments for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after failure of clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fashion the effectiveness of LOD with metformin administration in the treatment of CC-resistant women with PCOS. A total of 120 overweight primary infertile anovulatory CC-resistant women with PCOS were enrolled and randomized into two groups of treatment. Group A underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, whereas group B underwent LOD. At hospital discharge, the patients were treated for 6 months with metformin cloridrate (group A; 850 mg twice daily) or with multivitamins (group B). The ovulation, pregnancy, abortion, and live-birth rates were evaluated. At the end of the study, the total ovulation rate was not statistically different between both treatment groups (54.8 vs. 53.2% [correction] in groups A and B, respectively), whereas the pregnancy (21.8 [correction] vs. 13.4%), the abortion (9.3 [correction] vs. 29.0%), and the live-birth (86.0 [correction] vs. 64.5%) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two groups. Our data show that metformin administration is more effective than LOD in overall reproductive outcomes in overweight infertile CC-resistant women with PCOS.

  10. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect. PMID:27910920

  11. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-12-02

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect.

  12. Effect of lansoprazole on the epigastric symptoms of functional dyspepsia (ELF study): A multicentre, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Kamiya, Takeshi; Futagami, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Takahashi, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Haruma, Ken; Joh, Takashi; Asakura, Keiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the publication of the Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia (FD), the evidence about the efficacy of half-dose of proton pump inhibitors for dyspepsia symptoms have been limited. Objective: To examine the efficacy of lansoprazole for functional dyspepsia (FD) diagnosed with the Rome III criteria by the multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Japan. Methods: A total of 54 FD participants were randomized to lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or placebo for a 4-week double-blind treatment period. The primary efficacy endpoint was an overall dyspeptic symptom relief rate evaluated by 5-point Likert scale scores. The alteration of dyspeptic symptom scores during the study period was also assessed. Results: At week 4, the overall dyspeptic symptom relief rates were higher in the lansoprazole group (30.4%) than in the placebo group (6.7%) (p = 0.045). The scores for epigastric pain (p = 0.045) and epigastric burning (p = 0.03) were significantly improved in the lansoprazole group compared to the placebo group, whereas the improvement of the scores for postprandial fullness (p = 0.81) and early satiation (p = 0.33) was not different between lansoprazole and placebo groups. Conclusions: Lansoprazole 15 mg ameliorates dyspeptic symptoms, particularly the epigastric pain syndrome-related symptoms of FD. PMID:24917996

  13. Efficacy of an oral nutraceutical for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ruth M; Evans, Richard; Conzemius, Michael G

    2017-09-12

    To assess the safety and efficacy of an orally administered nutraceutical (Glu/CS+; + for additional ingredient) for the treatment of clinical osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, client-owned dogs with clinical signs of OA in one or more joints were assigned to a Glu/CS+ (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) group. Dogs were administered Glu/CS+ or placebo orally and wore an activity monitor (AM) continuously throughout a 97 day study period. Prior to the initiation of the treatment, seven days of baseline activity was collected. On days -7, 30, 60 and 90 of the study, owners completed a patient assessment form (Canine Brief Pain Inventory). Data between groups were compared. No serious adverse events were reported. No difference was found between groups when evaluating daily activity counts during the seven-day pre-treatment period and the 90-day treatment period. Owner assessment (pain interference and pain severity scores) improved over the 90-day treatment period for both groups, however no difference was found between treatment groups. Treatment with oral Glu/CS+ for a 90 day treatment period when compared to placebo treatment did not result in a significant increase in activity counts in dogs with clinical OA. However, owner assessment scores similarly improved throughout the study period for dogs in both groups, suggesting a caregiver placebo effect in this outcome measure.

  14. Intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone for postoperative analgesia after day-case tonsillectomy in children: a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kocum, Aysu Inan; Sener, Mesut; Caliskan, Esra; Bozdogan, Nesrin; Micozkadioglu, Deniz; Yilmaz, Ismail; Aribogan, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is associated with severe postoperative pain for which, several drugs are employed for management. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone when used for post-tonsillectomy analgesia in children. 120 children aged 3-6 yr, undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy and/or ventilation tube insertion were randomized to receive intraoperative infusions of paracetamol (15 mg/kg), dipyrone (15 mg/kg) or placebo (0.9% NaCl). Evaluation was carried out at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6h postoperatively. Pethidine 0.25 mg/kg was utilized as rescue analgesic. Cumulative pethidine requirement was the primary outcome. Pain intensity measurement, pain relief, sedation level, nausea and vomiting, postoperative bleeding and any other adverse effects were noted. No significant difference was found in pethidine requirement between paracetamol and dipyrone groups. Cumulative pethidine requirement was significantly less in paracetamol and dipyrone groups vs. placebo. No significant difference was observed between groups in postoperative pain intensity scores throughout the study. Intravenous paracetamol is found to have a similar analgesic efficacy as intravenous dipyrone and they both help to reduce the opioid requirement for postoperative analgesia in pediatric day-case tonsillectomy.

  15. A prospective split-face double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of methyl aminolevulinate + red-light in patients with facial photodamage.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Medina, L; Villa, J-F; Barrera, L-M; Garcia, H-I

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is no gold standard therapy for skin photoageing. In the last decade, laser technologies have offered great promise among skin-rejuvenation therapies; however, both non-ablative and ablative fractional resurfacing modalities have their own benefits and drawbacks. More recently, open-label studies and few controlled trials have suggested that photodynamic therapy may have therapeutic potential in photodamage. To assess the efficacy of methyl aminolevulinate + red-light on facial photodamage in a double-blind split-face randomized placebo-controlled trial. Subjects had initially two split-face treatments 2-3 weeks apart in which half of the face was treated with MAL + red-light compared with placebo + red-light. Primary outcome was the assessment of global photodamage 1 month after session 2. Secondary outcomes included the assessment of fine lines, mottled pigmentation, tactile roughness, sallowness, erythema and telangiectasia 1 month after session 2, according to severity scores rated as failure, improvement or success. Based on the intention-to-treat analysis, a total of 48 patients (96 split-faces) were included. Facial global photodamage success or improvement had occurred in 94 split-faces and in no split-faces receiving placebo (RR: 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.14; P = 0.0000). One patient had an adverse event that led to the discontinuation of the therapy after session 1. Methyl aminolevulinate + red-light demonstrated significantly superior efficacy in global facial photodamage compared with placebo. This therapy was also useful for all other specific secondary outcomes, except for telangiectasia. Overall, MAL + red-light sessions were well tolerated and resulted in high/total patient satisfaction in the majority of subjects (80.4%). © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, prospective study of a glycerol-based emollient on eczematous skin in atopic dermatitis: biophysical and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Breternitz, M; Kowatzki, D; Langenauer, M; Elsner, P; Fluhr, J W

    2008-01-01

    . Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate skin care products with a protocol design for efficacy studies of fully registered drugs in a placebo-controlled study. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. [The application of n-acetylcysteine as an antioxidant and mucolytic in mechanical ventilation in intensive care patients. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Konrad, F; Schoenberg, M H; Wiedmann, H; Kilian, J; Georgieff, M

    1995-09-01

    Oxygen radicals and oxygen radial mediators are thought to be important components in the development of acute lung injury, sepsis, and multiple organ failure. Injured patients, patients with pulmonary diseases, and multiple trauma patients also showed an elevated lipid peroxidation, indicating increased oxidant stress. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used as an antioxidant in a wide variety of experiments. NAC has been suggested to act by raising concentrations of cysteine, and hence glutathione, and by scavenging of oxidant species [1, 11, 17, 29]. The present study was designed to investigate whether the application of NAC in intubated patients has an effect on concentrations of reduced glutathione in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and on the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes. Because NAC has been widely used as a mucolytic drug for the treatment of lung diseases, the influence on tracheobronchial mucus was studied, too. METHODS. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 38 long-term ventilated patients of a surgical intensive care unit were investigated. Patients were treated for 5 days with either 3 g NAC/day or placebo. The plasma concentration of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and conjugated dienes were measured on admission and on the 3rd and 5th days of treatment [8, 34, 48]. Additionally, the numbers of tracheobronchial suctionings were registered and chest radiographs were evaluated. A fibre-bronchoscopy was performed on admission and on the 3rd day of treatment. The amount and viscidity of tracheobronchial secretions were examined semiquantitatively, and glutathione levels were measured in the unconcentrated BAL. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Ulm. RESULTS. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, APACHE II score and diagnosis (Table 1). We found no significant differences in reduced glutathione levels in the plasma or in

  18. Comparing parecoxib and ketorolac as preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Siribumrungwong, Koopong; Cheewakidakarn, Julin; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan

    2015-03-18

    Poor postoperative pain control is frequently associated with complications and delayed discharge from a hospital. Preemptive analgesia is one of the methods suggested for reducing postoperative pain. Opioids are effective for pain control, but there known addictive properties make physicians cautious about using them. Parecoxib and ketorolac are potent non-opioid NSAIDs that are attractive alternative drugs to opioids to avoid opioid-related side effects. However, there are no good head-to-head comparisons between these two drugs in the aspect of preemptive analgesic effects in lumbar spinal fusion surgery. This study aimed to compare the efficacy in terms of postoperative pain control and safety of parecoxib with ketorolac as preemptive analgesia in posterior lumbar spinal fusion patients. A prospective, double-blinded randomized controlled trial was carried out in patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion, who were randomized into 3 groups (n = 32). Parecoxib, ketorolac or a placebo was given to each patient via injection around 30 minutes prior to incision. The efficacy of postoperative pain control was assessed by a verbal numerical rating score (0-10). And various postoperative things were monitored for analysis, such as total opioid consumption, complications, and estimated blood loss. Both the ketorolac and parecoxib groups showed significantly better early postoperative pain reduction at the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) than the control group (p < 0.05). There were no differences between the pain scores of ketorolac and parecoxib at any time points. Complications and bleeding were not significantly different between all three groups. Preemptive analgesia using both ketorolac and parecoxib showed a significantly better early postoperative pain control in the PACU than the control group in patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01859585. Registered 15 May 2013.

  19. Co-analgesic therapy for arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair pain using a dietary supplement containing Boswellia serrata and Curcuma longa: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Merolla, G; Dellabiancia, F; Ingardia, A; Paladini, P; Porcellini, G

    2015-09-01

    The cuff tendon that is most prone to full-thickness rotator cuff tears is the supraspinatus (SSP). Arthroscopic SSP repair ensures good to satisfactory mid- to long-term clinical outcomes. However, the intense postoperative pain reduces rehabilitation compliance and is cause of patient dissatisfaction. Many natural compounds act by inhibiting inflammatory pathways in a similar way to anti-inflammatory drugs This was a prospective randomized trial designed to assess the analgesic effect of a dietary supplement (DS) containing Boswellia serrata and Curcuma longa in a population of subjects with full-thickness SSP tendon tear treated by arthroscopy. Three weeks before surgery, patients were randomized to receive Tendisulfur(®) (group T) or a placebo (group P) for 2 months. The primary outcome measure was subjective VAS pain. Secondary outcomes measures were Constant-Murley score simple shoulder test, and patient global assessment (PGA) scores. Patients were assessed immediately at baseline and subsequently at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. Stratification of pain scores and subscores demonstrated significantly lower overall pain scores in group T versus group P at 1 week (p = 0.0477), and lower but not significantly different scores on week 2 (p = 0.0988); at subsequent time points, differences were not significant (p > 0.05). PGA scores were good in all subjects. In conclusion, this study provides objective data on the effect of a DS containing natural substances, added to standard analgesics, on postoperative RC pain. DS alleviated short and partially mid-term pain, while long-term pain was unchanged. This limitation can probably be addressed by a dosage increase over the first 4 weeks and by extending treatment by 1 or 2 months.

  20. Efficacy and safety of oral betaine glucuronate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Miglio, F; Rovati, L C; Santoro, A; Setnikar, I

    2000-08-01

    In a prospective, randomized, double-blind therapeutic trial, 191 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were treated for 8 weeks daily b.i.d. orally either with betaine glucuronate combined with diethanolamine glucuronate and nicotinamide ascorbate (Ietepar) (96 patients) or with undistinguishable placebo capsules (95 patients). The verum treatment effectively reduced by 25% hepatic steatosis (p < 0.01) and by 6% hepatomegaly (p < 0.05), while placebo did not significantly reduce the disorders. Verum was also more effective than placebo on discomfort in abdominal upper right quadrant. The global efficacy of treatment was rated by the doctor "very good" or "good" in 48% of verum treated patients and only in 17% after placcbo (P of difference = 9 x 10(-6)). 52% of patients self-rated efficacy as "very good" or "good" after verum and only 34% after placebo (P of difference = 0.017). The verum treatment provoked a significant reduction of the increased liver transaminases (ALT, AST and gamma-GT) while placebo was ineffective. Adverse events were recorded in 10% of verum-treated patients and in 7% under placebo (no significant difference). In both groups the adverse events were mild and transient, did not require treatment discontinuation and were undistinguishable from common symptoms of liver disorders. In conclusion, the 8-week treatment with betaine glucuronate combined with diethanolamine glucuronate and nicotinamide ascorbate was found effective in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a disorder for which the hitherto pharmacological interventions were poorly and inconsistently effective.

  1. Intraoperative systemic lidocaine for pre-emptive analgesics in subtotal gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yon, Jun H; Choi, Geun J; Kang, Hyun; Park, Joong-Min; Yang, Hoon S

    2014-06-01

    Pre-emptive intravenous lidocaine infusion is known to improve postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. We assessed the effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion in patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer divided into 2 groups: 1 group received intravenous lidocaine infusion preoperatively and throughout surgery, and the other received normal saline infusion (placebo). We assessed postoperative outcomes, including pain scores on a visual analogue scale (VAS), administration frequency of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and the amount of consumed fentanyl. Postoperative nausea and vomiting, length of hospital stay (LOS), time to return to regular diet and patient satisfaction at discharge were evaluated. There were 36 patients in our study. Demographic characteristics were similar between the groups. The VAS pain scores and administration frequency of PCA were significantly lower in the lidocaine group until 24 hours after surgery, and fentanyl consumption was significantly lower in this group until 12 hours postoperatively compared with the placebo group. The total amount of consumed fentanyl and the total administration frequency of PCA were significantly lower in the lidocaine than the control group. No significant differences were detected in terms of nausea and vomiting, return to regular diet, LOS and patient satisfaction, and there were no reported side-effects of lidocaine. Intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces pain during the postoperative period after subtotal gastrectomy.

  2. Intraoperative systemic lidocaine for pre-emptive analgesics in subtotal gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yon, Jun Heum; Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Park, Joong-Min; Yang, Hoon Shik

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-emptive intravenous lidocaine infusion is known to improve postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. We assessed the effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion in patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer divided into 2 groups: 1 group received intravenous lidocaine infusion preoperatively and throughout surgery, and the other received normal saline infusion (placebo). We assessed postoperative outcomes, including pain scores on a visual analogue scale (VAS), administration frequency of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and the amount of consumed fentanyl. Postoperative nausea and vomiting, length of hospital stay (LOS), time to return to regular diet and patient satisfaction at discharge were evaluated. Results There were 36 patients in our study. Demographic characteristics were similar between the groups. The VAS pain scores and administration frequency of PCA were significantly lower in the lidocaine group until 24 hours after surgery, and fentanyl consumption was significantly lower in this group until 12 hours postoperatively compared with the placebo group. The total amount of consumed fentanyl and the total administration frequency of PCA were significantly lower in the lidocaine than the control group. No significant differences were detected in terms of nausea and vomiting, return to regular diet, LOS and patient satisfaction, and there were no reported side-effects of lidocaine. Conclusion Intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces pain during the postoperative period after subtotal gastrectomy. PMID:24869609

  3. Influence of atorvastatin on coronary calcifications and myocardial perfusion defects in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Plazak, Wojciech; Gryga, Krzysztof; Dziedzic, Hanna; Tomkiewicz-Pajak, Lidia; Konieczynska, Malgorzata; Podolec, Piotr; Musial, Jacek

    2011-07-20

    Mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is influenced by an increased occurrence of severe cardiovascular complications. Statins have been proven to protect a wide spectrum of SLE patients from these complications. This study was conducted to determine the possible efficacy of atorvastatin in SLE patients as assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)-based coronary calcium scoring and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the myocardium. Sixty SLE patients in stable clinical conditions were randomized to receive either atorvastatin (40 mg daily; n = 28) or placebo (n = 32). Clinical and biochemical evaluation together with MDCT-based coronary calcium scoring and SPECT studies (Tc-99 m sestamibi) were performed at the time of randomization and after 1 year of treatment. At randomization, SPECT revealed perfusion defects at rest in 22 (36.7%) patients and exercise-induced defects in 8 (13.3%), whereas MDCT revealed coronary calcifications in 15 subjects (25%). Coronary calcium deposits increased after 1 year in the placebo group (plaque volume change from 35.2 ± 44.9 to 62.9 ± 72.4, P < 0.05; calcium score from 32.1 ± 39.1 to 59.5 ± 64.4; P < 0.05), but not in the atorvastatin group (plaque volume 54.5 ± 62.4 vs. 51.0 ± 47.6, P not significant; calcium score 44.8 ± 50.6 vs. 54.9 ± 62.5, P not significant). The atorvastatin group showed a decrease in total serum cholesterol (from 5.1 ± 1.2 to 4.4 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol (2.9 ± 1.0 to 2.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < 0.05), triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.6 to 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (4.4 ± 4.1 to 2.7 ± 1.7 mg/L, P < 0.05). There was no change in the mean Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score in patients from both groups. Perfusion defects observed at randomization showed no change after one year treatment with atorvastatin. In SLE patients 40 mg of atorvastatin daily for 1 year led to a decrease in

  4. BOTULINUM TOXIN A INDUCED PARALYSIS OF THE LATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL AFTER DAMAGE CONTROL LAPAROTOMY: A MULTIINSTITUTIONAL, PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Martin D.; Kuntz, Melissa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zagar, Abigail E.; Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Polites, Stephanie F.; Ferrara, Michael; Harmsen, William S.; Ballman, Karla S.; Park, Myung S.; Schiller, Henry J.; Dries, David; Jenkins, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Damage control laparotomy (DCL) is a life-saving operation used in critically ill patients; however, interval primary fascial closure remains a challenge. We hypothesized that flaccid paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall musculature induced by Botulinum Toxin A (BTX), would improve of rates of primary fascial closure, decrease duration of hospital stay (LOS), and enhance pain control. METHODS Consenting adults who had undergone a DCL at two institutions were prospectively randomized to receive ultrasound-guided injections of their external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus muscles with either BTX (150cc, 2units/cc) or placebo (150cc 0.9%NaCl). Patients were excluded if they had a BMI>50, remained unstable or coagulopathic, were home O2 dependent or had an existing neuromuscular disorder. Outcomes were assessed in a double-blinded manner. Univariate and Kaplan Meier estimates of cumulative probability of abdominal closure were performed. RESULTS We randomized 46 patients (24 BTX, 22 placebo). There were no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, and physiological status. Injections were performed on average 1.8 ± 2.8 days after DCL (range 0-14). The 10-day cumulative probability of primary fascial closure was similar between groups: 96% for BTX (95% CI 72%-99%) and 93% for placebo (95% CI 61%-99%); HR =1.0 (95% CI 0.5-1.8). No difference between BTX and placebo groups was observed for LOS (37 vs 26 days, p=0.30) or intensive care unit stay (17 vs 11 days, p=0.27). There was no difference in median morphine equivalents following DCL. The overall complication rate was similar (63% vs 68%, p=0.69), with 2 deaths in the placebo group and 0 in the BTX group. No BTX or injection procedure complications were observed. CONCLUSION Use of BTX after DCL was safe but did not appear to affect primary fascial closure, LOS, or pain modulation after DCL. Given higher than expected rates of primary fascial closure, type II error

  5. Botulinum toxin A-induced paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall after damage-control laparotomy: A multi-institutional, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Martin D; Kuntz, Melissa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zagar, Abigail E; Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Zendejas, Benjamin; Polites, Stephanie F; Ferrara, Michael; Harmsen, William Scott; Ballman, Karla S; Park, Myung S; Schiller, Henry J; Dries, David; Jenkins, Donald H

    2016-02-01

    Damage-control laparotomy (DCL) is a lifesaving operation used in critically ill patients; however, interval primary fascial closure remains a challenge. We hypothesized that flaccid paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall musculature induced by botulinum toxin A (BTX) would improve rates of primary fascial closure, decrease duration of hospital stay, and enhance pain control. Consenting adults who had undergone a DCL at two institutions were prospectively randomized to receive ultrasound-guided injections of their external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus muscles with either BTX (150 mL, 2 U/mL) or placebo (150-mL 0.9% NaCl). Patients were excluded if they had a body mass index of greater than 50, remained unstable or coagulopathic, were home O2 dependent, or had an existing neuromuscular disorder. Outcomes were assessed in a double-blinded manner. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative probability of abdominal closure were performed. We randomized 46 patients (24 BTX, 22 placebo). There were no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, and physiologic status. Injections were performed on average 1.8 ± 2.8 days (range, 0-14 days) after DCL. The 10-day cumulative probability of primary fascial closure was similar between groups: 96% for BTX (95% confidence interval [CI], 72-99%) and 93% for placebo (95% CI, 61-99%) (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-1.8). No difference between BTX and placebo groups was observed for hospital length of stay (37 days vs. 26 days, p = 0.30) or intensive care unit length of stay (17 days vs. 11 days, p = 0.27). There was no difference in median morphine equivalents following DCL. The overall complication rate was similar (63% vs. 68%, p = 0.69), with two deaths in the placebo group and none in the BTX group. No BTX or injection procedure complications were observed. The use of BTX after DCL was safe but did not seem to affect primary fascial closure, hospital length of stay, or pain modulation after

  6. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Kapoor, Jyoti; Anishetty, Sridhar

    2012-07-01

    Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45), a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. t-test, Mann-Whitney test. The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006) in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The findings of this study suggest that a high

  7. A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, K.; Kapoor, Jyoti; Anishetty, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45), a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006) in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the groups. No serious

  8. A comparison of the effect of ramipril, felodipine and placebo on glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, blood pressure and vasoactive hormones in chronic glomerulonephritis. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study over two years.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Bech, J N; Nielsen, C B; Kornerup, H J; Hansen, H E; Spencer, E S; Sølling, J; Jensen, K T

    1997-12-01

    The effects of an ACE-inhibitor (ramipril), a calcium antagonist (felodipine) and placebo on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, blood pressure (BP) and vasoactive hormones were investigated in a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension, with measurements at entrance and after 12 and 24 months. In total, 33 patients were included: 21 completed the study with 7 patients in each group. GFR was measured as 51Cr-EDTA clearance and the vasoactive hormones with radioimmunoassays. The reduction in GFR was significantly more pronounced in the felodipine group (-7 ml/min) than in the ramipril group (0 ml/min) but the same as in the placebo group (-6 ml/min). The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was significantly more reduced in the ramipril group (-74 mg/mmol) than in the placebo group (-11 mg/mmol), which did not deviate from the felodipine group (-10 mg/mmol). BP was significantly reduced by ramipril and felodipine, but not by placebo. Angiotensin II and aldosterone in plasma increased or tended to increase in the felodipine and placebo groups, but were unchanged in the ramipril group. Endothelin increased only in the placebo group, and vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide, and brain natriuretic peptide were not significantly changed in any of the groups. It is concluded that ramipril seems to be superior to felodipine in chronic glomerulonephritis owing to better preservation of GFR.

  9. The PRAISE study: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study for the evaluation of iloprost in the early postoperative period after liver transplantation (ISRCTN12622749).

    PubMed

    Bärthel, Erik; Rauchfuss, Falk; Hoyer, Heike; Breternitz, Maria; Jandt, Karin; Settmacher, Utz

    2013-01-29

    Liver graft dysfunction can deteriorate to complete organ failure and increases perioperative morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. Therapeutic strategies reducing the rate of graft dysfunction are of current clinical relevance. One approach is the systemic application of prostaglandins, which were demonstrated to be beneficial in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Preliminary data indicate a positive effect of prostacyclin analogue iloprost on allograft viability after liver transplantation. The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of iloprost in a multi-center trial. A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study in a total of 365 liver transplant recipients was designed to assess the effect of intravenous iloprost after liver transplantation. Primary endpoint will be the primary graft dysfunction characterized as presentation of one or more of the following criteria: ALAT or ASAT level>2000 IU/ml within the first 7 postoperative days, bilirubine  ≥ 10 mg/dl on postoperative day 7; INR ≥ 1.6 on postoperative day 7 or initial non-function. Secondary endpoints are parameters of post-transplant morbidity, like rates of infections, biliary complications, need of clotting factors or renal replacement therapy and the graft and patient survival. A well-established treatment concept to avoid graft dysfunction after liver transplantation does not exist at the moment. If the data of this research project confirm prior findings, iloprost would improve the general outcome after liver transplantation. German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00003514. Current Controlled Trials Register: ISRCTN12622749.

  10. Long-term results of radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment for chronic plantar fasciopathy: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with two years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud I; Donatelli, Robert A; Hellman, Madeleine; Hussein, Ahmed Z; Furia, John P; Schmitz, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciopathy (cPF). However, only two such RCTs investigated a follow-up period of more than 1 year, both applying focused ESWT. Corresponding data for radial ESWT (rESWT) have not yet been reported. We therefore tested the hypothesis that rESWT is effective and safe for the management of cPF with long-term follow-up of 2 years. To this end n = 50 patients with cPF were randomly allocated to either two sessions of rESWT (one session per week; 2,000 shock waves with energy flux density of 0.16 mJ/mm(2) per session) (n = 25) or to placebo treatment (n = 25). Evaluation was by change in Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score and Roles and Maudsley (RM) score. Mean pretreatment VAS scores for the rESWT and placebo groups were 8.5 and 8.9, respectively. 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment, the mean VAS scores for the rESWT and placebo groups were 0.6, 1.1, 0.5, 2.3, and 1.4 and 7.6, 7.7, 7.4, 6.9, and 5.6 (p < 0.001), respectively. Differences in mean RM scores were statistically significant between groups at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post treatment, but not at baseline. There were no significant complications. These data indicate that rESWT is effective and safe for the management of cPF with long-term follow-up of 2 years. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1532-1538, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of on-Demand vs. nightly sildenafil citrate as assessed by Rigiscan and the international index of erectile function.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Hawksworth, D J; Hurwitz, L M; Cullen, J; Rosner, I L; Lue, T F; Dean, R C

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have evaluated the use of PDE5 inhibitors in penile rehabilitation following nerve-sparing prostatectomy. These studies have evaluated the use of various pharmacologic agents as well as various approaches to treatment (on-demand vs. rehabilitative). Most of these studies relied on self-reported outcomes to determine efficacy of the therapy which could allow response bias to affect their results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nightly sildenafil citrate therapy during penile rehabilitation, using nocturnal penile rigidity (RigiScan(™), Gotop Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) in addition to the IIEF-EF. Patients with localized prostate cancer and normal erectile function prior to nsRP were randomized to take either nightly 50 mg sildenafil citrate or placebo starting the night following surgery. Both groups were allowed on-demand sildenafil citrate. Erectile function was evaluated at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-operatively, with a final assessment made at 13 months, following a 1 month drug washout. At all time points, self-reported (IIEF-EF) and objective (RigiScan(™)) measures were obtained and evaluated. About 74 of 97 randomized patients completed the study. On completion, 40% of patients in each group had normal erectile function based on RigiScan(™) (p = 1.0). Additionally, no statistical differences were seen using the IIEF-EF domain (32.4% of placebo, 29% of treatment; p = 0.79). Multivariable analysis showed no significant differences in erectile function based on treatment intervention. Results did show that African-American men in this cohort were at higher risk for lower RigiScan(™) scores over time (OR: 0.48, p = 0.0399). This study demonstrates that nightly sildenafil citrate does not provide a therapeutic benefit for recovery of erectile function post-prostatectomy when compared to on-demand dosing using both self-reported as well as objective measures. Differences in objective recovery parameters

  12. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2008-01-01

    Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. To determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After 1 week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of 2 weeks. Fifty subjects were recruited for this study. Forty three of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group). The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs 0.71 for the placebo group). Patients mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. Eighty one point three percent patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.

  13. A prospective, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of a fluoride rinse on white spot lesion development and bleeding in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    van der Kaaij, Nicoline C W; van der Veen, Monique H; van der Kaaij, Marleen A E; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-06-01

    Demineralizations around orthodontic brackets are a main disadvantage of orthodontic treatment. Several methods have been advocated to prevent their development, such as fluoride rinses or varnishes. In this randomized clinical trial, a fluoride rinse (a combination of sodium fluoride and amine fluoride) was compared with a placebo rinse, to be used every evening after toothbrushing. A total of 81 participants (mean age: 13.3 yr) completed the study (mean treatment period: 24.5 months). Demineralizations, measured using quantitative light-induced fluorescence and the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index, were assessed before treatment (baseline) and around 6 wk after debonding (post treatment). Bleeding scores were measured at baseline, and during and post treatment. The incidence rate ratio for demineralizations was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1-6.3) in the placebo group vs. the fluoride group. In the fluoride group, 31% of participants developed at least one demineralization, compared with 47% in the placebo group. Relative to baseline, gingival bleeding increased significantly in the placebo group 1 yr after the start of treatment and onwards. For the fluoride group, bleeding scores during treatment were not different from those at baseline. In conclusion, using a fluoride rinse helps to maintain better oral health during fixed appliance treatment, resulting in fewer demineralizations.

  14. A prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of onabotulinumtoxinA to treat plantarflexor/invertor overactivity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dunne, John Walter; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Hayes, Michael; Zeman, Brian; Singer, Barbara Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    To examine the safety and efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) for plantarflexor overactivity following stroke. Double-blind randomized controlled trial, open-label extension phase. Neurology rehabilitation facilities. Eighty-five subjects with lower limb hypertonia received 200 U (n = 28) or 300 U (n = 28) of onabotulinumtoxinA or saline (n = 29) injection. Plantarflexor Ashworth scores at 12 weeks post injection and adverse events. Secondary measures: self-reported spasm frequency and pain, physician rating of hypertonia severity, gait quality and active dorsiflexion. Differences were not seen between onabotulinumtoxinA groups; hence data were pooled. Incidence of adverse events was not different between groups (P = 0.61). Reduction in hypertonia was not different between groups at 12 weeks (P = 0.53); however for subjects with Ashworth scores of >3 at baseline, 14/31 in the onabotulinumtoxinA group demonstrated a reduction of >1 grade versus 1/17 receiving placebo injection (P = 0.01). Overall, onabotulinumtoxinA-injected subjects demonstrated significantly greater improvement in spasm frequency (22/54 versus 4/29, P = 0.01), pain reduction (8/54 versus 1/29, P = 0.02), active dorsiflexion (8/54 versus 1/29 P = 0.03) and gait quality (17/54 versus 6/29, P = 0.02) than controls. In the open-label phase, a second onabotulinumtoxinA injection was associated with greater hypertonia reduction (P = 0.005) and gait quality (P = 0.002) compared with single injection. OnabotulinumtoxinA injection for ankle flexor overactivity after stroke was safe and well tolerated but did not alter local spasticity at 12 weeks; it did reduce spasms and improve gait quality. There were no detectable differences between higher and lower doses. A second injection may be associated with greater change.

  15. Midodrine for the treatment of organic anejaculation but not spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, M R

    2009-01-01

    Anejaculation is a rare cause of infertility and adversely affects the general sense of well-being and perception of sexual life satisfaction. Evidence to support effective and noninvasive treatment for this ejaculatory disorder is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of midodrine (alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist) for the treatment of organic anejaculation but not spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 128 patients were randomly assigned to oral midodrine 7.5-15 mg per day in a stepwise approach (group 1, n=64), or a similar regimen of placebo (group 2, n=64). They underwent a complete physical examination, echocardiography, 12-lead electrocardiogram, transrectal ultrasonography, complete blood count and blood chemistry. Hormonal assays included serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin and testosterone. To rule out other sexual dysfunction, patients also completed the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders were excluded by appropriate tests. Outcome measure was reversal of the anejaculation. None of the patients in the placebo group achieved antegrade or retrograde ejaculation. At the end of study, antegrade, retrograde and antegrade+retrograde ejaculation occurred in 18 (29.5%), 8 (13.1%) and 9 (14.8%) patients in midodrine group, respectively (all P=0.01). The most and least favorable responses were among patients with multiple sclerosis and bilateral sympathectomy, respectively. Midodrine improved ejaculation function in a dose-dependent manner. Four participants (6.3%) in midodrine group discontinued this study for reasons of adverse events. In patients with organic anejaculation but without SCI midodrine can reverse anejaculation in more than 50% of patients. Further studies are needed, however, for the evaluation of different treatment regimens in anejaculation therapy.

  16. The effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the management of patients with complex regional pain syndrome: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Adem; Çakır, Tuncay; Doğan, Şebnem Koldaş; Erçalık, Tülay; Filiz, Meral Bilgilisoy; Toraman, Füsun

    2016-11-21

    To investigate the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on clinical recovery in the management of patients with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS Type I). The study included 30 patients with stage 1 and 2 CRPS Type I in the upper extremities. The patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups, group 1 (n= 15) received conventional TENS therapy for 20 minutes, and group 2 (n= 15) received sham TENS therapy. The standard physical therapy program, which included contrast bath for 20 minutes; whirlpool bath for 15 minutes; assisted active and passive range of motion, and static stretching exercises up to the pain threshold, was also conducted in both groups. Therapy was scheduled for 15 sessions. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess spontaneous pain. The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms (LANSS) scale and the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN-4) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, range of motion (ROM) was measured using a goniometer and volumetric measurements were taken to assess edema. Functional capacity was assessed using a hand dynamometer and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI). All measurements were performed at baseline and after therapy. Significant improvements were achieved in spontaneous and neuropathic pain scores, edema, ROM, and functional capacity in both groups (p< 0.05). However, improvement was found to be significantly greater in group 1 regarding pain intensity, neuropathic pain assessed using LANNS, edema, and in the 2nd-3rd finger ROM measurements (p< 0.05). No significant difference was detected between groups regarding improvements in 4th-5th finger and wrist ROM measurements, grip strength, and DN4 and DHI scores (p> 0.05). The addition of TENS to the physical therapy program was seen to make a significant contribution to clinical recovery in CRPS Type 1.

  17. Evaluation of efficacy of amikacin for attenuation of catheter-related bladder discomfort in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ruchi; Agarwal, Anil; Singh, Prabhat Kumar; Gupta, Devendra; Shamim, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Context: Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is the most distressing symptom in patients due to intraoperative urinary catheterization. Amikacin significantly inhibits detrusor contraction evoked by prejunctional stimulation. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of amikacin in prevention of CRBD in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Settings and Design: Study areas were operation theater and postanesthesia care unit of the Department of Anesthesiology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow. Subjects and Methods: One hundred adult patients of either sex were randomly assigned into two groups of fifty each. Patients in control group received normal saline whereas patients in amikacin group received amikacin 10 mg/kg just before induction. Grading of CRBD was done as none, mild, moderate, and severe by a blinded observer at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Chi-square test among groups. Incidence of CRBD was compared with Chi-square test whereas severity was analyzed by the test of proportions (Z-test). Visual analog score was compared using Mann–Whitney U-test for surgical site pain. Results: Incidence of CRBD in control group was 66% as compared to 44% observed in amikacin group (P < 0.05). During intergroup comparison at different time points, incidence of CRBD was reduced at 1 and 6 h in the amikacin group (P < 0.05). Significant reduction in the severity of CRBD (moderate) was also observed at 1 h in the amikacin group (P < 0.05). At rest of the time points, there was no significant difference. Conclusions: Amikacin can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of CRBD in the first few hours after surgery. PMID:27746561

  18. A Phase III, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial of d-Threo-Methylphenidate HCl in Brain Tumor Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Jerome M. Case, L. Douglas; Atkins, James; Frizzell, Bart; Sanders, George; Griffin, Patricia; Lesser, Glenn; McMullen, Kevin; McQuellon, Richard; Naughton, Michelle; Rapp, Stephen; Stieber, Volker; Shaw, Edward G.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The quality of life (QOL) and neurocognitive function of patients with brain tumors are negatively affected by the symptoms of their disease and brain radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the effect of prophylactic d-threo-methylphenidate HCl (d-MPH), a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant on QOL and cognitive function in patients undergoing RT. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors were randomly assigned to receive d-MPH or placebo. The starting dose of d-MPH was 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) and was escalated by 5 mg b.i.d. to a maximum of 15 mg b.i.d. The placebo was administered as one pill b.i.d. escalating three pills b.i.d. The primary outcome was fatigue. Patients were assessed at baseline, the end of radiation therapy, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brain RT using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with brain and fatigue (FACIT-F) subscales, as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale and Mini-Mental Status Exam. Results: The Mean Fatigue Subscale Score at baseline was 34.7 for the d-MPH arm and 33.3 for the placebo arm (p = 0.61). At 8 weeks after the completion of brain RT, there was no difference in fatigue between patient groups. The adjusted least squares estimate of the Mean Fatigue Subscale Score was 33.7 for the d-MPH and 35.6 for the placebo arm (p = 0.64). Secondary outcomes were not different between the two treatment arms. Conclusions: Prophylactic use of d-MPH in brain tumor patients undergoing RT did not result in an improvement in QOL.

  19. Effect of tylosin on dogs with suspected tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The macrolid antibiotic tylosin has been widely used to treat canine chronic diarrhea, although its efficacy is based on anecdotal reports and experimental studies in dogs and not on strong scientific evidence. The term tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) refers to diarrheal disorders responding to tylosin therapy within a few days. In TRD, the stool remains normal as long as tylosin treatment continues, but diarrhea reappears in many dogs within weeks after discontinuation. The aim of our trial was to assess the effect of tylosin on fecal consistency compared with a placebo treatment in dogs with suspected TRD and additionally to establish whether tylosin in dogs with recurrent diarrhea is as effective as empirical studies and anecdotal reports suggest. Methods Subjects comprised 71 client-owned dogs that, according to the owners, had previously been treated successfully with tylosin due to recurrent diarrhea of unknown etiology. At the initial examination, where there were no signs of diarrhea, the dogs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a tylosin or placebo group. During a two-month follow-up the owners evaluated the fecal consistency according to previously published guidelines. When diarrhea recurred, either tylosin (25 mg/kg q 24 h, 7 days) or placebo treatment was initiated orally. Treatment outcome was evaluated as the mean of fecal consistency scores assigned during the last three days of the treatment period. To test for differences between the tylosin and placebo group in the proportion of responders, Pearson's Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were applied. Results Sixty-one dogs met the selection criteria and were followed for two months. During the follow-up 27 dogs developed diarrhea and either tylosin or placebo treatment was started. The proportion of dogs with normal fecal consistency at the end of treatment was 85% (17/20) in the tylosin group and 29% (2/7) in the placebo group (Pearson's Chi-squared test p = 0.0049 and

  20. Effect of tylosin on dogs with suspected tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas; Syrjä, Pernilla; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Louhelainen, Maria; Westermarck, Elias

    2011-04-14

    The macrolid antibiotic tylosin has been widely used to treat canine chronic diarrhea, although its efficacy is based on anecdotal reports and experimental studies in dogs and not on strong scientific evidence. The term tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) refers to diarrheal disorders responding to tylosin therapy within a few days. In TRD, the stool remains normal as long as tylosin treatment continues, but diarrhea reappears in many dogs within weeks after discontinuation. The aim of our trial was to assess the effect of tylosin on fecal consistency compared with a placebo treatment in dogs with suspected TRD and additionally to establish whether tylosin in dogs with recurrent diarrhea is as effective as empirical studies and anecdotal reports suggest. Subjects comprised 71 client-owned dogs that, according to the owners, had previously been treated successfully with tylosin due to recurrent diarrhea of unknown etiology. At the initial examination, where there were no signs of diarrhea, the dogs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a tylosin or placebo group. During a two-month follow-up the owners evaluated the fecal consistency according to previously published guidelines. When diarrhea recurred, either tylosin (25 mg/kg q 24 h, 7 days) or placebo treatment was initiated orally. Treatment outcome was evaluated as the mean of fecal consistency scores assigned during the last three days of the treatment period. To test for differences between the tylosin and placebo group in the proportion of responders, Pearson's Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were applied. Sixty-one dogs met the selection criteria and were followed for two months. During the follow-up 27 dogs developed diarrhea and either tylosin or placebo treatment was started. The proportion of dogs with normal fecal consistency at the end of treatment was 85% (17/20) in the tylosin group and 29% (2/7) in the placebo group (Pearson's Chi-squared test p = 0.0049 and Fisher's exact test two

  1. Control of acute postoperative pain by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after open cardiac operations: a randomized placebo-controlled prospective study.

    PubMed

    Emmiler, Mustafa; Solak, Ozlem; Kocogullari, Cevdet; Dundar, Umit; Ayva, Ercument; Ela, Yuksel; Cekirdekci, Ahmet; Kavuncu, Vural

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy on pain during the first 24 hours after a cardiac surgical procedure. A total of 60 patients who had undergone median sternotomy (MS) for coronary artery bypass graft (n = 55) or valve repair surgery (n = 5) were randomized to receive TENS and pharmacologic analgesia, placebo TENS and pharmacologic analgesia, or pharmacologic analgesia alone (control group). For each group we recorded severity of pain, analgesic intake, and pulmonary complications. Pethidine HCL and metamizol sodium were administered for postsurgical analgesia. Pain after MS was measured on a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS). Mean scores in the TENS, placebo TENS, and control groups, respectively, were 5.70 +/- 1.78, 5.75 +/- 1.83, and 5.95 +/- 1.63 before treatment (P >.05); 2.40 +/- 1.18, 3.90 +/- 1.48, and 3.55 +/- 1.60 on the 12th hour of the intervention (P < .05); and 1.25 +/- 0.91, 2.30 +/- 1.34, and 2.15 +/- 1.13 on the 24th hour of the intervention (P < .05). The mean VAS scores decreased within each group (P < .05). However, the mean VAS scores decreased much more significantly in the TENS group (P < .05). Metamizol sodium intake was 1.05 +/- 0.39 g, 2.30 +/- 1.08 g, and 2.90 +/- 1.20 g and pethidine HCL intake was 17 +/- 16.25 mg, 57 +/- 21.54 mg, and 51.50 +/- 18.99 mg, respectively, in the TENS, placebo TENS, and control groups. Metamizol sodium and pethidine HCL intake was least in the TENS group (P < .05). Postoperative complications were observed in 6 (10%) of patients. The most frequent complication was atelectasia. TENS was more effective than placebo TENS or control treatments in decreasing pain and limiting opioid and nonopioid medication intake during the first 24-hour period following MS.

  2. Investigation of the clinical efficacy of 0.2% topical stannous fluoride for the treatment of canine superficial pyoderma: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Judith D; Flynn-Lurie, Alison K; Marsella, Rosanna; Brennan, Meghan M

    2010-06-01

    Stannous fluoride (SF) is an antibacterial compound that has been successfully used to treat gingivitis in people and dogs, and cutaneous bacterial infections in horses. The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy of 0.2% SF spray (BacDerm; Emerald 3 Enterprises Inc., Camdenton, MO, USA) for the treatment of canine superficial pyoderma. Twenty-six privately owned dogs with bacterial skin infections diagnosed on clinical signs, cytology and aerobic culture were enrolled. Dogs were randomly assigned to vehicle only or active ingredient treatment groups. The product was applied topically to affected areas once daily for 28 days, with assessments at days 0, 14, 28 and 42. Clinical and cytological evaluations were performed by the same investigators at each visit. Owners scored the improvement of hair coat, odour, pruritus and overall improvement at each recheck. Linear mixed models showed significant effects of treatment (P < 0.0001) and time (P = 0.0037) for investigator's scores, and a significant time effect for owners' haircoat (P = 0.0077) and odour (P = 0.0170) improvement scores. Dogs in both placebo and SF groups showed some improvement over time, and the investigator's scores on days 0 and 28 were not significantly different between groups for both (t-test P > 0.05). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients revealed a significant negative correlation between investigator's scores and all categories of owners' assessment scores in dogs of both groups. Although some dogs improved on SF, this study does not support the use of 0.2% SF as sole therapy for canine superficial pyoderma.

  3. The PRAISE study: A prospective, multi-center, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study for the evaluation of iloprost in the early postoperative period after liver transplantation (ISRCTN12622749)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liver graft dysfunction can deteriorate to complete organ failure and increases perioperative morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. Therapeutic strategies reducing the rate of graft dysfunction are of current clinical relevance. One approach is the systemic application of prostaglandins, which were demonstrated to be beneficial in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Preliminary data indicate a positive effect of prostacyclin analogue iloprost on allograft viability after liver transplantation. The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of iloprost in a multi-center trial. Methods/Design A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study in a total of 365 liver transplant recipients was designed to assess the effect of intravenous iloprost after liver transplantation. Primary endpoint will be the primary graft dysfunction characterized as presentation of one or more of the following criteria: ALAT or ASAT level > 2000 IU/ml within the first 7 postoperative days, bilirubine ≥ 10 mg/dl on postoperative day 7; INR ≥ 1.6 on postoperative day 7 or initial non-function. Secondary endpoints are parameters of post-transplant morbidity, like rates of infections, biliary complications, need of clotting factors or renal replacement therapy and the graft and patient survival. Discussion A well-established treatment concept to avoid graft dysfunction after liver transplantation does not exist at the moment. If the data of this research project confirm prior findings, iloprost would improve the general outcome after liver transplantation. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00003514. Current Controlled Trials Register: ISRCTN12622749. PMID:23356494

  4. Efficacy of Eight Months of Nightly Zolpidem: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Surilla; Roehrs, Timothy A.; Roth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the long-term (8 months) efficacy of zolpidem in adults with chronic primary insomnia using polysomnography. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: Sleep disorders and research center. Participants: Healthy participants (n = 91), ages 23-70, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia. Interventions: Nightly zolpidem, 10 mg (5 mg for patients > 60 yrs) or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 8 months. Measurements and Results: Polysomnographic sleep parameters and morning subject assessments of sleep on 2 nights in months 1 and 8. Relative to placebo, zolpidem significantly increased overall total sleep time and sleep efficiency, reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset when assessed at months 1 and 8. Overall, subjective evaluations of efficacy were not shown among treatment groups. Conclusions: In adults with primary insomnia, nightly zolpidem administration remained efficacious across 8 months of nightly use. Clinical Trial Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006525; Trial Name: Safety and Efficacy of Chronic Hypnotic Use; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01006525. Citation: Randall S; Roehrs TA; Roth T. Efficacy of eight months of nightly zolpidem: a prospective placebo-controlled study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1551-1557. PMID:23115404

  5. Phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen vs. tamoxifen and fenretinide in postmenopausal women with positive receptors (EB193): an intergroup trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ruta D; Cobleigh, Melody A; Gray, Robert; Graham, Mark L; Norton, Larry; Martino, Silvana; Budd, George Thomas; Ingle, James N; Wood, William C

    2011-12-01

    Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for 5 years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Between October 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Four hundred and nineteen patients were evaluable. The study was terminated early due to slow accrual. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in DFS, TTR or survival. More patients stopped treatment early on the fenretinide arm than on placebo (P = 0.02). Grade 3/4 toxicities, including visual problems and musculoskeletal complaints were more common in patients receiving fenretinide (P = 0.007). A Night Blindness Questionnaire was used to monitor nyctalopia, which was slightly, but not significantly, more common on fenretinide. In this underpowered study, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between treatment groups. This trial provides important toxicity information about fenretinide, a retinoid that has been used in the prevention setting, because it is the only placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study ever performed.

  6. Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Prospective Randomized Trial of Adjuvant Tamoxifen vs. Tamoxifen and Fenretinide in Postmenopausal Women with Positive Receptors (EB193): An Intergroup Trial Coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ruta D.; Cobleigh, Melody A.; Gray, Robert; Graham, Mark L.; Norton, Larry; Martino, Silvana; Budd, George Thomas; Ingle, James N.; Wood, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for five years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Patients and methods Between October 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Results Four hundred nineteen patients were evaluable. The study was terminated early due to slow accrual. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in DFS, TTR or survival. More patients stopped treatment early on the fenretinide arm than on placebo (p=.02). Grade 3/4 toxicities, including visual problems and musculoskeletal complaints were more common in patients receiving fenretinide (p=.007). A Night Blindness Questionnaire was used to monitor nyctalopia, which was slightly, but not significantly, more common on fenretinide. Conclusions In this underpowered study, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between treatment groups. This trial provides important toxicity information about fenretinide, a retinoid which has been used in the prevention setting, because it is the only placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study ever performed. PMID:20878269

  7. Metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin neither prevents recurrence nor enhances recovery from peritonsillar abscess when compared with penicillin alone: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wikstén, Johanna E; Pitkäranta, Anne; Blomgren, Karin

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin in preventing the recurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and to learn whether metronidazole enhances the recovery from PTA when compared with penicillin alone. In this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 200 adult outpatients with PTA at our ear, nose and throat emergency department received either penicillin (1 000 000IU) × 3 and metronidazole (400 mg) × 3 for 10 and 7 days orally (combination group, N = 100) or penicillin and placebo (penicillin group, N = 100) after incision and drainage of the PTA. Afterwards they received a symptom questionnaire via e-mail daily for 2 weeks, then weekly for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was efficacy of metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin in preventing PTA recurrence in 56 days; the secondary outcome was ability of metronidazole plus penicillin to enhance recovery from PTA in 28 days. All healthcare contacts were registered during follow-up. Registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identifier NCT01255670. Of the 200 patients, 20 returned to hospital with recurrent symptoms, 10 in each group (P = 1.00). In the combination group, the mean (SD) duration of throat-related symptoms was 5.6 (5.0) days and in the penicillin group it was 5.3 (2.7) days, values for fever were 1.5 (0.9) and 1.6 (1.0) days, respectively, and those for poor overall physical condition were 4.0 (3.9) and 4.5 (4.9) days; there were no significant differences between groups. The adverse effects nausea and diarrhoea lasted longer in the combination group (P = 0.01). For healthy adult PTA patients treated with incision and drainage, metronidazole neither prevents recurrence nor enhances recovery when combined with penicillin compared with penicillin alone, but instead leads to increased adverse effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  8. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial.

    PubMed

    1999-05-01

    To test the efficacy and tolerability of long-term administration of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in dogs with heart failure. The study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 16 centers in France, Italy, Switzerland and UK. A total of 162 dogs with class II and III (ISACHC classification) heart failure caused by chronic valvular disease (CVD) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were enrolled. Benazepril (minimum dosage, 0.25 mg/kg) or placebo were administered orally once daily for up to 34 months, either alone or as add-on therapy to "standard therapy" i.e. diuretics and/or digoxin and/or anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mean survival time (to death or withdrawal from the study due to worsening of heart failure) was 2.7 times longer in the benazepril treated group (428 days) as compared with the placebo group (158 days). Differences reached statistical significance (p<0.05 Cox proportional hazards model, 44% reduction in risk). The survival rate after one year was 49% with benazepril and 20% with placebo. Benazepril produced a statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction (by 46%) in the risk of worsening of heart failure (to ISACHC class III) when therapy was initiated early (in ISACHC class II). In sub-group analyses, a statistically significant (p<0.05) benefit of benazepril was reached for both survival and worsening endpoints for dogs with CVD (n=125), but not for the small sample of dogs with DCM (37). Benazepril also improved the exercise tolerance and global clinical condition at day 28 (p<0.05). As compared to the placebo group, dogs treated with benazepril presented with the same frequency of undesirable clinical events and fewer biochemical disturbances (less frequent increases in plasma urea or creatinine and decreases in plasma potassium). Benazepril extended the useful life-span of dogs with ISACHC class II and III heart failure (due to CVD) and was well tolerated.

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of a new extended-release formulation of nicotinic acid in Korean adults with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Young; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2011-10-01

    Nicotinic acid is an effective treatment for dyslipidemia. Patients are more tolerant of the extended-release form of nicotinic acid because it has a lower incidence of side effects, such as facial flushing, than the immediate-release formulation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an experimental extended-release formulation of nicotinic acid in Korean adults with mixed dyslipidemia as a regulatory requirement to allow marketing of this product in Korea. This study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, or high triglyceride levels were enrolled. Patients in the treatment group received 500 mg of extended-release niacin for 4 weeks and 1000 mg of extended-release niacin for the next 4 weeks. Twenty-five patients (24% males; mean [SD] age, 57.4 [6.9] years) comprised the treatment group, and 22 patients (5% males; mean [SD] age 61.8 [8.3] years) comprised the placebo group. After 8 weeks of treatment, HDL-C levels were increased significantly in the treatment group (17.6% vs -1.7%, respectively, from 35 [7] mg/dL to 42 [11] mg/dL in the treatment group and from 38 [6] mg/dL to 36 [7] mg/dL in the placebo group; P < 0.001). LDL-C levels were decreased significantly in the treatment group (-11.4% vs 3.6%, respectively, from 147 [33] mg/dL to 126 [22] mg/dL in the treatment group and from 146 [31] mg/dL to 148 [26] mg/dL in the placebo group; P = 0.003). The incidence of drug-related adverse events, including facial flushing in the treatment group, was not significantly different from that in the placebo group. The tested extended-release formulation of nicotinic acid increased HDL-C levels significantly but decreased LDL-C levels with a low incidence of facial flushing in this small, select group of Korean adults with mixed dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2011

  10. Randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial of tadalafil in Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schiopu, Elena; Hsu, Vivien M; Impens, Ann J; Rothman, Jennifer A; McCloskey, Deborah A; Wilson, Julianne E; Phillips, Kristine; Seibold, James R

    2009-10-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is an important clinical feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) for which consistently effective therapies are lacking. The study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of tadalafil, a selective, long acting type V cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitor, in this clinical syndrome. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing oral tadalafil at a fixed dose of 20 mg daily for a period of 4 weeks versus placebo in women with RP secondary to SSc. Thirty-nine subjects completed the study and were evaluable. There were no statistically significant differences in Raynaud Condition Score (RCS), frequency of RP episodes, or duration of RP episodes between treatment groups. Placebo response was a confounding factor. Tadalafil was well tolerated. Tadalafil appears to be safe and well tolerated but lacks efficacy in comparison to placebo as a treatment for RP secondary to SSc.

  11. Comparison of lidocaine, metoclopramide, and flurbiprofen axetil for reducing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshitaka; Itakura, Michiyo

    2008-02-01

    Pain on injection is a recognized adverse event (AE) of propofol administration for the induction of general anesthesia. Pretreatment with lidocaine, metoclopramide, or flurbiprofen axetil has been reported to be effective in reducing propofol-induced pain. However, no studies comparing the efficacy of these 3 drugs for preventing pain on injection of propofol have been identified. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of lidocaine, metoclopramide, and flurbiprofen axetil for reducing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, Ushiku Aiwa General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan. Japanese patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were randomized into 4 groups to receive IV lidocaine 40 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, flurbiprofen axetil 50 mg, or placebo (saline), preceded by venous occlusion with a rubber tourniquet for 2 minutes, and followed by the administration of propofol 0.5 mg/kg into the largest vein of the hand through a 20-gauge IV cannula. Immediately after the administration of propofol, an investigator blinded to treatment interviewed each patient on injection-site pain. Responses were scored on a 4-point verbal rating scale (0 = none, 1 = mild pain, 2 = moderate pain, and 3 = severe pain). Incidence and intensity of pain (as assessed by mean pain scores) were determined in each of the 4 study groups. AEs at the injection site (eg, pain, edema, wheal, inflammation), extrapyramidal disturbance, and symptoms or signs associated with gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration were assessed by the study investigator for 24 hours following surgery using spontaneous reporting and patient interview. A total of 100 patients (54 women, 46 men) aged 22 to 65 years were enrolled in the study. The patients' mean (SD) age was 42 (12) years. Their mean (SD) height

  12. A comparison of pretreatment with fentanyl and lidocaine preceded by venous occlusion for reducing pain on injection of propofol: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult Japanese surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshitaka; Itakura, Michiyo

    2009-10-01

    Pain on injection is a recognized adverse effect of propofol, an agent used to induce general anesthesia in surgical patients. Pretreatment with fentanyl has been reported to be effective in reducing propofol-induced pain. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous pretreatment with fentanyl 50 microg, fentanyl 100 microg, and lidocaine 40 mg, preceded by venous occlusion, for reducing pain on injection of propofol in adult Japanese surgical patients. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Adult Japanese surgical patients were randomized to 1 of 4 groups to receive intravenous fentanyl 50 microg, fentanyl 100 microg, lidocaine 40 mg, or placebo (0.9% isotonic saline). The drug administration was preceded by manual venous occlusion with a rubber tourniquet for 1 minute, followed by administering propofol 0.5 mg/kg injected into the largest dorsal vein of the hand through a 20-gauge intravenous cannula at the rate of 10 mg/sec. Pain on injection of propofol was assessed by an investigator who was blinded to group assignment. Patients were interviewed to assess pain intensity on injection using a 4-point verbal rating scale (0 = none; 1 = mild; 2 = moderate; and 3 = severe). Incidence and severity of pain were determined in each of the 4 study groups. Adverse events related to the study drug were recorded before the induction of anesthesia and after surgery. Patients were monitored for adverse events for 24 hours following surgery. A total of 120 patients (70 men and 50 women; mean [SD] age, 44 [11] years; height, 160 [7] cm; weight, 56 [10] kg) completed the study. Each group comprised 30 patients. No significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics were found. The overall incidence of propofol-induced pain was 77% (23/30 patients) with fentanyl 50 microg (P = NS), 37% (11/30 patients) with fentanyl 100 microg (P = 0.001), and 33% (10/30 patients) with lidocaine 40 mg (P = 0.001) compared

  13. Cantharidin for the Treatment of Molluscum Contagiosum: A Prospective, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dosal, Jacquelyn Coloe; Stewart, Paul W.; Lin, Ja-An; Williams, Christianna S.; Morrell, Dean S

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective To study the effects and safety of cantharidin in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods We conducted a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical cantharidin for treatment of pediatric molluscum contagiosum in an academic ambulatory care center. Twenty-nine children aged 5–10 with the diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum were enrolled to receive treatment with cantharidin or placebo. The main outcome measure was complete clearance of molluscum lesions. Results In contrast to previous retrospective observational studies, the performance of cantharidin treatment over 2 months was not substantially better than the performance of placebo. Limitations The scope of follow-up was limited to 5 visits over 2 months of treatment. In hindsight, we can hypothesize that a longer follow up period may have captured a greater effect of cantharidin. Conclusion We conclude that during a 2 month period, the magnitude of the cantharidin treatment effects in the target population are, at best, not large. This study provided objective unbiased estimates of the magnitude of cantharidin treatment effects and provided important prospective safety data. Our subjects experienced minimal side effects when treated with cantharidin. PMID:22897595

  14. The effect of a preoperative subconjuntival injection of dexamethasone on blood–retinal barrier breakdown following scleral buckling retinal detachment surgery: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Ernesto; Feron, Eric J.; Peperkamp, Ed; Veckeneer, Marc; Mulder, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood–retinal barrier breakdown secondary to retinal detachment and retinal detachment repair is a factor in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We wished to investigate whether an estimated 700 to 1000 ng/ml subretinal dexamethasone concentration at the time of surgery would decrease the blood–retinal barrier breakdown postoperatively. Methods Prospective, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial. In 34 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment scheduled for conventional scleral buckling retinal detachment surgery, a subconjunctival injection of 0.5 ml dexamethasone diphosphate (10 mg) or 0.5 ml placebo was given 5–6 hours before surgery. Differences in laser flare photometry (KOWA) measurements taken 1, 3 and 6 weeks after randomisation between dexamethasone and placebo were analysed using mixed model ANOVA, while correcting for the preoperative flare measurement. Results Six patients did not complete the study, one because of recurrent detachment within 1 week, and five because they missed their postoperative laser flare visits. The use of dexamethasone resulted in a statistically significant decrease in laser flare measurements at the 1-week postoperative visit. Conclusion The use of a preoperative subconjunctival injection of dexamethasone decreased 1-week postoperative blood–retina barrier breakdown in patients undergoing conventional scleral buckling retinal detachment surgery. This steroid priming could be useful as a part of a peri-operative regime that would aim at decreasing the incidence of PVR. PMID:20182883

  15. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of a School-Based Depression Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally; McDowell, Heather; Wild, Chris J.; Bir, Julliet; Cunliffe, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Method: Three hundred ninety-two students age 13 to 15 from two schools were randomized to intervention (RAP-Kiwi) and placebo programs run by teachers. RAP-Kiwi was an 11-session manual-based program derived from…

  16. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  17. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  18. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  19. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  20. Effect of a Perioperative Nutritional Supplementation with Oral Impact® in Patients undergoing Hepatic Surgery for Liver Cancer: A Prospective, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Philippe; Locher, Clara; Boudjema, Karim; Hamon, Catherine; Mouchel, Catherine; Malledant, Yannick; Bellissant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative nutrition with supplements containing L-arginine, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and nucleotides could boost liver function recovery, immune response, and resistance to infection after hepatic resection. We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study to assess the effect of a perioperative nutritional supplementation with Oral Impact® in patients undergoing hepatic surgery for liver cancer. Treatment was given three times daily for 7 days before and 3 days after surgery. Primary outcome was factor V, 3 days after surgery. Thirty-five patients (placebo: 17; Oral Impact: 18) were included. Five patients (placebo: three; Oral Impact: two) were not operated and five (placebo: two; Oral Impact: three) did not undergo hepatic resection. Factor V (mean ± SD) was 70 ± 27% and 79 ± 25% (P = 0.409) 3 days after surgery and 90 ± 30% and 106 ± 16% (P = 0.066) 5 days after surgery, in placebo and Oral Impact groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups on other outcomes assessing liver function recovery (bile production, γ-glutamyl transferase, α-fetoprotein), immune response (CD3, CD4, CD8 cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, natural killer cells, B lymphocytes), number of infections, and tolerance. A 10-day perioperative nutritional supplementation with Oral Impact does not improve hepatic function, immune response, and resistance to infection in patients undergoing hepatic surgery for liver cancer.

  1. Evaluation of sedative effects of single and repeated doses of 50 mg and 150 mg tolperisone hydrochloride. Results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dulin, J; Kovács, L; Ramm, S; Horvath, F; Ebeling, L; Kohnen, R

    1998-07-01

    Sedative effects of single and repeated doses of 50 mg and 150 mg tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydocalm), a centrally active muscle-relaxing agent, were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. A total of 72 healthy young adults balanced by sex were randomized to receive 50 mg or 150 mg tolperisone hydrochloride or placebo t.i.d. for a period of 8 days. Control examinations were performed in the mornings of days 1 and 8 before intake of the morning dose and at 1.5, 4 and 6 hours postdose. The psychomotoric test battery used in this trial revealed no sedative effects of tolperisone hydrochloride in the given doses at any control examination. Subjective mood ratings quantified by the Welzel Colored Scales were not impaired either. The lack of differences in sedative potentials of tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo was confirmed by tests on differences and by tests on equivalence using 95% CI. The present study substantiates clinical experience and previous clinical trials demonstrating that tolperisone hydrochloride, though being a centrally active muscle relaxant, does not cause any sedation and does not impair reaction times.

  2. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of pregabalin for postoperative pain intensity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Fatih; Yağar, Seyhan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Koç, Mihrican; Güllapoğlu, Hayriye

    2012-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of two different doses (150 mg and 300 mg) of preoperative pregabalin on pain relief and total opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Training and research hospital. 90 adult, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups to receive orally one hour before surgery, a placebo (Group 1), pregabalin 150 mg (Group 2), or pregabalin 300 mg (Group 3). Patients were observed for pregabalin side effects, somnolence via Ramsay Sedation Scale, dizziness, confusion, and ataxia. In the operating room, heart rate and noninvasive systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Visual analog scale (VAS), Ramsay Sedation Scale, and Aldrete scores were also recorded on arrival at the Postanesthesia Care Unit (time 0), 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes and 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours after surgery. Additional doses of drugs (fentanyl and/or metoclopramide) were also recorded. Preemptive pregabalin decreased pain scores and postoperative fentanyl consumption in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a dose-dependent manner. There were no differences between the groups in side effects. Preoperative pregabalin may be a useful analgesic for patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as it lowers pain intensity and opiod consumption, and does not increase the frequency of side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Initial combined treatment with anticholinergics and α-blockers for men with lower urinary tract symptoms related to BPH and overactive bladder: a prospective, randomized, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Chung, B H; Kim, S J; Kim, J H; Kim, J C; Lee, J Y

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination treatment using anticholinergics with α-blocker for initial treatment of both overactive bladder (OAB) and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), secondary to BPH. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at four urology clinics in Korea, involving men, aged 50 years or older, with LUTS related to BPH and OAB. A total of 176 patients were randomly assigned to receive doxazosin (4 mg) plus placebo or doxazosin (4 mg) plus tolterodine SR (4 mg), once a day for 12 weeks. Changes from baseline in total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), bladder diary variables, patient perception of bladder condition (PPBC), uroflowmetry, postvoid residual volume and IPSS subscores (voiding and storage) were analyzed. Of the 176 enrolled patients, 91 had doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) and placebo, and 85 had combined medication with doxazosin GITS and tolterodine SR. Compared with the doxazosin plus placebo group, the doxazosin plus tolterodine group showed significant reductions in IPSS storage subscore and improvement in the quality of life item, urgency episodes, as well as in micturition frequency at weeks 4 and 12. However, it failed to improve PPBC at week 4 as well as at week 12. Earlier intervention with anticholinergics plus α-blocker was tolerated well, including the questions about urinary retention (n=1) and dry mouth (n=2). Initial combination treatment of anticholinergics plus α-blocker showed positive results for men with LUTS related to BPH and OAB symptoms and did not increase the risk of urinary retention.

  4. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  5. Vitamin A supplementation effects on intestinal barrier function, growth, total parasitic and specific Giardia spp. infections in Brazilian children: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Aldo A. M.; Soares, Alberto M.; Lima, Noélia L.; Mota, Rosa M. S.; Maciel, Bruna L. L.; Kvalsund, Michelle P.; Barrett, Leah J.; Fitzgerald, Relana P.; Blaner, William S.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effects of retinol on intestinal barrier function, growth, total parasites and Giardia spp. infections in children in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods The study was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov;Register#NCT00133406) involving 79children reiceved vitamin A 100,000 - 200,000 IU (n = 39) or placebo (n = 40) at enrollment, 4 and 8 months, followed for 36 months. Intestinal barrier function was evaluated using the lactulose:mannitol test. Stool lactoferrin was used as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results The groups were similar with regard to age, sex, nutritional parameters (z-scores), serum retinol concentrations, proportion of lactoferrin positive stool samples, and intestinal barrier function. The lactulose:mannitol ratio did not change during the same time of follow-up (p>0.05). The proportion of lactoferrin positive samples evaluated at one month did not change between groups (p>0.05). Total intestinal parasitic specifically new infections were significantly lower in the vitamin A treatment compared to control group; these were accounted for entirely by significantly fewer new Giardia infections in the vitamin A treatment group. The cumulative z-scores for weight-for-length or height (WHZ), length or height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), and weight-for-age (WAZ) did not change significantly with vitamin A intervention for 36 months of follow-up. Conclusions These data showed that total parasitic infection and Giardia spp. infections were significantly lower in the vitamin A treatment group when compared to the placebo group, suggesting that vitamin A improves host defenses against Giardia infections. PMID:20038852

  6. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective, randomized study on the effect of octreotide LAR in the control of tumor growth in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine midgut tumors: a report from the PROMID Study Group.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Anja; Müller, Hans-Helge; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Klose, Klaus-Jochen; Barth, Peter; Wied, Matthias; Mayer, Christina; Aminossadati, Behnaz; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Bläker, Michael; Harder, Jan; Arnold, Christian; Gress, Thomas; Arnold, Rudolf

    2009-10-01

    Somatostatin analogs are indicated for symptom control in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The ability of somatostatin analogs to control the growth of well-differentiated metastatic NETs is a matter of debate. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase IIIB study in patients with well-differentiated metastatic midgut NETs. The hypothesis was that octreotide LAR prolongs time to tumor progression and survival. Treatment-naive patients were randomly assigned to either placebo or octreotide LAR 30 mg intramuscularly in monthly intervals until tumor progression or death. The primary efficacy end point was time to tumor progression. Secondary end points were survival time and tumor response. This report is based on 67 tumor progressions and 16 observed deaths in 85 patients at the time of the planned interim analysis. Median time to tumor progression in the octreotide LAR and placebo groups was 14.3 and 6 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.59; P = .000072). After 6 months of treatment, stable disease was observed in 66.7% of patients in the octreotide LAR group and 37.2% of patients in the placebo group. Functionally active and inactive tumors responded similarly. The most favorable effect was observed in patients with low hepatic tumor load and resected primary tumor. Seven and nine deaths were observed in the octreotide LAR and placebo groups, respectively. The HR for overall survival was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.30 to 2.18). Octreotide LAR significantly lengthens time to tumor progression compared with placebo in patients with functionally active and inactive metastatic midgut NETs. Because of the low number of observed deaths, survival analysis was not confirmatory.

  7. Pterostilbene on Metabolic Parameters: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Riche, Daniel M.; Riche, Krista D.; Blackshear, Chad T.; McEwen, Corey L.; Sherman, Justin J.; Wofford, Marion R.; Griswold, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6–8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (−7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (−7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (−0.62 kg/m2; P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227. PMID:25057276

  8. Pterostilbene on metabolic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Riche, Daniel M; Riche, Krista D; Blackshear, Chad T; McEwen, Corey L; Sherman, Justin J; Wofford, Marion R; Griswold, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.

  9. Pragmatic consideration of recent randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Holman, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    A flurry of recent randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing dissimilar pharmacotherapeutic treatment options for fibromyalgia (FM) have been presented in the past few years. This review evaluates these trials in light of recent pathophysiological concepts germane to FM, including mood disorders, autonomic dysregulation, altered sleep stage architecture, and the diagnostic tender point controversy. Studies with gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran, sodium oxybate, and pramipexole for treatment of FM are discussed.

  10. Ubiquinol Effects on Antiphospholipid Syndrome Prothrombotic Profile: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Carlos; Aguirre, María Ángeles; Ruiz-Limón, Patricia; Ábalos-Aguilera, María Carmen; Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; Arias-de la Rosa, Iván; Rodriguez-Ariza, Antonio; Fernández-Del Río, Lucía; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Segui, Pedro; Collantes-Estévez, Eduardo; Barbarroja, Nuria; Velasco, Francisco; Sciascia, Savino; Cecchi, Irene; Cuadrado, María José; Villalba, José Manuel; López-Pedrera, Chary

    2017-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) leukocytes exhibit an oxidative perturbation, directly linked to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism. This disturbance is related to the patients' prothrombotic status and can be prevented by in vitro treatment with coenzyme Q10. Our aim was to investigate short-term effects of in vivo ubiquinol (reduced coenzyme Q10 [Qred]) supplementation on markers related to inflammation and thrombosis in APS through a prospective, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-six patients with APS were randomized to receive Qred (200 mg/d) or placebo for 1 month. Thirty-three patients with APS completed the intervention, which increased plasma coenzyme Q10. Qred improved endothelial function and decreased monocyte expression of prothrombotic and proinflammatory mediators, inhibited phosphorylation of thrombosis-related protein kinases, and decreased peroxides and percentage of monocytes with depolarized mitochondria; mitochondrial size was increased, and mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes were upregulated. Qred ameliorated extruded neutrophil extracellular traps in neutrophils and downregulated peroxides, intracellular elastase, and myeloperoxidase. Nanostring microRNA profiling revealed 20 microRNAs reduced in APS monocytes, and 16 of them, with a preponderance of cardiovascular disease-related target mRNAs, were upregulated. Monocytes gene profiling showed differential expression of 29 atherosclerosis-related genes, 23 of them changed by Qred. Interaction networks of genes and microRNAs were identified. Correlation studies demonstrated co-ordinated effects of Qred on thrombosis and endothelial function-associated molecules. Our results highlight the potential of Qred to modulate the overexpression of inflammatory and thrombotic risk markers in APS. Because of the absence of clinically significant side effects and its potential therapeutic benefits, Qred might act as safe adjunct to standard therapies in APS. URL

  11. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Jay, C A; Shade, S B; Vizoso, H; Reda, H; Press, S; Kelly, M E; Rowbotham, M C; Petersen, K L

    2007-02-13

    To determine the effect of smoked cannabis on the neuropathic pain of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and an experimental pain model. Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in the inpatient General Clinical Research Center between May 2003 and May 2005 involving adults with painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Patients were randomly assigned to smoke either cannabis (3.56% tetrahydrocannabinol) or identical placebo cigarettes with the cannabinoids extracted three times daily for 5 days. Primary outcome measures included ratings of chronic pain and the percentage achieving >30% reduction in pain intensity. Acute analgesic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of smoked cannabis were assessed using a cutaneous heat stimulation procedure and the heat/capsaicin sensitization model. Fifty patients completed the entire trial. Smoked cannabis reduced daily pain by 34% (median reduction; IQR = -71, -16) vs 17% (IQR = -29, 8) with placebo (p = 0.03). Greater than 30% reduction in pain was reported by 52% in the cannabis group and by 24% in the placebo group (p = 0.04). The first cannabis cigarette reduced chronic pain by a median of 72% vs 15% with placebo (p < 0.001). Cannabis reduced experimentally induced hyperalgesia to both brush and von Frey hair stimuli (p < or = 0.05) but appeared to have little effect on the painfulness of noxious heat stimulation. No serious adverse events were reported. Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. The findings are comparable to oral drugs used for chronic neuropathic pain.

  12. Magnetic resonance therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gökşen, Nurgül; Çaliş, Mustafa; Doğan, Serap; Çaliş, Havva T; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MRT) works based on the electromagnetic fields. To investigate efficacy of MRT in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients who had mild to moderate knee OA at a single knee joint and between 30-75-years-old were randomized by blinded chip cards (1:1). The treatment group received ten sessions of one hour daily MRT, controls received placebo MRT. All patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. Imaging included blindly assessed ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) of the knee. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. Both groups improved significantly but the average change from baseline in outcome parameters was similar in MRT group (on VAS-pain,-2.6; WOMAC-pain, -2.09; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.81; WOMAC-physical, -1.96) compared to placebo after two weeks (VAS-pain,-1.6; WOMAC-pain, -1.91; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.27; WOMAC-physical, -1.54). Also changes were quite similar at the 12th week after the treatment. SF-36 components at 12th week improved but changes were not significant. Imaging arm also failed to show significant differences between groups in terms of cartilage thickness on US and MR scores. No adverse events were recorded. MRT is safe, but not superior to placebo in terms of improvement in clinical or imaging parameters after a 10-day course of treatment in mild to moderate knee OA. The present study does not promote use of a 10-day course of MRT in mild to moderate knee OA.

  13. Cerebrolysin and Recovery After Stroke (CARS): A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Hoemberg, Volker; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Cristian Dinu; Vester, Johannes C; Rahlfs, Volker W; Doppler, Edith; Meier, Dieter; Moessler, Herbert; Guekht, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate whether stroke patients who receive Cerebrolysin show improved motor function in the upper extremities at day 90 compared with patients who receive a placebo. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. Patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (30 mL/d) or a placebo (saline) once daily for 21 days, beginning at 24 to 72 hours after stroke onset. The patients also participated in a standardized rehabilitation program for 21 days that was initiated within 72 hours after stroke onset. The primary end point was the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90. The nonparametric effect size on the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90 indicated a large superiority of Cerebrolysin compared with the placebo (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.79; P<0.0001). The multivariate effect size on global status, as assessed using 12 different outcome scales, indicated a small-to-medium superiority of Cerebrolysin (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.65; P<0.0001). The rate of premature discontinuation was <5% (3.8%). Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated. Cerebrolysin had a beneficial effect on function and global outcome in early rehabilitation patients after stroke. Its safety was comparable with that of the placebo, suggesting a favorable benefit/risk ratio. Because this study was exploratory and had a relatively small sample size, the results should be confirmed in a large-scale, randomized clinical trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Unique identifier: 2007-000870-21. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Efficacy of Peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant IBS - a double blind randomized placebo - controlled study.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Roy, P K; Miah, A R; Mollick, S H; Khan, M R; Mahmud, M C; Khatun, S

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with considerable sufferings of patient and Peppermint oil is volatile oil, its active principle is menthol-contain a cyclic monoterpine which has anti-spasmotic properties due to its ability to block calcium channel of intestinal smooth muscles. This study observed the efficacy of peppermint oil for relieving the symptoms and changes of quality of life (QOL) in diarrhea predominant IBS. This was a prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled study conducted in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during July 2008 to September 2009. Patients who fulfilled ROME II were initially selected but those had red flag signs or any organic disease was excluded from the study. Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either peppermint oil or placebo three times daily for six weeks. Changes of symptoms were assessed three week interval during treatment and two weeks after the end of treatment. Data were analyzed by paired and unpaired 't' test. Finally sixty five patients completed the trial. It was observed that, at six weeks of therapy abdominal pain is markedly improved (mean±SD) 4.94±1.30 in peppermint oil group compared with 6.15±1.24 in placebo group and the difference was statistically highly significant (p>0.001). But two weeks after end of trials pain score again increased (6.09±1.93). Other symptoms and quality of life did not improve significantly. So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

  15. [Effects of Xiaopi Yishen herbal extract granules in treatment of fatigue-predominant subhealth due to liver-qi stagnation and spleen-qi deficiency: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-fang; Xue, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Ya-jing; Han, Ping; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wen-ping; Xing, Jian-min; Wang, Qing-bo; Tang, Yu; Li, Li; Wang, Jia-jia; Li, Guan-ru; Ji, Shao-liang; Wu, Liu-xin; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Xiu-yan; Zhao, Run-shuan

    2011-05-01

    The demand for effective intervention for subhealth conditions is growing with increasing numbers of people being in a state of subhealth with a poor quality of life. Future research and evaluation of the treatment methods for subhealth conditions from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may provide an important direction for developing effective management of these conditions. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiaopi Yishen herbal extract granules (XPYS-HEG), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for relieving fatigue and promoting a cheerful spirit for the treatment of people with fatigue-predominant subhealth due to liver-qi stagnation and spleen-qi deficiency. DESIGN, SETTING PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study was undertaken. The study period was 18 weeks, including 6 weeks for intervention and 12 weeks for follow-up. Participants were recruited from medical center and outpatient clinics of three hospitals in China, i.e. Xiaotangshan Hospital of Beijing, the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of TCM and the Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of TCM. Two hundred participants who met the criteria of fatigue-predominant subhealth and liver-qi stagnation and spleen-qi deficiency in TCM were allocated randomly to the treatment group (XPYS, n=100) and control group (placebo, n=100). The total score of Fatigue Scale-14 (FS-14) was used to evaluate the fatigue status of subjects and the extent of liver-qi stagnation and spleen-qi deficiency syndrome was also recorded. Three cases in the XPYS group withdrew from the trial. There were 200 subjects who entered to full analysis set (FAS) analysis and 197 subjects fitted in the per-protocol set (PPS) analysis. (1) According to the score changes of FS-14, the effectiveness rates in the XPYS and placebo group were as follows: 14.0% vs 9.0% (FAS) and 14.4% vs 9.0% (PPS) for complete remission, 19.0% vs

  16. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Fibrinogen Concentrate Supplementation After Complex Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, Marco; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Crapelli, Giulia Beatrice; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative bleeding after heart operations is still a common finding, leading to allogeneic blood products transfusion. Fibrinogen and coagulation factors deficiency are possible determinants of bleeding. The experimental hypothesis of this study is that a first-line fibrinogen supplementation avoids the need for fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and reduces the need for any kind of transfusions. Methods and Results This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. One-hundred sixteen patients undergoing heart surgery with an expected cardiopulmonary bypass duration >90 minutes were admitted to the study. Patients in the treatment arm received fibrinogen concentrate after protamine administration; patients in the control arm received saline solution. In case of ongoing bleeding, patients in the treatment arm could receive prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and those in the control arm saline solution. The primary endpoint was avoidance of any allogeneic blood product. Patients in the treatment arm had a significantly lower rate of any allogeneic blood products transfusion (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.84, P=0.015). The total amount of packed red cells and FFP units transfused was significantly lower in the treatment arm. Postoperative bleeding was significantly (P=0.042) less in the treatment arm (median, 300 mL; interquartile range, 200 to 400 mL) than in the control arm (median, 355 mL; interquartile range, 250 to 600 mL). Conclusions Fibrinogen concentrate limits postoperative bleeding after complex heart surgery, leading to a significant reduction in allogeneic blood products transfusions. No safety issues were raised. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01471730. PMID:26037084

  17. Probiotics for standard triple Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori.The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration.A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001).Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease.

  18. Effect of steroids for nasal polyposis surgery: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Ecevit, Mustafa Cenk; Erdag, Taner Kemal; Dogan, Ersoy; Sutay, Semih

    2015-09-01

    Although medical intervention is the first option for treatment of nasal polyps, surgery is still a therapeutic option for symptomatic cases that do not respond or partially respond to medical intervention. However, there is a need for high-level evidence for the preoperative use of steroids in nasal polyposis surgery. We aimed to assess the perioperative effect of preoperative use of oral prednisolone for advanced-stage diffuse nasal polyposis. Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated for smell, nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, facial pressure, headache, butanol smell threshold, and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) before and after the use of study drug. Perioperative bleeding volume, visibility of operative field, operative time, hospital stay, and complication rate were also evaluated. The improvement in the corticosteroid group (CG) in the VAS scores, butanol thresholds, and PNIF values showed statistically significant differences compared to the placebo group (PG) (P < .05). The perioperative bleeding volume, visibility score, operative time, and hospital stay for CG/PG were 141 mL/384 mL, 2.4/3.4, 61 min/71.6 min, and 1.1 day/1.8 day, respectively (P < .05). The difference between the complication rates for the two groups did not show any statistically significant difference (P = .214). Preoperative administration of systemic corticosteroids improves the perioperative visibility by reducing blood loss and shortens the operation time. We recommend the use of preoperative corticosteroid for the safety of the patients. The optimum dose and duration have not been established and require further studies. 1b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, efficacy study of alpha BRAIN® administered orally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Todd M; Leech, Jarrett; deBros, Guy B; Murphy, Cynthia A; Budson, Andrew E; Vassey, Elizabeth A; Solomon, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    Alpha BRAIN® is a nootropic supplement that purports to enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this self-described cognitive enhancing nootropic on cognitive functioning in a group of healthy adults by utilizing a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. A total of 63-treatment naïve individuals between 18 and 35 years of age completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. All participants completed a 2-week placebo run in before receiving active product, Alpha BRAIN® or new placebo, for 6 weeks. Participants undertook a battery of neuropsychological tests at randomization and at study completion. Primary outcome measures included a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of sleep. Compared with placebo, Alpha BRAIN® significantly improved on tasks of delayed verbal recall and executive functioning. Results also indicated significant time-by-group interaction in delayed verbal recall for the Alpha BRAIN® group. The use of Alpha BRAIN® for 6 weeks significantly improved recent verbal memory when compared with controls, in a group of healthy adults. While the outcome of the study is encouraging, this is the first randomized controlled trial of Alpha BRAIN®, and the results merit further study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Feasibility, Efficacy, and Safety of Antipsychotics for ICU Delirium: the MIND Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Timothy D; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Carson, Shannon S; Schmidt, Gregory A; Wright, Patrick E; Canonico, Angelo E; Pun, Brenda T; Thompson, Jennifer L; Shintani, Ayumi K; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Bernard, Gordon R; Dittus, Robert S; Ely, E Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of a placebo-controlled trial of antipsychotics for delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to test the hypothesis that antipsychotics would improve days alive without delirium or coma. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Six tertiary care medical centers in the United States. Patients 101 mechanically ventilated medical and surgical ICU patients. Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to receive haloperidol or ziprasidone or placebo every 6 hours for up to 14 days. Frequency of administration was adjusted twice daily according to delirium status, level of sedation, and side effects. Measurements and Main Outcomes The primary end point was the number of days patients were alive without delirium or coma. During the 21-day study period, patients in the haloperidol group spent a similar number days alive without delirium or coma (median [IQR], 14.0 [6.0–18.0] days) as did patients in the ziprasidone (15.0 [9.1–18.0] days) and placebo groups (12.5 [1.2–17.2] days) (p = 0.66). No differences were found in secondary clinical outcomes, including ventilator-free days (p = 0.25), hospital length of stay (p = 0.68), and mortality (p = 0.81). Ten (29%) patients in the haloperidol group reported symptoms consistent with akathisia, compared with 6 (20%) patients in the ziprasidone group and 7 (19%) patients in the placebo group (p = 0.60), and a global measure of extrapyramidal symptoms was similar between treatment groups (p = 0.46). Conclusions A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of antipsychotics for delirium in mechanically ventilated ICU patients is feasible. Treatment with antipsychotics in this limited pilot trial did not improve the number of days alive without delirium or coma nor did it increase adverse outcomes. Thus, a large trial is needed to determine whether use of antipsychotics for ICU delirium is appropriate. PMID:20095068

  1. A prospective, randomized, double dummy, placebo-controlled trial of oral cefditoren pivoxil 400mg once daily as switch therapy after intravenous ceftriaxone in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Monmaturapoj, Teerapong; Montakantikul, Preecha; Mootsikapun, Piroon; Tragulpiankit, Pramote

    2012-12-01

    To compare the clinical and bacteriological effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone followed by oral cefditoren pivoxil or IV ceftriaxone for acute pyelonephritis. A prospective randomized controlled trial of patients with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was performed. Daily 2g IV ceftriaxone was initially given to all patients. After day 3, patients who satisfied the criteria for switch therapy were randomized to either group A (IV ceftriaxone) or group B (oral cefditoren pivoxil 400mg once daily). Eighty-two patients were enrolled; 41 (50%) patients in group A and 41 (50%) patients in group B were evaluated. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Clinical cure was observed in 39 of 41 (95.1%) patients in group A and 41 of 41 (100%) patients in group B (p=0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12 to 0.02). Urine bacteriological eradication was found in 63.4% in group A and 60% in group B (p=0.75, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.25). There was no statistically significant difference in adverse effects between the two treatment groups. These data suggest that IV ceftriaxone followed by oral cefditoren pivoxil is highly effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis, even for uropathogens with a high proportion of quinolone-resistant strains. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of Neuragen PN® on Neuropathic pain: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole) pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo) per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p < .05) greater pain reduction. Fifty six of sixty subjects (93.3%) receiving Neuragen PN® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0%) subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601 PMID:20487567

  3. Zonisamide for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar depression. Experimental design One hundred two patients with bipolar disorder, type I or II in the depressed phase of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases, a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. MADRS score was the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures included the YMRS, CGI-S, CGI-I, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also evaluated. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences in response between subjects treated with adjunctive zonisamide vs. placebo controls for the primary or secondary outcome measures. There were also no differences between the groups with regard to response rate or remission rate. Conclusions In contrast to preliminary open label studies that suggested a role for zonisamide in bipolar depression, we could not confirm these results in a large double blind controlled study. PMID:27738356

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of midodrine on blood pressure, the autonomic nervous system, and plasma natriuretic peptides: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, two-period, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Souich, Patrick du; Champlain, Jacques de; Larochelle, Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Midodrine is an alpha-agonist prodrug of desglymidodrine (DGM) that has been reported to be of clinical benefit in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope. Its effects may be mediated not only by its hypertensive properties but also by its neurohumoral influences independent of blood pressure (BP). The present study aimed to simultaneously characterize the effects of midodrine on BP, plasma catecholamines, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and power spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) in healthy volunteers. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, 2-period, crossover study in which a single, oral, 5-mg dose of midodrine was compared with placebo. The washout period between midodrine and placebo was 1 week. The study parameters included plasma DGM (as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]); systolic and diastolic BP (as measured with an oscillometric monitor); HR; plasma catecholamines (measured by HPLC); plasma ANP, also known as venous return (measured by a radio-immunoassay); and low- and high-frequency HR variation (calculated from computerized 5-minute electrocardiographic recordings). All study parameters were measured simultaneously 12 times just before and over a period of 8 hours after drug administration. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking male subjects (14 white, 1 black; mean [SD] age, 28.6 [4.7] years; weight, 74.5 [16.4] kg; seated BP, 109.9 [9.0]/73.6 [9.5] mm Hg; seated HR, 63.8 [8.4] bpm) were randomized. No significant effects of midodrine on BP were observed. At Cmax, midodrine decreased norepinephrine from 188.4 (30.6) to 162.5 (29.8) pg/mL (P = 0.011) and HR from 57.2 (7.3) to 54.9 (6.6) bpm (P = 0.022). A significant correlation was found between DGM concentration and HR ( varphi -0.61; P = 0.014). A DGM-related increase in plasma ANP (+29.6 [90.0] fmoL/mL) was observed. This study in healthy male volunteers found that midodrine has sympatholytic influences that are independent of BP but related to augmented venous

  5. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of propofol sedation by anesthesiologists and gastroenterologist-led teams using computer-assisted personalized sedation during upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro; Hosoe, Naoki; Takahashi, Keiji; Nishino, Haruo; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Martin, James F; Ogata, Haruhiko

    2016-09-01

    No randomized controlled studies comparing propofol versus no sedation have been reported. Comparative data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of propofol sedation by anesthesiologists (ANES), and gastroenterologist-led teams (GLT) using computer-assisted personalized sedation (CAPS), during routine gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in Japan do not exist. We aimed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of propofol sedation versus no sedation (PLCB) when propofol is given by ANES or GLT, during routine GI endoscopy. Two hundred and seventy two American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II adults were prospectively enrolled in this multicenter study and randomized into three groups (PLCB, ANES, GLT). Ability to maintain moderate sedation, defined as MOAA/S scores of 2-4 for ≥50% of all MOAA/S measurements from scope-in to scope-out, was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included patient (PSSI) and clinician (CSSI) satisfaction. Proportion of subjects maintained in moderate sedation by ANES (88.1%) and GLT (94.5%) was significantly higher than PLCB (21.6%; P < 0.001); there was no difference between the ANES and GLT groups (P = 0.116). Mean PSSI scores for subjects sedated by ANES (81.2 ± 12.5) and GLT (80.8 ± 14.1) were significantly higher than PLCB (65.3 ± 19.7; P < 0.001) and mean CSSI scores were also significantly higher in both active treatment groups (75.5 ± 10.2, 77.9 ± 10.3) than PLCB (60.8 ± 18.6; P < 0.001). Moderate sedation can be achieved and maintained with propofol, improving both patient and physician satisfaction, when propofol is given by an anesthesiologist or a gastroenterologist-led team using CAPS. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  6. The efficacy of intravenous paracetamol versus dipyrone for postoperative analgesia after day-case lower abdominal surgery in children with spinal anesthesia: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A multimodal and preventative approach to providing postoperative analgesia is becoming increasingly popular for children and adults, with the aim of reducing reliance on opioids. We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blind study to compare the analgesic efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone in the early postoperative period in school-age children undergoing lower abdominal surgery with spinal anesthesia. Methods Sixty children scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive either intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg, dipyrone 15 mg/kg or isotonic saline. The primary outcome measure was pain at rest, assessed by means of a visual analog scale 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h after surgery. If needed, pethidine 0.25 mg/kg was used as the rescue analgesic. Time to first administration of rescue analgesic, cumulative pethidine requirements, adverse effects and complications were also recorded. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, weight, height or duration of surgery between the groups. Pain scores were significantly lower in the paracetamol group at 1 h (P = 0.030) and dipyrone group at 2 h (P = 0.010) when compared with placebo. The proportion of patients requiring rescue analgesia was significantly lower in the paracetamol and dipyrone groups than the placebo group (vs. paracetamol P = 0.037; vs. dipyrone P = 0.020). Time to first analgesic requirement appeared shorter in the placebo group but this difference was not statistically significant, nor were there significant differences in pethidine requirements, adverse effects or complications. Conclusion After lower abdominal surgery conducted under spinal anesthesia in children, intravenous paracetamol appears to have similar analgesic properties to intravenous dipyrone, suggesting that it can be used as an alternative in the early postoperative period. Trial registration Clinical Trials

  7. Transurethral intraprostatic injection of botulinum neurotoxin type A for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: results of a prospective pilot double-blind and randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Falahatkar, Siavash; Shahab, Elaheh; Gholamjani Moghaddam, Keivan; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) on chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) refractory to medical therapy. Between November 2011 and January 2013, 60 men aged ≥18 years with CP/CPPS, and with National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scores ≥10 and pain subscale scores ≥8, who were refractory to 4-6 weeks' medical therapy, underwent transurethral intraprostatic injection of BoNT-A or normal saline in a prospective pilot double-blind randomized study. The patients' NIH-CPSI total and subscale scores, American Urological Association (AUA)-symptom score (SS), visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of life (QoL) scores and frequencies of diurnal and nocturnal urination were evaluated and compared at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after injection and also were compared between the two groups. A total of 60 consecutive patients were randomized to a BoNT-A (treatment) or normal saline (placebo) group. In the treatment group at the 1-, 3- and 6-month evaluation the NIH-CPSI total and subscale scores, and the AUA-SS, VAS and QoL scores, along with frequencies of diurnal and nocturnal urinations, had significantly improved compared with baseline values (P < 0.05). By contrast, in the placebo group, none of these values showed improvement and the values were significantly different from those in the treatment group. Although the differences between the two groups in AUA-SS and frequencies of nocturnal urination were not significant at 1-month follow-up, repeated-measure analysis showed significant improvement in each of these values over the entire follow-up period in the treatment group. The most prominent improvement was related to the pain subscale score, which decreased by 64.76, 75.63 and 79.97% at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment compared with baseline, followed by the VAS score, which decreased by 62.3, 72.4 and 82.1% at each follow-up, respectively. Only two patients developed

  8. Transurethral Resection of Prostate and Bleeding: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial to See the Efficacy of Short-Term Use of Finasteride and Dutasteride on Operative Blood Loss and Prostatic Microvessel Density.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankur; Arora, Aditi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of short-duration use of finasteride and dutasteride before transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on intraoperative blood loss and microvessel density (MVD) of prostate stroma and suburethral tissues in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study includes 450 patients who were planned for TURP. They were prospectively randomized into three groups (150 patients each). Group 1 received placebo, group 2 received finasteride, 5 mg per day, and group 3 patients received dutasteride, 0.5 mg per day, for 4 weeks before surgery. The total blood loss, requirement of blood, and MVDs in prostate stroma and suburethral tissues were calculated in each patient and then compared among three groups. There was significant reduction in mean blood loss, blood loss/time, and total blood loss per gram of resected tissue in finasteride and dutasteride groups compared with placebo. Prostate stromal and suburethral MVDs were significantly higher compared with placebo. Blood transfusion was required in 9.3%, 2.7%, and 2% of the patients, respectively (p = 0.004). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between finasteride and dutasteride groups for these parameters (p > 0.05). The weight of resected prostate, operating time, and amount of irrigation fluid used did not show any significant difference between the three groups. Short-term pretreatment with finasteride and dutasteride has similar efficacy and significantly reduces perioperative bleeding during TURP and has minimal negative impact on sexual function. According to our findings, a 4-week prior administration of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors may reduce operative blood loss and prostatic MVD in TURP, thus potentially decreasing blood loss-related complications and the requirement of blood transfusion.

  9. [Ethyl chloride aerosol spray for local anesthesia before arterial puncture: randomized placebo-controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Peña, Sendoa; Fernández-Aedo, Irrintzi; Vallejo-De la Hoz, Gorka

    2017-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of an ethyl chloride aerosol spray to a placebo spray applied in the emergency department to the skin to reduce pain from arterial puncture for blood gas analysis. Single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department of Hospital de Basurto in Bilbao, Spain. We included 126 patients for whom arterial blood gas analysis had been ordered. They were randomly assigned to receive application of the experimental ethyl chloride spray (n=66) or a placebo aerosol spray of a solution of alcohol in water (n=60). The assigned spray was applied just before arterial puncture. The main outcome variable was pain intensity reported on an 11-point numeric rating scale. The median (interquartile range) pain level was 2 (1-5) in the experimental arm and 2 (1-4.5) in the placebo arm (P=.72). Topical application of an ethyl chloride spray did not reduce pain caused by arterial puncture.

  10. Specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of primary headache disorders in adolescents: a randomized attention-placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Lenzen, Christoph; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Resch, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Migraine and tension-type headache have a high prevalence in children and adolescents. In addition to common pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, music therapy has been shown to be efficient in the prophylaxis of pediatric migraine. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of adolescents with primary headache (tension-type headache and migraine). A prospective, randomized, attention-placebo-controlled parallel group trial was conducted. Following an 8-week baseline, patients were randomized to either music therapy (n = 40) or a rhythm pedagogic program (n = 38) designed as an "attention placebo" over 6 sessions within 8 weeks. Reduction of both headache frequency and intensity after treatment (8-week postline) as well as 6 months after treatment were taken as the efficacy variables. Treatments were delivered in equal dose and frequency by the same group of therapists. Data analysis of subjects completing the protocol showed that neither treatment was superior to the other at any point of measurement (posttreatment and follow-up). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no impact of drop-out on these results. Both groups showed a moderate mean reduction of headache frequency posttreatment of about 20%, but only small numbers of responders (50% frequency reduction). Follow-up data showed no significant deteriorations or improvements. This article presents a randomized placebo-controlled trial on music therapy in the treatment of adolescents with frequent primary headache. Music therapy is not superior to an attention placebo within this study. These results draw attention to the need of providing adequate controls within therapeutic trials in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnesium sulfate with lidocaine for preventing propofol injection pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Galgon, Richard E; Strube, Peter; Heier, Jake; Groth, Jeremy; Wang, Sijian; Schroeder, Kristopher M

    2015-04-01

    Propofol injection pain, despite various strategies, remains common and troublesome. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with the combination of intravenous lidocaine and magnesium would have an additive effect on reducing propofol injection pain. After institutional review board (IRB) approval and informed consent, we performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to pretreatment with either lidocaine (50 mg), magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), lidocaine (50 mg) plus magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), or 0.9 % sodium chloride. Following pretreatment, propofol (50 mg) was administered, and subjects were questioned regarding injection site pain and observed for behavioral signs of pain. Two hundred subjects were enrolled and 158 subjects (39 placebo, 38 lidocaine, 44 magnesium sulfate, and 37 lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate) received their assigned pretreatment intervention. Intergroup baseline characteristics were similar. The proportion of subjects reporting propofol injection pain was highest in those pretreated with magnesium sulfate (57 %), followed by those pretreated with placebo (46 %), lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate (41 %), and then lidocaine (29 %; p = 0.011). When adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic pain, tobacco use, and selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, the pain response scale scores were significantly reduced by lidocaine pretreatment compared to magnesium sulfate and placebo (p = 0.031 and p = 0.0003, respectively). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, the combination of intravenous magnesium sulfate and lidocaine offered no additional benefit for the relief of propofol injection pain compared to intravenous lidocaine alone. An improved, receptor-based understanding of the mechanism of propofol injection pain is still needed.

  12. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. A multicenter randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of pramipexole for Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger; Crespi, Giovanna; Coffey, Barbara; Mueller-Vahl, Kirsten; Koval, Stephen; Wunderlich, Glen

    2012-05-01

    Dopamine agonists could theoretically normalize the suspected central dopamine hypersensitivity in Tourette's syndrome. There was a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of pramipexole given for 6 weeks in 63 children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome. There were no significant differences in the adjusted mean change in the Total Tic Score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale for patients treated with pramipexole (-7.16) and placebo (-7.17). There were no significant treatment effects on change from baseline in the Global Severity score of the Yale Scale and parent- and investigator-scored Clinical Global Impression of Improvement. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, there was improvement in DuPaul ADHD scale scores for patients receiving pramipexole compared with placebo. There was no evidence that pramipexole has efficacy in suppressing tics. Pramipexole may decrease symptoms of associated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Melatonin for chronic insomnia in Angelman syndrome: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Braam, Wiebe; Didden, Robert; Smits, Marcel G; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that melatonin improves sleep in insomniac patients with Angelman syndrome. To assess the efficacy of melatonin, a randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted in 8 children with Angelman syndrome with idiopathic chronic insomnia. After a 1-week baseline period, patients received, depending on age, either melatonin 5 or 2.5 mg, or placebo, followed by 4 weeks of open treatment. Parents recorded lights off time, sleep onset time, wake-up time, and epileptic seizures in a diary. Salivary melatonin levels were measured at baseline and the last evening of the fourth treatment week. Melatonin significantly advanced sleep onset by 28 minutes, decreased sleep latency by 32 minutes, increased total sleep time by 56 minutes, reduced the number of nights with wakes from 3.1 to 1.6 nights a week, and increased endogenous salivary melatonin levels. Parents were satisfied with these results. Indications that melatonin dose in Angelman syndrome patients should be low, are discussed.

  15. Guided Imagery for Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Umberger, Wendy A.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Alexander, Thomas S.; Myerscough, Rodney P.; Draucker, Claire B.; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To determine the effect of guided imagery (GI) on functional outcomes of total knee replacement (TKR), explore psychological and neuroimmune mediators, and assess feasibility of study implementation. Design: Investigator-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Settings: Hospital, surgeon's office, participant's home. Participants: 82 persons undergoing TKR. Interventions: Audiorecordings of TKR-specific GI scripts or placebo-control audiorecordings of audiobook segments. Outcome measures: Gait velocity and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) Function scale. Results: Outcomes for 58 participants (29 receiving GI and 29 controls) were analyzed at 6 months after surgery. The most frequent reason for noncompletion was protocol-driven exclusion at 6 months for having the contralateral knee replaced before the study endpoint (n = 15). With imaging ability as a moderator, gait velocity, but not WOMAC Function score, was significantly improved at 6 months in the GI group. Participants in the GI group, but not the control group, had lower WOMAC Pain scores at 3 weeks after surgery than at baseline. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly lower at 6 months after surgery than at baseline in the GI group but not the control group. GI group participants had lower treatment adherence but greater treatment credibility than the control group. Conclusion: Randomized controlled trials of GI in the TKR population are feasible, but inclusion/exclusion criteria influence attrition. Further studies are needed to elaborate this study's findings, which suggest that guided imagery improves objective, but not patient-reported, outcomes of TKR. Hair cortisol concentration results suggest that engagement in a time-limited guided imagery intervention may contribute to stress reduction even after the intervention is terminated. Further investigation into optimal content and dosing of GI is needed. PMID:27214055

  16. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Fraser, David; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Little direct evidence exists on the relative efficacies of different smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, yet such evidence is needed to make informed decisions about their clinical use. Objective The primary objective of this research was to assess the relative efficacies of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions using placebo-controlled, head-to-head comparisons. Design This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting Smokers were recruited from the community at two urban research sites. Patients Participants were 1504 adult smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day during the past 6 months and reported being motivated to quit smoking. Participants were excluded if they reported: using any form of tobacco other than cigarettes; current use of bupropion; having a current psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis; or having medical contraindications for any of the study medications. Interventions Participants were randomized to one of six treatment conditions: nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion SR, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge, bupropion + nicotine lozenge or placebo. In addition, all participants received six individual counseling sessions. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were biochemically-confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence assessed at 1 week post-quit, end of treatment (8 weeks post-quit) and 6 months post-quit. Other outcomes were initial cessation, number of days to lapse, number of days to relapse, and latency to relapse after the first lapse. Results All pharmacotherapies differed from placebo when examined without protection for multiple comparisons (OR’s = 1.63–2.34). With such protection, only the nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge (OR = 2.34, p < .001) produced significantly higher abstinence rates at 6-months post-quit than did placebo. Conclusions While the nicotine lozenge, bupropion, and bupropion + lozenge produced effects that were comparable to those

  17. Systemic treatment of venous leg ulcers with high doses of pentoxifylline: efficacy in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Falanga, V; Fujitani, R M; Diaz, C; Hunter, G; Jorizzo, J; Lawrence, P F; Lee, B Y; Menzoian, J O; Tretbar, L L; Holloway, G A; Hoballah, J; Seabrook, G R; McMillan, D E; Wolf, W

    1999-01-01

    Several small studies have indicated that the systemic administration of pentoxifylline may accelerate healing of venous leg ulcers. The goal of this study was to further evaluate these findings in a larger scale placebo controlled trial and to explore the effect of the dose of pentoxifylline on healing. The study used a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group placebo controlled design in a multicenter outpatient setting. Patients with one or more venous ulcer were enrolled, with all patients receiving standardized compression bandaging for treatment for their ulcers. Patients were also randomized to receive either pentoxifylline 400 mg, pentoxifylline 800 mg (two 400 mg tablets), or placebo tablets three times a day for up to 24 weeks. The main outcome measure was time to complete healing of all leg ulcers, using life table analysis. The study was completed as planned in 131 patients. Patients receiving 800 mg three times a day of pentoxifylline healed faster than placebo (p = 0.043, Wilcoxon test). The median time to complete healing was 100, 83, and 71 days for placebo, pentoxifylline 400 mg, and pentoxifylline 800 mg three times a day, respectively. Over half of all patients were ulcer free at week 16 (placebo) and at week 12 in both pentoxifylline groups. Whereas the placebo group had only achieved complete healing in half of the cases by week 16, all of the subjects remaining in the group receiving the high dose of pentoxifylline had healed completely. Treatment with pentoxifylline was well tolerated with similar drop-out rates in all three treatment groups. Complete wound closure occurred at least 4 weeks earlier in the majority of patients treated with pentoxifylline by comparison to placebo. A higher dose of pentoxifylline (800 mg three times a day) was more effective than the lower dose. We conclude that pentoxifylline is effective in accelerating healing of leg ulcers.

  18. Bupropion sustained release for pregnant smokers: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Oncken, Cheryl; Fokina, Valentina M; Feinn, Richard S; Clark, Shannon M; West, Holly; Jain, Sunil K; Ahmed, Mahmoud S; Hankins, Gary D V

    2017-04-01

    Bupropion is used to treat depression during pregnancy. However, its usefulness as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is not fully known. The objective of the study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of bupropion sustained release for smoking cessation during pregnancy. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Pregnant women who smoked daily received individualized behavior counseling and were randomly assigned to a 12 week, twice-a-day treatment with 150 mg bupropion sustained release or placebo. The primary study objectives were to determine whether bupropion sustained release reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms on the quit date and during the treatment period compared with placebo and whether it increases 7 day point prevalence abstinence at the end of the treatment period and at the end of pregnancy. Subjects in the bupropion (n = 30) and placebo (n = 35) groups were comparable in age, smoking history, number of daily smoked cigarettes, and nicotine dependence. After controlling for maternal age and race, bupropion sustained release reduced cigarette cravings (1.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 1.2, P = .02) and total nicotine withdrawal symptoms (3.8 ± 4.3 vs 5.4 ± 5.1, P = .028) during the treatment period. Administration of bupropion sustained release reduced tobacco exposure, as determined by levels of carbon monoxide in exhaled air (7.4 ± 6.4 vs 9.1 ± 5.8, P = .053) and concentrations of cotinine in urine (348 ± 384 ng/mL vs 831 ± 727 ng/mL, P = .007) and increased overall abstinence rates during treatment (19% vs 2%, P = .003). However, there was no significant difference in 7 day point prevalence abstinence rates between the 2 groups at the end of medication treatment (17% vs 3%, P = .087) and at the end of pregnancy (10% vs 3%, P = .328). Individual smoking cessation counseling along with the twice-daily use of 150 mg bupropion

  19. Clinical effect of intratympanic dexamethasone injection in acute unilateral tinnitus: A prospective, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min-Beom; Yoo, Shin-Young; Park, Shi Nae; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) in acute tinnitus of presumed cochlear origin. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter study. Between August 2013 and December 2015, 54 patients with unilateral tinnitus were enrolled at four different centers. Patients were assigned either to an ITDI (n = 27) or an intratympanic normal saline injection (ITNI; n = 27) group through block randomization. Intratympanic injections were administered four times over 2 weeks. At 4 weeks after initial injection, we analyzed the improvement rates of tinnitus using the tinnitus handicap Inventory (THI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for loudness, awareness, and annoyance. We defined improvement as the reduction of more than 7 points or of more than 20% in the final THI score compared to the initial THI score. The initial mean hearing thresholds and VAS and THI scores of the two groups did not differ significantly. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the mean VAS and THI scores of both groups had significantly reduced. However, the improvement rate did not differ significantly between the groups (ITDI, 51.9%; ITNI, 59.3%). The results indicate that ITDI might not be more effective than ITNI for the treatment of acute unilateral tinnitus. Therefore, ITDI should not be considered as the main treatment for patients presenting with acute tinnitus as the primary symptom. 1b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Sertraline for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hantsoo, Liisa; Ward-O’Brien, Deborah; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Price, Lawrence H.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Postpartum depression (PMD) occurs in roughly 10% of postpartum women and negatively impacts the mother and her offspring, but there are few placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant treatment in this population. Objectives To compare the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline to placebo for treating PMD. Methods This was a single-center, 6-week, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sertraline with a one-week placebo lead-in. Participants (n=38) were women with depression onset within 3 months of delivery; a subset (n=27) met strict DSM-IV criteria for PMD (onset within 4 weeks of delivery). Participants were prescribed sertraline 50 mg or placebo daily, to a maximum of 200 mg/day. Primary outcome variables were the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scores, which were used to determine rates of response and remission. Results Sertraline produced a significantly greater response rate (59%) than placebo (26%) and a more than 2-fold increased remission rate (53% vs. 21%). Mixed models did not reveal significant group by time effects, although in the subset of women who met DSM-IV criteria, there was a statistically significant group by time effect for the HAM-D, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and CGI. Conclusions Women with PMD are more likely to have a remission of their depression with sertraline treatment, a finding that is more pronounced in women who have onset of depression within 4 weeks of childbirth. These data support the continued use of 4 weeks for the DSM-5 postpartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder. PMID:24173623

  1. The predictive value of transthoracic echocardiographic variables for sinus rhythm maintenance after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Results from the CAPRAF study, a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Grundvold, Irene; Tveit, Arnljot; Smith, Pål; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Abdelnoor, Michael; Arnesen, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The recurrence rate of atrial fibrillation after electrical cardioversion is disappointingly high. The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate if standard echocardiographic variables at the day of cardioversion could predict sinus rhythm maintenance. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination was performed within 4 h after cardioversion for all the patients in the CAPRAF (Candesartan in the Prevention of Relapsing Atrial Fibrillation) study. Cardioversion was successful for 137 patients not given specific antiarrhythmic therapy, and only 41 (30%) maintained sinus rhythm at 6-month follow-up. There were significant (p = 0.05) lower transmitral A wave velocities in the group with relapsing atrial fibrillation compared with the group with sinus rhythm at 6-month follow-up. All patients with the lowest A wave velocities had an early recurrence of atrial fibrillation. There were no differences between the groups regarding atrial dimensions or left ventricular function. The use of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist candesartan had no influence on the echocardiographic variables, nor on the recurrence rate of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination performed a short time after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation showed that only A wave peak velocities were significantly predictive of sinus rhythm maintenance 6 months after the procedure. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Prospective, Randomized Study on the Effect of Octreotide LAR in the Control of Tumor Growth in Patients with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Midgut Tumors (PROMID): Results of Long-Term Survival.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Anja; Wittenberg, Michael; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Aminossadati, Behnaz; Ronicke, Erdmuthe; Gress, Thomas M; Müller, Hans-Helge; Arnold, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Somatostatin analogs have been shown to control the growth of well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Their effect on overall survival is a matter of debate. We analyzed the prognostic significance of early treatment with octreotide LAR and of hepatic tumor load in the PROMID trial cohort. Between 2001 and 2008, 85 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned to monthly octreotide LAR 30 mg or placebo until tumor progression or death. Post-study treatment was at the discretion of the investigator. Upon disease progression, 38 out of 43 placebo patients (88.4%) received octreotide LAR. For survival, patients were followed until May 2014. Forty-eight out of 85 patients (56.5%) died. In 38 patients (79.2%), death was tumor related. The median overall survival (84.7 and 83.7 months) was only slightly different in patients assigned to octreotide and placebo [HR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.47-1.46); p = 0.51]. The median overall survival was 84.7 months for all 85 patients, 107.6 months in the low-tumor-load (n = 64) and 57.5 months in the high-tumor-load (n = 21) subgroups [HR = 2.49 (95% CI: 1.36-4.55); p = 0.002]. There was a trend towards improved overall survival in patients with a low hepatic tumor load receiving octreotide compared to placebo ['median not reached' and 87.2 months; HR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.29-1.2); p = 0.142]. The extent of tumor burden is a predictor for shorter survival. Overall survival was similar in patients receiving octreotide LAR or placebo treatment at randomization. Crossover of the majority of placebo patients to octreotide LAR may have confounded the data on overall survival. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Methods Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer’s test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. Results OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer’s test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 71217488 PMID:26457673

  4. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer's test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer's test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. ISRCTN registry 71217488.

  5. A prospective, non-randomized, no placebo-controlled, phase Ib clinical trial to study the safety of the adipose derived stromal cells-stromal vascular fraction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Regenerative medicine and particular adult stem cells represent an alternative option with several fruitful therapeutic applications in patients suffering from chronic lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Nevertheless, lack of knowledge regarding the origin and the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into fibroblasts has limited their use for the treatment of this dismal disease. Patients and methods To this end, we conducted a phase Ib, non-randomized, clinical trial to study the safety of three endobronchial infusions of autologous adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs)-stromal vascular fraction (SVF) (0.5 million cells per kgr of body weight per infusion) in patients with IPF (n=14) of mild to moderate disease severity (forced vital capacity –FVC>50% predicted value and diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide-DLCO>35% of predicted value). Our primary end-point was incidence of treatment emergent adverse events within 12 months. Alterations of functional, exercise capacity and quality of life parameters at serial time points (baseline, 6 and 12 months after first infusion) were exploratory secondary end-points. Results No cases of serious or clinically meaningful adverse events including short-term infusional toxicities as well as long-term ectopic tissue formation were recorded in all patients. Detailed safety monitoring through several time-points indicated that cell-treated patients did not deteriorate in both functional parameters and indicators of quality of life. Conclusions The clinical trial met its primary objective demonstrating an acceptable safety profile of endobronchially administered autologous ADSCs-SVF. Our findings accelerate the rapidly expanded scientific knowledge and indicate a way towards future efficacy trials. PMID:23855653

  6. A European prospective, randomized placebo-controlled doubleblind Study on the efficacy and safety of Dr Michaels® (also branded as Soratinex®) product family for stable chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    França, K; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent, genetically determined dermatitis that affects the skin and joints. Many patients affected by this condition seek alternatives and complementary treatment options such as herbal medicines. In order to establish the safety of these products, trials, according to medical standards should be performed to provide the highest quality of data. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of an Australian series of herbal skincare products [Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex®) skin-care products for psoriasis] for the management of stable chronic plaque psoriasis. We studied 142 patients (68 females and 74 males) with mild to moderate, stable, chronic plaque psoriasis and they were randomly assigned to either verum or control group. Exclusion criteria were: severe psoriasis, arthropathic psoriasis, intertriginous psoriasis, palmoplantar psoriasis, use of any antipsoriatic treatment and any medication which could influence or interfere with the course of the disease. Both groups consisted of a cleansing gel, an ointment and an oil blend (skin conditioner), packed in neutral bottles, used twice daily for all lesions except the scalp, for 8 weeks. As control products, we used compositions of well-known neutral ointments and medicinal bathing oil. Assessment, using the Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI) scores, was done before treatment and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Patient improvement was determined by the percentage reduction of the PASI scores. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Mann-Whitney-U Test with SPSS for Windows. Our investigation demonstrates that complementary methods can play a role in dermatologic therapy as long as they undergo standardised clinical trials and fulfil the basic requirements such as product safety and quality assurance. This study shows that Dr Michaels (Soratinex®) herbal skin-care products improve mild to moderate stable chronic plaque psoriasis significantly.

  7. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  8. Trimethoprim as adjuvant treatment in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shibre, Teshome; Alem, Atalay; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Araya, Mesfin; Beyero, Teferra; Medhin, Girmay; Deyassa, Negusse; Negash, Alemayehu; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Kebede, Derege; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2010-07-01

    Various infectious agents, such as Toxoplasma gondii, have been hypothesized to be potentially relevant etiological factors in the onset of some cases of schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment trial in an attempt to explore the hypothesis that the symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to infection of the central nervous system with toxoplasma gondii. Systematically selected patients with ongoing and at least moderately severe schizophrenia from Butajira, in rural Ethiopia, were randomly allocated to trimethoprim or placebo, which were added on to participants' regular antipsychotic treatments. Trial treatments were given for 6 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess outcome. Ninety-one patients were included in the study, with 80 cases (87.9%) positive for T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody. Seventy-nine subjects (87.0%) completed the trial. The mean age of subjects was 35.3 (SD = 8.0) years, with a mean duration of illness of 13.2 (SD = 6.7) years. Both treatment groups showed significant reduction in the overall PANSS score with no significant between-group difference. In this sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia, trimethoprim used as adjuvant treatment is not superior to placebo. However, it is not possible to draw firm conclusion regarding the etiological role of toxoplasmosis on schizophrenia based on this study because the timing and the postulated mechanisms through which toxoplasmosis produces schizophrenia are variable.

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Andrew; McDermott, Michael; Kieburtz, Karl; de Blieck, Elisabeth A; Beal, Flint; Marder, Karen; Ross, Christopher; Shoulson, Ira; Gilbert, Peter; Mallonee, William M; Guttman, Mark; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Kumar, Rajeev; LeDoux, Mark S; Jenkins, Mary; Rosas, H Diana; Nance, Martha; Biglan, Kevin; Como, Peter; Dubinsky, Richard M; Shannon, Kathleen M; O'Suilleabhain, Padraig; Chou, Kelvin; Walker, Francis; Martin, Wayne; Wheelock, Vicki L; McCusker, Elizabeth; Jankovic, Joseph; Singer, Carlos; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Suchowersky, Oksana; Factor, Stewart A; Higgins, Donald S; Molho, Eric; Revilla, Fredy; Caviness, John N; Friedman, Joseph H; Perlmutter, Joel S; Feigin, Andrew; Anderson, Karen; Rodriguez, Ramon; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Margolis, Russell L; Farbman, Eric S; Raymond, Lynn A; Suski, Valerie; Kostyk, Sandra; Colcher, Amy; Seeberger, Lauren; Epping, Eric; Esmail, Sherali; Diaz, Nancy; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Diamond, Alan; Frank, Samuel; Hanna, Philip; Hermanowicz, Neal; Dure, Leon S; Cudkowicz, Merit

    2017-01-10

    To test the hypothesis that chronic treatment of early-stage Huntington disease (HD) with high-dose coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) will slow the progressive functional decline of HD. We performed a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with early-stage HD (n = 609) were enrolled at 48 sites in the United States, Canada, and Australia from 2008 to 2012. Patients were randomized to receive either CoQ 2,400 mg/d or matching placebo, then followed for 60 months. The primary outcome variable was the change from baseline to month 60 in Total Functional Capacity score (for patients who survived) combined with time to death (for patients who died) analyzed using a joint-rank analysis approach. An interim analysis for futility revealed a conditional power of <5% for the primary analysis, prompting premature conclusion in July 2014. No statistically significant differences were seen between treatment groups for the primary or secondary outcome measures. CoQ was generally safe and well-tolerated throughout the study. These data do not justify use of CoQ as a treatment to slow functional decline in HD. NCT00608881. This article provides Class I evidence that CoQ does not slow the progressive functional decline of patients with HD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-01-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery. PMID:12562974

  11. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-02-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery.

  12. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  13. Randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of chlorobutanol, potassium carbonate, and irrigation in cerumen removal.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Miguel; Navarrete, Pilar; Prades, Eduard; Domenech, Juan; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the efficacy over a short period of time of two ceruminolytic products, Otocerum (chlorobutanol, phenol, turpentine essence, ethyl alcohol; Reig Jofre Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain) and Taponoto (potassium carbonate, ethyl alcohol, glycerol, thymol; Teofarma Iberica SA, Barcelona), in adult subjects with complete occlusion of the ear canal due to cerumen. Ninety subjects with complete occlusion of the ear canal were enrolled in a randomized, subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different treatments: Otocerum, Taponoto, or sterile saline solution (control group). The test medication was instilled into an occluded ear for 15 minutes. After this treatment, the subject's ear was irrigated with 50 mL of water. The main outcome was the proportion of tympanic membranes completely visualized after treatment. One subject among the 90 enrolled did not accept a second ear irrigation and was excluded from the study. Neither Otocerum nor Taponoto was superior to saline solution. Cerumen occlusion resolved in 21 of 32 subjects treated with Otocerum (65.6%), 16 of 29 treated with Taponoto (55.2%), and 12 of 28 treated with saline solution (42.9%). The use of Taponoto or Otocerum did not significantly improve the proportion of tympanic membranes that were completely visualized compared with saline solution when they were instilled 15 minutes before ear irrigation.

  14. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low molecular weight heparin in active ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    de Bièvre, M A; Vrij, A A; Schoon, E J; Dijkstra, G; de Jong, A E; Oberndorff-Klein Woolthuis, A H; Hemker, H C; Stockbrügger, R W

    2007-06-01

    In several open and 1 controlled trial, unfractionated heparin was effective in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis (UC). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) had a similar effect in several open studies. We studied the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of LMWH in mild to moderately active UC in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In all, 29 patients with a mild or moderate recurrence of UC during salicylate treatment were randomized to receive either reviparin 3,436 IU (n = 15) subcutaneously twice daily or placebo (n = 14). The study period was 8 weeks. Treatment was discontinued if there was no improvement at 4 weeks or at any disease progression. Primary outcome measure was clinical improvement at 8 weeks measured by the Colitis Activity Index (CAI) and the Clinical Symptoms Grading (CSG, based on the CAI). Endoscopic and histologic grading and quality of life as measured by the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) were secondary outcome measures. Patients were closely monitored for adverse events. Twenty of 29 patients finished the 8-week treatment period (reviparin versus placebo: 11 versus 9; P = 0.70). There was no difference in CSG, CAI, endoscopic and histologic grading, or IBDQ. Treatment was well tolerated and no serious adverse events occurred. In this study, treatment with LMWH showed no significant clinical advantage compared to placebo in mild to moderately active UC.

  15. Attentional bias modification training for insomnia: A double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Lancee, Jaap; Yasiney, Samya L.; Brendel, Ruben S.; Boffo, Marilisa; Clarke, Patrick J. F.; Salemink, Elske

    2017-01-01

    Background Attentional bias toward sleep-related information is believed to play a key role in insomnia. If attentional bias is indeed of importance, changing this bias should then in turn have effects on insomnia complaints. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial we investigated the efficacy of attentional bias modification training in the treatment of insomnia. Method We administered baseline, post-test, and one-week follow-up measurements of insomnia severity, sleep-related worry, depression, and anxiety. Participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for insomnia were randomized into an attentional bias training group (n = 67) or a placebo training group (n = 70). Both groups received eight training sessions over the course of two weeks. All participants kept a sleep diary for four consecutive weeks (one week before until one week after the training sessions). Results There was no additional benefit for the attentional bias training over the placebo training on sleep-related indices/outcome measures. Conclusions The absence of the effect may be explained by the fact that there was neither attentional bias at baseline nor any reduction in the bias after the training. Either way, this study gives no support for attentional bias modification training as a stand-alone intervention for ameliorating insomnia complaints. PMID:28423038

  16. Tetrodotoxin alleviates acute heroin withdrawal syndrome: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Jing; Lu, Chang-Li; Kang, Lin; Xie, Liang; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Bo; Zhong, Sheng

    2011-08-01

    1. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker extracted from the puffer fish. The efficacy and safety of TTX as monotherapy for the treatment of acute heroin withdrawal syndrome were evaluated in the present study. This 7-day, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out between December 2008 and October 2009. In total, 216 patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnosis of heroin addiction were recruited. After providing written informed consent, subjects were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment in one of the following groups: 5 μg TTX group (group 1), 10 μg TTX group (group 2) or the placebo group (group 3). 2. Evidence suggests that both 5 and 10 μg TTX significantly reduced withdrawal symptoms by day 3 compared with placebo, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events in the three groups. 3. In conclusion, this clinical trial shows that TTX (5 and 10 μg given t.i.d.) is effective in alleviating opiate withdrawal symptoms with few side-effects.

  17. Statin Induced Regression of Cardiomyopathy Trial: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Double-blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hersi, Ahmad; Giannoccaro, J. Peter; Howarth, Andrew; Exner, Derek; Weeks, Sarah; Eitel, Ingo; Herman, R. Cameron; Duff, Henry; Ritchie, Debbie; Mcrae, Maureen; Sheldon, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), characterized by a thickened, fibrotic myocardium, remains the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults. Based on animal and clinical data, we hypothesized that atorvastatin would induce left ventricular (LV) mass regression. Methods: Statin Induced Regression of Cardiomyopathy Trial (SIRCAT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled study. The primary endpoint was change in LV mass measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 12 months after treatment with once-daily atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo. A key secondary endpoint was diastolic dysfunction measured echocardiographically by transmitral flow velocities. SIRCAT is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00317967). Results: Of 222 screened patients, 22 were randomized evenly to atorvastatin and placebo. The mean age was 47 ± 10 years, and 15 (68%) were male. All subjects completed the protocol. At baseline, LV masses were 197 ± 76 g and 205 ± 82 g in the placebo and atorvastatin groups, respectively. After 12 months treatment, the LV masses in the placebo and atorvastatin groups were 196 ± 80 versus 206 ± 92 g (P = 0.80), respectively. Echocardiographic indices were not different in the two groups at baseline. After 12 months, diastolic dysfunction as assessed using transmitral flow velocities E/E', A/A', and peak systolic mitral velocity showed no benefit from atorvastatin. Conclusions: In patients with HCM, atorvastatin did not cause LV mass regression or improvements in LV diastolic function. PMID:28400935

  18. Arnica Ointment 10% Does Not Improve Upper Blepharoplasty Outcome: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    van Exsel, Denise C E; Pool, Shariselle M W; van Uchelen, Jeroen H; Edens, Mireille A; van der Lei, Berend; Melenhorst, Wynand B W H

    2016-07-01

    It has been suggested that arnica can reduce postoperative edema and ecchymosis associated with cosmetic surgical procedures and improve outcome. Despite a high incidence of arnica use among upper blepharoplasty patients, evidence to support its treatment effect is lacking. The authors performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of arnica ointment after upper blepharoplasty. One hundred thirty-six bilateral upper blepharoplasty patients were randomized between arnica ointment 10% and placebo ointment. In both study arms, one periorbital area was designated as the treatment side (either arnica or placebo ointment), and the contralateral side served as an untreated (no ointment) internal control. As the primary endpoint, the overall periorbital appearance as based on light photography and judged by a medical and nonmedical panel, was assessed after 3 days, 7 days, and 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints were swelling, ecchymosis, erythema, pain, and patient satisfaction with recovery and outcome. There was no significant difference between arnica and placebo in overall judgment of periorbital appearance 3 days, 7 days, and 6 weeks after surgery. Furthermore, swelling, ecchymosis, erythema, pain, and patient satisfaction with recovery and outcome did not differ between arnica and placebo. Postoperative outcome in untreated eyelids was not different from eyelids treated with either arnica or placebo on any of the studied outcome measures. The authors' study demonstrates that topical arnica ointment after upper blepharoplasty does not improve postoperative outcome. Therapeutic, II.

  19. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is complex; full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. In developing countries, increased resistance to antibiotics and its cost make eradication more difficult. Probiotics can reduce adverse effects and improve the infection treatment efficacy. If the first-line therapy fails a second-line treatment using tetracycline, furazolidone and proton-pump inhibitors has been effective and low cost in Brazil; however it implies in a lot of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to minimize the adverse effects and increase the eradication rate applying the association of a probiotic compound to second-line therapy regimen. Methods Patients with peptic ulcer or functional dyspepsia infected by H. pylori were randomized to treatment with the furazolidone, tetracycline and lansoprazole regimen, twice a day for 7 days. In a double-blind study, patients received placebo or a probiotic compound (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus faecium) in capsules, twice a day for 30 days. A symptom questionnaire was administered in day zero, after completion of antibiotic therapy, after the probiotic use and eight weeks after the end of the treatment. Upper digestive endoscopy, histological assessment, rapid urease test and breath test were performed before and eight weeks after eradication treatment. Results One hundred and seven patients were enrolled: 21 men with active probiotic and 19 with placebo plus 34 women with active probiotic and 33 with placebo comprising a total of 55 patients with active probiotic and 52 with placebo. Fifty-one patients had peptic ulcer and 56 were diagnosed as functional dyspepsia. The per-protocol eradication rate with active probiotic was 89.8% and with placebo, 85.1% (p = 0.49); per intention to treat, 81.8% and 79.6%, respectively (p = 0.53). The rate of adverse effects at 7 days with the

  20. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

    2011-04-01

    Male factor infertility is a multifactorial disorder that affects a significant percentage of infertile couples; however, many of them remained untreated. In recent years, considerable numbers of infertile men have sought 'herbal remedies' as an effective treatment. Among 'herbal remedies', saffron is recommended for male infertility in our community. The effect of saffron was evaluated compared with placebo for the treatment of idiopathic male factor infertility. The study included 260 infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) who were randomized to saffron 60 mg/day (130, group 1) or a similar regimen of placebo (130, group 2) for 26 weeks. The two groups were compared for changes in semen parameters and total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity. Saffron administration did not result in beneficial effects. At the end of the study no statistically significant improvements were observed in either group in any of the studied semen parameters (sperm density, morphology and motility) (all p = 0.1). At the end of the trial, patients in group 1 had a mean motility of 25.7 ± 2.4%, which was not statistically different from the mean of 24.9 ± 2.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.1). Normal sperm morphology was 18.7 ± 4.7% and 18.4 ± 4.3%, in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.1). Patients treated with saffron and placebo had a mean sperm density of 20.5 ± 4.6% and 21.4 ± 4.6% per mL, respectively (p = 0.1). Saffron administration did not improve total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, compared with baseline (p = 0.1) and placebo subjects (p = 0.1). Based on Pearson correlations, each semen parameter did not correlate significantly with treatment duration, including sperm density (r = 0.146, p = 0.13), percent of motile sperm (r = 0.145, p = 0.15) and percent of sperm with normal morphology (r = 0.125, p = 0.30). Saffron does not statistically significantly improve semen parameters in infertile men with idiopathic OAT. If medical

  1. Significant changes in circulating microRNA by dietary supplementation of selenium and coenzyme Q10 in healthy elderly males. A subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens.

    PubMed

    Alehagen, Urban; Johansson, Peter; Aaseth, Jan; Alexander, Jan; Wågsäter, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Selenium and coenzyme Q10 is essential for important cellular functions. A low selenium intake is reported from many European countries, and the endogenous coenzyme Q10 production is decreasing in the body with increasing age. Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 in elderly have shown reduced cardiovascular mortality and reduced levels of markers of inflammation. However, microRNA analyses could give important information on the mechanisms behind the clinical effects of supplementation. Out of the 443 healthy elderly participants that were given supplementation with 200 μg Se/day as organic selenium yeast tablets, and 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 capsules, or placebo for 4 years, 25 participants from each group were randomized and evaluated regarding levels of microRNA. Isolation of RNA from plasma samples and quantitative PCR analysis were performed. Volcano- and principal component analyses (PCA)-plots were used to illustrate the differences in microRNA expression between the intervention, and the placebo groups. Serum selenium concentrations were measured before intervention. On average 145 different microRNAs out of 172 were detected per sample. In the PCA plots two clusters could be identified indicating significant difference in microRNA expression between the two groups. The pre-treatment expression of the microRNAs did not differ between active treatment and the placebo groups. When comparing the post-treatment microRNAs in the active and the placebo groups, 70 microRNAs exhibited significant differences in expression, also after adjustment for multiple measurements. For the 20 microRNAs with the greatest difference in expression the difference was up to more than 4 fold and with a P-value that were less than 4.4e-8. Significant differences were found in expression of more than 100 different microRNAs with up to 4 fold differences as a result of the intervention of selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined. The changes in microRNA could be a part of

  2. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  3. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  4. Meta-Analysis: Risk of Tics Associated With Psychostimulant Use in Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie C; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Stuckelman, Zachary D; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Clinical practice currently restricts the use of psychostimulant medications in children with tics or a family history of tics for fear that tics will develop or worsen as a side effect of treatment. Our goal was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine the risk of new onset or worsening of tics as an adverse event of psychostimulants in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We conducted a PubMed search to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a fixed effects meta-analysis with risk ratio of new onset or worsening tics in children treated with psychostimulants compared to placebo. We used stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression to examine the effects of stimulant type, dose, duration of treatment, recorder of side effect data, trial design, and mean age of participants on the measured risk of tics. We identified 22 studies involving 2,385 children with ADHD for inclusion in our meta-analysis. New onset tics or worsening of tic symptoms were commonly reported in the psychostimulant (event rate = 5.7%, 95% CI = 3.7%-8.6%) and placebo groups (event rate = 6.5%, 95% CI = 4.4%-9.5%). The risk of new onset or worsening of tics associated with psychostimulant treatment was similar to that observed with placebo (risk ratio = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.78-1.27, z = -0.05, p = .962). Type of psychostimulant, dose, duration of treatment, recorder, and participant age did not affect risk of new onset or worsening of tics. Crossover studies were associated with a significantly greater measured risk of tics with psychostimulant use compared to parallel group trials. Meta-analysis of controlled trials does not support an association between new onset or worsening of tics and psychostimulant use. Clinicians may want to consider rechallenging children who report new onset or worsening of tics with psychostimulant

  5. Midodrine in patients with spinal cord injury and anejaculation: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Bernard E; Fournier, Christine; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Lepage, Yves; Vinet, Bernard; Hétu, Pierre-Olivier; Chagnon, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of midodrine in the treatment of anejaculation in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Men with anejaculation associated with SCI (level of injury above T10) of more than 1 year in duration were approached. Those with no ejaculatory response to one penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) trial were assigned in a double-blind manner to one of the two following interventions once a week for a maximum of 3 weeks or until ejaculation occurred: oral administration of flexible midodrine (7.5-22.5 mg max) followed by PVS (group M), or oral administration of flexible sham-midodrine (placebo) followed by PVS (group P). Sociodemographic data, medical characteristics, and plasma desglymidodrine concentration were collected for all participants. Ejaculation success rate in each group. Among the 78 men approached, 23 participants (level of SCI: C4-T9) were randomized. Three participants abandoned the study and 20 completed the study; 10 were assigned to group M, 10 to group P. Ejaculation was reached for one participant of group M and for two participants of group P. Autonomic dysreflexia associated to PVS occurred in three patients. In this small sample study, treatment of anejaculation after SCI with midodrine and PVS did not result in a better rate of antegrade ejaculation in 10 men than in 10 men treated with a placebo and PVS.

  6. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in patients with functional constipation. Patients and methods The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g) ASC or placebo solution for 14 days. The study comprised a screening period (visit 1), endoscopy procedure (visits 2 and 3), and followup telephone calls 30 days post-treatment. Safety end points included adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory evaluations, vital signs, and others. The primary end points were the proportion of patients with abnormalities of the oral and esophageal mucosa, detected by visual and endoscopic examination of the oral cavity and esophagus, respectively, compared with placebo. A secondary objective was to compare the safety and tolerability of ASC by evaluating AEs or adverse drug reactions. Results A total of 65 patients were enrolled in this study, 31 were randomized to PEG 3350 ASC and 34 were randomized to placebo, of which 62 patients completed the study. No patients in either group showed abnormalities in inflammation of the oral mucosa during visit 2 (before treatment) or visit 3 (after treatment). Fewer abnormalities of the esophageal mucosa were observed in the PEG 3350 ASC group than in the placebo group on visit 3, with no significant difference in the proportion of abnormalities between the treatment groups. Overall, 40 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 48.4% of patients treated with PEG 3350 ASC, and 41 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 55.9% of patients treated with placebo – nonsignificant difference of −7.5% (95% CI: −21.3, 6.3) between treatment groups. No serious AEs or deaths were reported, and no patient discontinued because of an AE. Conclusion PEG 3350 ASC is safe and well tolerated in patients with functional

  7. Snus as a smoking cessation aid: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fagerstrom, Karl; Rutqvist, Lars E; Hughes, John R

    2012-03-01

    Snus is a low-nitrosamine smokeless product that appears to be safer than other smokeless products. Evidence indicates that snus has been used as an effective smoking cessation aid in Scandinavia. No randomized controlled trial has directly tested the efficacy of snus for smoking cessation. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial tested the efficacy of snus for smoking cessation. Of the 250 subjects, 125 were randomized to active or placebo snus sachets. Subjects were followed up through 28 weeks after randomization. In total, 5 clinical visits and 8 telephone contacts were scheduled. Primary outcome measure was biologically verified continuous smoking abstinence from Week 6 through 28. The continuous abstinence rate during Weeks 6-28 in the snus and placebo groups was 4.0% and 1.6% (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.4-27), respectively. The point prevalence abstinence rate at 6 weeks was 18.4% in the snus group versus 8.8% in the placebo group (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-5.0, p = .03). At Week 28, the difference in favor of the snus group was not statistically significant (12.8% vs. 7.2%, OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 0.8-4.4). Snus was generally well tolerated. Treatment-related adverse events that were more common in the snus group were generally mild and included nausea, dyspepsia, gingivitis, hiccups, and dizziness. Although the cessation rates generally were low and, at 28 weeks, did not differ between active and placebo, early quit rates suggested that snus was superior and with similar effect sizes to those with nicotine replacement. These results suggest that snus needs to be further researched as a smoking cessation treatment.

  8. Vitamin D treatment in Somali women living in Sweden - Two randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Osmancevic, Amra; Demeke, Taye; Gillstedt, Martin; Angesjö, Eva; Sinclair, Håkan; Abd El-Gawad, Gamal; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    There is limited information about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the effects of treatment on immigrants. The effects of oral vitamin D intake and UVB treatment on vitamin D status in healthy Somali women living in Sweden were analysed. Two studies were carried out; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with oral drops of 800 IU and 1600 IU cholecalciferol and similar amounts of placebo given daily during 12 weeks and a single-blind, placebo-controlled study, using UVB (4·3-8·7 J/cm(2) ) or Woods lamp (placebo) on the upper body, or the face and hands. One-hundred fourteen Somali women, mean age 34 years, latitude 0-10°N, living in Sweden >2 years, latitude 57°N, participated. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) was monitored before, every 6 weeks and at 3 months after treatment. The majority of the women (n = 83, 73%) were vitamin D-deficient, S-25(OH)D < 25 nmol/l at start. There was a dose-dependent increase in S-25(OH)D levels (P = 0·001, stratified Jonckheere-Terpstra test) with a mean increase after twelve weeks in women treated with 800 IU/day and women treated with 1600 IU/day of 18 nmol/l (95% CI: 6-29, median = 17) and 29 nmol/l (95% CI: 17-42, median = 34), respectively. S-25(OH)D decreased during follow-up but remained above baseline levels. The placebo group remained unchanged throughout the study. UVB treatment increased S-25(OH)D dose-dependently after 6 weeks (P = 0·03, Jonckheere-Terpstra test). Vitamin D deficiency was common in immigrants living at higher latitudes. Vitamin D treatment increased S-25(OH)D levels dose-dependently during 3 months. The effect was maintained for another 3 months. At least 1600 IU/day is recommended. The dropout rate was high. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B.; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants’ (unwarranted) reliance on their partners’ opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other’s performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration. PMID:27070542

  10. Randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of gabapentin during an outpatient, buprenorphine-assisted detoxification procedure.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nichole C; Mancino, Michael J; Gentry, W Brooks; Guise, J Benjamin; Bickel, Warren K; Thostenson, Jeff; Oliveto, Alison H

    2013-08-01

    This pilot study examined the efficacy of the N-type calcium channel blocker gabapentin to improve outcomes during a brief detoxification protocol with buprenorphine. Treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals were enrolled in a 5-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examining the effects of gabapentin during a 10-day outpatient detoxification from buprenorphine. Participants were inducted onto buprenorphine sublingual tablets during Week 1, were randomized and inducted onto gabapentin or placebo during Week 2, underwent a 10-day buprenorphine taper during Weeks 3 and 4, and then were tapered off gabapentin/placebo during Week 5. Assessments included thrice-weekly opioid withdrawal scales, vitals, and urine drug screens. Twenty-four individuals (13 male; 17 Caucasian, 3 African American, 4 Latino; mean age 29.7 years) participated in the detoxification portion of the study (gabapentin, n = 11; placebo, n = 13). Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between groups. Self-reported and observer-rated opioid withdrawal ratings were relatively low and did not differ between groups during the buprenorphine taper. Urine results showed a Drug × Time interaction, such that the probability of opioid-positive urines significantly decreased over time in the gabapentin versus placebo groups during Weeks 3 and 4 (OR = 0.73, p = .004). These results suggest that gabapentin reduces opioid use during a 10-day buprenorphine detoxification procedure.

  11. Safety and tolerability of indacaterol in asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled 28-day study.

    PubMed

    Chuchalin, Alexander G; Tsoi, Alla N; Richter, Kai; Krug, Norbert; Dahl, Ronald; Luursema, P B; Cameron, Ray; Bao, Weibin; Higgins, Mark; Woessner, Ralph; van As, Andre

    2007-10-01

    The safety and tolerability of indacaterol, a novel once-daily beta(2)-agonist bronchodilator with a fast onset of action, were assessed in 156 asthma patients in a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients received indacaterol 200, 400 or 600 microg or placebo once daily for 28 days. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory assessments, vital signs, electrocardiograms, spirometry and physical examinations were monitored. Indacaterol pharmacokinetics were assessed. There was no evidence of dose-related increases in AE incidence or clinically significant hypokalaemia or hyperglycaemia in indacaterol-treated patients. Mean pulse rate changes were minor in any group, with maximum 1-h post-dose changes from baseline of -3.7, -3.3 and -2.2 bpm for indacaterol 200, 400 and 600 microg, respectively, and -2.9 bpm for placebo. Mean QTc interval was similar between groups; change from baseline >60 ms occurred in only two patients. Mean FEV(1) increased after the first indacaterol dose; baseline-adjusted pre-dose (trough) values remained >or=166 mL higher than placebo at all subsequent visits, supporting a 24-h bronchodilator effect. Pre-dose (but not post-dose) serum indacaterol concentrations indicated a slight trend for accumulation. Once-daily indacaterol 200-600 microg has a favourable therapeutic index. It is well tolerated, and is not associated with any adverse cardiac or metabolic effects, while providing effective 24-h bronchodilation.

  12. Glutamine supplementation in cystic fibrosis: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Doug L; Knox, Alan J; Smyth, Alan R; Barr, Helen L; Simms, Rebecca; Pacey, Sarah J; Pavord, Ian D; Honeybourne, David; Dewar, Jane; Clayton, Andy; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary infection and malnutrition in cystic fibrosis are associated with decreased survival. Glutamine has a possible anti-microbial effect, with a specific impact against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We aimed to test the hypothesis that oral glutamine supplementation (21 g/day) for 8 weeks in adults with cystic fibrosis would decrease pulmonary inflammation and improve clinical status. The study design was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study design with an iso-nitrogenous placebo. The primary analysis was intention to treat, and the primary outcome was change in induced sputum neutrophils. Thirty-nine individuals were recruited and thirty-six completed the study. Glutamine supplementation had no impact on any of the outcome measures in the intention-to-treat analysis. In the per protocol analysis, glutamine supplementation was associated with an increase in induced sputum neutrophils (P = 0.046), total cells (P = 0.03), and in Pseudomonas isolation agar colony forming units (P = 0.04) compared to placebo. There was no effect of glutamine supplementation on markers of pulmonary inflammation in the intention-to-treat analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Oral Zinc for Chemotherapy-Related Taste and Smell Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyckholm, Laurel; Heddinger, Steven P.; Parker, Gwendolyn; Coyne, Patrick J.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Smith, Thomas J.; Henkin, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in taste and smell are commonly reported in patients receiving chemotherapy and may hinder appetite, dietary intake, nutritional well-being, and quality of life. Oral zinc has been used to treat taste and smell abnormalities in several altered physiologic states, including renal failure, liver disease, head trauma, and pregnancy, with varying results. The authors conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinic trial over 3 months. Eligible patients were those taking chemotherapy that had alterations in taste and/or smell. The measurement of the primary end point, improvement in altered taste and smell, was made using a 0–100 scale (100 describing no loss or distortion in taste and smell, and 0 describing the worst distortion or loss of taste and smell). Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled in each treatment group, of whom 31 were white, 26 African American, and 1 Native American. Forty-one patients were female. A wide range of cancer types was represented, with breast the most common (21 patients). The zinc dose was 220 mg orally twice daily (equivalent of 50 mg elemental zinc twice daily). There was no statistically significant improvement in loss or distortion of taste or smell with the addition of zinc. There was a trend toward improvement over time in all groups, except in the zinc group where there was a nonsignificant worsening in loss of smell over time. Zinc at standard doses did not provide significant benefit to taste or smell in patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:22764846

  14. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of latrepirdine in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P; Voss, Tiffini S; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Deuel, Lisa M; Dorsey, E Ray; Factor, Stewart; Geschwind, Michael D; Hodgeman, Karen; Kayson, Elise; Noonberg, Sarah; Pourfar, Michael; Rabinowitz, Karen; Ravina, Bernard; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Seely, Lynn; Walker, Francis; Feigin, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of latrepirdine in Huntington disease (HD) and explore its effects on cognition, behavior, and motor symptoms. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Multicenter outpatient trial. Ninety-one participants with mild to moderate HD enrolled at 17 US and UK centers from July 18, 2007, through July 16, 2008. Latrepirdine, 20 mg 3 times daily (n = 46), or matching placebo (n = 45) for a 90-day treatment period. The primary outcome variable was tolerability, defined as the ability to complete the study at the assigned drug dosage. Secondary outcome variables included score changes from baseline to day 90 on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Latrepirdine was well tolerated (87% of the patients given latrepirdine completed the study vs 82% in the placebo group), and adverse event rates were comparable in the 2 groups (70% in the latrepirdine group and 80% in the placebo group). Treatment with latrepirdine resulted in improved mean MMSE scores compared with stable performance in the placebo group (treatment effect, 0.97 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-1.85; P = .03). No significant treatment effects were seen on the UHDRS or the ADAS-cog. Short-term administration of latrepirdine is well tolerated in patients with HD and may have a beneficial effect on cognition. Further investigation of latrepirdine is warranted in this population with HD.

  15. Polyprenyl Immunostimulant in Feline Rhinotracheitis: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Experimental and Field Safety Studies

    PubMed Central

    Legendre, Alfred M.; Kuritz, Tanya; Heidel, Robert Eric; Baylor, Vivian M.

    2017-01-01

    Feline rhinotracheitis is a ubiquitous disease caused by feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The disease is easily transmissible and common in multi-cat environments where even vaccinated cats can develop clinical signs of respiratory or ocular disease or both when exposed to the virus. Prior to the work reported here, there was no licensed treatment for the disease on the market. We hypothesized that polyprenyl immunostimulant (PI), an immunomodulatory veterinary biologic, would be useful in treating feline rhinotracheitis by reducing the severity of respiratory or/and ocular disease. We conducted double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in experimentally infected cats to establish the efficacy of PI. Specific pathogen-free cats were administered a placebo (n = 20) or PI (n = 20) starting on the day of FHV-1 experimental challenge. Trained, masked observers applied a standardized scoring system daily in clinical examinations for 14 days after the FHV-1 challenge. The cats treated with PI had significantly lower disease severity scores over the course of the experiment compared to the cats in the placebo group (p = 0.05). The safety studies, including a field safety study involving 390 owned cats in 10 states, showed that PI was safe to use in cats as young as 8 weeks of age. PMID:28289684

  16. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, consumer rechallenge test of Olean salted snacks.

    PubMed

    Zorich, N L; Biedermann, D; Riccardi, K A; Bishop, L J; Filloon, T G

    1997-10-01

    Olestra is a zero-calorie fat substitute that is neither digested nor absorbed. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover rechallenge study was conducted to compare the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of chips made with Olean brand of olestra or conventional triglycerides in subjects who had previously experienced gastrointestinal symptoms they attributed to consuming Olean. A total of 57 male or female subjects received 2 oz of Olean potato chips or triglyceride potato chips at each of four weekly site visits. The occurrence of gastrointestinal effects after product consumption was noted in follow-up telephone interviews 3 to 5 days after each visit. There was no significant difference in the frequency of any gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramping, diarrhea, loose stools) following consumption of Olean chips or triglyceride chips, and the severity of diarrhea, loose stools, and abdominal cramping was similar. We conclude that consumption of a 2-oz serving of Olean chips is no more likely to result in reports of gastrointestinal symptoms than consumption of triglyceride snacks as a part of the usual diet, even in individuals who have claimed intolerance to Olean. The data suggest that subjects who previously experienced symptoms that they attributed to consuming products made with Olean may have mistakenly attributed their symptoms to these products.

  17. Memantine Enhances the Effect of Olanzapine in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Ahmad; Pakseresht, Sirous; Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza; Hekmatkhah, Nasihat; Torkashvand, Maria; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Memantine, a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, acts as a partial uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of memantine as an adjunctive treatment to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either memantine (week 1:10 mg/day; weeks 2-6:20 mg/day) plus olanzapine (15-20 mg/day) or olanzapine plus placebo. At baseline, no statistically significant difference regarding the mean total PANSS scores between treatment groups was found. Results showed that memantine significantly improved the positive and negative PANSS score in patients maintained on olanzapine after six weeks compared to olanzapine alone (P<0.001). Furthermore, female patients showed significantly better response than males, especially in positive PANSS score. No significant changes in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed.These findings indicate that olanzapine efficacy might be augmented with memantine. Furthermore, this effect is more remarkable in female patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of oral zinc for chemotherapy-related taste and smell disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyckholm, Laurel; Heddinger, Steven P; Parker, Gwendolyn; Coyne, Patrick J; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Smith, Thomas J; Henkin, Robert I

    2012-06-01

    Abnormalities in taste and smell are commonly reported in patients receiving chemotherapy and may hinder appetite, dietary intake, nutritional well-being, and quality of life. Oral zinc has been used to treat taste and smell abnormalities in several altered physiologic states, including renal failure, liver disease, head trauma, and pregnancy, with varying results. The authors conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinic trial over 3 months. Eligible patients were those taking chemotherapy that had alterations in taste and/or smell. The measurement of the primary end point, improvement in altered taste and smell, was made using a 0-100 scale (100 describing no loss or distortion in taste and smell, and 0 describing the worst distortion or loss of taste and smell). Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled in each treatment group, of whom 31 were white, 26 African American, and 1 Native American. Forty-one patients were female. A wide range of cancer types was represented, with breast the most common (21 patients). The zinc dose was 220 mg orally twice daily (equivalent of 50 mg elemental zinc twice daily). There was no statistically significant improvement in loss or distortion of taste or smell with the addition of zinc. There was a trend toward improvement over time in all groups, except in the zinc group where there was a nonsignificant worsening in loss of smell over time. Zinc at standard doses did not provide significant benefit to taste or smell in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  20. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants' (unwarranted) reliance on their partners' opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other's performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration.

  1. Doxepin for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yung, Kam-Ping; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee

    2015-02-01

    Doxepin, a sedating tricyclic drug, at 3 mg and 6 mg doses was recently approved by the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of insomnia. The objective of this systematic review was to obtain a precise summary of the efficacy and safety of doxepin as a hypnotic. We searched key databases and trial registers up to March 2014 and contacted pharmaceutical companies and the FDA for unpublished data. A total of nine randomized placebo-controlled trials were analyzed. Six studies were on doxepin 1-6 mg/d, two on doxepin 25-300 mg/d, and one on ramelteon 8 mg and doxepin 3 mg combined. All low-dose studies were industry-sponsored. We found that low-dose doxepin had a small to medium effect size against placebo for sleep maintenance and sleep duration but not for sleep initiation at both immediate and short-term posttreatment. There was no significant next-day residual effect with low-dose doxepin. Headache and somnolence were the most common side effects. We concluded that low-dose doxepin for 1-2 nights appeared to be safe and effective in improving sleep. However, a clear conclusion on its short-term benefits and risks as well as withdrawal effects was not possible due to the small number of studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of modafinil on cognitive functions in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E; Schmaal, Lianne; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Dom, Geert

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and may have a detrimental impact on treatment response and treatment outcome. Enhancing cognitive functions may improve treatment success. Modafinil is a promising compound in this respect. Therefore, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted with modafinil (300 mg/d) or placebo in 83 AD patients for 10 weeks. Various cognitive functions (digit span task, Tower of London task, Stroop task) were measured at baseline, during and after treatment. Compared to placebo, modafinil improved verbal short-term memory (number of forward digit spans) (p=0.030), but modafinil exerted a negative effect on the working memory score of the digit span task (p=0.003). However, subgroup analyses revealed that modafinil did improve both working memory and verbal short-term memory in AD patients with a poor working memory ability at baseline (25% worst performers), whereas no significant treatment effect of modafinil was found on these two dependent variables in patients with good working memory skills at baseline (25% best performers). No effect of modafinil was found on measures of planning (Tower of London task) and selective attention (Stroop task). Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between cognitive remediation and treatment outcome in order to design targeted treatments.

  3. The Efficacy of Vitamin C on Postoperative Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woo; Yang, Han Seok; Yeom, Jin S; Ahn, Myun-Whan

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin C has critical features relavant to postoperative pain management and functional improvement; however, no study has yet evaluated the effectiveness of vitamin C on improving the surgical outcomes for spine pathologies. Thus, this study aimed to explore the impact of vitamin C on postoperative outcomes after single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for lumbar spinal stenosis in prospectively randomized design. We conducted a 1-year prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the impact of vitamin C on the postoperative outcomes after PLIF surgery. A total of 123 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either group A (62 patients with vitamin C) or group B (61 patients with placebo). Patient follow-up was continued for at least 1 year after surgery. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity in the lower back using a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures were: (1) the clinical outcome assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); (2) the fusion rate assessed using dynamic radiographs and computed tomography scans; and (3) complications. Pain intensity in the lower back was significantly improved in both groups compared with preoperative pain intensity, but no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups over the follow-up period. The ODI score of group A at the third postoperative month was significantly higher than the score of group B. After the sixth postoperative month, the ODI score of group A was slightly higher than the score of group B; however, this difference was not significant. The fusion rates at 1 year after surgery and the complication rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Postoperative pain intensity, the primary outcome measure, was not significantly different at 1 year after surgery between the 2 groups. However, vitamin C may be associated with improving functional status after PLIF surgery, especially during the first 3

  4. The United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study: a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial: baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, Gerassimos; Garway-Heath, David F; Burton, Robyn; Bunce, Catey; Xing, Wen; Crabb, David P; Russell, Richard A; Shah, Ameet

    2013-12-01

    The United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) tests the hypothesis that treatment with a topical prostaglandin analog, compared with placebo, reduces the frequency of visual field (VF) deterioration events in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by 50% over a 2-year period. Additional goals are to evaluate study power with novel clinical trial outcomes: (1) VF deterioration velocity and (2) VF and quantitative imaging measurements modeled as joint outcomes. The UKGTS is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter treatment trial for OAG. A total of 516 patients with newly diagnosed (previously untreated) OAG were prospectively recruited at 10 UK centers between 2007 and 2010. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to treatment with latanoprost 0.005% or placebo. The observation period was 2 years, with subjects monitored by VF testing, quantitative imaging, optic disc photography, and tonometry at 11 visits. The primary outcome measure is time to VF deterioration within 24 months. Secondary outcomes include the deterioration velocity of VF and quantitative imaging measures. The main source of referrals was optometrists (88%). A total of 777 subjects were assessed for eligibility, and 261 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria or declined to participate. The mean age of the 516 participants was 66 years, and 52.9% were male; 90.1% of the participants were white, and approximately one third (32.2%) reported a family history of glaucoma. A total of 777 eyes were eligible at initial assessment. Both eyes were eligible for 265 participants. Mean (standard deviation) intraocular pressure (IOP) at baseline for the eyes with better versus worse mean deviation (MD) was 18.9 (4.1) and 19.9 (4.7) mmHg, respectively (P = 0.0053). Some 56.1% of all eligible eyes had IOP <20 mmHg at baseline. The median (interquartile range) VF MD for all eligible eyes was -2.9 dB (-1.6 to -4.8 dB). This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled

  5. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of idebenone in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Klopstock, Thomas; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Rouleau, Jacinthe; Heck, Suzette; Bailie, Maura; Atawan, Alaa; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Schubert, Marion; Garip, Aylin; Kernt, Marcus; Petraki, Diana; Rummey, Christian; Leinonen, Mika; Metz, Günther; Griffiths, Philip G.; Meier, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Major advances in understanding the pathogenesis of inherited metabolic disease caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations have yet to translate into treatments of proven efficacy. Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common mitochondrial DNA disorder causing irreversible blindness in young adult life. Anecdotal reports support the use of idebenone in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, but this has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. We conducted a 24-week multi-centre double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 85 patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy due to m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C or mitochondrial DNA mutations. The active drug was idebenone 900 mg/day. The primary end-point was the best recovery in visual acuity. The main secondary end-point was the change in best visual acuity. Other secondary end-points were changes in visual acuity of the best eye at baseline and changes in visual acuity for both eyes in each patient. Colour-contrast sensitivity and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness were measured in subgroups. Idebenone was safe and well tolerated. The primary end-point did not reach statistical significance in the intention to treat population. However, post hoc interaction analysis showed a different response to idebenone in patients with discordant visual acuities at baseline; in these patients, all secondary end-points were significantly different between the idebenone and placebo groups. This first randomized controlled trial in the mitochondrial disorder, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, provides evidence that patients with discordant visual acuities are the most likely to benefit from idebenone treatment, which is safe and well tolerated. PMID:21788663

  6. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of idebenone in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Klopstock, Thomas; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Rouleau, Jacinthe; Heck, Suzette; Bailie, Maura; Atawan, Alaa; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Schubert, Marion; Garip, Aylin; Kernt, Marcus; Petraki, Diana; Rummey, Christian; Leinonen, Mika; Metz, Günther; Griffiths, Philip G; Meier, Thomas; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2011-09-01

    Major advances in understanding the pathogenesis of inherited metabolic disease caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations have yet to translate into treatments of proven efficacy. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common mitochondrial DNA disorder causing irreversible blindness in young adult life. Anecdotal reports support the use of idebenone in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, but this has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. We conducted a 24-week multi-centre double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 85 patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy due to m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C or mitochondrial DNA mutations. The active drug was idebenone 900 mg/day. The primary end-point was the best recovery in visual acuity. The main secondary end-point was the change in best visual acuity. Other secondary end-points were changes in visual acuity of the best eye at baseline and changes in visual acuity for both eyes in each patient. Colour-contrast sensitivity and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness were measured in subgroups. Idebenone was safe and well tolerated. The primary end-point did not reach statistical significance in the intention to treat population. However, post hoc interaction analysis showed a different response to idebenone in patients with discordant visual acuities at baseline; in these patients, all secondary end-points were significantly different between the idebenone and placebo groups. This first randomized controlled trial in the mitochondrial disorder, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, provides evidence that patients with discordant visual acuities are the most likely to benefit from idebenone treatment, which is safe and well tolerated.

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  8. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Zitzelberger, T.; Oken, B.S.; Howieson, D.; Kaye, J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on delaying the progression to cognitive impairment in normal elderly aged 85 and older. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 42-month pilot study with 118 cognitively intact subjects randomized to standardized GBE or placebo. Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox proportional hazard, and random-effects models were used to compare the risk of progression from Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0 to CDR = 0.5 and decline in episodic memory function between GBE and placebo groups. Results In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no reduced risk of progression to CDR = 0.5 (log-rank test, p = 0.06) among the GBE group. There was no less of a decline in memory function among the GBE group (p = 0.05). In the secondary analysis, where we controlled the medication adherence level, the GBE group had a lower risk of progression from CDR = 0 to CDR = 0.5 (HR = 0.33, p = 0.02), and a smaller decline in memory scores (p = 0.04). There were more ischemic strokes and TIAs in the GBE group (p = 0.01). Conclusions In unadjusted analyses, Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) neither altered the risk of progression from normal to Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0.5, nor protected against a decline in memory function. Secondary analysis taking into account medication adherence showed a protective effect of GBE on the progression to CDR = 0.5 and memory decline. Results of larger prevention trials taking into account medication adherence may clarify the effectiveness of GBE. More stroke and TIA cases observed among the GBE group requires further study to confirm. PMID:18305231

  9. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of varenicline for smoking cessation allowing flexible quit dates.

    PubMed

    Rennard, Stephen; Hughes, John; Cinciripini, Paul M; Kralikova, Eva; Raupach, Tobias; Arteaga, Carmen; St Aubin, Lisa B; Russ, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Current smoking cessation guidelines recommend setting a quit date prior to starting pharmacotherapy. However, providing flexibility in the date of quitting may be more acceptable to some smokers. The objective of this study was to compare varenicline 1 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with placebo in subjects using a flexible quit date paradigm after starting medication. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled international study, smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/day, aged 18-75 years, and who were motivated to quit were randomized (3:1) to receive varenicline 1 mg b.i.d. or placebo for 12 weeks. Subjects were followed up through Week 24. Subjects were instructed to quit between Days 8 and 35 after starting medication. The primary endpoint was carbon monoxide-confirmed continuous abstinence during Weeks 9-12, and a key secondary endpoint was continuous abstinence during Weeks 9-24. Overall, 493 subjects were randomized to varenicline and 166 to placebo. Continuous abstinence was higher for varenicline than for placebo subjects at the end of treatment (Weeks 9-12: 53.1% vs. 19.3%; odds ratio [OR] 5.9; 95% CI, 3.7-9.4; p < .0001) and through 24 weeks follow-up (Weeks 9-24: 34.7% vs. 12.7%; OR 4.4; 95% CI, 2.6-7.5; p < .0001). Serious adverse events occurred in 1.2% varenicline (none were psychiatric) and 0.6% placebo subjects. Fewer varenicline than placebo subjects reported depression-related adverse events (2.3% vs. 6.7%, respectively). Varenicline 1 mg b.i.d. using a flexible quit date paradigm had similar efficacy and safety compared with previous fixed quit date studies.

  10. Rhodiola rosea versus sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jun J; Xie, Sharon X; Zee, Jarcy; Soeller, Irene; Li, Qing S; Rockwell, Kenneth; Amsterdam, Jay D

    2015-03-15

    We performed a proof of concept trial to evaluate relative safety and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) versus sertraline for mild to moderate major depressive disorder. We hypothesize that R. rosea would have similar therapeutic effects as sertraline but with less adverse events. Phase II randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. 57 subjects were randomized to 12 weeks of standardized R. rosea extract, sertraline, or placebo. Changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI/C) scores among groups were examined using mixed-effects models. Modest, albeit statistically non-significant, reductions were observed for HAM-D, BDI, and CGI/C scores for all treatment conditions with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.79, p = 0.28, and p = 0.17, respectively). The decline in HAM-D scores was greater for sertraline (-8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], -12.7 to -3.6) versus R. rosea (-5.1, 95% CI: -8.8 to -1.3) and placebo (-4.6, 95% CI: -8.6 to -0.6). While the odds of improving (versus placebo) were greater for sertraline (1.90 [0.44-8.20]; odds ratio [95% CI]) than R. rosea (1.39 [0.38-5.04]), more subjects on sertraline reported adverse events (63.2%) than R. rosea (30.0%) or placebo (16.7%) (p = 0.012). Although R. rosea produced less antidepressant effect versus sertraline, it also resulted in significantly fewer adverse events and was better tolerated. These findings suggest that R. rosea, although less effective than sertraline, may possess a more favorable risk to benefit ratio for individuals with mild to moderate depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Scott; Thomas, Ronald G; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A; Brewer, James B; Rissman, Robert A; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S

    2015-10-20

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood-brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0–5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5–5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  13. [Postoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in shoulder surgery (randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial)].

    PubMed

    Likar, R; Molnar, M; Pipam, W; Koppert, W; Quantschnigg, B; Disselhoff, B; Sittl, R

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 days of TENS therapy postoperatively after shoulder operations would result in better pain relief and/or reduced analgesic intake when compared to placebo. The study was carried out randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. Thirty patients were randomized to two groups. The verum group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 6 mA and the placebo group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 0 mA. The pain was assessed pre-operatively using the Hamburg Pain Adjective List. Premedication and Anaesthesia were standardized. TENS was applied to the patients immediately postoperatively for 8 hours and then on the following days 5 times daily for 45 minutes. The effectiveness was evaluated postoperatively using a visual analogue scale (rest, activity), the Hamburg Pain Adjective List and postoperative analgesic consumption. The visual analogue scale at rest and on activity showed no significant difference between the groups. Postoperative analgesic consumption of morphine hydrochloride in the first 24 hours was at time 8 hours postoperative significantly and at all other time points markedly less in the verum group compared to the placebo group. The sensory secondary scale score of the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" was significantly lower postoperatively compared to preoperatively in the verum group. We were able to show in this study that TENS applied postoperatively after shoulder surgery clearly reduced analgesic consumption in the first 72 hours. Furthermore there was a significant difference in the pain scores using the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" in favour of the verum group. TENS applied postoperatively is a effective, simple modality with few side-effects.

  14. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01) and weight gain (p = 0.08) seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune

  15. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01) and weight gain (p = 0.08) seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes. However lung

  16. Prevention of COPD exacerbation by lysozyme: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Sakata, Yukinori; Shibata, Kai; Miyagishi, Hideaki; Marukawa, Yasuhiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lysozyme (mucopeptide N-acetyl-muramyl hydrolase) is widely used as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent in Japan. We evaluated the effects of long-term lysozyme administration on COPD exacerbation. Methods In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and one or more episodes of COPD exacerbation in the previous year before enrollment were selected. Lysozyme (270 mg) or placebo was administered orally for 52 weeks as an add-on to the standard therapies such as bronchodilators. COPD exacerbation, pulmonary function, and COPD assessment test scores were analyzed. An exacerbation was defined as worsening of more than one symptom of COPD (cough, sputum volume, purulent sputum, or breathlessness) leading to a change in medication. The primary endpoint was exacerbation rate. Results A total of 408 patients were randomly assigned to the lysozyme and placebo groups. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. The exacerbation rate was not significantly different between the two groups (1.4 vs 1.2; P=0.292, Poisson regression). However, a subgroup analysis showed that lysozyme might reduce exacerbation rate in patients with airway-dominant phenotype (1.2 vs 1.6). Moreover, the median time to first exacerbation was longer in patients with airway-dominant phenotype in the lysozyme group than that in the placebo group. The levels of improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and COPD assessment test scores were not statistically different between the groups, but were always greater in the lysozyme group than in the placebo group over the 52 weeks of the study. Conclusion The effects of using lysozyme as an add-on to standard COPD therapy were not significantly different compared with placebo and were insufficient to prevent COPD exacerbation. PMID:27143873

  17. Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Corey-Bloom, Jody; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Jin, Shelia; Marcotte, Thomas D; Bentley, Heather; Gouaux, Ben

    2012-07-10

    Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom. We conducted a placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity. We recruited participants from a regional clinic or by referral from specialists. We randomly assigned participants to either the intervention (smoked cannabis, once daily for three days) or control (identical placebo cigarettes, once daily for three days). Each participant was assessed daily before and after treatment. After a washout interval of 11 days, participants crossed over to the opposite group. Our primary outcome was change in spasticity as measured by patient score on the modified Ashworth scale. Our secondary outcomes included patients' perception of pain (as measured using a visual analogue scale), a timed walk and changes in cognitive function (as measured by patient performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), in addition to ratings of fatigue. Thirty-seven participants were randomized at the start of the study, 30 of whom completed the trial. Treatment with smoked cannabis resulted in a reduction in patient scores on the modified Ashworth scale by an average of 2.74 points more than placebo (p < 0.0001). In addition, treatment reduced pain scores on a visual analogue scale by an average of 5.28 points more than placebo (p = 0.008). Scores for the timed walk did not differ significantly between treatment and placebo (p = 0.2). Scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test decreased by 8.67 points more with treatment than with placebo (p = 0.003). No serious adverse events occurred during the trial. Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in participants with treatment-resistant spasticity. Future studies should examine whether different doses can result in similar beneficial effects with less cognitive impact.

  18. Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Brooks, Daniel J; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-07-01

    Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P=.02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P=.02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions.

  19. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  20. Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Corey-Bloom, Jody; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Jin, Shelia; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bentley, Heather; Gouaux, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom. Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity. We recruited participants from a regional clinic or by referral from specialists. We randomly assigned participants to either the intervention (smoked cannabis, once daily for three days) or control (identical placebo cigarettes, once daily for three days). Each participant was assessed daily before and after treatment. After a washout interval of 11 days, participants crossed over to the opposite group. Our primary outcome was change in spasticity as measured by patient score on the modified Ashworth scale. Our secondary outcomes included patients’ perception of pain (as measured using a visual analogue scale), a timed walk and changes in cognitive function (as measured by patient performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), in addition to ratings of fatigue. Results: Thirty-seven participants were randomized at the start of the study, 30 of whom completed the trial. Treatment with smoked cannabis resulted in a reduction in patient scores on the modified Ashworth scale by an average of 2.74 points more than placebo (p < 0.0001). In addition, treatment reduced pain scores on a visual analogue scale by an average of 5.28 points more than placebo (p = 0.008). Scores for the timed walk did not differ significantly between treatment and placebo (p = 0.2). Scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test decreased by 8.67 points more with treatment than with placebo (p = 0.003). No serious adverse events occurred during the trial. Interpretation: Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in participants with treatment-resistant spasticity. Future studies should examine whether different doses can result in similar beneficial

  1. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of silymarin in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Rastegarpanah, Mansoor; Malekzadeh, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Maryam; Elahi, Elham; Chaharmahali, Meghedi; Safarnavadeh, Tahereh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of silymarin in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. A randomized double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 80 UC patients whose disease had been documented and were in remission state between September 2009 and October 2010. Patients were assigned to silymarin group (42 cases) and placebo group (38 cases) using a random number table. Either silymarin (140 mg) or placebo (lactose mono-hydrate, corn starch magnesium stearate) tablets were given once daily for 6 months along with their standard therapy. The efficacies were assessed by disease activity index (DAI), frequency difference of the disease flare-up, and paraclinical data. Ten patients (4 in the silymarin group due to nausea and 6 in the placebo group due to disease flare-up and abdominal pain) discontinued the study. An improvement in hemoglobin level (11.8±1.6 g/dL vs. 13.4±1.2 g/dL,P<0.05) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (23.7±11.5 mm/h vs.10.8±3.2 mm/h,P<0.05) was observed in the silymarin group but not in the placebo group. DAI significantly decreased in the silymarin group and reached from 11.3±3.5 to 10.7±2.8 (P<0.05). Thirty-five out of 38 patients in the silymarin group were in complete remission with no flare-up after 6 months as compared to 21 out of 32 patients in the placebo group (P=0.5000). Silymarin as a natural supplement may be used in UC patients to maintain remission.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate for Apathy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Paul B.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Drye, Lea T.; Herrmann, Nathan; Scherer, Roberta W.; Bachman, David L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a recent crossover trial, methylphenidate treatment decreased apathy in Alzheimer's disease. We further assessed this finding in the Alzheimer's Disease Methylphenidate Trial (ADMET). Method Six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial enrolling Alzheimer's disease participants (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) with apathy assigned to methylphenidate 20 mg daily or placebo, conducted from June 2010 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were change in Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score and modified Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGI-C). Secondary outcomes included change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) apathy score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and safety. Results 60 participants were randomly assigned (29 methylphenidate, 31 placebo). At baseline, mean (SD) age = 76 (8) years, MMSE score = 20 (5), AES score = 51 (12), NPI total score = 16 (8), and 62% of the participants (n = 37) were female. After 6 weeks' treatment, mean (SD) change in AES score was −1.9 (1.5) for methylphenidate and 0.6 (1.4) for placebo (P = .23). Odds ratio for improvement in ADCS-CGI-C was 3.7 (95% CI, 1.3 to 10.8) (P = .02), with 21% of methylphenidate versus 3% of placebo rated as moderately or markedly improved. NPI apathy score improvement was 1.8 points (95% CI, 0.3 to 3.4) greater on methylphenidate than on placebo (P = .02). MMSE trended toward improvement on methylphenidate (P = .06). There were trends toward greater anxiety and weight loss > 2% in the methylphenidate-treated group. Conclusions Methylphenidate treatment of apathy in Alzheimer's disease was associated with significant improvement in 2 of 3 efficacy outcomes and a trend toward improved global cognition with minimal adverse events, supporting the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate treatment for apathy in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24021498

  3. Pulsed electromagnetic fields in knee osteoarthritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Giovanni; Marino, Natale; Sciortino, Davide; Bagnato, Gian Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness of a wearable pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) device in the management of pain in knee OA patients. Methods. In this randomized [with equal randomization (1:1)], double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with radiographic evidence of knee OA and persistent pain higher than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited. The trial consisted of 12 h daily treatment for 1 month in 60 knee OA patients. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in pain intensity, assessed through VAS and WOMAC scores. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment through the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-36 v2), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and changes in intake of NSAIDs/analgesics. Results. Sixty-six patients were included, and 60 completed the study. After 1 month, PEMF induced a significant reduction in VAS pain and WOMAC scores compared with placebo. Additionally, pain tolerance, as expressed by PPT changes, and physical health improved in PEMF-treated patients. A mean treatment effect of −0.73 (95% CI − 1.24 to − 0.19) was seen in VAS score, while the effect size was −0.34 (95% CI − 0.85 to 0.17) for WOMAC score. Twenty-six per cent of patients in the PEMF group stopped NSAID/analgesic therapy. No adverse events were detected. Conclusion. These results suggest that PEMF therapy is effective for pain management in knee OA patients and also affects pain threshold and physical functioning. Future larger studies, including head-to-head studies comparing PEMF therapy with standard pharmacological approaches in OA, are warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01877278 PMID:26705327

  4. Working memory training in young children with ADHD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A; Buitelaar, Jan K; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-08-01

    Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in young children with ADHD. Fifty-one children (5-7 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (without current psychotropic medication) were randomly assigned to the active (adaptive) or placebo (nonadaptive) training condition for 25 sessions during 5 weeks. The compliance criterion (>20 sessions) was met for 47 children. The primary outcome measure concerned the core behavioural symptoms of ADHD, measured with the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS). Secondary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning, daily executive functioning, and global clinical functioning. The influence of the increase in difficulty level (Index-Improvement) for the treatment group was also analysed. Clinical trial registration information - 'Working Memory Training in Young ADHD Children'; www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00819611. A significant improvement in favour of the active condition was found on a verbal working memory task (p = .041; adapted Digit Span WISC-III, backward condition). However, it did not survive correction for multiple testing. No significant treatment effect on any of the primary or other secondary outcome measurements was found. The Index-Improvement significantly contributed to ADHD-RS and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, both rated by the teacher, but revealed no significant group difference. This study failed to find robust evidence for benefits of CMWT over the placebo training on behavioural symptoms, neurocognitive, daily executive, and global clinical functioning in young children with ADHD. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ronald G.; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A.; Brewer, James B.; Rissman, Robert A.; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. PMID:26362286

  6. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A

    2007-12-01

    In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration.

  7. Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Manal F; Sanderson, Schuyler O; Angulo, Paul; Soldevila-Pico, Consuelo; Liu, Chen; Peter, Joy; Keach, Jill; Cave, Matt; Chen, Theresa; McClain, Craig J; Lindor, Keith D

    2009-12-01

    Based on animal studies and pilot studies in humans, betaine, a methyl donor for the remethylation of homocysteine, may be a therapeutic agent for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of betaine for patients with NASH and whether betaine positively modified factors postulated to be "second hits" and underlying mechanisms of NASH. We conducted a randomized placebo-control study of 55 patients with biopsy-proven NASH who received either oral betaine (20 g daily) or placebo for 12 months. Pre- and posttreatment variables were analyzed using the paired t test or Wilcoxon rank test. Treatment groups were comparable at baseline. Of the 35 patients (17 betaine, 18 placebo) who completed the study, 34 patients (16 betaine, 18 placebo) underwent posttreatment liver biopsy. Patients randomized to betaine had a decrease in steatosis grade. No intra- or intergroup differences or changes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score or fibrosis stage were noted. Elevations of insulin, glucose, and proinflammatory cytokines and the reduced antioxidant status noted in NASH patients did not improve with betaine therapy. The antiinflammatory agent adiponectin was significantly reduced in both groups and did not change with therapy. Lastly, S-adenosylhomocysteine was approximately twice normal and was not reduced by betaine therapy. Compared to placebo, betaine did not improve hepatic steatosis but may protect against worseningsteatosis [corrected]. High-dose betaine supplementation failed to reduce S-adenosylhomocysteine and did not positively affect any of the second hit mechanisms postulated to contribute to NASH that we studied. Although betaine has been proven effective in treating hepatic steatosis in several animal models, translating novel therapeutic options noted in animal studies to humans with NASH will prove challenging.

  8. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, food allergy challenge to olestra snacks.

    PubMed

    Burks, A W; Christie, L; Althage, K A; Kesler, J M; Allgood, G S

    2001-10-01

    Following approval of the fat replacer olestra for use in preparing savory snacks, Procter & Gamble implemented a postmarketing surveillance program to monitor marketplace introduction. Three and one-half percent of all health effects reported by consumers to the surveillance toll-free number were allergy-type symptoms (e.g., rash, itching, edema, hives, dyspnea). Because of these reports, we investigated whether olestra or some component of olestra snacks was a likely allergen in some subset of the population. A single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover food challenge study was conducted to confirm or refute the allergenicity of olestra snacks. Of the 65 subjects who reported symptoms consistent with immediate hypersensitivity to olestra's postmarketing surveillance program, 14 men and women traveled to the Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute to participate in this study. Each subject underwent a standard skin prick test at the beginning of the study, to help determine what component, if any, of the olestra product was allergenic. Following the skin prick test, subjects ate in random order, olestra-containing potato chips and regular fat-containing potato chips. The dose of potato chips consumed at each challenge was at least the amount alleged to have caused the symptoms that prompted the consumer to phone the postmarketing surveillance toll-free number. No subject experienced an allergic reaction after consuming the olestra-containing chips. Nor did any subject elicit a positive response to olestra following the skin prick testing. Two subjects had positive reactions consistent with immediate hypersensitivity after consuming the regular-fat, placebo potato chips. The results of this study confirm that olestra is unlikely to have an allergenic potential. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Adjunctive Bright Light Therapy for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sit, Dorothy K; McGowan, James; Wiltrout, Christopher; Diler, Rasim Somer; Dills, John Jesse; Luther, James; Yang, Amy; Ciolino, Jody D; Seltman, Howard; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Terman, Michael; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-10-03

    Patients with bipolar disorder have recurrent major depression, residual mood symptoms, and limited treatment options. Building on promising pilot data, the authors conducted a 6-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of adjunctive bright light therapy at midday for bipolar depression. The aims were to determine remission rate, depression symptom level, and rate of mood polarity switch, as well as to explore sleep quality. The study enrolled depressed adults with bipolar I or II disorder who were receiving stable dosages of antimanic medication (excluding patients with hypomania or mania, mixed symptoms, or rapid cycling). Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either 7,000-lux bright white light or 50-lux dim red placebo light (N=23 for each group). Symptoms were assessed weekly with the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale With Atypical Depression Supplement (SIGH-ADS), the Mania Rating Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Remission was defined as having a SIGH-ADS score of 8 or less. At baseline, both groups had moderate depression and no hypomanic or manic symptoms. Compared with the placebo light group, the group treated with bright white light experienced a significantly higher remission rate (68.2% compared with 22.2%; adjusted odds ratio=12.6) at weeks 4-6 and significantly lower depression scores (9.2 [SD=6.6] compared with 14.9 [SD=9.2]; adjusted β=-5.91) at the endpoint visit. No mood polarity switches were observed. Sleep quality improved in both groups and did not differ significantly between them. The data from this study provide robust evidence that supports the efficacy of midday bright light therapy for bipolar depression.

  10. Dronabinol for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20 mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline followback method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P = .02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P= .02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions. PMID:21310551

  11. Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Sepideh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Askari, Gholamreza; Keshvari, Mahtab; Hatamipour, Mahdi; Feizi, Awat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem. Although many aspects of NAFLD pathogenesis have been understood, there is a paucity of effective treatments to be used as the second line when lifestyle modification is insufficient. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol from turmeric, has been shown to be effective against development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis, yet these beneficial effects have not been explored in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of curcumin on hepatic fat content as well as biochemical and anthropometric features of patients with NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD were randomly assigned to receive an amorphous dispersion curcumin formulation (500 mg/day equivalent to 70-mg curcumin) or matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks. Liver fat content (assessed through ultrasonography), glycemic and lipid profile, transaminase levels, and anthropometric indices were evaluated at baseline and at the end of follow-up period. The clinical trial protocol was registered under the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ID: IRCT2014110511763N18. Compared with placebo, curcumin was associated with a significant reduction in liver fat content (78.9% improvement in the curcumin vs 27.5% improvement in the placebo group). There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial. Findings of the present proof-of-concept trial suggested improvement of different features of NAFLD after a short-term supplementation with curcumin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Randomized placebo-controlled study of lovastatin in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jonathan M; Barton, Belinda; Ullrich, Nicole J; Cantor, Alan; Hearps, Stephen J C; Cutter, Gary; Rosser, Tena; Walsh, Karin S; Gioia, Gerard A; Wolters, Pamela L; Tonsgard, James; Schorry, Elizabeth; Viskochil, David; Klesse, Laura; Fisher, Michael; Gutmann, David H; Silva, Alcino J; Hunter, Scott J; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Cantor, Nancy L; Byars, Anna W; Stavinoha, Peter L; Ackerson, Joseph D; Armstrong, Carol L; Isenberg, Jill; O'Neil, Sharon H; Packer, Roger J; Korf, Bruce; Acosta, Maria T; North, Kathryn N

    2016-12-13

    To assess the efficacy of lovastatin on visuospatial learning and attention for treating cognitive and behavioral deficits in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). A multicenter, international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between July 2009 and May 2014 as part of the NF Clinical Trials Consortium. Children with NF1 aged 8-15 years were screened for visuospatial learning or attention deficits (n = 272); 146 children demonstrated deficits at baseline and were randomly assigned to lovastatin (n = 74; 40 mg/d) or placebo (n = 70). Treatment was administered once daily for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were total errors on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associate Learning task (visuospatial learning) and the Score subtest from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (sustained attention). Secondary outcomes measured executive function, attention, visuospatial skills, behavior, and quality of life. Primary analyses were performed on the intention-to-treat population. Lovastatin had no significant effect on primary outcomes after 16 weeks of treatment: visuospatial learning (Cohen d = -0.15, 95% confidence interval -0.47 to 0.18) or sustained attention (Cohen d = 0.19, 95% confidence interval -0.14 to 0.53). Lovastatin was well tolerated, with no increase in reported adverse events compared to placebo. Lovastatin administered once daily for 16 weeks did not improve visuospatial learning or attention in children with NF1 and is not recommended for amelioration of cognitive deficits in this population. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00853580) and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12607000560493). This study provides Class I evidence that for children with NF1, lovastatin does not improve visuospatial learning or attention deficits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Meniett device in meniere disease: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Nguyen, Yann; De Seta, Daniele; Bouccara, Didier; Sterkers, Olivier; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bernardeschi, Daniele

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of portable Meniett low-pressure pulse generator (Medtronic Xomed, Jacksonville, FL) in Meniere disease. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial carried out in 17 academic medical centers. One hundred twenty-nine adults presenting Meniere disease (American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria) not controlled by conventional medical treatment were included. The protocol included three phases: 1) placement of a transtympanic tube and evaluation of its effect (if resolution of symptoms, the patient was excluded); 2) randomization: 6-weeks treatment with Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) or placebo device; 3) removal of the device and 6-week follow-up period. The evaluation criteria were the number of vertigo episodes (at least 20 minutes with a 12-hour free interval) and the impact on daily life as assessed by self-questionnaires. Ninety-seven patients passed to the second phase of the study: 49 and 48 patients received the Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) or the placebo device, respectively. In the placebo group, the number of vertigo episodes decreased from 4.3 ± 0.6 (mean ± standard error of the mean) during the first phase to 2.6 ± 0.5 after 6 weeks of treatment, and to 1.8 ± 0.8 after the removal of the device. Similar results were observed in the Meniett device (Medtronic Xomed) group: 3.2 ± 0.4 episodes during the first phase, 2.5 ± after 6 weeks of Meniett device (Medtronic Xomed) treatment, and 1.5 ± 0.2 after the third phase. An improvement of symptoms was evidenced in all patients, with no difference between the Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) and the placebo device groups. The decrease in the number of vertigo episodes could be explained by an effect of the medical care. 1b. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:470-475, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Alendronate Treatment for Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Alison M.; Kelly, Marilyn H.; Brillante, Beth A.; Kushner, Harvey; Wientroub, Shlomo; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare skeletal disorder, resulting in deformity, fracture, functional impairment, and pain. Bisphosphonates have been advocated as a potential treatment. Objective: To determine the efficacy of alendronate for treatment of FD. Design: Two-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Clinical research center. Patients: Forty subjects with polyostotic FD (24 adults, 16 children). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age. Interventions: Study drug was administered over a 24 month period in 6 month cycles (6 months on, 6 months off). Alendronate dosing was stratified: 40 mg daily for subjects >50 kg, 20 mg for 30–50 kg, 10 mg for 20–30 kg. Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoints were bone turnover markers, including serum osteocalcin, and urinary NTX-telopeptides. Secondary endpoints included areal bone mineral density (aBMD), pain, skeletal disease burden score, and functional parameters including the 9-min walk test and manual muscle testing. Results: Clinical data was collected on 35 subjects who completed the study. There was a decline in NTX-telopeptides in the alendronate group (P = .006), but no significant difference in osteocalcin between groups. The alendronate group had an increase in areal BMD in normal bone at the lumbar spine (P = .006), and in predetermined regions of FD (P < .001). There were no significant differences in pain scores, skeletal disease burden scores, or functional parameters between the groups. Conclusions: Alendronate treatment led to a reduction in the bone resorption marker NTX-telopeptides, and improvement in aBMD, but no significant effect on serum osteocalcin, pain, or functional parameters. PMID:25033066

  15. Dronabinol and lofexidine for cannabis use disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Brooks, Daniel; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy; Nunes, Edward V; Bisaga, Adam; Dakwar, Elias; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Sullivan, Maria A; Choi, Jean C

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis use disorder is associated with substantial morbidity and, after alcohol, is the most common drug bringing adolescents and adults into treatment. At present, there are no FDA-approved medications for cannabis use disorder. Combined pharmacologic interventions might be particularly useful in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and promoting abstinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, and lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, in treating cannabis dependence. One hundred fifty six cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled and following a 1-week placebo lead-in phase 122 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 11-week trial. Participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg three times a day and lofexidine 0.6 mg three times a day or placebo. Medications were maintained until the end of week eight, were then tapered over two weeks and patients were monitored off medications during the last study week. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow-back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 3 weeks of abstinence during the maintenance phase of the trial (27.9% for the medication group and 29.5% for the placebo group), although both groups showed a reduction over time. Based on this treatment study, the combined intervention did not show promise as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. A Prospective, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Shane A; Kazmerchak, Shari E; Heckman, Michael G; Zubair, Abba C; O'Connor, Mary I

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) is increasingly used as a regenerative therapy for musculoskeletal pathological conditions despite limited evidence-based support. BMAC will prove feasible, safe, and efficacious for the treatment of pain due to mild to moderate degenerative joint disease of the knee. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. In this prospective, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 25 patients with bilateral knee pain from bilateral osteoarthritis were randomized to receive BMAC into one knee and saline placebo into the other. Fifty-two milliliters of bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crests and concentrated in an automated centrifuge. The resulting BMAC was combined with platelet-poor plasma for an injection into the arthritic knee and was compared with a saline injection into the contralateral knee, thereby utilizing each patient as his or her own control. Safety outcomes, pain relief, and function as measured by Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) measures and the visual analog scale (VAS) score were tracked initially at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the procedure. There were no serious adverse events from the BMAC procedure. OARSI Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain and VAS pain scores in both knees decreased significantly from baseline at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months ( P ≤ .019 for all). Pain relief, although dramatic, did not differ significantly between treated knees ( P > .09 for all). Early results show that BMAC is safe to use and is a reliable and viable cellular product. Study patients experienced a similar relief of pain in both BMAC- and saline-treated arthritic knees. Further study is required to determine the mechanisms of action, duration of efficacy, optimal frequency of treatments, and regenerative potential. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov record 12-004459.

  17. Pyridostigmine, diethyltoluamide, permethrin, and stress: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess safety.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Kraus, Patricia L; Seegers, Cynthia A; Young, Sylvia Y N; Kamens, Deborah R; Law, Wendy A; Cherstniakova, Svetlana A; Chang, David N; Cooper, Jamie A; Sato, Paul A; Matulich, William; Krantz, David S; Cantilena, Louis R; Deuster, Patricia A

    2006-10-01

    To determine whether short-term human exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, diethyltoluamide, and permethrin, at rest or under stress, adversely affects short-term physical or neurocognitive performance. A multicenter, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial exposing 64 volunteers to permethrin-impregnated uniforms, diethyltoluamide-containing skin cream, oral pyridostigmine, and corresponding placebos was performed. Each participant had 4 separate sessions, ensuring exposure to all treatments and placebos under both stress and rest conditions in random order. Outcomes Included physical performance (handgrip strength and duration, stair climbing, and pull-ups [males] or push-ups [females]), neurocognitive performance (computerized tests), and self-reported adverse effects. Permethrin was undetectable in the serum of all participants; pyridostigmine levels were higher Immediately after stress (41.6 ng/mL; 95% confidence Interval, 35.1-48.1 ng/mL) than rest (23.0 ng/mL; 95% confidence Interval, 19.2-26.9 ng/mL), whereas diethyltoluamide levels did not significantly differ by stress condition. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased significantly with stress compared with rest but did not vary with treatment vs placebo. Physical and neurocognitive outcome measures and self-reported adverse effects did not significantly differ by exposure group. Combined, correct use of pyridostigmine, diethyltoluamide, and permethrin is well tolerated and without evidence of short-term physical or neurocognitive impairment.

  18. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled feasibility study evaluating individualized homeopathy in managing pain of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy

    2015-07-01

    Few homeopathic complexes seemed to produce significant effects in osteoarthritis; still, individualized homeopathy remained untested. We evaluated the feasibility of conducting an efficacy trial of individualized homeopathy in osteoarthritis. A prospective, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted from January to October 2014 involving 60 patients (homeopathy, n = 30; placebo, n = 30) who were suffering from acute painful episodes of knee osteoarthritis and visiting the outpatient clinic of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. Statistically significant reduction was achieved in 3 visual analog scales (measuring pain, stiffness, and loss of function) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores in both groups over 2 weeks (P < .05); however, group differences were not significant (P > .05). Overall, homeopathy did not appear to be superior to placebo; still, further rigorous evaluation in this design involving a larger sample size seems feasible in future. Clinical Trials Registry, India (CTRI/2014/05/004589). © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of squalamine ointment for tinea capitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Thera, Mahamadou A; Koné, Abdoulaye K; Siaka, Goïta; Traoré, Pierre; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Gaudart, Jean; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Novel treatments against for tinea capitis are needed, and the natural aminosterol squalamine is a potential topical antidermatophyte drug candidate. This phase II randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the efficacy and safety of a three-week squalamine ointment regimen for the treatment of tinea capitis. Males aged 6-15 years presenting with tinea capitis were treated with either topical squalamine ointment or placebo for 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was complete clinical cure. The secondary endpoints were the occurrence of local and/or systemic adverse events, mycological cure, and partial clinical response. Prospective follow-up of clinical adverse events was performed daily. Five patients were treated with 1% squalamine ointment and 15 with placebo. No complete cure was observed. No clinical or biological adverse event was recorded. A significantly (p = 0.03) better hair-growth score, indicating a partial clinical improvement of the tinea capitis lesion, was observed in the patients treated with squalamine compared to those treated with placebo. This three-week squalamine ointment regimen was well tolerated and showed an encouraging partial clinical activity for the treatment of tinea capitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of topical squalamine alone against tinea corporis or in combination with a systemic antidermatophyte drug against tinea capitis.

  20. Topiramate reduces headache days in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Bussone, G; Van Oene, J C; Lahaye, M; Schwalen, S; Goadsby, P J

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate for the prevention of chronic migraine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chronic migraine is a common form of disabling headache presenting in headache subspecialty practice. Preventive treatments are essential for chronic migraine management, although there are few or no controlled empirical trial data on their use in this patient population. Topiramate is approved for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults. Patients (18-65 years) who experienced chronic migraine (defined as > or =15 monthly migraine days) for > or =3 months prior to trial entry and had > or =12 migraine days during the 4-week (28-day) baseline phase were randomized to topiramate or placebo for a 16-week, double-blind trial. Topiramate was titrated (25 mg weekly) to a target dose of 100 mg/day, allowing dosing flexibility from 50 to 200 mg/day, according to patient need. Existing migraine preventive treatments, except for antiepileptic drugs, were continued throughout the trial. The primary efficacy measure was the change in number of migraine days from the 28-day baseline phase to the last 28 days of the double-blind phase in the intent-to-treat population, which consisted of all patients who received at least one dose of study medication and had one outcome assessment during the double-blind phase. Health-related quality of life was evaluated with the Migraine Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ, Version 2.1), the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaires, and tolerability was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports and early trial discontinuations. Eighty-two patients were screened. Thirty-two patients in the intent-to-treat population (mean age 46 years; 75% female) received topiramate (mean modal dose +/- SD = 100 +/- 17 mg/day) and 27 patients received placebo. Mean (+/-SD) baseline number of migraine days per 4 weeks was 15

  1. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Hair Regrowth: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery, and preliminary evidence suggests that it might have a beneficial role in hair regrowth. Here, we report the results of a randomized, evaluator-blinded, placebo-controlled, half-head group study to compare, with the aid of computerized trichograms, hair regrowth with PRP versus placebo. The safety and clinical efficacy of autologous PRP injections for pattern hair loss were investigated. PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients’ scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were administered to each patient at 30-day intervals. The endpoints were hair regrowth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 evaluation. Patients were followed for 2 years. Of the 23 patients enrolled, 3 were excluded. At the end of the 3 treatment cycles, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 33.6 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 45.9 hairs per cm2 compared with baseline values. No side effects were noted during treatment. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles 2 weeks after the last PRP treatment compared with baseline value (p < .05). We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes in the epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells, and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared with baseline (p < .05). Relapse of androgenic alopecia was not evaluated in all patients until 12 months after the last treatment. After 12 months, 4 patients reported progressive hair loss; this was more evident 16 months after the last treatment. Those four patients were re-treated. Our data clearly highlight the positive effects of PRP

  2. Progesterone and Postpartum Smoking Relapse: A Pilot Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sharon S; Allen, Alicia M; Lunos, Scott; Tosun, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a strong motivator to quit smoking, yet postpartum relapse rates are high. Growing evidence suggests a role of sex hormones in drug abuse behavior and given the precipitous drop in sex hormones at delivery, they may play a role in postpartum relapse. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility and potential role of exogenous progesterone in postpartum smoking relapse. This 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial randomized 46 abstinent postpartum women to active progesterone (PRO; 200mg twice a day) versus placebo (PBO) for 4 weeks. Participants were followed for relapse for 12 weeks. Main study outcomes include abstinence (point prevalence), feasibility (compliance per number of clinic visits attended, pill counts and Electronic Data Capture [EDC] completed) and self-reported acceptability. Safety was also measured by depressive symptom scores, adverse events, and breastfeeding. Overall retention rate was 87% at week 12. At week 4, abstinence rates were 75% in the PRO group and 68.2% in the PBO group (p = .75). Medication adherence was 68% and clinic visit attendance was 80%, with no differences by randomization. Depressive symptom scores, adverse events, and breastfeeding did not vary by randomization. Although the study was not powered to evaluate abstinence rates, we did observe a higher prevalence of abstinence at week 4 in the PRO group. Further, exogenous progesterone was well tolerated and did not adversely affect depressive symptoms or breastfeeding. Thus, the results of this pilot study indicate further investigation into progesterone as a postpartum relapse prevention strategy is warranted. This innovative pilot trial determined the feasibility of delivering exogenous progesterone as a potential prevention of postpartum smoking relapse. We observed high retention and moderate adherence rates, as well as high acceptability among participants. Further, though not statistically significant, more women in the treatment

  3. Bromelain and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes: An exploratory randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ley, Chit Moy; Ni, Qing; Liao, Xing; Gao, Huai-Lin; Robinson, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    To assess whether the dietary supplement (bromelain) has the potential to reduce plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with diabetes. This randomized placebo controlled, double blind, parallel design, efficacy study was carried out in China and investigated the effect of 12 weeks of bromelain (1,050 mg/day) on plasma fibrinogen. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) recruited 68 Chinese diabetic patients [32 males and 36 females; Han origin, mean age of 61.26 years (standard deviation (SD), 12.62 years)] with at least one CVD risk factor. Patients were randomized into either bromelain or placebo group. While bromelain group received bromelain capsule, the placebo group received placebo capsule which consisted inert ingredient and has no treatment effect. Subjects were required to take 1,050 mg (3×350 mg) of either bromelain or starch-filled placebo capsules, two to be taken (2×350 mg) after breakfast and another (350 mg) after dinner, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma fibrinogen, CVD risk factors and anthropometric indicators were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks. The change in the fibrinogen level in the bromelain group at the end of the study showed a mean reduction of 0.13 g/L (standard deviation (SD) 0.86g/L) compared with the mean reduction of 0.36 g/L (SD 0.96 g/L) for the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in fibrinogen between the placebo and bromelain groups (mean difference=0.23g/L (SD 0.22 g/L), =0.291). Similarly, the difference in mean change in other CVD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure), blood glucose, C-reactive protein and anthropometric measures between the bromelain and placebo groups was also not statistically significant. Statistical differences in fibrinogen between bromelain and placebo groups before the trial despite randomization may have influenced the results of this study. This RCT failed to show a beneficial effect in reducing fibrinogen

  4. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Catechins for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nagi B.; Pow-Sang, Julio; Egan, Kathleen M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Dickinson, Shohreh; Salup, Raoul; Helal, Mohamed; McLarty, Jerry; Williams, Christopher R.; Schreiber, Fred; Parnes, Howard L.; Sebti, Said; Kazi, Aslam; Kang, Loveleen; Quinn, Gwen; Smith, Tiffany; Yue, Binglin; Diaz, Karen; Chornokur, Ganna; Crocker, Theresa; Schell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical, epidemiological and prior clinical trial data suggest that green tea catechins (GTCs) may reduce prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of Polyphenon E® (PolyE), a proprietary mixture of GTCs, containing 400 mg (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) per day, in 97 men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and/or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). The primary study endpoint was a comparison of the cumulative one-year PCa rates on the two study arms. No differences in the number of PCa cases were observed: 5/49 (PolyE) versus 9/48 (placebo), P=0.25. A secondary endpoint comparing the cumulative rate of PCa plus ASAP among men with HGPIN without ASAP at baseline, revealed a decrease in this composite endpoint: 3/26 (PolyE) versus 10/25 (placebo), P<0.024. This finding was driven by a decrease in ASAP diagnoses on the Poly E (0/26) compared to the placebo arm (5/25). A decrease in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) was observed on the PolyE arm [−0.87 ng/ml (95%CI: −1.66, −0.09)]. Adverse events related to the study agent did not significantly differ between the two study groups. Daily intake of a standardized, decaffeinated catechin mixture containing 400 mg EGCG per day for 1 year accumulated in plasma and was well tolerated but did not reduce the likelihood of PCa in men with baseline HGPIN or ASAP. PMID:25873370

  5. Metformin treatment of antipsychotic-induced dyslipidemia: an analysis of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wu, R-R; Zhang, F-Y; Gao, K-M; Ou, J-J; Shao, P; Jin, H; Guo, W-B; Chan, P K; Zhao, J-P

    2016-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the most common adverse effects in schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics. However, there are no established effective treatments. In this study, data were pooled from two randomized, placebo-controlled trials, which were originally designed to examine the efficacy of metformin in treating antipsychotic-induced weight gain and other metabolic abnormalities. In total, 201 schizophrenia patients with dyslipidemia after being treated with an antipsychotic were assigned to take 1000 mg day(-1) metformin (n=103) or placebo (n=98) for 24 weeks, with evaluation at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome was the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. After metformin treatment, the mean difference in the LDL-C value between metformin treatment and placebo was from 0.16 mmol l(-1) at baseline to -0.86 mmol l(-1) at the end of week 24, decreased by 1.02 mmol l(-1) (P<0.0001); and 25.3% of patients in the metformin group had LDL-C ≥3.37 mmol l(-1), which is significantly <64.8% in the placebo group (P<0.001) at week 24. Compared with the placebo, metformin treatment also have a significant effect on reducing weight, body mass index, insulin, insulin resistance index, total cholesterol and triglyceride, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The treatment effects on weight and insulin resistance appeared at week 12 and further improved at week 24, but the effects on improving dyslipidemia only significantly occurred at the end of week 24. We found that metformin treatment was effective in improving antipsychotic-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and the effects improving antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance appeared earlier than the reducing dyslipidemia.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of rifaximin to prevent travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Herbert L; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Ericsson, Charles D; de la Cabada, Francisco Javier; Ke, Shi; DuPont, Margaret W; Martinez-Sandoval, Francisco

    2005-05-17

    Travelers' diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. To evaluate nonabsorbable rifaximin for prevention of travelers' diarrhea. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Guadalajara, Mexico. U.S. students. On arrival in Guadalajara, Mexico, 210 U.S. adults received rifaximin (200 mg/d, 200 mg twice daily, or 200 mg 3 times daily) or placebo for 2 weeks. Participants were followed daily for 3 weeks for enteric disease and symptoms and daily for 5 weeks for drug side effects. Changes in intestinal coliform flora were studied. Travelers' diarrhea developed in 14.74% of participants taking rifaximin and 53.70% of those taking placebo (rate ratio, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43]). Rifaximin provided 72% and 77% protection against travelers' diarrhea and antibiotic-treated travelers' diarrhea, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), and all rifaximin doses were superior to placebo. In the groups that did not report travelers' diarrhea, rifaximin significantly reduced the occurrence of mild diarrhea (P = 0.02) and moderate and severe intestinal problems (P = 0.009 for pain or cramps; P = 0.02 for excessive gas). Rates of adverse events were comparable in the rifaximin and placebo groups. Minimal changes in coliform flora were found during rifaximin therapy. Rifaximin safely prevented travelers' diarrhea in Mexico, where most cases are caused by diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli. A study is needed in Asia to determine whether rifaximin can prevent diarrhea caused by invasive bacterial pathogens. Rifaximin prevents travelers' diarrhea with minimal changes in fecal flora, and more liberal chemoprophylaxis against this disease should be considered. Future studies should evaluate whether rifaximin is effective in preventing postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Preventing depression after stroke: Results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Waterreus, Anna; Hankey, Graeme J

    2006-07-01

    We designed this study to determine whether the daily treatment of nondepressed acute stroke patients with sertraline reduced the incidence of depression at follow-up. 111 patients with recent stroke (< 2 weeks; International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria) were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo (N = 56) and sertraline (N = 55, 50 mg once daily) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week clinical trial. Subjects were recruited from the 2 largest teaching hospitals of Western Australia between June 2002 and June 2004. The primary endpoint of interest was development of clinically significant depressive symptoms as assessed by a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale score of 8 or above, or as diagnosed by the treating physician during 24 weeks. There was no significant difference in the incidence of depressive symptoms during 24 weeks of treatment (16.7% [8/48] sertraline vs. 21.6% [11/51] placebo, rate ratio = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.1, p = .590). The trial medication was discontinued by 51.8% (29/56) of patients assigned placebo and 47.3% (26/55) assigned sertraline (p = .634), most often because of perceived side effects or because the treating physician introduced an antidepressant medication. Twenty-four-week treatment with 50 mg of sertraline once daily initiated within 2 weeks of onset of acute stroke is not a significantly more effective strategy to prevent 6-month depression than usual care plus placebo among nondepressed stroke patients. New pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies need to be developed to reduce the health and financial burden associated with depression after stroke.

  8. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B; Madsen, M R; Vestersgaard-Andersen, T; Lindholt, J S

    2010-10-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study included 88 patients recruited by surgeons from outpatient clinics. The participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h before each test and then received either a placebo or oral caffeine (6 mg/kg). After 75 min, pain-free and maximal walking distance on a treadmill, perceived pain, reaction times, postural stability, maximal isometric knee extension strength, submaximal knee extension endurance and cognitive function were measured. The analysis was by intention to treat. Caffeine increased the pain-free walking distance by 20.0 (95 per cent confidence interval 3.7 to 38.8) per cent (P = 0.014), maximal walking distance by 26.6 (12.1 to 43.0) per cent (P < 0.001), muscle strength by 9.8 (3.0 to 17.0) per cent (P = 0.005) and endurance by 21.4 (1.2 to 45.7) per cent (P = 0.004). However, postural stability was reduced significantly, by 22.1 (11.7 to 33.4) per cent with eyes open (P < 0.001) and by 21.8 (7.6 to 37.8) per cent with eyes closed (P = 0.002). Neither reaction time nor cognition was affected. In patients with moderate intermittent claudication, caffeine increased walking distance, maximal strength and endurance, but affected balance adversely.

  9. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ataluren for the treatment of nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    EitanKerem; Konstan, Michael W.; De Boeck, Kris; Accurso, Frank J.; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Wilschanski, Michael; Elborn, J S; Melotti, Paola; Bronsveld, Inez; Fajac, Isabelle; Malfroot, Anne; Rosenbluth, Daniel B.; Walker, Patricia A.; McColley, Susanna A.; Knoop, Christiane; Quattrucci, Serena; Rietschel, Ernst; Zeitlin, Pamela L.; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary L.; Welch, Ellen M.; Branstrom, Arthur; Spiegel, Robert J.; Peltz, Stuart W.; Ajayi, Temitayo; Rowe, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ataluren was developed to restore functional protein production in genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations, which are the cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) in 10% of patients.. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 238 patients ≥6 years with nmCF to receive oral ataluren 10 mg/kg in the morning, 10 mg/kg mid-day, and 20 mg/kg in the evening or matching placebo for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was relative change in % predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at Week 48; the secondary endpoint was the rate of pulmonary exacerbations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00803205. Findings There was no statistically significant difference in relative change from baseline in % predicted FEV1between ataluren and placebo at Week 48(-2•5% vs -5•5%, p=0.1235). The rate of pulmonary exacerbations was not statistically different between treatment arms (rate ratio 0.77 (95% CI 0.57, 1.05), p=0.0992). However, post hoc analysis of the subgroup of patients not using chronic inhaled tobramycin showed a 5.7% difference in relative change from baseline in % predicted FEV1 between ataluren and placebo at Week 48 (-0.7% vs -6.4%, nominal p=0•008, adjusted for multiplicity p = 0•024) and 40% fewer exacerbations in ataluren-treated patients (OR 0.60 (95% CI 0•42, 0•86), nominal p=0•006, adjusted for multiplicity p = 0•018). Interpretation While there was no statistically significant improvement in lung function or exacerbation rate in the ITT population of cystic fibrosis patients with nonsense mutations treated with ataluren, treatment might be beneficial for nmCF patients not receiving chronic inhaled tobramycin. PMID:24836205

  10. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497 PMID:20569455

  11. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Isaacsohn, J L; Moser, M; Stein, E A; Dudley, K; Davey, J A; Liskov, E; Black, H R

    1998-06-08

    Garlic powder tablets have been reported to lower serum cholesterol levels. There is widespread belief among the general public that garlic powder tablets aid in controlling cholesterol levels. However, much of the prior data demonstrating the cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic tablets involved studies that were inadequately controlled. To determine the lipid-lowering effect of garlic powder tablets in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, parallel treatment study carried out in 2 outpatient lipid clinics. Entry into the study after 8 weeks of diet stabilization required a mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level on 2 visits of 4.1 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) or lower and a triglyceride level of 4.0 mmol/L (350 mg/dL) or lower. The active treatment arm received tablets containing 300 mg of garlic powder (Kwai) 3 times per day, given with meals (total, 900 mg/d). This is equivalent to approximately 2.7 g or approximately 1 clove of fresh garlic per day. The placebo arm received an identical-looking tablet, also given 3 times per day with meals. The main outcome measures included levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 12 weeks of treatment. Twenty-eight patients (43% male; mean +/- SD age, 58 +/- 14 years) received garlic powder treatment and 22 (68% male; mean +/- SD age, 57 +/- 13 years) received placebo treatment. There were no significant lipid or lipoprotein changes in either the placebo- or garlic-treated groups and no significant difference between changes in the placebo-treated group compared with changes in the garlic-treated patients. Garlic powder (900 mg/d) treatment for 12 weeks was ineffective in lowering cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Imatinib treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Randomized placebo-controlled trial results.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Craig E; Lasky, Joseph A; Limper, Andrew H; Mieras, Kathleen; Gabor, Edith; Schroeder, Darrell R

    2010-03-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with no known efficacious therapy. Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential efficacy to treat fibrotic lung disease. To investigate the safety and clinical effects of imatinib in patients with IPF. We studied 119 patients in an investigator-initiated, multicenter, multinational, double-blind clinical trial to receive imatinib or placebo for 96 weeks. Over 96 weeks of follow-up, imatinib did not differ significantly from placebo (log rank P = 0.89) for the primary endpoint defined as time to disease progression (10% decline in percent predicted FVC from baseline) or time to death. There was no effect of imatinib therapy on change in FVC at 48, 72, or 96 weeks (P > or = 0.39 at all time points) or change in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide at 48, 72, or 96 weeks (P > or = 0.26 at all time points). Change in resting Pa(O(2)) favored imatinib therapy at 48 weeks (P = 0.005) but not at 96 weeks (P = 0.074). During the 96-week trial there were 8 deaths in the imatinib group and 10 deaths in the placebo group (log rank test P = 0.64). Thirty-five (29%) patients discontinued the study without reaching the primary endpoint (imatinib, 32%; placebo, 27%; P = 0.51). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were not more common in the imatinib group (imatinib, 18 SAEs in 17 patients; placebo, 19 SAEs in 18 patients). In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patients with mild to moderate IPF followed for 96 weeks, imatinib did not affect survival or lung function. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00131274).

  13. Treatments of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of 168 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Stahl, Daniel; Rocchetti, Matteo; Carpenter, William; Shergill, Sukhwinder; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Existing treatments for schizophrenia can improve positive symptoms, but it is unclear if they have any impact on negative symptoms. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of available treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods: All randomized-controlled trials of interventions for negative symptoms in schizophrenia until December 2013 were retrieved; 168 unique and independent placebo-controlled trials were used. Negative symptom scores at baseline and follow-up, duration of illness, doses of medication, type of interventions, and sample demographics were extracted. Heterogeneity was addressed with the I 2 and Q statistic. Standardized mean difference in values of the Negative Symptom Rating Scale used in each study was calculated as the main outcome measure. Results: 6503 patients in the treatment arm and 5815 patients in the placebo arm were included. No evidence of publication biases found. Most treatments reduced negative symptoms at follow-up relative to placebo: second-generation antipsychotics: −0.579 (−0.755 to −0.404); antidepressants: −0.349 (−0.551 to −0.146); combinations of pharmacological agents: −0.518 (−0.757 to −0.279); glutamatergic medications: −0.289 (−0.478 to −0.1); psychological interventions: −0.396 (−0.563 to −0.229). No significant effect was found for first-generation antipsychotics: −0.531 (−1.104 to 0.041) and brain stimulation: −0.228 (−0.775 to 0.319). Effects of most treatments were not clinically meaningful as measured on Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale. Conclusions and Relevance: Although some statistically significant effects on negative symptoms were evident, none reached the threshold for clinically significant improvement. PMID:25528757

  14. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Latrepirdine in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P.; Voss, Tiffini S.; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Deuel, Lisa M.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Factor, Stewart; Geschwind, Michael D.; Hodgeman, Karen; Kayson, Elise; Noonberg, Sarah; Pourfar, Michael; Rabinowitz, Karen; Ravina, Bernard; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Seely, Lynn; Walker, Francis; Feigin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and tolerability of latrepirdine in Huntington disease (HD) and explore its effects on cognition, behavior, and motor symptoms. Design Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Multicenter outpatient trial. Participants Ninety-one participants with mild to moderate HD enrolled at 17 US and UK centers from July 18, 2007, through July 16, 2008. Intervention Latrepirdine, 20 mg 3 times daily (n=46), or matching placebo (n=45) for a 90-day treatment period. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variable was tolerability, defined as the ability to complete the study at the assigned drug dosage. Secondary outcome variables included score changes from baseline to day 90 on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Results Latrepirdine was well tolerated (87% of the patients given latrepirdine completed the study vs 82% in the placebo group), and adverse event rates were comparable in the 2 groups (70% in the latrepirdine group and 80% in the placebo group). Treatment with latrepirdine resulted in improved mean MMSE scores compared with stable performance in the placebo group (treatment effect, 0.97 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-1.85; P=.03). No significant treatment effects were seen on the UHDRS or the ADAS-cog. Conclusions Short-term administration of latrepirdine is well tolerated in patients with HD and may have a beneficial effect on cognition. Further investigation of latrepirdine is warranted in this population with HD. PMID:20142523

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pridopidine in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects of 3 dosages of pridopidine, a dopamine-stabilizing compound, on motor function and other features of Huntington's disease, with additional evaluation of its safety and tolerability. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in outpatient neurology clinics at 27 sites in the United States and Canada. Two hundred twenty-seven subjects enrolled from October 24, 2009, to May 10, 2010. The intervention was pridopidine, either 20 (n=56), 45 (n=55), or 90 (n=58) mg daily for 12 weeks or matching placebo (n=58). The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline to week 12 in the Modified Motor Score, a subset of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score. Measures of safety and tolerability included adverse events and trial completion on the assigned dosage. After 12 weeks, the treatment effect (relative to placebo, where negative values indicate improvement) of pridopidine 90 mg/day on the Modified Motor Score was -1.2 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.5 to 0.1 points; P = .08). The effect on the Total Motor Score was -2.8 points (95% CI, -5.4 to -0.1 points; nominal P = .04). No significant effects were seen in secondary outcome measures with any of the active dosages. Pridopidine was generally well tolerated. Although the primary analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant treatment effect, the overall results suggest that pridopidine may improve motor function in Huntington's disease. The 90 mg/day dosage appears worthy of further study. Pridopidine was well tolerated.

  16. Microcurrent transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gossrau, Gudrun; Wähner, Michael; Kuschke, Marion; Konrad, Birgit; Reichmann, Heinz; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes is a common health care problem in western countries. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) might be one of the consequences of long ongoing diabetes; it is estimated that approximately 20% of European diabetic patients suffer from PDN. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is often used as additional pain treatment. However, recent studies show inconsistent results. We aimed to assess the effect of micro-TENS in reducing neuropathic pain in patients with PDN in a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, and randomized design. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/OUTCOME MEASURES: 22 diabetic patients have been treated with a micro-TENS therapy and 19 patients have been treated with a placebo therapy. Treatment duration was 4 weeks with three therapeutical settings per week. Standardized questionnaires (Pain Disability Index [PDI], neuropathic pain score [NPS], Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) were used to assess pain intensity, pain disability, as well as quality of life at baseline at the end of the treatment period and 4 weeks after treatment termination. Patients with a minimum of 30% reduction in NPS were defined as therapy responders. After 4 weeks of treatment, 6/21 patients in the verum group vs 10/19 patients in the placebo group responded to therapy. The median PDI score after 4 weeks of treatment showed a reduction of 23% in the verum vs 25% in the placebo group. The differences did not reach statistical significance. The pain reduction with the applied transcutaneous electrotherapy regimen is not superior to a placebo treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Trial of CNTO 6785 in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Eich, Andreas; Urban, Veronika; Jutel, Marek; Vlcek, Jiri; Shim, Jae Jeong; Trofimov, Vasiliy I; Liam, Chong-Kin; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Hou, Yanyan; Xiao, Jun; Branigan, Patrick; O'Brien, Christopher D

    2017-07-28

    Interleukin (IL)-17A may be an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibodies have been used successfully in treating several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. This phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study is the first clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of the anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody CNTO 6785 in patients with symptomatic moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients were treated with CNTO 6785 (n = 93) or placebo (n = 94) intravenously at Weeks 0, 2, and 4 (induction), then Weeks 8 and 12, and followed till Week 24. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in pre-bronchodilator percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second at Week 16. Samples were collected at all visits for pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation, and standard safety assessments were performed. The mean difference in the primary efficacy endpoint between CNTO 6785 and placebo was not statistically significant (-0.49%; p = 0.599). No other efficacy endpoints demonstrated clinically or statistically significant differences with CNTO 6785 compared with placebo. CNTO 6785 was generally well tolerated; no major safety signals were detected. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were infections and infestations; however, no notable differences were observed between CNTO 6785 and placebo in terms of rates of infections. PK results suggested that the steady state of serum CNTO 6785 concentration was reached within 16 weeks. These results suggest that IL-17A is unlikely to be a dominant driver in the pathology of, or a viable therapeutic target for, COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01966549; EudraCT Identifier: 2012-003607-36.

  18. Radon balneotherapy and physical activity for osteoporosis prevention: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Winklmayr, Martina; Kluge, Christian; Winklmayr, Wolfgang; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Steiner, Martina; Ritter, Markus; Hartl, Arnulf

    2015-03-01

    Low-dose radon hyperthermia balneo treatment (LDRnHBT) is applied as a traditional measure in the non-pharmacological treatment of rheumatic diseases in Europe. During the last decades, the main approach of LDRnHBT was focused on the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, but scientific evidence for the biological background of LDRnHBT is weak. Recently, evidence emerged that LDRnHBT influences bone metabolism. We investigated, whether combined LDRnHBT and exercise treatment has an impact on bone metabolism and quality of life in a study population in an age group at risk for developing osteoporosis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprised guided hiking tours and hyperthermia treatment in either radon thermal water (LDRnHBT) or radon-free thermal water (PlaceboHBT). Markers of bone metabolism, quality of life and somatic complaints were evaluated. Statistics was performed by linear regression and a linear mixed model analysis. Significant changes over time were observed for most analytes investigated as well as an improvement in self-assessed health in both groups. No significant impact from the LDRnHBT could be observed. After 6 months, the LDRnHBT group showed a slightly stronger reduction of the osteoclast stimulating protein receptor activator of nuclear kB-ligand compared to the PlaceboHBT group, indicating a possible trend. A combined hyperthermia balneo and exercise treatment has significant immediate and long-term effects on regulators of bone metabolism as well as somatic complaints. LDRnHBT and placeboHBT yielded statistically equal outcomes.

  19. Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Metoclopramide for Hypersalivation Associated With Clozapine.

    PubMed

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Miodownik, Chanoch; Mirkin, Vitaly; Gaiduk, Yulia; Yankovsky, Yan; Bersudsky, Yuly; Lerner, Paul P; Bergman, Joseph; Lerner, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Hypersalivation is a frequent, disturbing, and uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that frequently leads to noncompliance. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of metoclopramide (dopamine D2 antagonist, antiemetic medication) as an option for management of hypersalivation associated with clozapine (HAC). A 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in university-based research clinics from January 2012 to May 2014, on 58 inpatients treated with clozapine who were experiencing hypersalivation. The subjects were randomly divided into placebo and metoclopramide groups. The starting dose was 10 mg/d. Participants who did not respond were up-titrated 10 mg/d weekly to a total of 30 mg/d during the third week. The number of placebo capsules was increased accordingly up to 3 capsules per day. Primary outcome was the change from baseline to the end of study in the severity of hypersalivation as measured with the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity Scale. Secondary outcomes included Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale and adverse effect scales. Significant improvement on the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale was demonstrated in the metoclopramide group from the end of the second week (P < 0.004), and on the Drooling Severity Scale (P < 0.02) in the third week. Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores revealed major improvement. Twenty subjects (66.7%) treated with metoclopramide reported significant decline or total disappearance of HAC in comparison to 8 patients (28.6%) who received placebo (P = 0.031). No adverse effects to metoclopramide were reported. Metoclopramide was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of HAC.

  20. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Biofeedback for the Treatment of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Barba, Elizabeth; Accarino, Anna; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that rumination is produced by an unperceived, somatic response to food ingestion, and we developed an original biofeedback technique based on electromyography (EMG)-guided control of abdomino-thoracic muscular activity. Our aim was to demonstrate the superiority of biofeedback vs. placebo for the treatment of rumination. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial performed in a referral center. Consecutive patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for rumination (18 women, 6 men; 19-79 years age) were selected and all included in the study; 1 patient assigned to placebo withdrew because of an unrelated accident. Abdomino-thoracic muscle activity after a challenge meal was recorded by EMG. The patients in the biofeedback group were shown the signal and instructed to control muscle activity, whereas the patients in the placebo group were not shown the signal and were given oral simethicone. Each patient underwent 3 sessions over a 10-day period. number of rumination events as measured by questionnaires for 10 consecutive days before and after intervention. Patients on biofeedback (n=12) but not on placebo (n=11) effectively learned to reduce intercostal activity (by 51±6% vs. 10±7% increment on placebo; P<0.001) and anterior wall muscle activity (by 52±4% vs. 9±2% increment on placebo; P<0.001). Biofeedback treatment resulted in a 74±6% reduction in rumination activity (from 29±6 before to 7±2 daily events after intervention) vs. 1±14% on placebo; P=0.001 (from 21±2 before to 21±4 daily events after intervention). Rumination can be effectively corrected by biofeedback-guided control of abdomino-thoracic muscular activity.

  1. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levetiracetam in central pain in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Falah, M; Madsen, C; Holbech, J V; Sindrup, S H

    2012-07-01

    Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant which is assumed to act by modulating neurotransmitter release via binding to the vesicle protein SV2A. This could have an impact on signalling in the pain pathway. The aim of this study was to test the analgesic effect of levetiracetam in central pain in multiple sclerosis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with levetiracetam 3000 mg/day versus placebo (6-week treatment periods). Patients with multiple sclerosis, symptoms and signs complying with central neuropathic pain and pain symptoms for more than 6 months, as well as pain intensity of more than 4 on a 0 to 10-point numeric rating scale were included in the study. The primary outcome measure was pain relief at the end of each treatment period as measured on a 6-point verbal scale. Eighty-nine patients were screened for participation and 30 patients entered the study. Twenty-seven patients were included in the data analysis. There were no differences in the ratings of pain relief (levetiracetam 2.4 vs. placebo 2.1, p = 0.169), total pain intensity (levetiracetam 5.3 vs. placebo 5.7, p = 0.147) or any of the other outcome measures (p = 0.086-0.715) in the total sample of patients. However, there was significant reduction of pain, increased pain relief and/or more favourable pain relief with levetiracetam than with placebo in patients with lancinating or without touch-evoked pain (p = 0.025-0.046). This study found no effect of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in non-selected patients with central pain in multiple sclerosis, but an effect in subgroups with specific pain symptoms was indicated.

  2. Effect of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Darsareh, Fatemeh; Taavoni, Simin; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Haghani, Hamid

    2012-09-01

    Menopause is a significant event in most women's lives because it marks the end of a woman's natural reproductive life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at a menopausal clinic at a gynecology hospital in Tehran. The study population comprised 90 women who were assigned to an aromatherapy massage group, a placebo massage group, or a control group. Each participant in the aromatherapy massage group received 30-minute aromatherapy treatment sessions twice a week for 4 weeks with aroma oil, whereas participants in the placebo massage group received the same treatment with plain oil. No treatment was provided to participants in the control group. The outcome measures in this study were menopausal symptoms, as obtained through the Menopause Rating Scale. The mean baseline level of the menopausal score did not differ among all groups. However, after eight sessions of intervention, the Menopause Rating Scale score differed significantly among the three groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that women in both the aromatherapy massage group and the placebo massage group had a lower menopausal score than the control group (P < 0.001). When the aromatherapy massage and the placebo massage groups were compared, the menopausal score for the aromatherapy massage group was found to be significantly lower (P < 0.001) than for the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that both massage and aromatherapy massage were effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. However, aromatherapy massage was more effective than only massage.

  3. [Different inhaler devices in acute asthma attacks: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study].

    PubMed

    Chong Neto, Herberto J; Chong-Silva, Débora C; Marani, Daniele M; Kuroda, Flávia; Olandosky, Márcia; Noronha, Lúcia de

    2005-01-01

    To verify the efficacy, side effects, and cost of treatment of acute asthma attacks, using different inhaler devices. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Salbutamol was administered via a nebulizer, a metered-dose inhaler (attached to a commercially available spacer device), a homemade non-valved spacer device, or a dry powder inhaler. Assessments were made at zero, 20, 40 and 60 minutes, followed by the application of salbutamol and placebo with another device. Forty children (mean age of 11+/-3.5 years) with acute asthma attacks, were evaluated. Clinical score, forced expiratory volume in one second and side effects were analyzed. The costs for medication and spacer devices were calculated. There is no difference between groups regarding clinical score and variation of forced expiratory volume in one second. There was a major variation in the heart rate response to the nebulizer (35%) compared to the commercially available spacer and dry powder inhaler (15 and 17%) and between the homemade spacer and the commercially available spacer (28 and 15%) (p = 0.004). The nebulizer and homemade spacer caused more tremor (p = 0.02). The cost of treatment was higher for the nebulizer and commercially available spacer (p = 0.0001). The nebulizer was more expensive and used more medicine, showing the same efficiency. The homemade spacer was cheaper, but presented more side effects. The commercially available spacer was as expensive as the nebulizer, although safer. The dry powder inhaler was cheaper, but, just as the homemade spacer, it also caused tachycardia.

  4. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Niacinamide for Reduction of Phosphorus in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Steven C.; Young, Daniel O.; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A.; Coyne, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels ≥5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Results: Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were ≥80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). Conclusions: In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated. PMID:18385391

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of niacinamide for reduction of phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Steven C; Young, Daniel O; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A; Coyne, Daniel W

    2008-07-01

    Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels > or =5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were > or =80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated.

  6. Randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Llufriu, Sara; Sepúlveda, María; Blanco, Yolanda; Marín, Pedro; Moreno, Beatriz; Berenguer, Joan; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Martínez-Heras, Eloy; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arnaiz, Joan-Albert; Andreu, Enrique J; Fernández, Begoña; Bullich, Santi; Sánchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Graus, Francesc; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study. Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0-6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1-2×10(6) bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects. At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4-34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (-2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients. Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266.

  7. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Yeh, James K; Felton, Carol K; Xu, Ke T; Pence, Barbara C; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-09-04

    effect error terms was applied. Traditional procedures such as ANCOVA, chi-squared analysis, and regression were used for comparisons. We present the rationale, design, and methodology of a placebo-controlled randomized trial to investigate a new complementary and alternative medicine strategy featuring a dietary supplement and a mind-body exercise for alleviating bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  8. Electroacupuncture Versus Gabapentin for Hot Flashes Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J.; Bowman, Marjorie A.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bruner, Deborah; DeMichele, Angela; Farrar, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hot flashes are a common and debilitating symptom among survivors of breast cancer. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) versus gabapentin (GP) for hot flashes among survivors of breast cancer, with a specific focus on the placebo and nocebo effects. Patients and Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 120 survivors of breast cancer experiencing bothersome hot flashes twice per day or greater. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of EA or GP once per day with validated placebo controls (sham acupuncture [SA] or placebo pills [PPs]). The primary end point was change in the hot flash composite score (HFCS) between SA and PP at week 8, with secondary end points including group comparisons and additional evaluation at week 24 for durability of treatment effects. Results By week 8, SA produced significantly greater reduction in HFCS than did PP (−2.39; 95% CI, −4.60 to −0.17). Among all treatment groups, the mean reduction in HFCS was greatest in the EA group, followed by SA, GP, and PP (−7.4 v −5.9 v −5.2 v −3.4; P = < .001). The pill groups had more treatment-related adverse events than did the acupuncture groups: GP (39.3%), PP (20.0%), EA (16.7%), and SA (3.1%), with P = .005. By week 24, HFCS reduction was greatest in the EA group, followed by SA, PP, and GP (−8.5 v −6.1 v −4.6 v −2.8; P = .002). Conclusion Acupuncture produced larger placebo and smaller nocebo effects than did pills for the treatment of hot flashes. EA may be more effective than GP, with fewer adverse effects for managing hot flashes among breast cancer survivors; however, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in larger randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. PMID:26304905

  9. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Yolanda; Marín, Pedro; Moreno, Beatriz; Berenguer, Joan; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Martínez-Heras, Eloy; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arnaiz, Joan-Albert; Andreu, Enrique J.; Fernández, Begoña; Bullich, Santi; Sánchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Graus, Francesc; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study. Methods Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0–6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1–2×106 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects. Results At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1–8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4–34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (−2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients. Conclusion Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266 PMID:25436769

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin and idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage: a multicentered randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Mary D.; Kutteh, William H.; Purkiss, Susan; Librach, Cliff; Schultz, Patricia; Houlihan, Edwina; Liao, Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage may be associated with an abnormal maternal immune response to subsequent pregnancies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with conflicting results. Therefore, a definitive trial was proposed. METHODS We conducted an investigator-initiated, multicentered, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing IVIG with saline in women with idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage, defined as a history of at least one prior ongoing pregnancy followed by three or more consecutive unexplained miscarriages. Subjects received either IVIG 500 mg/kg or the equivalent volume of normal saline. Preconception infusions were administered 14–21 days from the projected next menstrual period. With documentation of pregnancy, the subject received the same infusion every 4 weeks until 18–20 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was an ongoing pregnancy of at least 20 weeks of gestation. RESULTS A total of 82 patients enrolled, of whom 47 had an index pregnancy. All ongoing pregnancies resulted in live births. Therefore, the live birth rates were 70% (16/23) in the IVIG group and 63% (15/24) in the control group (P = 0.760); odds ratio (OR) 1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41–4.61]. Including only clinical pregnancies (embryo with cardiac activity at 6 weeks of gestation), the live birth rates were equivalent, 94% (16/17) and (15/16), respectively (P > 0.999); OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–18.62). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating IVIG for idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage revealed live birth rates of 70% (31/44) in the IVIG group and 62% (28/45) in the control group (P = 0.503); common OR 1.44 (95% CI 0.59–3.48). CONCLUSIONS This is the largest RCT to date in which IVIG was evaluated in women with idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage; no treatment benefit was found. The meta-analysis, which combined our study

  11. Bupropion for Overweight Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined by recurrent binge eating (eating unusually large quantities of food during which a subjective loss of control is experienced), marked distress about the binge eating, and the absence of inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors. BED is strongly associated with excess weight and many available psychological and pharmacological approaches fail to produce much weight loss. The objective of this study was to perform a randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the short-term efficacy of bupropion for the treatment of BED in overweight and obese women. Methods Sixty-one overweight and obese (Mean BMI=35.8) women with BED were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (300 mg/d) or placebo for 8 weeks. Participants were enrolled from November 2006 to December 2010. No dietary or lifestyle intervention was given. Primary outcome measures were binge-eating frequency and percent BMI loss. Secondary outcome measures were dimensional measures of eating disorder psychopathology, food craving, and depression levels. Results Eighty-nine percent of randomized participants completed the trial without differential dropout between bupropion and placebo. Mixed effects analyses revealed significant time effects for all outcomes but that bupropion and placebo did not differ significantly on any outcome measure except for weight loss. Participants taking bupropion lost significantly more weight (1.8% BMI loss versus 0.6% BMI loss; F=10.57, p=002). Conclusions Bupropion was well tolerated and produced significantly greater – albeit quite modest – short-term weight loss in overweight and obese women with BED. Bupropion did not improve binge eating, food craving, or associated eating disorder features or depression relative to placebo. Our findings do not support bupropion as a stand-alone treatment for BED. The preliminary findings regarding short-term weight losses suggest the need for larger and longer-term trials to evaluate

  12. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancementof Social Skills Training in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-09-1-0091 TITLE: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancement of Social Skills Training in...Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancement of Social Skills Training in Pervasive Developmental Disorders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Indiana University Health Indianapolis, IN 46202 8

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects of ResistAid™: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multidose Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract from the larch tree (ResistAid, Lonza Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) to change the immune response in healthy adults to a standardized antigenic challenge (tetanus and influenza vaccines) in a dose-dependent manner compared to placebo. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 healthy adults (18–61 years old). Subjects were randomized to receive either 1.5 or 4.5 g/day of ResistAid or placebo for 60 days. At day 30, subjects were administered both tetanus and influenza vaccines. Serum antigenic response (tetanus immunoglobulin G [IgG], influenza A and B IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) was measured at days 45 (15 days after vaccination) and 60 (30 days after vaccination) of the study and compared to baseline antibody levels. Frequency and intensity of adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results As expected, all 3 groups demonstrated an expected rise in tetanus IgG levels 15 and 30 days following the vaccine. There was a strongly significant difference in the rise in IgG levels at day 60 in the 1.5 g/day group compared to placebo (p = 0.008). In the 4.5 g/day group, there was significant rise in tetanus IgG at days 45 and 60 compared to baseline (p < 0.01) but these values were not significant compared to placebo. Neither group demonstrated any significant elevations in IgM or IgG antibodies compared to placebo following the influenza vaccine. There were no clinically or statistically significant or serious adverse events. Conclusions ResistAid at a dose of 1.5 g/day significantly increased the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo. In conjunction with earlier studies, this validates the effect of ResistAid on the augmentation of the response to bacterial antigens (in the form of vaccine). PMID:24219376

  14. Randomized Placebo-Controlled D-Cycloserine with Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Research on D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) agonist, has suggested that it may enhance exposure-based therapies for anxiety disorders. Results with DCS in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conflicting; however, no data have been reported on children with PTSD. Although many individuals with PTSD respond to exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), there are subgroups of individuals who are nonresponders, and many responders still have substantial residual symptoms. This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study tested DCS as an adjunct to CBT to improve and speed treatment response for PTSD in youth. Methods: Seven to 18 year-old youth with exposure to trauma and PTSD were offered a 12 session, manualized CBT treatment. Those who remained in treatment at the fifth session were randomly allocated (n=57) to either CBT and DCS or CBT and placebo. Results: Youth in the CBT and DCS group had significant reductions in symptoms, but these reductions were not greater than those in the CBT and placebo group. There was a trend toward DCS speeding PTSD symptom recovery during the exposure-based sessions, and evidence that the CBT and DCS group better maintained stability of gains on inattention ratings from posttreatment to the 3 month follow-up. Conclusions: This initial study of CBT and DCS to treat pediatric PTSD provided suggestive and preliminary evidence for more rapid symptom recovery and beneficial effects on attention, but did not show an overall greater effect for reducing PTSD symptoms. It appears that augmentation with DCS represents unique challenges in PTSD. Because PTSD involves complex, life-threatening trauma memories, as opposed to the imagined dreadful outcomes of other anxiety disorders, the use of DCS may require greater attention to how its use is coupled with exposure-based techniques. DCS may have inadvertently enhanced reconsolidation of trauma memories rather than

  15. Randomized placebo-controlled D-cycloserine with cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Scheeringa, Michael S; Weems, Carl F

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Objective: Research on D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) agonist, has suggested that it may enhance exposure-based therapies for anxiety disorders. RESULTS with DCS in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conflicting; however, no data have been reported on children with PTSD. Although many individuals with PTSD respond to exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), there are subgroups of individuals who are nonresponders, and many responders still have substantial residual symptoms. This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study tested DCS as an adjunct to CBT to improve and speed treatment response for PTSD in youth. Seven to 18 year-old youth with exposure to trauma and PTSD were offered a 12 session, manualized CBT treatment. Those who remained in treatment at the fifth session were randomly allocated (n=57) to either CBT and DCS or CBT and placebo. Youth in the CBT and DCS group had significant reductions in symptoms, but these reductions were not greater than those in the CBT and placebo group. There was a trend toward DCS speeding PTSD symptom recovery during the exposure-based sessions, and evidence that the CBT and DCS group better maintained stability of gains on inattention ratings from posttreatment to the 3 month follow-up. This initial study of CBT and DCS to treat pediatric PTSD provided suggestive and preliminary evidence for more rapid symptom recovery and beneficial effects on attention, but did not show an overall greater effect for reducing PTSD symptoms. It appears that augmentation with DCS represents unique challenges in PTSD. Because PTSD involves complex, life-threatening trauma memories, as opposed to the imagined dreadful outcomes of other anxiety disorders, the use of DCS may require greater attention to how its use is coupled with exposure-based techniques. DCS may have inadvertently enhanced reconsolidation of trauma memories rather than more positive and adaptive

  16. Preoperative Gabapentin for Acute Post-thoracotomy Analgesia: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Active Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Michelle A. O.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Carns, Paul E.; Passe, Melissa A.; Brown, Michael J.; Hooten, W. Michael; Curry, Timothy B.; Long, Timothy R.; Wass, C. Thomas; Wilson, Peter R.; Weingarten, Toby N.; Huntoon, Marc A.; Rho, Richard H.; Mauck, William D.; Pulido, Juan N.; Allen, Mark S.; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Deschamps, Claude; Nichols, Francis C.; Shen, K. Robert; Wigle, Dennis A.; Hoehn, Sheila L.; Alexander, Sherry L.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Schroeder, Darrell R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of preoperative gabapentin in postoperative pain management is not clear, particularly in patients receiving regional blockade. Patients undergoing thoracotomy benefit from epidural analgesia but still may experience significant postoperative pain. We examined the effect of preoperative gabapentin in thoracotomy patients. Methods Adults undergoing elective thoracotomy were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, and randomly assigned to receive 600 mg gabapentin or active placebo (12.5 mg diphenhydramine) orally within 2 hours preoperatively. Standardized management included thoracic epidural infusion, intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia, acetaminophen and ketorolac. Pain scores, opioid use and side effects were recorded for 48 hours. Pain was also assessed at 3 months. Results One hundred twenty patients (63 placebo and 57 gabapentin) were studied. Pain scores did not significantly differ at any time point (p=0.53). Parenteral and oral opioid consumption was not significantly different between groups on postoperative day 1 or 2 (p>0.05 in both cases). The frequency of side effects such as nausea and vomiting or respiratory depression was not significantly different between groups, but gabapentin was associated with decreased frequency of pruritus requiring nalbuphine (14% gabapentin vs. 43% control group, p<0.001). The frequency of patients experiencing pain at 3 months post-thoracotomy was also comparable between groups (70% gabapentin vs. 66% placebo group, p=0.72). Conclusions A single preoperative oral dose of gabapentin (600 mg) did not reduce pain scores or opioid consumption following elective thoracotomy, and did not confer any analgesic benefit in the setting of effective multimodal analgesia that included thoracic epidural infusion. PMID:21676165

  17. Midodrine in patients with spinal cord injury and anejaculation: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Bernard E.; Fournier, Christine; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Lepage, Yves; Vinet, Bernard; Hétu, Pierre-Olivier; Chagnon, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of midodrine in the treatment of anejaculation in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Study design Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Method Men with anejaculation associated with SCI (level of injury above T10) of more than 1 year in duration were approached. Those with no ejaculatory response to one penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) trial were assigned in a double-blind manner to one of the two following interventions once a week for a maximum of 3 weeks or until ejaculation occurred: oral administration of flexible midodrine (7.5–22.5 mg max) followed by PVS (group M), or oral administration of flexible sham-midodrine (placebo) followed by PVS (group P). Sociodemographic data, medical characteristics, and plasma desglymidodrine concentration were collected for all participants. Outcome measure Ejaculation success rate in each group. Results Among the 78 men approached, 23 participants (level of SCI: C4–T9) were randomized. Three participants abandoned the study and 20 completed the study; 10 were assigned to group M, 10 to group P. Ejaculation was reached for one participant of group M and for two participants of group P. Autonomic dysreflexia associated to PVS occurred in three patients. Conclusion In this small sample study, treatment of anejaculation after SCI with midodrine and PVS did not result in a better rate of antegrade ejaculation in 10 men than in 10 men treated with a placebo and PVS. PMID:24969635

  18. To evaluate efficacy and safety of Caralluma fimbriata in overweight and obese patients: A randomized, single blinded, placebo control trial.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ekta; Khajuria, Vijay; Tandon, Vishal R; Sharma, Atul; Mahajan, Annil; Gillani, Zahid H; Choudhary, Naiyma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE) in overweight and obese individuals in a prospective, randomized, placebo controlled trial. Commercially available CFE was assessed in overweight and obese individuals. A total of 89 patients were randomized into a treatment group (n = 47) and placebo group (n = 42) to receive either CFE in the form capsules/oral 500 mg b.d. for 12 weeks or matching placebo in similar way. Patients were evaluated clinically and biochemically at 4, 8 and 12 weeks for anthropometric measurements, appetite, biochemical investigations and other safety parameters. At the end of study period both CFE and placebo for 12 weeks caused only numerical reduction in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist hip ratio in overweight and obese individuals. However, these parameters failed to attain significant statistical levels (P ≥ 0.05). CFE and placebo both failed to elucidate any modification of the appetite. There were no significant changes in the biochemical and clinical parameters in both the test and placebo group. However, CFE was well-tolerated and adverse events noted were mild and transient in nature. A commercially available extract of CFE in an oral dose of 1 g/day claimed to have anti-obesity effect failed to yield any positive results on anthropometry and appetite in overweight and obese individuals beyond placebo. There were also no significant differences in the clinical and biochemical parameters. However, CFE was well tolerated. Thereby, underscoring the need to carry more research before CFE is recommended as an anti-obesity drug.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Basu, Indraneel; Singh, Siddarth

    2017-08-22

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, a thyroid disorder without obvious symptoms of thyroid deficiency, occurs in 3%-8% of the global population. Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal], a traditional medicine in Ayurveda, is often prescribed for thyroid dysfunctions. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center placebo-controlled study was performed at Sudbhawana Hospital, Varanasi, India between May 2016 and September 2016. Fifty subjects with elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (4.5-10 μIU/L) aged between 18 and 50 were randomized in either treatment (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) groups for an 8-week treatment period. Ashwagandha root extract (600 mg daily) or starch as placebo. Efficacy Variables: Serum TSH, serum triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels. A total of four subjects (two from each group) withdrew their consent before the second visit. Eight weeks of treatment with ashwagandha improved serum TSH (p < 0.001), T3 (p = 0.0031), and T4 (p = 0.0096) levels significantly compared to placebo. Ashwagandha treatment effectively normalized the serum thyroid indices during the 8-week treatment period in a significant manner (time-effects: TSH [p < 0.001], T3 [p < 0.001], and T4 [p < 0.001]). Four subjects (8%) (ashwagandha: 1[4%]; Placebo: 3[12%]) out of 50 reported few mild and temporary adverse effects during this study. Treatment with ashwagandha may be beneficial for normalizing thyroid indices in subclinical hypothyroid patients.

  20. Effect of Borago Officinalis Extract on Moderate Persistent Asthma: A Phase two Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Khashkhashi Moghaddam, Sara; Saeedi, Parisa; Ghaffari, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Borago officinalis and its derivatives are used in folk medicine to treat asthma because of its special effect on allergic disorders. It suppresses the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and delivers gamma-linolenic acid. The objective of this clinical trial was to determine the effect of Borago officinalis on clinical and physiological findings in moderate persistent asthma. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 15-90 years with moderate asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60-79% of predicted who presented to a sub-specialty clinic of pulmonary medicine. We randomly allocated subjects to receive either Borago extract (5 mL three times a day) or a matched placebo for one month. The primary outcome was the asthma control test (ACT) score and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test. Secondary outcomes included clinical findings, spirometry, and sputum cytology including inflammatory cells. Thirty-eight subjects with a mean age of 46.8±15.3 years and mean duration of asthma of 71±103 months were enrolled in our study. Cough, dyspnea, wheezing, nocturnal symptoms, and airway hyper-responsiveness reduced significantly in the Borago group after the treatment and ACT scores improved significantly (10.8±5.26 before and 15.4±5.12 after the trial). Flare up of asthma and emergency department visits in the Borago group also decreased significantly (3.6±2.33 to 2±1.86 flare ups per month and 0.62±0.9 to 0.05±0.23 for emergency department visits per month). Physiological parameters including spirometry, FENO, and sputum cytology including eosinophil and neutrophil did not change significantly. Borago improved the clinical findings of asthma, but it was not able to suppress the inflammation involved in asthma.

  1. Effect of Borago Officinalis Extract on Moderate Persistent Asthma: A Phase two Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khashkhashi Moghaddam, Sara; Saeedi, Parisa; Ghaffari, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Borago officinalis and its derivatives are used in folk medicine to treat asthma because of its special effect on allergic disorders. It suppresses the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and delivers gamma-linolenic acid. The objective of this clinical trial was to determine the effect of Borago officinalis on clinical and physiological findings in moderate persistent asthma. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 15–90 years with moderate asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60–79% of predicted who presented to a sub-specialty clinic of pulmonary medicine. We randomly allocated subjects to receive either Borago extract (5 mL three times a day) or a matched placebo for one month. The primary outcome was the asthma control test (ACT) score and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test. Secondary outcomes included clinical findings, spirometry, and sputum cytology including inflammatory cells. Results: Thirty-eight subjects with a mean age of 46.8±15.3 years and mean duration of asthma of 71±103 months were enrolled in our study. Cough, dyspnea, wheezing, nocturnal symptoms, and airway hyper-responsiveness reduced significantly in the Borago group after the treatment and ACT scores improved significantly (10.8±5.26 before and 15.4±5.12 after the trial). Flare up of asthma and emergency department visits in the Borago group also decreased significantly (3.6±2.33 to 2±1.86 flare ups per month and 0.62±0.9 to 0.05±0.23 for emergency department visits per month). Physiological parameters including spirometry, FENO, and sputum cytology including eosinophil and neutrophil did not change significantly. Conclusion: Borago improved the clinical findings of asthma, but it was not able to suppress the inflammation involved in asthma. PMID:28210282

  2. Vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestations: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Brizot, Maria L; Hernandez, Wagner; Liao, Adolfo W; Bittar, Roberto E; Francisco, Rossana P V; Krebs, Vera L J; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancies. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involved 390 naturally conceived twin pregnancies among mothers with no history of preterm delivery who were receiving antenatal care at a single center. Women with twin pregnancies between 18 and 21 weeks and 6 days' gestation were assigned randomly to daily vaginal progesterone (200 mg) or placebo ovules until 34 weeks and 6 days' gestation. The primary outcome was the difference in mean gestational age at delivery; the secondary outcomes were the rate of spontaneous delivery at <34 weeks' gestation and the rate of neonatal composite morbidity and mortality in the treatment and nontreatment groups. The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The final analysis included 189 women in the progesterone group and 191 in the placebo group. No difference (P = .095) in the mean gestational age at delivery was observed between progesterone (35.08 ± 3.19 [SD]) and placebo groups (35.55 ± 2.85). The incidence of spontaneous delivery at <34 weeks' gestation was 18.5% in the progesterone group and 14.6% in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-2.37). No difference in the composite neonatal morbidity and mortality was observed between the progesterone (15.5%) and placebo (15.9%) groups (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.75). In nonselected twin pregnancies, vaginal progesterone administration does not prevent preterm delivery and does not reduce neonatal morbidity and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac on Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharian, Hamid Reza; Ilkhani pak, Homa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of intravenous ketorolac on early postoperative pain in patients with mandibular fractures, who underwent surgical repair. Methods: This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2015 to 2016. We included a total number of 50 patients with traumatic mandibular fractures who underwent surgical repair. Patients with obvious contraindications to ketorolac such as asthma, renal dysfunction, peptic ulceration, bleeding disorders, cardiovascular disease, mental retardation, or allergy to ketorolac or NSAIDS, were excluded. The patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous ketorolac (30 mg) at the end of operation in post anesthesia care unit immediately upon the onset of pain (n=25), or intravenous distilled water as placebo (n=25). Postoperative monitoring included non-invasive arterial blood pressure, ECG, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The postoperative pain was evaluated by a nurse using visual analog scale (VAS) (0–100 mm) pain score 4 hours after surgery and was compared between the two study groups. Results: Overall we included 50 patients (25 per group) in the current study. The baseline characteristics including age, gender, weight, operation duration, anesthesia duration and type of surgical procedure were comparable between two study groups. Those who received placebo had significantly higher requirements for analgesic use compared to ketorolac group (72% vs. 28%; p=0.002). Ketorolac significantly reduced the pain intensity 30-min after the operation (p<0.001). There were no significant side effects associated with ketorolac. Conclusion: Intravenous single-dose ketorolac is a safe and effective analgesic agent for the short-term management of mild to moderate acute postoperative pain in mandibular fracture surgery and can be used as an alternative to opioids. PMID:28246618

  4. Phase II double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of armodafinil for brain radiation-induced fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Page, Brandi R.; Shaw, Edward G.; Lu, Lingyi; Bryant, David; Grisell, David; Lesser, Glenn J.; Monitto, Drew C.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Savona, Steven R.; Shah, Sunjay; Case, Doug; Chan, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Common acute-term side effects of brain radiotherapy (RT) include fatigue, drowsiness, decreased physical functioning, and decreased quality of life (QOL). We hypothesized that armodafinil (a wakefulness-promoting drug known to reduce fatigue and increase cognitive function in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy) would result in reduced fatigue and sleepiness for patients receiving brain RT. Methods A phase II, multi-institutional, placebo-controlled randomized trial assessed feasibility of armodafinil 150 mg/day in participants receiving brain RT, from whom we obtained estimates of variability for fatigue, sleepiness, QOL, cognitive function, and treatment effect. Results From September 20, 2010, to October 20, 2012, 54 participants enrolled with 80% retention and 94% self-reported compliance. There were no grade 4–5 toxicities, and the incidence of grade 2–3 toxicities was similar between treatment arms, the most common of which were anxiety and nausea (15%), headaches (19%), and insomnia (20%). There were no statistically significant differences in end-RT or 4 week post-RT outcomes between armodafinil and placebo in any outcomes (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy [FACIT]-Fatigue, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, FACT-Brain, and FACIT-cognitive function). However, in participants with more baseline fatigue, those treated with armodafinil did better than those who received the placebo on the end-RT assessments for several outcomes. Conclusion Armodafinil 150 mg/day was well tolerated in primary brain tumor patients undergoing RT with good compliance. While there was no overall significant effect on fatigue, those with greater baseline fatigue experienced improved QOL and reduced fatigue when using armodafinil. These data suggest that a prospective, phase III randomized trial is warranted for patients with greater baseline fatigue. PMID:25972454

  5. To evaluate efficacy and safety of Caralluma fimbriata in overweight and obese patients: A randomized, single blinded, placebo control trial

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ekta; Khajuria, Vijay; Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Atul; Mahajan, Annil; Gillani, Zahid H.; Choudhary, Naiyma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE) in overweight and obese individuals in a prospective, randomized, placebo controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Commercially available CFE was assessed in overweight and obese individuals. A total of 89 patients were randomized into a treatment group (n = 47) and placebo group (n = 42) to receive either CFE in the form capsules/oral 500 mg b.d. for 12 weeks or matching placebo in similar way. Patients were evaluated clinically and biochemically at 4, 8 and 12 weeks for anthropometric measurements, appetite, biochemical investigations and other safety parameters. Results: At the end of study period both CFE and placebo for 12 weeks caused only numerical reduction in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist hip ratio in overweight and obese individuals. However, these parameters failed to attain significant statistical levels (P ≥ 0.05). CFE and placebo both failed to elucidate any modification of the appetite. There were no significant changes in the biochemical and clinical parameters in both the test and placebo group. However, CFE was well-tolerated and adverse events noted were mild and transient in nature. Conclusion: A commercially available extract of CFE in an oral dose of 1 g/day claimed to have anti-obesity effect failed to yield any positive results on anthropometry and appetite in overweight and obese individuals beyond placebo. There were also no significant differences in the clinical and biochemical parameters. However, CFE was well tolerated. Thereby, underscoring the need to carry more research before CFE is recommended as an anti-obesity drug. PMID:25657901

  6. Intravenous ivabradine for control of heart rate during coronary CT angiography: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Garot, Jerome; Tendera, Michal; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Low heart rates (HRs) are preferable for coronary CT angiography (CTA). We evaluated the use of an intravenous bolus of ivabradine, a selective sinus node inhibitor, to lower HR before coronary CTA in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. A total of 370 patients scheduled for CTA, with sinus rhythm ≥70 beats/min but ineligible for intravenous beta-blockers, were randomized to an intravenous bolus of 10 mg (HR, 70-79 beats/min) or 15 mg (HR ≥80 beats/min) ivabradine or placebo. Primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving HR ≤65 beats/min at the initiation of coronary CTA (Ta). Baseline HR was 79 ± 8.5 beats/min. At Ta, HR ≤65 beats/min was achieved in 55% of the ivabradine group vs. 23% for placebo (P < .0001) and in 68% vs. 16% 1-hour after bolus administration (P < .0001). Contrast-enhanced coronary CTA was performed in 87% of the ivabradine group vs. 65% for placebo (P < .0001). Mean HR at Ta was 67 ± 10 beats/min for ivabradine vs. 75 ± 10 beats/min for placebo (P < .0001). Procedural convenience was scored better with ivabradine ("good" or "very good" in 79% vs 63% for placebo; P = .0005). The effective radiation dose of contrast-enhanced CTA was 13 ± 7 mSv for ivabradine vs. 16 ± 7 mSv for placebo (P < .05). Ivabradine was well tolerated. An intravenous bolus of ivabradine achieves rapid, safe, and sustained HR lowering during coronary CTA, increasing procedural convenience and reducing radiation exposure vs placebo. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypercaloric enteral nutrition in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Anne-Marie; Hubbard, Jane; Macklin, Eric A.; Glass, Jonathan; Tandan, Rup; Simpson, Ericka P; Brooks, Benjamin; Gelinas, Deborah; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Hanes, Gregory P.; Ladha, Shafeeq S.; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Katz, Jonathan; Lou, Jau-Shin; Mahoney, Katy; Grasso, Daniela; Lawson, Robert; Yu, Hong; Cudkowicz, Merit

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease with few therapeutic options. Mild obesity is associated with greater survival in ALS patients and calorie-dense diets increase survival in an ALS mouse model. We therefore hypothesized that hypercaloric diets might lead to weight gain and slow ALS disease progression. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial, we enrolled adults with ALS without a history of diabetes, significant liver or cardiovascular disease, who were already receiving percutaneous enteral nutrition. We randomly assigned participants to one of three dietary interventions: replacement calories using an isocaloric diet (controls) vs. a high-carbohydrate hypercaloric diet (HC/HC), vs. a high-fat hypercaloric diet (HF/HC). Participants received the intervention diets for four months and were followed for five months. The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included measures of disease progression, survival, and metabolism. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00983983. Findings A total of 24 participants were enrolled of whom 20 initiated study diet (six control, eight HC/HC, six HF/HC). Baseline demographics were similar among the three study arms. The HC/HC diet was better tolerated with fewer serious adverse events than the control diet (zero vs. nine, p<0·001) and fewer dose discontinuations due to adverse events (0% vs. 50%). There were no deaths in the HC/HC arm vs. three deaths (43%) in the control arm (logrank p = 0·03). The HF/HC arm was not statistically different from the controls in adverse events, tolerability, deaths or disease progression. Interpretation Our results suggest that hypercaloric enteral nutrition is safe and tolerable in ALS and support the study of nutritional interventions at earlier stages of the disease. Funding The Muscular Dystrophy Association with additional support from the National

  8. Treatment of lateral epicondylitis with botulinum toxin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shiu Man; Hui, Andrew C F; Tong, Po-Yee; Poon, Dawn W F; Yu, Evelyn; Wong, Lawrence K S

    2005-12-06

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition for which botulinum toxin has been reported to have a therapeutic role in uncontrolled studies. To determine if an injection of botulinum toxin is more effective than placebo for reducing pain in adults with lateral epicondylitis. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from September 2002 to December 2004. Outpatient clinics at a university hospital and a district hospital in Hong Kong. 60 patients with lateral epicondylitis. The primary outcome was change in subjective pain as measured by a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain ever) at 4 weeks and 12 weeks. All patients completed post-treatment follow-up. A single injection of 60 units of botulinum toxin type A or normal saline placebo. Mean VAS scores for the botulinum group at baseline and at 4 weeks were 65.5 mm and 25.3 mm, respectively; respective scores for the placebo group were 66.2 mm and 50.5 mm (between-group difference of changes, 24.4 mm [95% CI, 13.0 to 35.8 mm]; P < 0.001). At week 12, mean VAS scores were 23.5 mm for the botulinum group and 43.5 mm for the placebo group (between-group difference of changes, 19.3 mm [CI, 5.6 to 32.9 mm]; P = 0.006). Grip strength was not statistically significantly different between groups at any time. Mild paresis of the fingers occurred in 4 patients in the botulinum group at 4 weeks. One patient's symptoms persisted until week 12, whereas none of the patients receiving placebo had the same complaint. At 4 weeks, 10 patients in the botulinum group and 6 patients in the placebo group experienced weak finger extension on the same side as the injection site. The trial was small, and most participants were women. The blinding protocol may have been ineffective because the 4 participants who experienced paresis of the fingers could have correctly assumed that they received an active treatment. Botulinum toxin injection may improve pain over a 3-month period in

  9. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation.

    PubMed

    Joksić, Gordana; Spasojević-Tišma, Vera; Antić, Ruza; Nilsson, Robert; Rutqvist, Lars E

    2011-09-13

    Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81%) expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75%) was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p < 0.01). The results for biologically verified complete cessation suggested that participants in the snus group were more likely to quit smoking completely than the controls; the odds ratio (snus versus placebo) for the protocol estimates of cessation varied between 1.9 to 3.4, but these ratios were of borderline significance with p-values ranging from 0.04-0.10. Snus

  10. Relamorelin Relieves Constipation and Accelerates Colonic Transit in a Phase 2, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Kolar, Gururaj; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Boldingh, Amy; Burton, Duane; Ryks, Michael; Rhoten, Deborah; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Spence, Sharon C; Gottesdiener, Keith; Bouras, Ernest P; Vazquez-Roque, Maria I

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin receptors are located in the colon. Relamorelin is a pentapeptide selective agonist of ghrelin receptor 1a with gastric effects, but its effects in the colon are not known. We aimed to evaluate the effects of relamorelin on bowel movements (BMs) and gastrointestinal and colonic transit (CT) in patients with chronic constipation. We performed a study of 48 female patients with chronic constipation who fulfilled the Rome III criteria and had 4 or fewer spontaneous BMs (SBMs)/wk. In a randomized (1:1), double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of relamorelin (100 μg/d, given subcutaneously) were tested during 14 days after a 14-day baseline, single-blind phase in which patients were given placebo at 2 Mayo Clinic sites. The participants' mean age was 40.6 ± 1.5 y, with a mean body mass index of 25.7 ± 0.6 kg/m(2), with 1.7 ± 0.1 SBM/wk, and a mean stool consistency of 1.2 ± 0.1 on the Bristol scale during this baseline period. The effect of treatment on transit was measured in 24 participants with colonic transit of less than 2.4 (geometric center at 24 h) during the baseline period. Gastric emptying, small-bowel transit, and CT were measured during the last 2 days that patients received relamorelin or placebo. Bowel function was determined from daily diaries kept by patients from days 1 through 28. Study end points were time to first BM, SBMs/wk, complete SBMs/wk, stool form, and ease of stool passage. Effects of relamorelin were assessed by analysis of covariance. Compared with placebo, relamorelin accelerated gastric emptying half-time (P = .027), small-bowel transit (P = .051), and CT at 32 hours (P = .040) and 48 hours (P = .017). Relamorelin increased the number of SBMs (P < .001) and accelerated the time to first BM after the first dose was given (P = .004) compared with placebo, but did not affect stool form. Adverse events associated with relamorelin included increased appetite, fatigue, and headache. Relamorelin acts in

  11. Establishing optimal selenium status: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Dainty, Jack R; Hart, Dave J; Teucher, Birgit; Goldson, Andrew J; Broadley, Martin R; Motley, Amy K; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary recommendations for selenium differ between countries, mainly because of uncertainties over the definition of optimal selenium status. Objective: The objective was to examine the dose-response relations for different forms of selenium. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention was carried out in 119 healthy men and women aged 50–64 y living in the United Kingdom. Daily placebo or selenium-enriched yeast tablets containing 50, 100, or 200 μg Se (≈60% selenomethionine), selenium-enriched onion meals (≈66% γ-glutamyl-methylselenocysteine, providing the equivalent of 50 μg Se/d), or unenriched onion meals were consumed for 12 wk. Changes in platelet glutathione peroxidase activity and in plasma selenium and selenoprotein P concentrations were measured. Results: The mean baseline plasma selenium concentration for all subjects was 95.7 ± 11.5 ng/mL, which increased significantly by 10 wk to steady state concentrations of 118.3 ± 13.1, 152.0 ± 24.3, and 177.4 ± 26.3 ng/mL in those who consumed 50, 100, or 200 μg Se-yeast/d, respectively. Platelet glutathione peroxidase activity did not change significantly in response to either dose or form of selenium. Selenoprotein P increased significantly in all selenium intervention groups from an overall baseline mean of 4.99 ± 0.80 μg/mL to 6.17 ± 0.85, 6.73 ± 1.01, 6.59 ± 0.64, and 5.72 ± 0.75 μg/mL in those who consumed 50, 100, or 200 μg Se-yeast/d and 50 μg Se-enriched onions/d, respectively. Conclusions: Plasma selenoprotein P is a useful biomarker of status in populations with relatively low selenium intakes because it responds to different dietary forms of selenium. To optimize the plasma selenoprotein P concentration in this study, 50 μg Se/d was required in addition to the habitual intake of ≈55 μg/d. In the context of established relations between plasma selenium and risk of cancer and mortality, and recognizing the important functions of

  12. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  13. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion therapy in Addison's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nenke, Marni A; Thynne, Tilenka R J; von der Borch, Jenny; Rankin, Wayne A; Henley, David E; Sorbello, Jane; Inder, Warrick J; Torpy, David J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Addison's disease (AD) report impaired subjective health status (SHS). Since cortisol exhibits a robust circadian cycle that entrains other biological clocks, impaired SHS may be due to the noncircadian cortisol profile achieved with conventional glucocorticoid replacement. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) reproduces a circadian cortisol profile, but its effects on SHS have not been objectively evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CSHI on SHS in AD. This was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CSHI vs oral glucocorticoid therapy. Participants received in random order 4 weeks of: CSHI and oral placebo, and subcutaneous placebo and oral hydrocortisone, separated by a 2-week washout period. SHS was assessed using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Fatigue Scale (FS), Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); and Addison's Quality of Life Questionnaire (AddiQoL). Participants were asked their (blinded) treatment preference. Twenty-four hour urine free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal salivary cortisol collections compared cortisol exposure during each treatment. Ten participants completed the study. Baseline SHS scores (mean ± SE) were consistent with mild impairment: SF-36 physical component summary 48.4 (± 2.4), mental component summary 53.3 (± 3.0); GHQ-28 18.1 (± 3.3); GSRS 3.7 (± 1.6), and AddiQoL 94.7 (± 3.7). FS was similar to other AD cohorts 13.5 (± 1.0) (P = 0.82). UFC between treatments was not different (P = 0.87). The salivary cortisol at 0800 h was higher during CSHI (P = 0.03), but not at any other time points measured. There was no difference between the treatments in the SHS assessments. Five participants preferred CSHI, four oral hydrocortisone, and one was uncertain. Biochemical measurements indicate similar cortisol exposure during each treatment period, although a more circadian pattern was evident during CSHI. CSHI does not

  14. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Citalopram for Anxiety Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    WRAMC and all other sites in the multi-center study have been trained to use our electronic data capture system. Recent literature on Escitalopram , the...Disorder (GAD). Based on the merits of three placebo- controlled studies, Forest Laboratories announced the FDA approval of Escitalopram for the treatment...therefore there are no conclusions that can be made at this time. References: Davidson JR, Bose A, Korotzer A, Hongije Z. Escitalopram in the

  15. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  16. Efficacy of Levofloxacin in the Treatment of BK Viremia: A Multicenter, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Belinda T.; Gabardi, Steven; Grafals, Monica; Hofmann, R. Michael; Akalin, Enver; Aljanabi, Aws; Mandelbrot, Didier A.; Adey, Deborah B.; Heher, Eliot; Fan, Pang-Yen; Conte, Sarah; Dyer-Ward, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients can lead to progressive allograft injury. Reduction of immunosuppression remains the cornerstone of treatment for active BK infection. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are known to have in vitro antiviral properties, but the evidence for their use in patients with BK viremia is inconclusive. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of BK viremia. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Enrollment in this prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial occurred from July 2009 to March 2012. Thirty-nine kidney transplant recipients with BK viremia were randomly assigned to receive levofloxacin, 500 mg daily, or placebo for 30 days. Immunosuppression in all patients was adjusted on the basis of standard clinical practices at each institution. Plasma BK viral load and serum creatinine were measured monthly for 3 months and at 6 months. Results At the 3-month follow-up, the percentage reductions in BK viral load were 70.3% and 69.1% in the levofloxacin group and the placebo group, respectively (P=0.93). The percentage reductions in BK viral load were also equivalent at 1 month (58% versus and 67.1%; P=0.47) and 6 months (82.1% versus 90.5%; P=0.38). Linear regression analysis of serum creatinine versus time showed no difference in allograft function between the two study groups during the follow-up period. Conclusions A 30-day course of levofloxacin does not significantly improve BK viral load reduction or allograft function when used in addition to overall reduction of immunosuppression. PMID:24482066

  17. Utility of intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam to perform gastric aspirates in children: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a sedation protocol based on intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam (INKM) administered by a mucosal atomizer device in uncooperative children undergoing gastric aspirates for suspected tuberculosis. Primary outcome: evaluation of Modified Objective Pain Score (MOPS) reduction in children undergoing INKM compared to the placebo group. Secondary outcomes: evaluation of safety of INKM protocol, start time sedation effect, duration of sedation and evaluation of parents and doctors’ satisfaction about the procedure. Methods In the sedation group, 19 children, mean age 41.5 months, received intranasal Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and Ketamine (2 mg/kg). In the placebo group, 17 children received normal saline solution twice in each nostril. The child’s degree of sedation was scored using the MOPS. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the parents’ and doctors’ opinions on the procedures of both groups. Results Fifty-seven gastric washings were performed in the sedation-group, while in the placebo-group we performed 51 gastric aspirates. The degree of sedation achieved by INMK enabled all procedures to be completed without additional drugs. The mean duration of sedation was 71.5 min. Mean MOPS was 3.5 (range 1-8) in the sedation-group, 7.2 (range 4-9) in the placebo-group (p <0.0001). The questionnaire revealed high levels of satisfaction by both doctors and parents in the sedation-group compared to the placebo-group. The only side effect registered was post-sedation agitation in 6 procedures in the sedation group (10.5%). Conclusions Our experience suggests that atomized INKM makes gastric aspirates more acceptable and easy to perform in children. Trial registration Unique trial Number: UMIN000010623; Receipt Number: R000012422. PMID:24598046

  18. Triiodothyronine Supplementation in Infants and Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass (TRICC) A Multicenter Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial: Age Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michael A.; Slee, April; Olson, Aaron K.; Cohen, Gordon; Karl, Tom; Tong, Elizabeth; Hastings, Laura; Patel, Hitendra; Reinhartz, Olaf; Mott, Antonio R.; Mainwaring, Richard; Linam, Justin; Danzi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Triiodothyronine levels decrease in infants and children after cardiopulmonary bypass. We tested the primary hypothesis that triiodothyronine (T3) repletion is safe in this population and produces improvements in postoperative clinical outcome. Methods and Results The TRICC study was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in children younger than 2 years old undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Enrollment was stratified by surgical diagnosis. Time to extubation (TTE) was the primary outcome. Patients received intravenous T3 as Triostat (n=98) or placebo (n=95), and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards. Overall, TTE was similar between groups. There were no differences in adverse event rates, including arrhythmia. Prespecified analyses showed a significant interaction between age and treatment (P=0.0012). For patients younger than 5 months, the hazard ratio (chance of extubation) for Triostat was 1.72. (P=0.0216). Placebo median TTE was 98 hours with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 71 to 142 compared to Triostat TTE at 55 hours with CI of 44 to 92. TTE shortening corresponded to a reduction in inotropic agent use and improvement in cardiac function. For children 5 months of age, or older, Triostat produced a significant delay in median TTE: 16 hours (CI, 7–22) for placebo and 20 hours (CI, 16–45) for Triostat and (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.0220). Conclusions T3 supplementation is safe. Analyses using age stratification indicate that T3 supplementation provides clinical advantages in patients younger than 5 months and no benefit for those older than 5 months. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00027417. PMID:20837917

  19. Salacia Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jeykodi, Shankaranarayanan; Deshpande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of Salacia chinensis extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE) capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27803937

  20. Cistus incanus (CYSTUS052) for treating patients with infection of the upper respiratory tract. A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Ulrich; Grigorov, Alexandre; Kadecki, Oliver; Jansen, Jan-Peter; Kiesewetter, Holger; Radtke, Hartmut

    2009-12-01

    In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study we aimed to investigate the clinical effect of a Cistus extract (CYSTUS052) in 160 patients with infections of the upper respiratory tract. The extract contains a high percentage of highly polymeric polyphenols. In cell culture and in a mouse model it exerts antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Principal active constituents of the genus Cistus are polyphenolic compounds. Plant-derived polyphenols have been shown to be strong antioxidants with potential health benefits. Various reports have appeared on the antiviral and antibacterial potential, including several reports describing the antiviral activity of polyphenols against influenza virus. Clinical studies on the effectiveness of Cistus incanus are scarce. Only one controlled application observation study demonstrated the effectiveness of a Cistus extract. The present randomised, placebo-controlled clinical study was designed to compare the symptom scores in patients with common cold treated either with CYSTUS052 or with placebo. A score of subjective symptoms decreased significantly over the course of treatment with Cistus, whereas treatment with placebo resulted in a less distinct decrease of symptoms. Among the inflammatory markers investigated, the C-reactive protein was mostly affected by Cistus and decreased significantly in the treatment group.

  1. Probiotic Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borges, Natália A; Carmo, Flávia L; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; de Brito, Jessyca S; Dolenga, Carla J; Ferreira, Dennis C; Nakao, Lia S; Rosado, Alexandre; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2017-09-06

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota profile and inflammatory markers in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-six HD patients were assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments: probiotic (n = 23; Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterialongum, 90 billion colony-forming units per day) or placebo (n = 23) daily for 3 months. Blood and feces were collected at baseline and after intervention. The inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Uremic toxins plasma levels (indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and indole-3-acetic acid) were obtained by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Routine laboratory parameters were measured by standard techniques. Fecal pH was measured by the colorimetric method, and the gut microbiota profile was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Sixteen patients remained in the probiotic group (11 men, 53.6 ± 11.0 year old, 25.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) and 17 in the placebo group (10 men, 50.3 ± 8.5 year old, 25.2 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)). After probiotic supplementation there was a significant increase in serum urea (from 149.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL to 172.6 ± 45.0 mg/dL, P = .02), potassium (from 4.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .02), and indoxyl sulfate (from 31.2 ± 15.9 to 36.5 ± 15.0 mg/dL, P = .02). The fecal pH was reduced from 7.2 ± 0.8 to 6.5 ± 0.5 (P = .01). These parameters did not change significantly in placebo group. Changes in the percentage delta (Δ) between groups were exhibited with no statistical differences observed. The inflammatory markers and gut profile were not altered by supplementation. Aprobiotic supplementation failed to reduce uremic toxins and

  2. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Morin, Charles M; Koetter, Uwe; Bastien, Célyne; Ware, J Catesby; Wooten, Virgil

    2005-11-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent health complaint associated with daytime impairments, reduced quality of life, and increased health-care costs. Although it is often self-treated with herbal and dietary supplements or with over-the-counter sleep aids, there is still little evidence on the efficacy and safety of those products. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for the treatment of mild insomnia. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted in 9 sleep disorders centers throughout the United States. A total of 184 adults (110 women, 74 men; mean age of 44.3 years) with mild insomnia. (1) Two nightly tablets of standardized extracts of a valerian (187-mg native extracts; 5-8:1, methanol 45% m/m) and hops (41.9-mg native extracts; 7-10:1, methanol 45% m/m) combination for 28 days (n = 59), (2) placebo for 28 days (n = 65), or (3) 2 tablets of diphenhydramine (25 mg) for 14 days followed by placebo for 14 days (n = 60). Sleep parameters measured by daily diaries and polysomnography, clinical outcome ratings from patients and physicians, and quality of life measures. Modest improvements of subjective sleep parameters were obtained with both the valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine, but few group comparisons with placebo reached statistical significance. Valerian produced slightly greater, though nonsignificant, reductions of sleep latency relative to placebo and diphenhydramine at the end of 14 days of treatment and greater reductions than placebo at the end of 28 days of treatment. Diphenhydramine produced significantly greater increases in sleep efficiency and a trend for increased total sleep time relative to placebo during the first 14 days of treatment. There was no significant group difference on any of the sleep continuity variables measured by polysomnography. In addition, there was no alteration of sleep stages 3-4 and rapid eye movement sleep with any of the treatments. Patients

  3. PROMISe trial: a pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Vanessa L; Kohi, Maureen P; Poder, Liina; Jacoby, Alison; Lager, Jeanette; Schembri, Michael; Rieke, Viola; Grady, Deborah; Vittinghoff, Eric; Coakley, Fergus V

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a full-scale placebo-controlled trial of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound for fibroids (MRgFUS) and obtain estimates of safety and efficacy. Pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. University medical center. Premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Participants randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive MRgFUS or placebo procedure. change in fibroid symptoms from baseline to 4 and 12 weeks after treatment assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Quality of Life Questionnaire (UFS-QOL); secondary outcome: incidence of surgery or procedures for recurrent symptoms at 12 and 24 months. Twenty women with a mean age of 44 years (±standard deviation 5.4 years) were enrolled, and 13 were randomly assigned to MRgFUS and 7 to placebo. Four weeks after treatment, all participants reported improvement in the UFS-QOL: a mean of 10 points in the MRgFUS group and 9 points in the placebo group (for difference in change between groups). By 12 weeks, the MRgFUS group had improved more than the placebo group (mean 31 points and 13 points, respectively). The mean fibroid volume decreased 18% in the MRgFUS group with no decrease in the placebo group at 12 weeks. Two years after MRgFUS, 4 of 12 women who had a follow-up evaluation (30%) had undergone another fibroid surgery or procedure. Women with fibroids were willing to enroll in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRgFUS. A placebo effect may explain some of the improvement in fibroid-related symptoms observed in the first 12 weeks after MRgFUS. NCT01377519. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Immacolata; Esposito, Emanuela; Maurea, Nicola; Montella, Maurizio; Crispo, Anna; De Laurentiis, Michelino; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Frasci, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Grimaldi, Maria; Cavalcanti, Ernesta; Esposito, Giuseppe; Fucito, Alfredo; Brillante, Giuseppe; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2013-08-28

    Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be

  5. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Namhun; Lee, Suk-Hoon; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Yoo, Hwa Seung

    2016-11-01

    Ginseng saponin is known to have biological activities in maintaining homeostasis and enhancing vital energy. Enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE) was designed to increase the content of its active constituents and to intensify biological activity. The present study investigated the anti-fatigue effects of EMGE in healthy adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two healthy subjects met the diagnostic criteria and were randomly allocated into one of two groups: EMGE (2,000 mg/day) or placebo. EMGE or placebo were administered to each group for 4 weeks. Fatigue scores using the Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale (VAFS) and Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) were considered as the primary outcome measure. Life-quality scores were investigated using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The safety and adverse effects of EMGE were also assessed. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the VAFS scores VAFS between the treatment and placebo groups after 4 weeks. The treatment group's score decreased more than that of the placebo group. There was no difference in the RPFS and SF-36 scores between the two groups. There were no fatal adverse effects. EMGE treatment for 4 weeks decreased fatigue severity in a healthy population. Adverse effects were rare, and EMGE was generally well tolerated. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of EMGE are justified in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of EMGE in combating fatigue.

  6. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and MethodsThirty chronic periodontitis patients were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after therapy. All patients received one-stage full-mouth disinfection and randomly assigned over a test (SRP + probiotic, n = 15) or control (SRP + placebo, n = 15) group. The lozenges were used two times a day for 12 weeks. ResultsAt week 12, all clinical parameters were significantly reduced in both groups, while there was significantly more pocket depth reduction (p < 0.05) and attachment gain (p < 0.05) in moderate and deep pockets; more Porphyromonas gingivalis reduction was observed in the SRP + probiotic group. ConclusionsThe results indicate that oral administration of L. reuteri lozenges could be a useful adjunct to SRP in chronic periodontitis. PMID:24164569

  7. The effectiveness of intramuscular biperiden in acute akathisia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Baskak, Bora; Atbasoglu, E Cem; Ozguven, Halise Devrimci; Saka, Meram Can; Gogus, Ali Kemal

    2007-06-01

    Neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia (NIA) is a distressing condition and an important clinical problem because it is associated with treatment noncompliance and suicidal or impulsive behavior. Anticholinergics are among the treatment options; however, a review of the literature fails to identify a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of these medications in NIA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we studied the effectiveness of intramuscular biperiden (n = 15) or isotonic saline (n = 15) in the treatment of NIA diagnosed with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Injections were repeated up to 3 times unless akathisia was completely treated (scored 0 for global akathisia with the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale). Patients were assessed for akathisia, other movement disorders, and psychiatric symptoms at baseline and 3 times after the first injection at 2-hour intervals. Response was defined as at least a 2-point decline in the global akathisia score. The numbers of responders in the 2 groups were not significantly different (7 and 5 in the biperiden and placebo groups, respectively). The courses of individual items on the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale were also similar. Our results suggest that intramuscular biperiden should not be considered as a first-line treatment of NIA.

  8. Sleep architecture and cognitive changes in olanzapine-treated patients with depression: A double blind randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbance in sleep quality is a symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) and thus improving quality of sleep is an important aspect of successful treatment. Here, a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of olanzapine (an atypical antipsychotic) augmentation therapy on sleep architecture, specifically slow wave sleep (SWS), in the treatment of depression. The effect of olanzapine augmentation therapy on other features of sleep (e.g., sleep continuity) and depression (e.g., illness severity and cognitive function) were also determined. Methods Patients currently experiencing a major depressive episode and who were on a stable medication were included. Sleep architecture was measured by overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Illness severity was determined using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive function was examined using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Spatial Span (SSP), and Reaction Time (RTI) tasks. Polysomnographs, clinical measures and cognitive tests were administered at baseline, after 2–4 days of treatment and after 28–31 days of treatment. Twenty-five patients participated in the study (N = 10, N = 15 for placebo and olanzapine treated groups respectively). Results The primary objective of the study was to assess the objective (polysomnographic) changes in sleep quality, defined as changes in SWS, following olanzapine treatment for depression. Latency to but not duration of SWS was found to significantly differ between olanzapine- and placebo-treated participants (Hedge’s g: 0.97, 0.13 respectively). A significant improvement in olanzapine-treated participants over placebo-treated participants was observed in secondary outcome measures, including sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and sleep latency. Secondary objectives assessed the subjective changes in sleep quality

  9. A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Crossover Study of the Acute Metabolic Effects of Olanzapine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Vance L.; Singareddy, Ravi; Mauger, David; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Rationale Atypical antipsychotics exhibit metabolic side effects including diabetes mellitus and obesity. The adverse events are preceded by acute worsening of oral glucose tolerance (oGTT) along with reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin in animal models. It is unclear whether the same acute effects occur in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted to examine the potential metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers. Participants included male (8) and female (7) subjects [18–30 years old, BMI 18.5–25]. Subjects received placebo or olanzapine (10 mg/day) for three days prior to oGTT testing. Primary endpoints included measurement of plasma leptin, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Secondary metabolic endpoints included: triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, heart rate, blood pressure, body weight and BMI. Olanzapine increased glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC) by 42% (2808±474 vs. 3984±444 mg/dl·min; P = 0.0105) during an oGTT. Fasting plasma leptin and triglycerides were elevated 24% (Leptin: 6.8±1.3 vs. 8.4±1.7 ng/ml; P = 0.0203) and 22% (Triglycerides: 88.9±10.1 vs. 108.2±11.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0170), whereas FFA and HDL declined by 32% (FFA: 0.38±0.06 vs. 0.26±0.04 mM; P = 0.0166) and 11% (54.2±4.7 vs. 48.9±4.3 mg/dl; P = 0.0184), respectively after olanzapine. Other measures were unchanged. Conclusions/Significance Olanzapine exerts some but not all of the early endocrine/metabolic changes observed in rodent models of the metabolic side effects, and this suggest that antipsychotic effects are not limited to perturbations in glucose metabolism alone. Future prospective clinical studies should focus on identifying which reliable metabolic alterations might be useful as potential screening tools in assessing patient susceptibility to weight gain and diabetes

  10. Vitamin D Supplementation Decreases TGF-β1 Bioavailability in PCOS: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Irani, Mohamad; Seifer, David B; Grazi, Richard V; Julka, Nitasha; Bhatt, Devika; Kalgi, Bharati; Irani, Sara; Tal, Oded; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tal, Reshef

    2015-11-01

    There is an abnormal increase in TGF-β1 bioavailability in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which might play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Vitamin D (VD) supplementation improves various clinical manifestations of PCOS and decreases TGF-β1 levels in several diseases including myelofibrosis. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of VD supplementation on TGF-β1 bioavailability in VD-deficient women with PCOS and assess whether changes in TGF-β1/soluble endoglin (sENG) levels correlate with an improvement in PCOS clinical manifestations. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The study was conducted at an academic-affiliated medical center. Sixty-eight VD-deficient women with PCOS who were not pregnant or taking any exogenous hormones were recruited between October 2013 and January 2015. Forty-five women received 50 000 IU of oral vitamin D3 and 23 women received oral placebo once weekly for 8 weeks. Serum TGF-β1, sENG, lipid profile, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and insulin resistance were measured. The clinical parameters were evaluated before and 2 months after treatment. The VD level significantly increased and normalized after VD supplementation (16.3 ± 0.9 [SEM] to 43.2 ± 2.4 ng/mL; P < .01), whereas it did not significantly change after placebo. After the VD supplementation, there was a significant decrease in the following: the interval between menstrual periods (80 ± 9 to 60 ± 6 d; P = .04), Ferriman-Gallwey score (9.8 ± 1.5 to 8.1 ± 1.5; P < .01), triglycerides (138 ± 22 to 117 ± 20 mg/dL; P = .03), and TGF-β1 to sENG ratio (6.7 ± 0.4 to 5.9 ± 0.4; P = .04). In addition, the ΔTGF-β1 to sENG ratio was positively correlated with Δtriglycerides (r = 0.59; P = .03). VD supplementation in VD-deficient women with PCOS significantly decreases the bioavailability of TGF-β1, which correlates with an improvement in some abnormal clinical parameters associated

  11. Bell's Palsy in Children (BellPIC): protocol for a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T; Borland, Meredith L; Herd, David W; Kochar, Amit; Hort, Jason; Rao, Arjun; Cheek, John A; Furyk, Jeremy; Barrow, Lisa; George, Shane; Zhang, Michael; Gardiner, Kaya; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Berkowitz, Robert; Sullivan, Frank; Porrello, Emily; Dalziel, Kim Marie; Anderson, Vicki; Oakley, Ed; Hopper, Sandy; Williams, Fiona; Wilson, Catherine; Williams, Amanda; Dalziel, Stuart R

    2017-02-13

    Bell's palsy or acute idiopathic lower motor neurone facial paralysis is characterized by sudden onset paralysis or weakness of the muscles to one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve. While there is high level evidence in adults demonstrating an improvement in the rate of complete recovery of facial nerve function when treated with steroids compared with placebo, similar high level studies on the use of steroids in Bell's palsy in children are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of steroids in Bell's palsy in children in a randomised placebo-controlled trial. We are conducting a randomised, triple-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the use of prednisolone to improve recovery from Bell's palsy at 1 month. Study sites are 10 hospitals within the Australian and New Zealand PREDICT (Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative) research network. 540 participants will be enrolled. To be eligible patients need to be aged 6 months to < 18 years and present within 72 hours of onset of clinician diagnosed Bell's palsy to one of the participating hospital emergency departments. Patients will be excluded in case of current use of or contraindications to steroids or if there is an alternative diagnosis. Participants will receive either prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day to a maximum of 50 mg/day or taste matched placebo for 10 days. The primary outcome is complete recovery by House-Brackmann scale at 1 month. Secondary outcomes include assessment of recovery using the Sunnybrook scale, the emotional and functional wellbeing of the participants using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Child Health Utility 9D Scale, pain using Faces Pain Scale Revised or visual analogue scales, synkinesis using a synkinesis assessment questionnaire and health utilisation costs at 1, 3 and 6 months. Participants will be tracked to 12 months if not recovered earlier. Data analysis will be by intention to treat with

  12. A Pilot Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Dexamethasone for Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Michel; Mathieu, François; Marcotte, Nicolas; Cottin, Sylvine

    2016-03-01

    Current opinions regarding the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are only based on observational studies. Moreover, the use of corticosteroids in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patient with this condition remains controversial. Here, we present data from a prospective randomized pilot study of CSDH patients treated with dexamethasone or placebo. Twenty patients with imaging-confirmed CSDH were recruited from a single center and randomized to receive dexamethasone (12 mg/day for 3 weeks followed by tapering) or placebo as a conservative treatment. Patients were followed for 6 months and the rate of success of conservative treatment with dexamethasone versus placebo was measured. Parameters such as hematoma thickness and clinical changes were also compared before and after treatment with chi-square tests. Adverse events and complications were documented. During the 6-month follow-up, one of ten patients treated with corticosteroids had to undergo surgical drainage and three of ten patients were treated surgically after placebo treatment. At the end of the study, all remaining patients had complete radiological resolution. No significant differences were observed in terms of hematoma thickness profile and impression of change; however, patients experienced more severe side effects when treated with steroids as compared with placebo. Dexamethasone contributed to many serious adverse events. Given the small sample size, these preliminary results have not shown a clear beneficial effect of dexamethasone against placebo in our patients. However, the number of secondary effects reported was much greater for corticosteroids, and dexamethasone treatment was responsible for significant complications.

  13. Armodafinil in binge eating disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Blom, Thomas J; Williams, Stephanie; Casuto, Leah S; Keck, Paul E

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of armodafinil in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). Sixty participants with BED were randomized to receive armodafinil (150-250 mg/day) (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) in a 10-week, prospective, parallel-group, double-blind, flexible-dose, single-center trial. In the primary longitudinal analysis, armodafinil and placebo produced similar rates of improvement in binge eating day frequency (the primary outcome measure); however, armodafinil was associated with a statistically significantly higher rate of decrease in binge eating episode frequency. In the secondary baseline-to-endpoint analyses, armodafinil was associated with statistically significant reductions in obsessive-compulsive features of binge eating and BMI. The mean (SD) armodafinil daily dose at endpoint evaluation was 216.7 (43.9) mg. There were no serious adverse events, although one armodafinil recipient developed markedly increased blood pressure that resolved upon drug discontinuation. The small sample size may have limited the detection of important drug-placebo differences. As some of the observed effect sizes appeared clinically meaningful, larger studies of armodafinil in the treatment of BED are warranted.

  14. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Terg, Rubén; Fassio, Eduardo; Guevara, Mónica; Cartier, Mariano; Longo, Cristina; Lucero, Romina; Landeira, Cristina; Romero, Gustavo; Dominguez, Nora; Muñoz, Alberto; Levi, Diana; Miguez, Carlos; Abecasis, Raquel

    2008-05-01

    Low protein concentration in ascitic fluid has been identified as a risk factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Until now, primary prophylaxis has not been recommended in these patients. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of long-term administration of ciprofloxacin to prevent SBP. One hundred cirrhotic patients with <1.5 g/dl of total protein in ascitic fluid were randomized prospectively, in a double blind fashion to receive ciprofloxacin 500 mg/day (n=50) or placebo (n=50) for 12 months. Baseline data were similar in both groups. In the ciprofloxacin group, SBP occurred almost four times less frequently than in the placebo group but it was not statistically significant. The probability of survival at 12 months was significantly higher in patients receiving ciprofloxacin (86% versus 66%) (p<0.04). SBP and sepsis were the most frequent causes of death in the placebo group whereas gastrointestinal bleeding was responsible for the most deaths in the ciprofloxacin group. The probability of remaining free of bacterial infections was higher in patients receiving ciprofloxacin (80% versus 55%) (p=0.05). Patients with cirrhosis and low protein concentration in ascitic fluid are candidates to receive long-term prophylaxis to reduce the risk of infections and improve survival.

  15. Adjunctive lisdexamfetamine in bipolar depression: a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Martens, Brian E; Mori, Nicole; Blom, Thomas J; Casuto, Leah S; Hawkins, John M; Keck, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) in the treatment of bipolar depression. Twenty-five outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder and syndromal depression despite at least 4 weeks of stable mood stabilizer and/or antipsychotic therapy were randomized to receive LDX (N=11) or placebo (N=14) in an 8-week, prospective, parallel-group, double-blind study. In the primary longitudinal analysis, LDX and placebo produced similar rates of improvement in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. However, LDX was associated with a statistically significantly greater rate of improvement in self-reported depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness, and with greater reductions in fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. In the secondary baseline-to-endpoint analysis, LDX was associated with statistically significant improvements in self-reported measures of depression, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and binge eating, as well as with improvements in fasting levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. LDX was well tolerated and was not associated with any serious adverse events, but there was one case of suspected misuse. The small sample size (because of premature study termination by the funding sponsor) may have limited the detection of important drug-placebo differences. Larger studies on the use of psychostimulants for treatment of bipolar depression seem warranted.

  16. No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Hicks, Kenny L; Fried, David E; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2013-05-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-contact control groups, single measures of cognitive constructs), mixed results (transfer of training gains to some tasks but not others, inconsistent transfer to the same tasks across studies), and lack of theoretical grounding (identifying the mechanisms responsible for observed transfer). The current study compared young adults who received 20 sessions of practice on an adaptive dual n-back program (working memory training group) or an adaptive visual search program (active placebo-control group) with a no-contact control group that received no practice. In addition, all subjects completed pretest, midtest, and posttest sessions comprising multiple measures of fluid intelligence, multitasking, working memory capacity, crystallized intelligence, and perceptual speed. Despite improvements on both the dual n-back and visual search tasks with practice, and despite a high level of statistical power, there was no positive transfer to any of the cognitive ability tests. We discuss these results in the context of previous working memory training research and address issues for future working memory training studies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Tsodikov, Alexander; Millman, Jeanna; Bentley, Heather; Gouaux, Ben; Fishman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the National Institute for Drug Abuse (NIDA) report that no sound scientific studies support the medicinal use of cannabis. Despite this lack of scientific validation, many patients routinely use “medical marijuana,” and in many cases this use is for pain related to nerve injury. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of smoking cannabis for neuropathic pain. Thirty-eight patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for smoking either high-dose (7%), low-dose (3.5%), or placebo cannabis. In addition to the primary outcome of pain intensity, secondary outcome measures included evoked pain using heat-pain threshold, sensitivity to light touch, psychoactive side effects, and neuropsychological performance. A mixed linear model demonstrated an analgesic response to smoking cannabis. No effect on evoked pain was seen. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, with some acute cognitive effects, particularly with memory, at higher doses. PMID:18403272

  18. Ankle manual therapy for individuals with post-acute ankle sprains: description of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ankle sprains are common within the general population and can result in prolonged disablement. Limited talocrural dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) is a common consequence of ankle sprain. Limited talocrural DF ROM may contribute to persistent symptoms, disability, and an elevated risk for re-injury. As a result, many health care practitioners use hands-on passive procedures with the intention of improving talocrural joint DF ROM in individuals following ankle sprains. Dosage of passive hands-on procedures involves a continuum of treatment speeds. Recent evidence suggests both slow- and fast-speed treatments may be effective to address disablement following ankle sprains. However, these interventions have yet to be longitudinally compared against a placebo study condition. Methods/Design We developed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to test the hypotheses that hands-on treatment procedures administered to individuals following ankle sprains during the post-acute injury period can improve short-, intermediate-, and long-term disablement, as well as reduce the risk for re-injury. Discussion This study is designed to measure the clinical effects of hands-on passive stretching treatment procedures directed to the talocrural joint that vary in treatment speed during the post-acute injury period, compared to hands-on placebo control intervention. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00888498. PMID:20958995

  19. Fibrate therapy and flow-mediated dilation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Giua, Renato; Pedone, Claudio; Ray, Kausik K; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Costanzo, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery reflects endothelium-dependent vasodilator function; since it correlates with coronary endothelial function, its reduction could predict cardiovascular events. Several studies have investigated the potential impact of fibrates therapy on endothelial function, but clinical findings have not been fully consistent. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials in order to clarify whether fibrate therapy could improve endothelial function. A systematic search in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the effect of fibrates on endothelial function as estimated by FMD. A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis, risk of bias evaluation, and publication bias assessment were carried out using standard methods. Random-effects meta-regression was used to evaluate the impact of treatment duration on the estimated effect size. Fifteen trials with a total of 556 subjects met the eligibility criteria. Fibrate therapy significantly improves FMD (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 1.64%, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.13, p<0.001) and the result was confirmed in both subgroups with treatment durations ≤8 weeks (WMD: 1.35%, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.86, p<0.001) and >8 weeks (WMD: 2.55%, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.89, p<0.001). When the analysis was stratified according to the fibrate type, a significant effect was observed with fenofibrate but not with gemfibrozil, though difference between the two subgroups was not significant. Meta-analysis of data from trials where nitrate mediated dilation (NMD) was available did not suggest a significant change in NMD following treatment with fibrates. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that fibrates may exert beneficial effects on endothelial function, even over a short-term treatment course.

  20. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of melatonin on breast cancer survivors: impact on sleep, mood, and hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Gantman, Kathryn; Savoie, Jennifer; Scheib, Rochelle; Parker, Leroy M; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose is to examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on sleep, mood, and hot flashes in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 95 postmenopausal women with a prior history of stage 0-III breast cancer, who had completed active cancer treatment (including hormonal therapy) were randomly assigned 1:1 to either 3 mg oral melatonin (n = 48) or placebo daily (n = 47) for 4 months. Sleep, mood, and hot flashes were assessed at baseline and 4 months via self-administered questionnaire using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), and the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) hot flash diary, respectively. Eighty-six women (91 %) completed the study and provided pre- and post-questionnaires. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported poor sleep in the month prior to enrollment. Compared to subjects on placebo, subjects randomized to melatonin experienced significantly greater improvements in subjective sleep quality as measured by the PSQI, including domains on sleep quality, daytime dysfunction and total score. For example, the mean change in PSQI score was -0.1 in the placebo group compared to -1.9 in the melatonin group (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in measures of depression or hot flashes. Sleep disturbances are common among breast cancer survivors, even after completion of active cancer treatment. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled study among breast cancer survivors to demonstrate that melatonin was associated with an improvement in subjective sleep quality, without any significant adverse effects.

  1. Effect of alendronate on periodontal disease in postmenopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Miriam L; Malacara, Juan M; Sánchez-Marin, Francisco J; Vazquez de la Torre, Carlos J; Fajardo, Martha E

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the effect of oral alendronate (ALN) treatment on radiological and clinical measurements of periodontal disease in postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. We evaluated the effect of 6 months of ALN treatment in 40 postmenopausal women, 55 to 65 years old with established periodontal disease, in a controlled, double-masked, prospective study. Volunteers were paired by age and randomized to receive ALN (10 mg/day) or placebo for the study period. Periodontal mechanical treatment was carried out in both groups. At baseline and after treatment, clinical evaluation, hormone blood levels, distance from the crestal alveolar bone (CAB) to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD), hormone levels, serum N-telopeptide (NTx), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) were assessed. Periodontal disease conditions improved in both groups, but greater improvement in probing depth (-0.8 +/- 0.3 mm versus -0.4 +/- 0.4 mm, P = 0.02) and gingival bleeding (-0.3% +/- 0.13% versus -0.2% +/- 0.06%, P = 0.006) was found in the ALN treated group. Calcaneus BMD increased in the ALN treated group (68 +/- 47 mm3 versus -26 +/- 81 mm3, P = 0.0006). CAB-CEJ distance diminished in the ALN group (-0.4 +/- 0.40 mm versus 0.60 +/- 0.53 mm, P = 0.00008). Marginal reduction in both NTx and BSAP levels was found in the ALN group (-9.4 +/- 6.6 nmol versus -4.3 +/- 4.7 nmol bone collagen equivalents, P = 0.08, and -7.7 +/- 8.4 versus -1.5 +/- 5.0 U/l, P = 0.1, respectively). Hormone levels were unchanged after treatment. Similar improvement of calcaneus BMD and CAB-CEJ distance with ALN treatment was found in obese and non-obese women. ALN treatment improved periodontal disease and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

  2. Modafinil Improves Real Driving Performance in Patients with Hypersomnia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Coste, Olivier; Léger, Damien; Moore, Nicholas; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are at high risk for driving accidents, and physicians are concerned by the effect of alerting drugs on driving skills of sleepy patients. No study has up to now investigated the effect of modafinil (a reference drug to treat EDS in patients with hypersomnia) on on-road driving performance of patients suffering from central hypersomnia. The objective is to evaluate in patients with central hypersomnia the effect of a wake-promoting drug on real driving performance and to assess the relationship between objective sleepiness and driving performance. Design and Participants: Randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted among 13 patients with narcolepsy and 14 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive modafinil (400 mg) or placebo for 5 days prior to the driving test. Each condition was separated by at least 3 weeks of washout. Measurements: Mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings, Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle and mean sleep latency in the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test were assessed. Results: Modafinil reduced the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings and Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle compared to placebo (F(1,25) = 4.88, P < 0.05 and F(1,25) = 3.87, P = 0.06 tendency). Mean sleep latency at the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test significantly correlated with the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings (r = -0.41, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Modafinil improves driving performance in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is a suitable clinical tool to assess fitness to drive in this population. Citation: Philip P; Chaufton C; Taillard J; Capelli A; Coste O; Léger D; Moore N; Sagaspe P. Modafinil improves real driving performance in patients with hypersomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. SLEEP

  3. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function.

  4. Growth Hormone Deficiency after Treatment of Acromegaly: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karen K.; Wexler, Tamara; Fazeli, Pouneh; Gunnell, Lindsay; Graham, Gwenda J.; Beauregard, Catherine; Hemphill, Linda; Nachtigall, Lisa; Loeffler, Jay; Swearingen, Brooke; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Context: The effects of GH replacement therapy in patients who develop GH deficiency (GHD) after cure of acromegaly have not been established in a placebo-controlled study. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether GH replacement improves body composition, cardiovascular risk markers and quality of life in patients with GHD and prior acromegaly. Design: This was a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical translational science center. Study Participants: Participants included 30 subjects with prior acromegaly and current GHD. Intervention: Interventions included GH or placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and cross-sectional computed tomography at L4), cardiovascular risk markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen, and carotid intimal-medial thickness), and quality of life were measured. Results: The mean GH dose at 6 months was 0.58 ± 0.26 mg/d. Total fat mass, visceral adipose tissue (−15.3 ± 18.6 vs. 1.3 ± 12.5%, P = 0.01), and total abdominal fat decreased, and fat-free mass increased, in the GH vs. placebo group. Mean hsCRP levels decreased, but there was no GH effect on other cardiovascular risk markers. There was no change in glycosylated hemoglobin or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Quality of life improved with GH. Side effects were minimal. Conclusions: This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of GH replacement therapy on body composition and cardiovascular end points in patients who have developed GH deficiency after treatment for acromegaly, a disease complicated by metabolic and body composition alterations and increased cardiovascular risk. GH replacement decreased visceral adipose tissue, increased fat-free mass, decreased hsCRP, and improved quality of life in patients with GHD after

  5. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men.

  6. Effects of cetirizine in dogs with chronic atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Charles; Willemse, Ton

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cetirizine in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) while fulfilling Favrot's diagnostic clinical criteria. Dogs received either 3 mg/kg cetirizine (n = 27), or a placebo (n = 23) orally once daily for 14 days in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, without concomitant medication. The effects were evaluated using a pruritus visual analog scale at the start (day 0) and at day 14. After 14 days, cetirizine clearly had no effect on the pruritus in dogs with chronic AD, and there was no significant difference between groups. These findings indicated that cetirizine (and likely H1 histamine receptor antagonists in general) should not be recommended for the control of pruritus in dogs with long term allergies. PMID:27297415

  7. Nigella sativa Supplementation Improves Asthma Control and Biomarkers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Koshak, Abdulrahman; Wei, Li; Koshak, Emad; Wali, Siraj; Alamoudi, Omer; Demerdash, Abdulrahman; Qutub, Majdy; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Poor compliance with conventional asthma medications remains a major problem in achieving asthma control. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is used traditionally for many inflammatory conditions such as asthma. We aimed to investigate the benefits of NSO supplementation on clinical and inflammatory parameters of asthma. NSO capsules 500 mg twice daily for 4 weeks were used as a supplementary treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in asthmatics (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02407262). The primary outcome was Asthma Control Test score. The secondary outcomes were pulmonary function test, blood eosinophils and total serum Immunoglobulin E. Between 1 June and 30 December 2015, 80 asthmatics were enrolled, with 40 patients in each treatment and placebo groups. After 4 weeks, ten patients had withdrawn from each group. Compared with placebo, NSO group showed a significant improvement in mean Asthma Control Test score 21.1 (standard deviation = 2.6) versus 19.6 (standard deviation = 3.7) (p = 0.044) and a significant reduction in blood eosinophils by -50 (-155 to -1) versus 15 (-60 to 87) cells/μL (p = 0.013). NSO improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percentage of predicted value by 4 (-1.25 to 8.75) versus 1 (-2 to 5) but non-significant (p = 0.170). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that NSO supplementation improves asthma control with a trend in pulmonary function improvement. This was associated with a remarkable normalization of blood eosinophlia. Future studies should follow asthmatics for longer periods in a multicentre trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Common harms from amoxicillin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials for any indication

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Malcolm; Ranakusuma, Anggi; Hoffmann, Tammy; Thorning, Sarah; McGuire, Treasure; Glasziou, Paul; Del Mar, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background: When prescribing antibiotics for common indications, clinicians need information about both harms and benefits, information that is currently available only from observational studies. We quantified the common harms of the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, amoxicillin, from randomized placebo-controlled trials. Methods: For this systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, without language restriction, for any randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled trials of amoxicillin or amoxicillin–clavulanic acid for any indication, in any setting. Our main outcome was any reported adverse event. Results: Of 730 studies identified, we included 45 trials: 27 involving amoxicillin, 17 involving amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and 1 involving both. The indications for antibiotic therapy were variable. The risk of bias was low, although only 25 trials provided data suitable for assessment of harms, which suggested under-reporting. Diarrhea was attributed to amoxicillin only in the form of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (Peto odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23–4.87). The OR for candidiasis (3 trials) was significantly higher (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.23–27.11). Rashes, nausea, itching, vomiting and abnormal results on liver function tests were not significantly increased. The results were not altered by sensitivity analyses, nor did funnel plots suggest publication bias. The number of courses of antibiotics needed to harm was 10 (95% CI 6–17) for diarrhea with amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and 27 (95% CI 24–42) for candidiasis with amoxicillin (with or without clavulanic acid). Interpretation: Diarrhea was caused by use of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and candidiasis was caused by both amoxicillin and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid. Harms were poorly reported in most trials, and their true incidence may have been higher than reported. Nevertheless, these rates of common

  9. Antidepressant Augmentation Using the NMDA-Antagonist Memantine: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric G.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Ulbricht, Christine M.; Landolin, Chelsea S.; Patel, Jayendra K.; Rothschild, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intravenous NMDA antagonists have shown promising results in rapidly ameliorating depression symptoms, but placebo-controlled trials of oral NMDA antagonists as monotherapy have not observed efficacy. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00344682) of the NMDA antagonist memantine as an augmentation treatment for patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder. Method 31 participants with partial or nonresponse to their current antidepressant were randomized (from 2006–2011) to add memantine (flexible dose 5–20 mg/day, with all memantine group participants reaching the dose of 20 mg/day) (n= 15) or placebo (n= 16) to their existing treatment for 8 weeks. The primary outcome, change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Score (MADRS), was evaluated with repeated measures mixed effects models using last-observation-carried-forward methods. Secondary outcomes included other depression and anxiety rating scales, suicidal and delusional ideation, and other adverse effects. Results Participants receiving memantine did not show a statistically or clinically significant change in MADRS scores compared to placebo, either over the entire study (β=0.133, favoring placebo, p=0.74) or at study completion (week 8 MADRS score change: −7.13 +/−6.61 (memantine); −7.25 +/−11.14 (placebo), p=0.97). A minimal-to-small effect size (comparing change to baseline variability) was observed (d=0.19), favoring placebo. Similarly, no substantial effect sizes favoring memantine, nor statistically significant between-group differences, were observed on secondary efficacy or safety outcomes. Conclusions This trial did not detect significant statistical or effect size differences between memantine and placebo augmentation among nonresponders or poor responders to conventional antidepressants. While the small number of participants is a limitation, this study suggests memantine lacks substantial efficacy as an augmentation treatment against

  10. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the course of aminotransferase elevation during prolonged acetaminophen administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in subjects administered 4 g/day of acetaminophen for at least 16 days. Methods A randomized, placebo controlled trial of acetaminophen (4 g/day) vs placebo. Subjects were healthy volunteers with normal liver enzymes. The primary outcome was the course of ALT during acetaminophen administration. All subjects were treated for a minimum of 16 days. Subjects with ALT elevation at day 16 were continued on treatment until these elevations resolved up to a maximum of 40 days. Subjects were also evaluated for elevation of INR or serum bilirubin as evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Results 157/205 (77%) completed acetaminophen subjects had no ALT elevation or transient elevations that resolved by day 16. Of the 48 subjects who had ALT elevations at study day 16, 47 continued on acetaminophen and had resolution by study day 40. One acetaminophen subject did not have resolution by study day 40, and the course of aminotransferase elevation suggests an alternative cause. One placebo subject had an ALT elevation at day 16 that resolved by day 22. The highest observed ALT among all acetaminophen subjects was 191 IU/L. The mean ALT at day 16 was 4.4 IU/L higher for the acetaminophen than for the placebo group. No subject developed liver dysfunction. Conclusions A minority of subjects treated with 4 g/day of acetaminophen for 16 days will have low-grade aminotransferase elevations that are not accompanied by liver dysfunction and resolve if administration is continued. Trials registration Clintrials.gov NCT00743093 registered August 26, 2008 PMID:25047090

  11. Zinc supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality in very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates: a hospital-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial in an industrialized country.

    PubMed

    Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Passariello, Annalisa; Messina, Francesco; Conti, Maria Giulia; Caoci, Stefano; Smaldore, Antonella; Bertino, Enrico; De Curtis, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Zinc plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and in body growth. Preterm neonates have high zinc requirements. The objective of the study was to investigate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates and to promote growth. This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study of very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates randomly allocated on the seventh day of life to receive (zinc group) or not receive (control group) oral zinc supplementation. Total prescribed zinc intake ranged from 9.7 to 10.7 mg/d in the zinc group and from 1.3 to 1.4 mg/d in the placebo control group. The main endpoint was the rate of neonates with ≥ 1 of the following morbidities: late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leucomalacia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Secondary outcomes were mortality and body growth. We enrolled 97 neonates in the zinc group and 96 in the control group. Morbidities were significantly lower in the zinc group (26.8% compared with 41.7%; P = 0.030). The occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis was significantly higher in the control group (6.3% compared with 0%; P = 0.014). Mortality risk was higher in the placebo control group (RR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.08, 5.18; P = 0.006). Daily weight gain was similar in the zinc (18.2 ± 5.6 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and control (17.0 ± 8.7 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) groups (P = 0.478). Oral zinc supplementation given at high doses reduces morbidities and mortality in preterm neonates. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register as ACTRN12612000823875.

  12. Mood improving Potential of a Vitamin Trace Element Composition--A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical study with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Muss, Claus; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm; Endler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitters regulate mood, attention vigilance and other clinical symptoms linked with depression. Various medications ameliorate symptoms of depression and mood disorders by interference with the serotonic metabolism. Serotonin metabolism depends on nutritional cofactors such as pyridoxin together with essential mineral and trace elements. Both, inflammation and metabolic conditions seem to affect the bioavailability of serotonin crucially. We hypothesized that serotonin supply depends on relevant gastrointestinal precursor absorption and on the availability of nutritive antiinflammatory cofactors. We performed a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy participants to study the bioavailabilty of ingredients of the multivitamin and trace element LaVita' in a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind trial to establish the mood ameliorating potential. Serotonin and its precursor tryptophan were measured in dry blood samples. Serum parameters like chromium and zinc, as well as vitamin D, vitamin B3 and B6 were determined before intake, and after 3 months and 6 months consumption of the test substances. After 3 months a slight increase of tryptophan (p=0.059) and a significant increase of serum serotonin (p < 0.013) was observed in the verum group. After 6 months the verum group showed a highly significant mean increase in niacin (p < 0.001) and the cofactors of serotonin metabolism pyridoxin (p=0.03), chromium p < 0.01), and zinc (p < 0.001). Serotonin levels droped after 6 months indicating a low risk for overdosing. We conclude that a continuous supply with ingredients from the natural source compound LaVita' may contribute to mood improving neurotransmitter activity.

  13. Intravenous lysine clonixinate for the acute treatment of severe migraine attacks: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study☆

    PubMed Central

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Silva, Marcus Tulius T

    2003-01-01

    Background Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine. However, few commercially available NSAIDs can be administered IV. Lysine clonixinate (LC), an NSAID derived from nicotinic acid, has been proved effective in various algesic syndromes (eg, renal colic, muscular pain, nerve compression, odontalgia). The oral formulation of LC has been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine of moderate severity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the IV formulation of LC in the treatment of severe migraine. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study enrolled patients with severe migraine (without aura) as defined by the criteria of the International Headache Society. When patients presented to a neurology hospital with an outpatient headache unit (Instituto de Neurologia Deolindo Couto, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) with a severe migraine attack that had lasted <4 hours, they were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (IV placebo [25 mL of 0.9% saline] or IV LC [21 mL of 0.9% saline plus 4 mL of LC 200 mg]). Headache intensity and adverse effects (AEs) were assessed before (0 minute) and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after study drug administration. Rescue medication was available 2 hours after study drug administration, and its use was compared between groups. Results Thirty-two patients (23 women, 9 men; mean [SD] age, 32 [2] years; range, 18–58 years) entered the study. Twenty-nine patients (21 women, 8 men; mean [SD] age, 32 [2] years; range, 18–56 years) completed the study. Three patients (all in the placebo group) did not complete the study (1 patient was unable to rate the pain severity after drug administration and 2 patients refused IV drug administration). Among study completers, 17 patients received LC and 12 placebo. At 30 minutes, 1 patient (8.3%) in the placebo group and 5 patients (29.4%) in the LC group were pain free

  14. Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for cervicogenic headache: a study protocol of a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Cervicogenic headache (CEH) is a secondary headache which affects 1.0-4.6 % of the population. Although the costs are unknown, the health consequences are substantial for the individual; especially considering that they often suffers chronicity. Pharmacological management has no or only minor effect on CEH. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for CEH in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (RCT). According to the power calculations, we aim to recruit 120 participants to the RCT. Participants will be randomized into one of three groups; CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-point is headache frequency, while headache duration, headache intensity, headache index (frequency × duration × intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end-points. Primary analysis will assess a change in headache frequency from baseline to the end of intervention and to follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Due to two group-comparisons, the results with p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end-points and analyses, the significance level of 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95 % confidence intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective manual therapy three-armed single-blinded placebo-controlled RCT to be conducted for CEH. Current RCTs suggest efficacy in headache frequency, duration and intensity. However a firm conclusion requires clinical single-blinded placebo-controlled RCTs with few methodological shortcomings. The present study design adheres to the recommendations for pharmacological RCTs as far as possible and follows the recommended clinical

  15. A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial of topical tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andrew G; Muh, Stephanie J; Silverton, Craig D; Weir, Robb M; Laker, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TNA) reduces postoperative blood loss in general and obstetrical surgery but there is limited orthopaedic literature regarding its use in the topical setting. To study the effect of topical TNA after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), 101 patients were randomized to topical administration of 2.0g TNA in 75mL of normal saline (50 patients) or placebo (51 patients). Operative technique, drug administration, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were standardized. All patients underwent screening ultrasound of the operative extremity. Total blood loss was lower in the TNA group (940.2±327.1mL) than the placebo group (1293.1±532.7mL)(P<0.001), and four patients in the placebo group and none in the TNA group received postoperative transfusion (P=0.118). We recommend administration of topical TNA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Qure study: Q fever fatigue syndrome – response to treatment; a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Q fever is a zoonosis that is present in many countries. Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is one of the most frequent sequelae after an acute Q fever infection. QFS is characterized by persistent fatigue following an acute Q fever infection, leading to substantial morbidity and a high socio-economic burden. The occurrence of QFS is well-documented, and has been described in many countries over the past decades. However, a treatment with proven efficacy is not available. Only a few uncontrolled studies have tested the efficacy of treatment with antibiotics on QFS. These studies suggest a positive effect of long-term treatment with a tetracycline on performance state; however, no randomized controlled trials have been performed. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been proven to be an effective treatment modality for chronic fatigue in other diseases, but has not yet been tested in QFS. Therefore, we designed a trial to assess the efficacy of long-term treatment with the tetracycline doxycycline and CBT in patients with QFS. Methods/design A randomized placebo-controlled trial will be conducted. One-hundred-eighty adult patients diagnosed with QFS will be recruited and randomized between one of three groups: CBT, long-term doxycycline or placebo. First, participants will be randomized between CBT and medication (ratio 1:2). A second double-blinded randomization between doxycycline and placebo (ratio 1:1) will be performed in the medication condition. Each group will be treated for six months. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and post intervention. The primary outcome measure is fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures are functional impairment, level of psychological distress, and Coxiella burnetii PCR and serology. Discussion The Qure study is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial, which evaluates the efficacy of long-term doxycycline and of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with QFS. The results of this study will provide

  17. Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ivaldo Jesus Lima; de Souza, Victor Vasconcelos; Motta, Vitor; Da-Silva, Sérgio Leme

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C ascorbic acid) is a well-known antioxidant that is involved in anxiety, stress, depression, fatigue and mood state in humans. Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may trigger neuropsychological disorders. Antioxidants may play an important therapeutic role in combating the damage caused by oxidative stress in individuals that suffer from anxiety. In this context, it was hypothesized that oral vitamin C supplementation would reduce anxiety. However, few up to date studies have evaluated the consequences of oral vitamin C supplementation on anxiety in humans. The present study examined the effects of oral vitamin C supplements in 42 high school students, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The students were given either vitamin C (500 mg day(-1)) or placebo. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and blood pressure were measured before the intervention and then one day after the intervention. Anxiety levels were evaluated for each student before and after 14 days following supplementation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that vitamin C reduced anxiety levels and led to higher plasma vitamin C concentration compared to the placebo. The mean heart rates were also significantly different between vitamin C group and placebo control group. Present study results not only provide evidence that vitamin C plays an important therapeutic role for anxiety but also point a possible use for antioxidants in the prevention or reduction of anxiety. This suggests that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to medical and psychological treatment of anxiety and improve academic performance.

  18. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical trial of sublingual immunotherapy in natural rubber latex allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural rubber latex allergy is a common and unsolved health problem. Since the avoidance of exposure is very difficult, immunotherapy is strongly recommended, but before its use in patients, it is essential to prove the efficacy and safety of extracts. The aim of the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of latex sublingual immunotherapy in adult patients undergoing permanent latex avoidance. Methods Twenty-eight adult latex-allergic patients (5 males and 23 females), with mean age of 39 years (range 24-57) were randomized to receive a commercial latex-sublingual immunotherapy or placebo during one year, followed by another year of open, active therapy. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of first and second year of follow-up: skin prick test, gloves-use score, conjunctival challenge test, total and specific IgE, basophil activation test, and adverse reactions monitoring. Results No significant difference in any of the efficacy in vivo variables was observed between active and placebo groups at the end of the placebo-controlled phase, nor when each group was compared with their baseline values at the end of the two year-study. An improvement in the average percentage of basophils activated was observed. During the induction phase, 4 reactions in the active group and 5 in the placebo group were recorded. During the maintenance phase, two patients dropped out due to pruritus and to acute dermatitis respectively. Conclusion Further studies are needed to evaluate latex-sublingual immunotherapy, since efficacy could not be demonstrated in adult patients with avoidance of the allergen. Trial registration number ACTRN12611000543987 PMID:21827704

  19. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of sublingual immunotherapy in natural rubber latex allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Gastaminza, Gabriel; Algorta, Jaime; Uriel, Olga; Audicana, Maria T; Fernandez, Eduardo; Sanz, Maria L; Muñoz, Daniel

    2011-08-09

    Natural rubber latex allergy is a common and unsolved health problem. Since the avoidance of exposure is very difficult, immunotherapy is strongly recommended, but before its use in patients, it is essential to prove the efficacy and safety of extracts.The aim of the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of latex sublingual immunotherapy in adult patients undergoing permanent latex avoidance. Twenty-eight adult latex-allergic patients (5 males and 23 females), with mean age of 39 years (range 24-57) were randomized to receive a commercial latex-sublingual immunotherapy or placebo during one year, followed by another year of open, active therapy. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of first and second year of follow-up: skin prick test, gloves-use score, conjunctival challenge test, total and specific IgE, basophil activation test, and adverse reactions monitoring. No significant difference in any of the efficacy in vivo variables was observed between active and placebo groups at the end of the placebo-controlled phase, nor when each group was compared with their baseline values at the end of the two year-study. An improvement in the average percentage of basophils activated was observed. During the induction phase, 4 reactions in the active group and 5 in the placebo group were recorded. During the maintenance phase, two patients dropped out due to pruritus and to acute dermatitis respectively. Further studies are needed to evaluate latex-sublingual immunotherapy, since efficacy could not be demonstrated in adult patients with avoidance of the allergen. ACTRN12611000543987.

  20. Buspirone Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Gray, Kevin M.; Killeen, Therese K.; Wagner, Amanda M.; Brady, Kathleen T.; DeVane, C. Lindsay; Norton, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of buspirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, for treatment of cannabis dependence. Methods One hundred seventy-five cannabis-dependent adults were randomized to receive either up to 60 mg/day of buspirone (n=88) or placebo (n=87) for twelve weeks combined with a brief motivational enhancement therapy intervention and contingency management to encourage study retention. Cannabis use outcomes were assessed via weekly urine cannabinoid tests; secondary outcomes included cannabis craving, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, and clinician ratings of symptom severity. Results Participants in both groups reported reduced cannabis craving over the course of the study; however, buspirone provided no advantage over placebo in reducing cannabis use. Significant gender by treatment interaction were observed, with women randomized to buspirone having fewer negative urine cannabinoid tests than women randomized to placebo (p=0.007), and men randomized to buspirone having significantly lower creatinine adjusted cannabinoid levels as compared to those randomized to placebo (p=0.023). An evaluation of serotonin allelic variations did not find an association with buspirone treatment response. Conclusions Buspirone was not more efficacious than placebo in reducing cannabis use. Important gender differences were noted, with women having worse cannabis use outcomes with buspirone treatment. Considerations for future medication trials in this challenging population are discussed. PMID:26386827

  1. Pilot Study of the Effects of Lisdexamfetamine on Cocaine Use: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Marc E.; Herin, David V.; Specker, Sheila; Babb, David; Levin, Frances R.; Grabowski, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphetamine analogues have been demonstrated to have some efficacy in reducing use in cocaine dependent individuals. However, these agents also have potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), a lysine+dextroamphetamine formulation, has been approved for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and as a prodrug, has less abuse potential. Objective This pilot study sought to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of LDX as a candidate treatment for cocaine dependence. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study served to evaluate LDX in 43 cocaine-dependent individuals: (1) Placebo (PBO; 0 mg, n = 21), (2) LDX (70 mg, n = 22). Participants received medication for 14 weeks. Cocaine use was determined based on urine analysis for benzoylecgonine (BE; a cocaine metabolite). Results Retention rates were higher though not significantly different in the PBO (71.4%) than the LDX condition (57.1%). Compared to those in the PBO condition, those receiving LDX were more likely to report experiencing (ps < .05) diarrhea (45.5% vs. 14.3%), headaches (45.5% vs. 9.5%), and anxiety (31.8% vs. 4.8%). No differences in medication conditions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate, or body weight. In the randomized sample, no differences in cocaine use were seen. Those receiving LDX reported significantly less craving for cocaine than participants receiving PBO. Conclusions LDX did not significantly reduce cocaine use compared to PBO in the randomized sample. PMID:26116930

  2. Clinical study on the therapeutic role of midodrine in non azotemic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed; Farid, Samar; Amin, Mona; Kassem, Mohamed; Al-Garem, Nouman

    2014-10-01

    Midodrine is an α-agonist prodrug of desglymidodrine used for the management of hypotension. Midodrine has demonstrated usefulness in hepatorenal syndrome. The objective of the present work was to study the role of midodrine in patients with non-azotemic cirrhosis with tense ascites. This prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study was conducted on 67 non azotemic inpatients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites (52 men and 15 women; age range, 45-72). One patient declined to participate in the study, 33 patients were randomly assigned to take midodrine hydrochloride, and 33 patients were randomly assigned to take placebo. Out of 67 enrolled patients, 60 patients (30: in midodrine group; 30: in placebo group) completed the study and 6 patients lost to follow up. Patients were assessed for patients’ characteristics, history of tapping their ascetic fluid, laboratory values, and Doppler parameters before and after the study. Average 24-h urine volume was assessed before and after the start of the study. significant reduction in body weight and abdominal girth was observed after 2 weeks of midodrine therapy. Midodrine appeared to be effective in lowering body weights and abdominal girths of non azotemic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites.

  3. Melatonin Treatment in Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Smits, M.; Curfs, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While several small-number or open-label studies suggest that melatonin improves sleep in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) with chronic sleep disturbance, a larger randomized control trial is necessary to validate these promising results. Methods: The effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of chronic sleep…

  4. Melatonin Treatment in Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Smits, M.; Curfs, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While several small-number or open-label studies suggest that melatonin improves sleep in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) with chronic sleep disturbance, a larger randomized control trial is necessary to validate these promising results. Methods: The effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of chronic sleep…

  5. Oral curcumin for Alzheimer's disease: tolerability and efficacy in a 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma Long Lin that has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as effects on reducing beta-amyloid aggregation. It reduces pathology in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a promising candidate for treating human AD. The purpose of the current study is to generate tolerability and preliminary clinical and biomarker efficacy data on curcumin in persons with AD. Methods We performed a 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of Curcumin C3 Complex® with an open-label extension to 48 weeks. Thirty-six persons with mild-to-moderate AD were randomized to receive placebo, 2 grams/day, or 4 grams/day of oral curcumin for 24 weeks. For weeks 24 through 48, subjects that were receiving curcumin continued with the same dose, while subjects previously receiving placebo were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 2 grams/day or 4 grams/day. The primary outcome measures were incidence of adverse events, changes in clinical laboratory tests and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) at 24 weeks in those completing the study. Secondary outcome measures included the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale, levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in plasma and levels of Aβ1-42, t-tau, p-tau181 and F2-isoprostanes in cerebrospinal fluid. Plasma levels of curcumin and its metabolites up to four hours after drug administration were also measured. Results Mean age of completers (n = 30) was 73.5 years and mean Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score was 22.5. One subject withdrew in the placebo (8%, worsened memory) and 5/24 subjects withdrew in the curcumin group (21%, 3 due to gastrointestinal symptoms). Curcumin C3 Complex® was associated with lowered hematocrit and increased glucose levels that were clinically insignificant. There were

  6. Low-Magnitude Mechanical Stimulation to Improve Bone Density in Persons of Advanced Age: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Douglas P; Hannan, Marian T; Barton, Bruce A; Bouxsein, Mary L; Sisson, Emily; Lang, Thomas; Allaire, Brett; Dewkett, Dawn; Carroll, Danette; Magaziner, Jay; Shane, Elizabeth; Leary, Elizabeth Teng; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Rubin, Clinton T

    2015-07-01

    Nonpharmacologic approaches to preserve or increase bone mineral density (BMD) include whole-body vibration (WBV), but its efficacy in elderly persons is not clear. Therefore, we conducted the Vibration to Improve Bone in Elderly Subjects (VIBES) trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 10 minutes of daily WBV (0.3g at 37 Hz) in seniors recruited from 16 independent living communities. The primary outcomes were volumetric BMD of the hip and spine measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. We randomized 174 men and women (89 active, 85 placebo) with T-scores -1 to -2.5 who were not taking bone active drugs and had no diseases affecting the skeleton (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65 to 102). Participants received daily calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Study platforms were activated using radio frequency ID cards providing electronic adherence monitoring; placebo platforms resembled the active platforms. In total, 61% of participants in the active arm and 73% in the placebo arm completed 24 months. The primary outcomes, median percent changes (interquartile range [IQR]) in total volumetric femoral trabecular BMD (active group (2.2% [-0.8%, 5.2%]) versus placebo 0.4% [-4.8%, 5.0%]) and in mid-vertebral trabecular BMD of L1 and L2 (active group (5.3% [-6.9%, 13.3%]) versus placebo (2.4% [-4.4%, 11.1%]), did not differ between groups (all p values > 0.1). Changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (P1NP and sCTX) also were not different between groups (p = 0.19 and p = 0.97, respectively). In conclusion, this placebo-controlled randomized trial of daily WBV in older adults did not demonstrate evidence of significant beneficial effects on volumetric BMD or bone biomarkers; however, the high variability in vBMD changes limited our power to detect small treatment effects. The beneficial effects of WBV observed in previous studies of younger women may not occur to the same extent in

  7. Memantine for fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Seritan, Andreea L; Nguyen, Danh V; Mu, Yi; Tassone, Flora; Bourgeois, James A; Schneider, Andrea; Cogswell, Jennifer B; Cook, Kylee R; Leehey, Maureen A; Grigsby, Jim; Olichney, John M; Adams, Patrick E; Legg, Wendi; Zhang, Lin; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-03-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Anecdotal reports have suggested that memantine may improve neurologic and cognitive symptoms of individuals with the neurodegenerative disease fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS); however, its efficacy and safety in this population have not been assessed in a controlled trial. Individuals with FXTAS aged 34-80 years were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial between September 2007 and August 2012. Inclusion required definite, probable, or possible FXTAS in clinical stages 1-5 according to previously published criteria. Primary outcome measures were the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS) score and CATSYS intention tremor severity. Ninety-four participants were randomized from 205 screened; of those, 43 and 45 started treatment with memantine (titrated to 10 mg twice daily) and placebo, respectively. Thirty-four participants receiving memantine and 36 receiving placebo completed the 1-year endpoint assessment (n = 70). Intention-to-treat analysis showed no improvement with respect to intention tremor severity (mean [SD] values with memantine vs placebo: 1.05 [0.73] vs 1.89 [2.19], P = .047) or BDS score (16.12 [5.43] vs 15.72 [3.93], P = .727) at follow-up. Post hoc analyses of participants with early FXTAS (stage ≤ 3), those with late FXTAS (stage > 3), and those in different age groups (≤ 65 years and > 65 years) also indicated no significant improvement. More frequent mild adverse events were observed in the placebo group, while more frequent moderate adverse events occurred in the memantine group (P = .007). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of memantine for individuals with FXTAS showed no benefit compared to placebo with respect to the selected outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Baclofen for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, James C; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B; Gallop, Robert; Kalka-Juhl, Linda; Flannery, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials and case-reports indicate that baclofen, a GABAB agonist, may have efficacy for alcohol dependence. Baclofen has been shown to enhance abstinence, to reduce drinking quantity, to reduce craving, and to reduce anxiety in alcohol dependent individuals in two placebo-controlled trials in Italy. However, the clinical trial data with baclofen is limited. The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy and tolerability of baclofen in alcohol dependence in the United States. Methods The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study comparing 30 mg per day of baclofen to placebo over 12 weeks of treatment and utilizing eight sessions of BRENDA, a low-intensity psychosocial intervention. 121 subjects were screened to yield 80 randomized subjects (44 male) with randomization balanced for gender. Percent heavy drinking days was the primary outcome measure with other drinking outcomes, anxiety levels, and craving as secondary outcomes. Tolerability was examined. Results 76% of subjects completed the study. No difference by drug condition was seen in % heavy drinking days where on-average rates were 25.5% (± 23.6%) for placebo and 25.9% (± 23.2%) for baclofen during treatment (t(73)=0.59, p=0.56). Similarly, no differences were seen by drug condition in % days abstinent, time to first drink, or time to relapse to heavy drinking. Baclofen was associated with a significant reduction in state anxiety (F(1,73)=5.39, p=0.02). Baclofen was well tolerated with only two individuals stopping baclofen because of adverse events. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Baclofen, a GABAB agonist, represents a possible new pharmacotherapeutic approach to alcohol dependence. Despite encouraging preclinical data and prior positive clinical trials with baclofen in Italy, the current trial did not find evidence that baclofen is superior to placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Additional clinical trial work is

  9. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Atwal, Tegpal; Bi, Yan; Chari, Suresh T; Clemens, Magdalen A; Enders, Felicity T

    2015-08-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP) tumor necrosis factor-α mediates multi-organ failure; in animal models its blockade with pentoxifylline ameliorates AP. The efficacy of pentoxifylline in predicted severe AP (pSAP) was tested in a double-blinded, randomized, control trial. Twenty-eight patients with pSAP were randomized within 72 hours of diagnosis to pentoxifylline or placebo. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The pentoxifylline group had fewer intensive care unit admissions and shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays of longer than 4 days (all P < .05). Patients receiving pentoxifylline had no adverse effects. Pentoxifylline within 72 hours of pSAP is safe; a larger study of pentoxifylline in AP is needed to confirm efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01292005. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency of adverse reactions to influenza vaccine in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Margolis, K L; Nichol, K L; Poland, G A; Pluhar, R E

    1990-09-05

    Concern about side effects constitutes a major deterrent to patient compliance with influenza vaccination, yet there is a paucity of data about the occurrence of adverse reactions in the population targeted for immunization. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial to compare the frequency of adverse reactions following administration of 1988-1989 trivalent split-antigen influenza vaccine and saline placebo. Outpatient veterans 65 years of age or over (n = 336) were recruited by mail and were randomly assigned to receive vaccine followed 2 weeks later by placebo injection or placebo followed 2 weeks later by vaccine. There was no significant difference between influenza vaccine and placebo with respect ot the proportion of subjects reporting disability or systemic symptoms.

  11. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Duloxetine for Central Pain in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Slee, April

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Duloxetine has a potential therapeutic role in treating MS-related pain. Methods: Thirty-eight MS patients were randomized 1:1 to receive duloxetine (n = 18) or matched placebo (n = 20). The dosing regimen was 30 mg daily for 1 week, then 60 mg daily for 5 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in worst pain for week 6 relative to baseline recorded on a daily pain diary. Results: Of 38 randomized patients, 14 (78%) patients randomized to duloxetine and 18 (90%) randomized to placebo completed treatment per protocol. These participants had an average age of 55.5 years, 25% were male, and 66% had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Baseline characteristics were similar. Discontinuations were due primarily to drug intolerance. Among those who completed treatment, worst pain at 6 weeks was reduced by 29% (±20%) for duloxetine versus 12% (±18%) for placebo (P = .016). Average daily pain at 6 weeks was reduced by 39% (±29%) in the duloxetine group compared to 10% (±18.8%) in the placebo group (P = .002). There were no significant changes (week 6 vs. baseline) or between-group differences for subject global impression, Beck Depression Inventory, 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-36), or sleep quality score. Conclusions: Fewer patients could tolerate duloxetine compared to placebo. Among patients who completed 6 weeks of treatment, there were significant reductions in average and worst daily pain scores with duloxetine compared to placebo. This study suggests that duloxetine has a direct pain-relieving effect in MS. PMID:25892978

  12. Effects of PEMF on patients with osteoarthritis: Results of a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Wuschech, Heinz; von Hehn, Ulrike; Mikus, Eberhard; Funk, Richard H

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in a double blind study on patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. The MAGCELL ARTHRO electrode-less therapy delivered a sinusoidal magnetic field, varying in frequency between 4 and 12 Hz. In 1 cm tissue depth, magnetic flux density was 105 mT. A total of n = 57 patients were randomly assigned to the verum, PEMF or placebo group (placebo device). Their average age was 61.6 ± 12.0 years. According to American College of Rheumatology criteria the osteoarthritis level was 2.8 ± 0.8. Treatment was performed twice a day for 5 min over a period of 18 days. Treatment with the MAGCELL device versus control (sham exposed) showed a highly significant reduction in pain (P < 0.001), a significant reduction in stiffness (P = 0.032) and a significant reduction in disability in daily activities (P = 0.005) according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scales-with a good overall treatment tolerance. In the placebo group there was no evidence of a significant change between the initial and final examination in any of the three above-mentioned WOMAC scales. Results of this partly randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study show clinically at any rate, that use of PEMF lead to highly significant better results in the treatment group compared to the placebo group with regard to the total WOMAC global score and especially for visual analogue scale. Patient assessment of the "effectiveness" was rated in 29.5% as very good and good in 27.3% compared to 0.0% and 15.4% in controls. This therapy is thus a useful complementary treatment option with no side effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Challenges and Recommendations for Placebo Controls in Randomized Trials in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fregni, Felipe; Imamura, Marta; Chien, Hsin Fen; Lew, Henry L.; Boggio, Paulo; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Riberto, Marcelo; Hsing, Wu Tu; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Furlan, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other specialties, the field of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) has not received the deserved recognition from clinicians and researchers in the scientific community. One of the reasons is the lack of sound evidence to support the traditional PRM treatments. The best way to change this disadvantage is through well-conducted clinical research, such as the standard placebo or sham-controlled randomized clinical trials. Therefore, having placebo groups in clinical trials is essential to improve the level of evidence-based practice in PRM that ultimately translates in a better clinical care. To address the challenges for the use of placebo in PRM randomized clinical trials, and to create useful recommendations, we convened a working group during the inaugural International Symposium in Placebo (February 2009, in Sao Paulo, Brazil) in which the following topics were discussed: (1) current status of randomized clinical trials in PRM, (2) challenges for the use of placebo in PRM, (3) bioethical issues, (4) use of placebo in acupuncture trials and for the treatment of low-back pain, (5) mechanisms of placebo, and (6) insights from other specialties. The current article represents the consensus report from the working group. PMID:20090428

  14. Glucagon use for esophageal coin dislodgment in children: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D; Attia, M; Quintana, E; Cronan, K

    2001-02-01

    Prospective evaluation of the use of glucagon in dislodgment of impacted esophageal coins in children. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with an open-label second phase in children 1 to 8 years of age who presented to a pediatric emergency department with a radiographically confirmed single esophageal coin impaction. One milligram of glucagon or placebo was given intravenously in double-blinded fashion. Patients were placed in an upright position and asked to drink 2-3 ounces of water. A repeat radiograph was obtained to check coin position in 30-60 minutes. Patients who did not respond were given 1 mg of open-label glucagon intravenously. The glucagon and placebo groups were compared. Fourteen patients were enrolled in the study (the predetermined sample size was not pursued due to inefficacy). Nine patients were in the glucagon group, and five were in the placebo group. Six patients received an additional open-label glucagon dose. The two groups were not different in age (mean, 5.5 years and 4.5 years, respectively), coin position, time between ingestion and presentation (p = 0.45), or time between treatment and repeat radiograph (p = 0.29). In patients who received glucagon, two of 15 (15%) passed the coin into the stomach. In the placebo group, three of five (60%) passed the coin, an inversely significant ratio. Five of six patients who received open-label glucagon were from the initial glucagon group. There were no responders among patients in this group. Glucagon does not appear to be effective in the dislodgment of esophageal coins in children.

  15. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial of oral dydrogesterone supplementation in the management of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Areeruk, Wilasinee; Phupong, Vorapong

    2016-02-09

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral dydrogesterone on the recurrent uterine contraction in preterm labor. The secondary aims were to evaluate latency period, gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Forty-eight pregnant women at 24-34 weeks gestation with preterm labor were either randomized to study group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg daily) or to placebo group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral placebo. Recurrent rates of uterine contraction were comparable between groups (87.5% vs 91.7%, p = 0.64). Latency periods were not different between dydrogesterone and placebo group (32.7 ± 20.2 days vs 38.2 ± 24.2 days, p = 0.39). There were also no differences in gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. Adjuvant treatment with oral dydrogesterone 20 mg/day could not decrease the rates of recurrent uterine contraction and prolong latency period in preterm labor management when compared to placebo.

  16. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Efficacy of Oral Acyclovir in the Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limiting skin disorder of unknown aetiology. Recently human herpes virus 6 and 7 has been hypothesized to be the cause of pityriasis rosea. Objective: To determine the efficacy of acyclovir, an anti-viral drug, in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy of oral acyclovir in the treatment of pityriasis rosea was conducted on 73 patients. Thirty eight randomly selected patients were started on oral acyclovir. Thirty-five patients were prescribed placebo. The patients as well as the chief investigator were unaware of the therapeutic group to which patients belonged (acyclovir or placebo). Patients in both the groups were evaluated clinically after 7 and 14 days following the first visit and the data were analysed. Results: Follow up data of 60 patients was available and these were included in the statistical analysis. 53.33% and 86.66% of the patients belonging to the acyclovir group showed complete resolution on the 7th day and 14th day respectively following the first visit compared to 10% and 33.33% of patients from the placebo group. The findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: The study showed that high dose acyclovir is effective in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. PMID:24995231

  17. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Efficacy of Oral Acyclovir in the Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Satyaki

    2014-05-01

    Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limiting skin disorder of unknown aetiology. Recently human herpes virus 6 and 7 has been hypothesized to be the cause of pityriasis rosea. To determine the efficacy of acyclovir, an anti-viral drug, in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy of oral acyclovir in the treatment of pityriasis rosea was conducted on 73 patients. Thirty eight randomly selected patients were started on oral acyclovir. Thirty-five patients were prescribed placebo. The patients as well as the chief investigator were unaware of the therapeutic group to which patients belonged (acyclovir or placebo). Patients in both the groups were evaluated clinically after 7 and 14 days following the first visit and the data were analysed. Follow up data of 60 patients was available and these were included in the statistical analysis. 53.33% and 86.66% of the patients belonging to the acyclovir group showed complete resolution on the 7(th) day and 14(th) day respectively following the first visit compared to 10% and 33.33% of patients from the placebo group. The findings were statistically significant. The study showed that high dose acyclovir is effective in the treatment of pityriasis rosea.

  18. Hyaluronic acid and glucosamine sulfate for adult Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chuan-Tao; Yu, Fang-Fang; Ren, Feng-Ling; Fang, Hua; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid (HA) and glucosamine sulfate (GS) in alleviating symptoms and improving function of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 150 patients with KBD. Participants were randomly allocated to receive intra-articular injection hyaluronic acid (IAHA) for 4 weeks, oral GS for 12 weeks, or oral placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were 20 % and 50 % reductions in pain from baseline measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index. Secondary outcome measures included WOMAC index parameters of pain, stiffness, and physical function. The third outcome measure was mean change in Lequence score. HA and GS were effective in reducing WOMAC pain by 20 % (differences of 43.5 % and 25.4 %) and 50 % (differences of 43.4 % and 26.9 %). Both HA and GS significantly reduced WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC normalized score compared with placebo group (all P < 0.05). IAHA was significantly more effective than oral GS in improving WOMAC normalized score (P = 0.034), pain (P = 0.002), stiffness (P = 0.018), and function (P = 0.044). The results indicate that HA and GS were more effective than placebo in treating KBD and HA was more effective than GS.

  19. Effects of far-infrared irradiation on myofascial neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Hung; Leung, Ting-Kai; Peng, Chih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Jun; Lai, Wen-Fu; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of irradiation using a device containing a far-infrared emitting ceramic powder (cFIR) for the management of chronic myofascial neck pain compared with a control treatment. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. The study comprised 48 patients with chronic, myofascial neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control (sham-treatment) group. The patients in the experimental group wore a cFIR neck device for 1 week, and the control group wore an inert neck device for 1 week. Quantitative measurements based on a visual analogue scale (VAS) scoring of pain, a sleep quality assessment, pressure-pain threshold (PPT) testing, muscle tone and compliance analysis, and skin temperature analysis were obtained. Both the experimental and control groups demonstrated significant improvement in pain scores. However, no statistically significant difference in the pain scores was observed between the experimental and control groups. Significant decreases in muscle stiffness in the upper regions of the trapezius muscles were reported in the experimental group after 1 week of treatment. Short-term treatment using the cFIR neck device partly reduced muscle stiffness. Although the differences in the VAS and PPT scores for the experimental and control groups were not statistically significant, the improvement in muscle stiffness in the experimental group warrants further investigation of the long-term effects of cFIR treatment for pain management.

  20. Efficacy of fermented green tea on peripheral skin temperature: a randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Bum-Jin; Ha, Jaehyoun; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Jin-Oh

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy of green tea on peripheral skin for cold hypersensitive subjects, who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures, one of the most common complaints in Asian women. This randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study included 60 female Korean subjects who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups to receive fermented green tea or a placebo (hot water). The skin temperature of the hands and feet was measured using digital infrared thermography at the baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after the oral administration of the tea or placebo. The skin temperature of the hands and feet of the fermented green tea-administered group was significantly higher than that of the placebo-administered group. The temperature difference between the finger and the dorsum of the hand was significantly lower in the fermented green tea-administered group than that in the placebo group. Fermented green tea is helpful for cold hypersensitivity. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of fermented green tea on peripheral skin in subjects having the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures by infrared thermography. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of the fermented green tea for cold hypersensitivity and to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ganaxolone in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ligsay, Andrew; Van Dijck, Anke; Nguyen, Danh V; Lozano, Reymundo; Chen, Yanjun; Bickel, Erika S; Hessl, David; Schneider, Andrea; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Tassone, Flora; Ceulemans, Berten; Kooy, R Frank; Hagerman, Randi J

    2017-08-02

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system deficits are integral to the pathophysiologic development of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Ganaxolone, a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, is hypothesized to improve symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and attention deficits in children with FXS. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of ganaxolone in children with FXS, aged 6-17 years. Sixty-one participants were assessed for eligibility, and 59 were randomized to the study. Fifty-five participants completed at least the first arm and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis; 51 participants completed both treatment arms. There were no statistically significant improvements observed on the primary outcome measure (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement), the key secondary outcome measure (Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale-R), or any other secondary outcome measures in the overall study population. However, post-hoc analyses revealed positive trends in areas of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity in participants with higher baseline anxiety and low full-scale IQ scores. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred, although there was a significant increase in the frequency and severity of AEs related to ganaxolone compared to placebo. While ganaxolone was found to be safe, there were no significant improvements in the outcome measures in the overall study population. However, ganaxolone in subgroups of children with FXS, including those with higher anxiety or lower cognitive abilities, might have beneficial effects. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01725152.

  2. Effects of raloxifene on cognition in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Iniesta, Raquel; Ochoa, Susana; Cobo, Jesús; Miquel, Eva; Roca, Mercedes; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Teba, Fernando; Usall, Judith

    2014-02-01

    Studies of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women provide evidence of an effect of sex hormones on cognitive function. Estrogen has demonstrated some utility in the prevention of normal, age-related decline in cognitive functions, especially in memory. The potential therapeutic utility of estrogens in schizophrenia is increasingly being recognized. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears to act similarly to conjugated estrogens on dopamine and serotonin brain systems, and may be a better option since it lacks the possible negative effects of estrogen on breast and uterine tissue. We assessed the utility of raloxifene as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia in a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients were recruited from both the inpatient and outpatient departments. Thirty-three postmenopausal women with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) were randomized to receive either adjuvant raloxifene (16 women) or adjuvant placebo (17 women) for three months. The main outcome measures were: Memory, attention and executive functions. Assessment was conducted at baseline and week 12. The total sample is homogenous with respect to: age, years of schooling, illness duration, baseline symptomatology and pharmacological treatment. The addition of raloxifene (60 mg) to regular antipsychotic treatment showed: we found significant differences in some aspects of memory and executive function in patients treated with raloxifene. This improvement does not correlate with clinical improvement. The use of raloxifene as an adjuvant treatment in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia seems to be useful in improving cognitive symptoms.

  3. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (−9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  4. Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.

  5. Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

    2011-10-01

    Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects.

  6. Rhodiola rosea therapy for major depressive disorder: a study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J; Li, Qing S.; Soeller, Irene; Xie, Sharon X; Amsterdam, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a botanical of both western and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as a folk remedy for improving stamina and reducing stress. However, few controlled clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of R. rosea for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study seeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of R. rosea in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study design. Methods / Design Subjects with MDD not receiving antidepressant therapy will be randomized to either R. rosea extract 340–1,360 mg daily; sertraline 50–200 mg daily, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be change over time in the mean 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating score. Secondary outcome measures will include safety and quality of life ratings. Statistical procedures will include mixed-effects models to assess efficacy for primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion This study will provide valuable preliminary information on the safety and efficacy data of R. rosea versus conventional antidepressant therapy of MDD. It will also inform additional hypotheses and study design of future, fully powered, phase III clinical trials with R. rosea to determine its safety and efficacy in MDD. PMID:25610752

  7. Effect of Oral Lipid Matrix Supplement on Fat Absorption in Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Virginia A; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R; Alshaikh, Belal N; Dougherty, Kelly A; Hommel, Kevin; Ryan, Jamie; Elci, Okan U; Shaw, Walter A

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic enzyme therapy does not normalize dietary fat absorption in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency. Efficacy of LYM-X-SORB (LXS), an easily absorbable lipid matrix that enhances fat absorption, was evaluated in a 12-month randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with plasma fatty acids (FA) and coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) outcomes. A total of 110 subjects (age 10.4 ± 3.0 years) were randomized. Total FA increased with LXS at 3 and 12 months (+1.58, +1.14 mmol/L) and not with placebo (P = 0.046). With LXS, linoleic acid (LA) increased at 3 and 12 months (+298, +175 nmol/mL, P ≤ 0.046), with a 6% increase in CFA (P < 0.01). LA increase was significant in LXS versus placebo (445 vs 42 nmol/mL, P = 0.038). Increased FA and LA predicted increased body mass index Z scores. In summary, the LXS treatment improved dietary fat absorption compared with placebo as indicated by plasma FA and LA and was associated with better growth status.

  8. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  9. Zonisamide for Bipolar Disorder, Mania or Mixed States: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar mania or mixed state. Experimental design One hundred four patients with Bipolar Disorder, Type I, II or NOS, in a manic, hypomanic or mixed state of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases: a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. The primary outcome variable for manic and hypomanic patients was the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) both the YMRS and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) served as primary outcome variables for patients in mixed states. Secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also analyzed. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences for any of the primary or secondary outcome measures between zonisamide and placebo-treated patients. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies that suggested efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide in bipolar mania or mixed state, these results were not confirmed in this double blind controlled study. PMID:22506436

  10. Efficacy of betamethasone valerate medicated plaster on painful chronic elbow tendinopathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Frizziero, Antonio; Causero, Araldo; Bernasconi, Stefano; Papalia, Rocco; Longo, Mario; Sessa, Vincenzo; Sadile, Francesco; Greco, Pasquale; Tarantino, Umberto; Masiero, Stefano; Rovati, Stefano; Frangione, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    to investigate the efficacy and safety of a medicated plaster containing betamethasone valerate (BMV) 2.25 mg in patients with chronic elbow tendinopathy. randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with assignment 2:2:1:1 to BMV medicated plaster applied daily for 12 hours, daily for 24 hours or matched placebo. 62 patients aged ≥18 years with chronic lateral elbow tendinopathy were randomized. The primary efficacy variable was pain reduction (VAS) at day 28. Secondary objectives included summed pain intensity differences (SPID), overall treatment efficacy and tolerability. mean reduction in VAS pain score at day 28 was greater in both BMV medicated plaster groups, -39.35±27.69 mm for BMV12-h and -36.91±32.50 mm for BMV24-h, than with placebo, -20.20±27.32 mm. Considering the adjusted mean decreases, there was a statistically significant difference between BMV12-h and placebo (p=0.0110). Global pain relief (SPID) and overall treatment efficacy were significantly better with BMV. BMV and placebo plasters had similar local tolerability and there were few treatment-related adverse events. BMV plaster was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing pain in patients with chronic elbow tendinopathies. The BMV plaster was safe and well tolerated.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of augmentation topiramate for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Steven E; Carlson, Eve B; Hill, Kimberly

    2007-12-01

    Topiramate, a novel anticonvulsant, has been reported to rapidly reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an open-label trial. The present study was designed as a test of topiramate's efficacy as adjunctive therapy in a 7-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty male veterans with PTSD in a residential treatment program were randomized to flexible-dose topiramate or placebo augmentation. The primary outcome measures were PTSD symptom severity and global symptom improvement. Baseline Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores were 62.1 +/- 13.9 for placebo and 61.0 +/- 22.2 for topiramate. There was a high dropout rate from the study (55% topiramate; 25% placebo), with 40% of topiramate and 10% of placebo dropping because of adverse events (AEs). No significant treatment effects of topiramate versus placebo were observed for the primary treatment outcomes. Subjects reporting central nervous system-related AEs and with higher baseline severity of depression were more likely to discontinue because of AEs. Primary outcome measures failed to demonstrate a significant effect for topiramate over placebo; however, high dropout rate in the treatment group prohibits definitive conclusions about the efficacy of topiramate in this population.

  12. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377.

  13. Augmentation of fluoxetine with lovastatin for treating major depressive disorder, a randomized double-blind placebo controlled-clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hedayati, Arvin

    2013-11-01

    There are contradictory evidence about the effect of statins on depression. This 6-week-randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of lovastatin as an adjuvant agent for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The participants were 68 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The sample was randomly allocated into fluoxetine (up to 40 mg/day) plus lovastatin (30 mg/day) group or fluoxetine plus placebo group. Hamilton Depression Rating scale was used to measure depression score at baseline, week 2, and week 6. Both groups showed a significant decrease of depression score on the Hamilton Depression scale. However, the treatment group decreased depression score more than placebo group [12.8(6.3) vs. 8.2(4.0), t = 3.4, df = 60, P < .001]. Any serious adverse effect was not found. These results suggest that lovastatin as an adjuvant treatment may be effective for treating patients with MDD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nocebo Effect in Menière's Disease: A Meta-analysis of Placebo-controlled Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Zis, Panagiotis

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the frequency and strength of nocebo effects in trials for Menière disease (MD). A literature search was conducted in PUBMED. The search terms we used were " Menière or Menière's," "treatment," and "placebo." Limitations included article type to be Clinical Trial or Randomized Controlled Trial, text availability to be Full text, Species to be Humans and Language to be English. We included placebo-controlled pharmaceutical RCTs that referred specifically to MD and recruited at least 10 adults in each arm. We excluded those studies with JADAD score ≤3. Thirty-six articles were screened identifying 12 eligible studies. Studies were included after consensus of both authors. The meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan programme as suggested by the Cochrane Collaboration Group. Data were analyzed using a random effects model. Nocebo is an important confounding factor of the reported AEs in RCTs for treatment of MD and subsequently in the clinical practice. The pooled estimate of the percentage of placebo-treated patients with at least one AE was 42.3% (95% CI 8.1% to 16.3%), in comparison to 53.8% (95% CI 48.0% to 59.5%) for active drug-treated patients. Reporting of RCTs in MD is suboptimal and we recommend authors to endorse the CONSORT checklist.

  15. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  16. Efficacy of betamethasone valerate medicated plaster on painful chronic elbow tendinopathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Frizziero, Antonio; Causero, Araldo; Bernasconi, Stefano; Papalia, Rocco; Longo, Mario; Sessa, Vincenzo; Sadile, Francesco; Greco, Pasquale; Tarantino, Umberto; Masiero, Stefano; Rovati, Stefano; Frangione, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective to investigate the efficacy and safety of a medicated plaster containing betamethasone valerate (BMV) 2.25 mg in patients with chronic elbow tendinopathy. Methods randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with assignment 2:2:1:1 to BMV medicated plaster applied daily for 12 hours, daily for 24 hours or matched placebo. 62 patients aged ≥18 years with chronic lateral elbow tendinopathy were randomized. The primary efficacy variable was pain reduction (VAS) at day 28. Secondary objectives included summed pain intensity differences (SPID), overall treatment efficacy and tolerability. Results mean reduction in VAS pain score at day 28 was greater in both BMV medicated plaster groups, −39.35±27.69 mm for BMV12-h and −36.91±32.50 mm for BMV24-h, than with placebo, −20.20±27.32 mm. Considering the adjusted mean decreases, there was a statistically significant difference between BMV12-h and placebo (p=0.0110). Global pain relief (SPID) and overall treatment efficacy were significantly better with BMV. BMV and placebo plasters had similar local tolerability and there were few treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions BMV plaster was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing pain in patients with chronic elbow tendinopathies. The BMV plaster was safe and well tolerated. PMID:27331041

  17. Intravenous iron supplementation may protect against acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Nick P; Smith, Thomas G; Privat, Catherine; Nickol, Annabel H; Rivera-Ch, Maria; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common and disabling condition that occurs in healthy individuals ascending to high altitude. Based on the ability of iron to influence cellular oxygen sensing pathways, we hypothesized that iron supplementation would protect against AMS. To examine this hypothesis, 24 healthy sea-level residents were randomized to receive either intravenous iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or saline placebo, before ascending rapidly to Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4340 m). The Lake Louise scoring system was used to assess incidence and severity of AMS at sea level and on the first full day at altitude. No significant difference in absolute AMS score was detected between the two groups either at baseline or at high altitude. However, the mean increase in AMS score was 65% smaller in the iron group than in the saline group (p<0.05), and the change in AMS score correlated negatively with the change in ferritin (R=-0.43; p<0.05). Hematocrit and arterial oxygen saturation were unaffected by iron. In conclusion, this preliminary randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial suggests that intravenous iron supplementation may protect against the symptoms of AMS in healthy volunteers.

  18. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W; Sanders, Carlijn; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined the potential exposure enhancing effect of yohimbine hydrochloride in claustrophobic humans. Participants (71% undergraduate students and 29% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (n=24) were treated with 2 1-h in vivo exposure sessions. Participants were randomly allocated to take 10.8mg yohimbine hydrochloride (n=12) or placebo (n=12) prior to each exposure session. Outcome measures included peak fear during a behavioral avoidance task, the Claustrophobia Questionnaire, and the Claustrophobic Concerns Questionnaire. Results showed that both conditions improved significantly at post-treatment with no significant difference between groups. Consistent with prediction the group that took yohimbine hydrochloride prior to exposure sessions showed significantly greater improvement in peak fear at the one-week follow-up behavioral assessment (d=1.68). This was also true across other outcome measures with large to very large effect sizes. These data provide initial support for exposure enhancing effect of single-dose yohimbine hydrochloride in a clinical application.

  19. Topiramate for smoking cessation: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oncken, Cheryl; Arias, Albert J; Feinn, Richard; Litt, Mark; Covault, Jonathan; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Kranzler, Henry R

    2014-03-01

    Topiramate (TOP) blocks glutamate receptors and facilitates GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmission, effects that may facilitate smoking cessation. We compared the effects of behavioral counseling combined with (a) TOP, (b) TOP/nicotine patch (TOP/NIC), or (c) placebo (PLC) for smoking cessation. We conducted a 10-week randomized trial in which subjects and research personnel were blinded to TOP versus PLC but not to the TOP/NIC patch condition. In groups receiving TOP, the medication dosage was titrated gradually up to 200 mg/day. The smoking quit date (QD) was scheduled after 2 weeks of medication treatment. NIC (21 mg) was started on the QD in subjects randomized to the TOP/NIC condition. The main outcome measure was the end-of-treatment, 4-week continuous abstinence rate (CAR; biochemically confirmed). Fifty-seven subjects were randomized to treatment. The 4-week CAR was 1 of 19 (5%) in the PLC group, 5 of 19 (26%) in the TOP group, and 7 of 19 (37%) in the TOP/NIC group (p = .056). Pairwise comparisons showed a difference between TOP/NIC and PLC (p = .042) and a nonsignificant difference between TOP and PLC (p = .18). The PLC group gained 0.37 lb/week, the TOP group lost 0.41 lb/week, and the TOP/NIC group lost 0.07 lb/week (p = .004). Pairwise comparisons showed a difference between TOP and PLC (p < .001) and between TOP/NIC and PLC groups (p = .035). Paresthesia was more frequent in subjects on TOP than PLC (p = .011). TOP, alone or in combination with the NIC, resulted in a numerically higher quit rate than PLC and decreased weight. A larger, PLC-controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Nasal steroids in snorers can decrease snoring frequency: a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Keliris, Anastasios; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Although it is anecdotally known that nasal obstruction is associated with snoring, it remains unknown whether the application of nasal steroids could decrease oral/oro-nasal breathing and increase nasal breathing, and subsequently decrease snoring indices. This study evaluated the effect of nasal budesonide on breathing route pattern and snoring. Twenty-four snorers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide compared with 1-week intervention with nasal placebo. At the start and end of each treatment period, patients underwent nasal resistance measurement and overnight polysomnography with concomitant measurement of breathing route pattern and snoring. Twelve patients were randomly assigned to a 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide, followed by 2-week washout period and a 1-week intervention with the nasal placebo; and 12 patients were randomly assigned to a 1-week intervention with nasal placebo, followed by 2-week washout period and a 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide. Nasal budesonide was associated with a decrease in oral/oro-nasal breathing epochs and concomitant increase in nasal breathing epochs, decrease of snoring frequency by [median (interquartile range)] 15.8% (11.2-18.8%), and an increase of rapid eye movement sleep; snoring intensity decreased only in patients with increased baseline nasal resistance by 10.6% (6.8-14.3%). The change in nasal breathing epochs was inversely related to the change in snoring frequency (Rs = 0.503; P < 0.001). Nasal budesonide in snorers can increase nasal breathing epochs, modestly decrease snoring frequency and increase rapid eye movement sleep. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Meta-analysis of Placebo-Controlled Randomized Controlled Trials on the Prevalence of Statin Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Haris; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Rehman, Karim Abdur; Alansari, Shehab Ahmad Redha; Gheyath, Bashaer; Raza, Sajjad; Barakat, Amr; Luni, Faraz Khan; Ahmed, Haitham; Krasuski, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of intolerance varies widely. Stopping statin therapy is associated with worse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Despite extensive studies, the benefits and risks of statins continue to be debated by clinicians and the lay public. We searched the PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases for all randomized controlled trials of statins compared with placebo. Studies were included if they had ≥1,000 participants, had patients who were followed up for ≥1 year, and reported rates of drug discontinuation. Studies were pooled as per the random effects model. A total of 22 studies (statins = 66,024, placebo = 63,656) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis showed that, over a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, the rates of discontinuation were 13.3% (8,872 patients) for statin-treated patients and 13.9% (8,898 patients) for placebo-treated patients. The random effects model showed no significant difference between the placebo and statin arms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 1.06). The results were similar for both primary prevention (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.05, p = 0.39) and secondary prevention (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.05, p = 0.43) studies. The pooled analysis suggested that the rates of myopathy were also similar between the statins and placebos (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.62, p = 0.25). In conclusion, this meta-analysis of >125,000 patients suggests that the rate of drug discontinuation and myopathy does not significantly differ between statin- and placebo-treated patients in randomized controlled trials. These findings are limited by the heterogeneity of results, the variable duration of follow-up, and the lower doses of statins compared with contemporary clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of latrepirdine in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Latrepirdine is an orally administered experimental small molecule that was initially developed as an antihistamine and subsequently was shown to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and function, which might be impaired in Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of latrepirdine on cognition and global function in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Sixty-four research centers in Australia, Europe, and North America. PATIENTS Four hundred three patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and baseline cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10-26). INTERVENTION Latrepirdine (20 mg) vs matching placebo administered orally 3 times daily for 26 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The co-primary outcome measures were cognition as measured by the change in Mini-Mental State Examination score from baseline to week 26 and global function at week 26 as measured by the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview, which ranges from 1 (marked improvement) to 7 (marked worsening). Secondary efficacy outcome measures included behavior, daily function, motor function, and safety. RESULTS The mean change in Mini-Mental State Examination score among participants randomized to latrepirdine (1.5-point improvement) did not differ significantly from that among participants randomized to placebo (1.3-point improvement) (P=.39). Similarly, the distribution of the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview did not differ significantly among those randomized to latrepirdine compared with placebo (P=.84). No significant treatment effects were detected on the secondary efficacy outcome measures. The incidence of adverse events was similar between those randomized to latrepirdine (68.5%) and placebo (68.0%). CONCLUSION In patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and cognitive impairment, treatment with

  3. Safety and Efficacy of ABT-089 in Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from Two Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Gault, Laura M.; Childress, Ann; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Bensman, Lindsey; Hall, Coleen M.; Olson, Evelyn; Robieson, Weining Z.; Garimella, Tushar S.; Abi-Saab, Walid M.; Apostol, George; Saltarelli, Mario D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of ABT-089, a novel alpha[subscript 4]beta[subscript 2] neuronal nicotinic receptor partial agonist, vs. placebo in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of children 6 through 12 years…

  4. Omega 3/6 Fatty Acids for Reading in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in 9-Year-Old Mainstream Schoolchildren in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…

  5. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  6. Omega 3/6 Fatty Acids for Reading in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in 9-Year-Old Mainstream Schoolchildren in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…

  7. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  8. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  9. Safety and Efficacy of ABT-089 in Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from Two Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Gault, Laura M.; Childress, Ann; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Bensman, Lindsey; Hall, Coleen M.; Olson, Evelyn; Robieson, Weining Z.; Garimella, Tushar S.; Abi-Saab, Walid M.; Apostol, George; Saltarelli, Mario D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of ABT-089, a novel alpha[subscript 4]beta[subscript 2] neuronal nicotinic receptor partial agonist, vs. placebo in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of children 6 through 12 years…

  10. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Lelyveld, Steven F. L.; Otto, Sigrid A.; Richter, Clemens; Soetekouw, Robin; Prins, Jan M.; Brinkman, Kees; Mulder, Jan Willem; Kroon, Frank; Middel, Ananja; Symons, Jori; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Nijhuis, Monique; Borghans, José A. M.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Methods Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients) or placebo (44 patients) to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint) and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models. Results No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51) or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm. Conclusions Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368 PMID:26208341

  11. Effect of Uric Acid-Lowering Agents on Endothelial Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Lea; McMullan, Ciaran; Wohlhueter, Ann; Curhan, Gary C; Fisher, Naomi D; Forman, John P

    2017-02-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction, a mechanism for incident hypertension. Overweight/obese individuals are more prone to endothelial dysfunction than their lean counterparts. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on endothelial dysfunction in these individuals has not been examined thoroughly. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nonhypertensive, overweight, or obese individuals with higher serum uric acid (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dL), we assigned subjects to probenecid (500-1000 mg/d), allopurinol (300-600 mg/d), or matching placebo. The primary outcome was endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by brachial artery ultrasound at baseline and 8 weeks. By the end of the trial, 47, 49, and 53 participants had been allocated to receive probenecid, allopurinol, and placebo, respectively. Mean serum uric acid levels significantly decreased in the probenecid (from 6.1 to 3.5 mg/dL) and allopurinol groups (from 6.1 to 2.9 mg/dL) but not in the placebo group (6.1 to 5.6 mg/dL). None of the interventions produced any significant change in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (probenecid, 7.4±5.1% at baseline and 8.3±5.1% at 8 weeks; allopurinol, 7.6±6.0% at baseline and 6.2±4.8% at 8 weeks; and placebo, 6.5±3.8% at baseline and 7.1±4.9% at 8 weeks). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, uric acid lowering did not affect endothelial function in overweight or obese nonhypertensive individuals. These data do not support the hypothesis that uric acid is causally related to endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism for development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Digestive Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Khaled; Eltayeb, Azza A.; Mohamad, Ismail L.; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman A.; Elserogy, Yasser; Bjørklund, Geir; El-Houfey, Amira A.; Nicholson, Bubba

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is growing evidence for a gut-brain connection associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This suggests a potential benefit from introduced digestive enzymes for children with ASD. Methods We performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial on 101 children with ASD (82 boys and 19 girls) aged from 3 to 9 years. ASD patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria. Structured interviews of at least one hour each both with the parents and the child were performed. Later on, another two hours-session was conducted applying the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). ASD patients were randomized to receive digestive enzymes or placebo. Results The ASD group receiving digestive enzyme therapy for 3 months had significant improvement in emotional response, general impression autistic score, general behavior and gastrointestinal symptoms. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of digestive enzyme in our population of ASD patients. Conclusion Digestive enzymes are inexpensive, readily available, have an excellent safety profile, and have mildly beneficial effects in ASD patients. Depending on the parameter measured in our study, we propose digestive enzymes for managing symptoms of ASD. Digestive enzyme therapy may be a possible option in treatment protocols for ASD in the future. PMID:26243847

  13. Body Acupuncture for Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Min-Kyung; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Kyungwon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether improvements in nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS), depression and anxiety are greater for body acupuncture than for sham acupuncture. Smoking volunteers from the public were randomized to receive six sessions of either real or sham acupuncture for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was NWS measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Score, and the secondary measures were scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Eighty volunteers were randomized into real acupuncture (n = 38) and sham acupuncture (n = 42) groups, of which 46 subjects (22 and 24 in the real and sham acupuncture groups, respectively) completed the treatment and the 2-week follow-up. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the NWS did not differ significantly between the real and sham acupuncture groups immediately after the treatment (12.2 ± 9.7 and 12.8 ± 7.7, respectively; mean ± SD) and at the 2-week follow-up (11.7 ± 10.2 and 12.6 ± 7.8). Both groups also showed similar improvements in BDI and BAI scores. These results indicate that the real acupuncture treatment tested in this trial was no more effective than sham acupuncture at reducing NWS, depression and anxiety for smoking cessation. PMID:18955303

  14. Body Acupuncture for Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Min-Kyung; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Kyungwon; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated whether improvements in nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS), depression and anxiety are greater for body acupuncture than for sham acupuncture. Smoking volunteers from the public were randomized to receive six sessions of either real or sham acupuncture for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was NWS measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Score, and the secondary measures were scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Eighty volunteers were randomized into real acupuncture (n = 38) and sham acupuncture (n = 42) groups, of which 46 subjects (22 and 24 in the real and sham acupuncture groups, respectively) completed the treatment and the 2-week follow-up. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the NWS did not differ significantly between the real and sham acupuncture groups immediately after the treatment (12.2 ± 9.7 and 12.8 ± 7.7, respectively; mean ± SD) and at the 2-week follow-up (11.7 ± 10.2 and 12.6 ± 7.8). Both groups also showed similar improvements in BDI and BAI scores. These results indicate that the real acupuncture treatment tested in this trial was no more effective than sham acupuncture at reducing NWS, depression and anxiety for smoking cessation.

  15. Reducing depressive symptomatology with a smartphone app: study protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Giosan, Cezar; Cobeanu, Oana; Mogoaşe, Cristina; Szentagotai, Aurora; Mureşan, Vlad; Boian, Rareș

    2017-05-12

    Depression has become one of the leading contributors to the global disease burden. Evidence-based treatments for depression are available, but access to them is still limited in some instances. As technology has become more integrated into mental health care, computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols have become available and have been recently transposed to mobile environments (e.g., smartphones) in the form of "apps." Preliminary research on some depression apps has shown promising results in reducing subthreshold or mild to moderate depressive symptoms. However, this small number of studies reports a low statistical power and they have not yet been replicated. Moreover, none of them included an active placebo comparison group. This is problematic, as a "digital placebo effect" may explain some of the positive effects documented until now. The aim of this study is to test a newly developed mobile app firmly grounded in the CBT theory of depression to determine whether this app is clinically useful in decreasing moderate depressive symptoms when compared with an active placebo. Additionally, we are interested in the app's effect on emotional wellbeing and depressogenic cognitions. Romanian-speaking adults (18 years and older) with access to a computer and the Internet and owning a smartphone are included in the study. A randomized, three-arm clinical trial is being conducted (i.e., active intervention, placebo intervention and delayed intervention). Two hundred and twenty participants with moderate depressive symptoms (i.e., obtaining scores >9 and ≤16 on the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) will be randomized to the three conditions. Participants undergoing therapy, presenting serious mental health problems, or legal or health issues that would prevent them from using the app, as well as participants reporting suicidal ideation are excluded. Participants randomized to the active and placebo interventions will use the smartphone app for 6

  16. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with sertraline: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Victoria PY; Cheung, Tin K; Wong, Wai M; Pang, Roberta; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Consecutive tertiary hospital patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) according to the Rome II criteria with a Hong Kong dyspepsia index (HKDI) of greater than 16 were recruited. Patients commenced enrolment prior to the inception of the Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia. All patients were ethnic Chinese, had a normal upper endoscopy and were Helicobacter pylori negative prior to enrolment. Study patients were randomized to receive sertraline 50 mg or placebo daily for 8 wk. HKDI symptom scores, quality of life, hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale and global symptom relief were evaluated before, during and after treatment. Adverse effects were monitored during and after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 193 patients were randomized in the intention to treat (ITT), and 150 patients were included in the per protocol (PP) analysis. In both the ITT and PP, there was no difference in the primary outcome of global dyspepsia symptoms between the sertraline and placebo groups at week 8. In the ITT analysis, 98 and 95 patients were randomized to the sertraline and placebo groups respectively. A total of 43 patients withdrew from the study (22.3%) by week 8, with 23 of the 24 drop-outs in the sertraline group occurring prior to week 4 (95.8%). In contrast, in the placebo arm, 11 of 19 patients dropped out by week 4 (57.9%). Utilizing the last response carried forward to account for the drop-outs, there were no differences between the sertraline and placebo groups at baseline in terms of the HKDI, HKDI 26.08 ± 6.19 vs 26.70 ± 5.89, P = 0.433; and at week 8, HKDI 22.41 ± 6.36 vs 23.25 ± 7.30, P = 0.352 respectively. In the PP analysis, 74 and 76 patients were randomized to the sertraline and placebo groups respectively. At baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between the

  17. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  18. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cenicriviroc for Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis with Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Scott L; Ratziu, Vlad; Harrison, Stephen A; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Caballeria, Juan; Francque, Sven; Farrell, Geoffrey; Kowdley, Kris V; Craxi, Antonio; Simon, Krzysztof; Fischer, Laurent; Melchor-Khan, Liza; Vest, Jeffrey; Wiens, Brian L; Vig, Pamela; Seyedkazemi, Star; Goodman, Zachary; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Loomba, Rohit; Tacke, Frank; Sanyal, Arun; Lefebvre, Eric

    2017-08-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual antagonist of C-C chemokine receptor types 2 and 5, for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with liver fibrosis. A randomized, double-blind, multinational phase 2b study enrolled subjects with NASH, a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score [NAS] ≥4, and liver fibrosis (stages 1-3, NASH Clinical Research Network) at 81 clinical sites. Subjects (N = 289) were randomly assigned CVC 150 mg or placebo. Primary outcome was ≥2-point improvement in NAS and no worsening of fibrosis at year 1. Key secondary outcomes were: resolution of steatohepatitis and no worsening of fibrosis; improvement in fibrosis by ≥1 stage and no worsening of steatohepatitis. Biomarkers of inflammation and adverse events were assessed. Full study recruitment was achieved. The primary end point of NAS improvement in the intent-to-treat population and resolution of steatohepatitis was achieved in a similar proportion of subjects on CVC (N = 145) and placebo (N = 144) (16% vs 19%, P = 0.52 and 8% vs 6%, P = 0.49, respectively). However, the fibrosis end point was met in significantly more subjects on CVC than placebo (20% vs 10%; P = 0.02). Treatment benefits were greater in those with higher disease activity and fibrosis stage at baseline. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation were reduced with CVC. Safety and tolerability of CVC were comparable to placebo. After 1 year of CVC treatment, twice as many subjects achieved improvement in fibrosis and no worsening of steatohepatitis compared with placebo. Given the urgent need to develop antifibrotic therapies in NASH, these findings warrant phase 3 evaluation. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02217475 (CENTAUR). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Donepezil for Irradiated Brain Tumor Survivors: A Phase III Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Stephen R.; Case, L. Doug; Peiffer, Ann; Naughton, Michelle M.; Chan, Michael D.; Stieber, Volker W.; Moore, Dennis F.; Falchuk, Steven C.; Piephoff, James V.; Edenfield, William J.; Giguere, Jeffrey K.; Loghin, Monica E.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Neurotoxic effects of brain irradiation include cognitive impairment in 50% to 90% of patients. Prior studies have suggested that donepezil, a neurotransmitter modulator, may improve cognitive function. Patients and Methods A total of 198 adult brain tumor survivors ≥ 6 months after partial- or whole-brain irradiation were randomly assigned to receive a single daily dose (5 mg for 6 weeks, 10 mg for 18 weeks) of donepezil or placebo. A cognitive test battery assessing memory, attention, language, visuomotor, verbal fluency, and executive functions was administered before random assignment and at 12 and 24 weeks. A cognitive composite score (primary outcome) and individual cognitive domains were evaluated. Results Of this mostly middle-age, married, non-Hispanic white sample, 66% had primary brain tumors, 27% had brain metastases, and 8% underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the composite scores did not differ significantly between groups (P = .48); however, significant differences favoring donepezil were observed for memory (recognition, P = .027; discrimination, P = .007) and motor speed and dexterity (P = .016). Significant interactions between pretreatment cognitive function and treatment were found for cognitive composite (P = .01), immediate recall (P = .05), delayed recall (P = .004), attention (P = .01), visuomotor skills (P = .02), and motor speed and dexterity (P < .001), with the benefits of donepezil greater for those who were more cognitively impaired before study treatment. Conclusion Treatment with donepezil did not significantly improve the overall composite score, but it did result in modest improvements in several cognitive functions, especially among patients with greater pretreatment impairments. PMID:25897156

  20. Effects of Coriandrum sativum Syrup on Migraine: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Zayeri, Farid; Minaei, Bagher; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Amin, Gholamreza; Ghobadi, Ali; Mirzaei, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most common and debilitating neurological problems. Although numerous preventive drugs are used to treat migraine, their complications are unavoidable. Application of herbal medicine, especially well-known medicinal plants, to treatment of chronic diseases, like migraine, could be effective. Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) fruit is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs in Persian medicine, which has been used to treat headache. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity and frequency of migraine. A total of 68 migraineurs, who had the eligibility criteria, according to international headache society diagnostic criteria, were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). In addition to 500 mg of sodium valproate per day, in intervention group, they received 15 mL of Coriander fruit syrup and 15 mL of placebo syrup, in control group, three times a day, during a month. The subjects were followed for clinical efficacy at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. The number of migraine attacks per week, as well as the duration and severity of attacks, were evaluated. Of 68 patients randomized, 66 were included in analysis. The generalized estimating equations analysis showed that the Coriander fruit syrup decreased duration, severity and frequency of migraine, in the intervention group (P < 0.001). To be more precise, the mean migraine duration, severity and frequency, in the intervention group, were 5.7 hours, 3.65 units and about 50% less than control group, respectively. Results of this study showed that C. sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree.

  1. A phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trial of tadalafil for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Victor, Ronald G; Sweeney, H Lee; Finkel, Richard; McDonald, Craig M; Byrne, Barry; Eagle, Michelle; Goemans, Nathalie; Vandenborne, Krista; Dubrovsky, Alberto L; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miceli, M Carrie; Furlong, Pat; Landry, John; Elashoff, Robert; Cox, David

    2017-09-29

    To conduct a randomized trial to test the primary hypothesis that once-daily tadalafil, administered orally for 48 weeks, lessens the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three hundred thirty-one participants with DMD 7 to 14 years of age taking glucocorticoids were randomized to tadalafil 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), tadalafil 0.6 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) after 48 weeks. Secondary efficacy measures included North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed function tests. Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) was a prespecified exploratory outcome. Tadalafil had no effect on the primary outcome: 48-week declines in 6MWD were 51.0 ± 9.3 m with placebo, 64.7 ± 9.8 m with low-dose tadalafil (p = 0.307 vs placebo), and 59.1 ± 9.4 m with high-dose tadalafil (p = 0.538 vs placebo). Tadalafil also had no effect on secondary outcomes. In boys >10 years of age, total PUL score and shoulder subscore declined less with low-dose tadalafil than placebo. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tadalafil and the DMD disease state. Tadalafil did not lessen the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with DMD. Further studies should be considered to confirm the hypothesis-generating upper limb data and to determine whether ambulatory decline can be slowed by initiation of tadalafil before 7 years of age. NCT01865084. This study provides Class I evidence that tadalafil does not slow ambulatory decline in 7- to 14-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Ropivacaine Intramuscular Paracervical Injections for Pediatric Headache: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Susan K; Perry, Michelle C; Caperell, Kerry; Coffman, Keith A; Hickey, Robert W

    2017-09-01

    We seek to determine whether ropivacaine cervical paraspinal injections compared with normal saline solution injections provide headache relief to pediatric patients that is sufficient for emergency department (ED) discharge. We enrolled children aged 7 to 17 years in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial of patients presenting to a pediatric ED with headache. Subjects were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: bilateral cervical paraspinal injections of either (1) 0.5% ropivacaine or (2) normal saline solution, or (3) a natural history group (not blinded) receiving no headache therapy for the first 30 minutes. Pain scores were assessed at enrollment and at 10-, 20-, and 30-minute intervals after the administration of the injections. After the intervention period of 30 minutes, additional therapy was provided as needed. Primary outcome was the proportion of children discharged with adequate pain relief at 30 minutes without additional therapy. Secondary outcomes included reduction in pain scores, reoccurrence of headache, and re-presentation to health care with headache. One hundred fifty-three children were enrolled. The proportion discharged with adequate pain relief 30 minutes after the injections did not differ between the 2 intervention groups (32% in the ropivacaine group versus 28% in the saline solution group; effect difference 4%; 95% confidence interval -14% to 21%). In contrast, only 4% percent of patients in the natural history group were discharged without additional therapy after the 30-minute assessment. Reduction of pain scores (2.0 and 2.2 in ropivacaine versus saline solution), headache reoccurrence, and return to care was similar between the 2 treatment groups. Cervical paraspinal injections of either ropivacaine or saline solution were effective for approximately one third of patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Coriandrum sativum Syrup on Migraine: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Zayeri, Farid; Minaei, Bagher; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Amin, Gholamreza; Ghobadi, Ali; Mirzaei, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is one of the most common and debilitating neurological problems. Although numerous preventive drugs are used to treat migraine, their complications are unavoidable. Application of herbal medicine, especially well-known medicinal plants, to treatment of chronic diseases, like migraine, could be effective. Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) fruit is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs in Persian medicine, which has been used to treat headache. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity and frequency of migraine. Patients and Methods: A total of 68 migraineurs, who had the eligibility criteria, according to international headache society diagnostic criteria, were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). In addition to 500 mg of sodium valproate per day, in intervention group, they received 15 mL of Coriander fruit syrup and 15 mL of placebo syrup, in control group, three times a day, during a month. The subjects were followed for clinical efficacy at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. The number of migraine attacks per week, as well as the duration and severity of attacks, were evaluated. Results: Of 68 patients randomized, 66 were included in analysis. The generalized estimating equations analysis showed that the Coriander fruit syrup decreased duration, severity and frequency of migraine, in the intervention group (P < 0.001). To be more precise, the mean migraine duration, severity and frequency, in the intervention group, were 5.7 hours, 3.65 units and about 50% less than control group, respectively. Conclusions: Results of this study showed that C. sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree. PMID:26889386

  4. Etanercept in Alzheimer disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Joseph; Brook, Laura; Hopkins, Vivienne; Teeling, Jessica; Püntener, Ursula; Culliford, David; Sharples, Richard; Sharif, Saif; McFarlane, Brady; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Passmore, Peter; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive

    2015-05-26

    To determine whether the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept is well tolerated and obtain preliminary data on its safety in Alzheimer disease dementia. In a double-blind study, patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease dementia were randomized (1:1) to subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg) once weekly or identical placebo over a 24-week period. Tolerability and safety of this medication was recorded including secondary outcomes of cognition, global function, behavior, and systemic cytokine levels at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and following a 4-week washout period. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2009-013400-31) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01068353). Forty-one participants (mean age 72.4 years; 61% men) were randomized to etanercept (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21). Etanercept was well tolerated; 90% of participants (18/20) completed the study compared with 71% (15/21) in the placebo group. Although infections were more common in the etanercept group, there were no serious adverse events or new safety concerns. While there were some interesting trends that favored etanercept, there were no statistically significant changes in cognition, behavior, or global function. This study showed that subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg/wk) was well tolerated in this small group of patients with Alzheimer disease dementia, but a larger more heterogeneous group needs to be tested before recommending its use for broader groups of patients. This study shows Class I evidence that weekly subcutaneous etanercept is well tolerated in Alzheimer disease dementia. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis in third molar surgery: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial using split-mouth technique.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, A; Morkel, J A; Zafar, S

    2010-02-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce postoperative complications in third molar surgery remains controversial. The study was a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 100 patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Each patient acted as their own control using the split-mouth technique. Two unilateral impacted third molars were removed under antibiotic cover and the other two were removed without antibiotic cover. The first group received antibiotics on the first surgical visit. On the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks), placebo capsules were given or vice versa. The second group received antibiotics with continued therapy for 2 days on the first surgical visit and on the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks) placebo capsules were given or vice versa. Pain, swelling, infection, trismus and temperature were recorded on days 3, 7 and 14 after surgery. Of 380 impactions, 6 sockets (2%) became infected. There was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate, pain, swelling, trismus, and temperature between the two groups (p>0.05). Results of the study showed that prophylactic antibiotics did not have a statistically significant effect on postoperative infections in third molar surgery and should not be routinely administered when third molars are removed in non-immunocompromised patients.

  6. Vernakalant hydrochloride for the rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kowey, Peter R; Dorian, Paul; Mitchell, L Brent; Pratt, Craig M; Roy, Denis; Schwartz, Peter J; Sadowski, Jerzy; Sobczyk, Dorota; Bochenek, Andrzej; Toft, Egon

    2009-12-01

    Postoperative atrial arrhythmias are common and are associated with considerable morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vernakalant for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) after cardiac surgery. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vernakalant for the conversion of AF or AFL after coronary artery bypass graft, valvular surgery, or both. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive a 10-minute infusion of 3 mg/kg vernakalant or placebo. If AF or AFL was present after a 15-minute observation period, then a second 10-minute infusion of 2 mg/kg vernakalant or placebo was given. The primary end point was the conversion of postcardiac surgery AF or AFL to sinus rhythm within 90 minutes of dosing. In patients with AF, 47 of 100 (47%) who received vernakalant converted to SR compared with 7 of 50 (14%) patients who received placebo (P<0.001). The median time to conversion was 12 minutes. Vernakalant was not effective in converting postoperative AFL to sinus rhythm. Two serious adverse events occurred within 24 hours of vernakalant administration (hypotension and complete atrioventricular block). There were no cases of torsades de pointes, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or ventricular fibrillation. There were no deaths. Vernakalant was safe and effective in the rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm in patients who had AF after cardiac surgery. clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00125320.

  7. Olanzapine versus Placebo in Adolescents with Schizophrenia; a 6-Week, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Schulz, Charles; McDougle, Christopher; Frazier, Jean; Dittman, Ralf; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Bauer, Theresa; Xu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Carlson, Janice; Tohen, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia was tested through a placebo-controlled trial involving one hundred seven inpatient and outpatients adolescents. Patients who took olanzapine experienced significant symptom improvement.

  8. Olanzapine versus Placebo in Adolescents with Schizophrenia; a 6-Week, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Schulz, Charles; McDougle, Christopher; Frazier, Jean; Dittman, Ralf; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Bauer, Theresa; Xu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Carlson, Janice; Tohen, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia was tested through a placebo-controlled trial involving one hundred seven inpatient and outpatients adolescents. Patients who took olanzapine experienced significant symptom improvement.

  9. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gracious, Barbara L; Chirieac, Madalina C; Costescu, Stefan; Finucane, Teresa L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This clinical trial evaluated whether supplementation with flax oil, containing the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (α-LNA), safely reduced symptom severity in youth with bipolar disorder. Methods Children and adolescents aged 6-17 years with symptomatic bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (n = 51), manic, hypomanic, mixed, or depressed, were randomized to either flax oil capsules containing 550 mg α-LNA per 1 gram or an olive oil placebo adjunctively or as monotherapy. Doses were titrated to 12 capsules per day as tolerated over 16 weeks. Primary outcomes included changes in the Young Mania Rating Scale, Child Depression Rating Scale-Revised, and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar ratings using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Results There were no significant differences in primary outcome measures when compared by treatment assignment. However, clinician-rated Global Symptom Severity was negatively correlated with final serum omega-3 fatty acid compositions: % α-LNA (r = −0.45, p < 0.007), % eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (r = −0.47, p < 0.005), and positively correlated with final arachidonic acid (AA) (r = 0.36, p < 0.05) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) n-6 (r = 0.48, p < 0.004). The mean duration of treatment for α-LNA was 11.8 weeks versus 8 weeks for placebo; however, the longer treatment duration for α-LNA was not significant after controlling for baseline variables. Subjects discontinued the study for continued depressive symptoms. Conclusions Studies of essential fatty acid supplementation are feasible and well tolerated in the pediatric population. Although flax oil may decrease severity of illness in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder who have meaningful increases in serum EPA percent levels and/or decreased AA and DPA n-6 levels, individual variations in conversion of α-LNA to EPA and docosahexaenoic acid as well as dosing burden favor the use of fish oil both for clinical trials and clinical practice. Additionally

  10. Davunetide for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720

  11. Augmentative quetiapine in partial/nonresponders with generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Serati, Marta; Buoli, Massimiliano; Dell'Osso, Bernardo

    2011-07-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose augmentative quetiapine (mean dose=50 mg/day) in patients with GAD and partial/no response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Twenty patients with GAD and partial/no response to SSRIs were randomized to quetiapine (n=10) or placebo (n=10) for 8 weeks, continuing their treatment with SSRIs. Analyses of variance with repeated measures on Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Clinical Global Impression (CGIs; severity of illness) were carried out at baseline and after 8 weeks and the number of responders/remitters was computed and compared between the groups. HAM-A scores at baseline were 15.60 (± 4.48) in the placebo group and 18.50 (± 6.59) in the quetiapine group, and at the end-point, HAM-A scores in the placebo group were 10.40 (± 4.88) and 9.20 (± 5.86) in the quetiapine group. A significant time-by-treatment effect was found on the HAM-A (F=5.19, P=0.035) and CGIs scores (F=19.60, P<0.001) in favor of the quetiapine group. The number of responders was numerically superior in the quetiapine group (60 vs. 30%) without reaching statistical significance (χ=1.82, degree of freedom=1, P=0.37, φ=0.30). Remitters were 40% for the quetiapine group versus 20% for the placebo group (χ=0.95, degree of freedom=1, P=0.63, φ=0.22). Low-dose augmentative quetiapine may be an useful treatment option for patients with GAD and partial/no response to SSRIs. The lack of double-blind conditions and the limited sample size may limit the confidence in the reported results. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these data.

  12. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanfang; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Jiani; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. Methods We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Results The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80–14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80–+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25–5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69–+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. Conclusion EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since

  13. Oral isoflavone supplementation on endometrial thickness: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Yuan, Feixiang; Gao, Jian; Shan, Boer; Ren, Yulan; Wang, Huaying; Gao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoflavone from soy and other plants modulate hormonal effects in women, and the hormone disorder might result in different caners including endometrial cancer. However, it's effect on the risk of endometrial cancer is still inconclusive. We aimed to assess the effects of isoflavone on endometrial thickness, a risk factor of endometrial cancer in peri- and post-menopausal women. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral isoflavone supplementation on endometrial thickness in peri- and post-menopausal women. Electronic searches were performed on the PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, web of science, CINAHL, and WHO ICTRP to August 1st, 2015. Reviews and reference lists of relevant articles were also searched to identify more studies. Summary estimates of standard mean differences (SMD's) and 95%CIs were obtained with random-effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated with meta-regression and stratified analyses. Results A total of 23 trials were included in the current analysis. The overall results did not show significant change of endometrial thickness after oral isoflavone supplementation (23 studies, 2167subjects; SMD:-0.05; 95%CI:-0.23, 0.13; P=0.60). Stratified analysis suggested that a daily dose of more than 54mg could decrease the endometrial thickness for 0.26mm (10 trials, 984subjects; SMD:-0.26; 95%CI:-0.45, −0.07; P=0.007). Furthermore, isoflavone supplementation significantly decrease the endometrial thickness for 0.23mm in North American studies (7 trials, 726 subjects; SMD:-0.23; 95%CI:-0.44, −0.01; P=0.04), but it suggested an increase for 0.23mm in Asian studies (3 trials, 224 subjects; SMD: 0.23; 95%CI:-0.04, 0.50; P=0.10). Conclusion Oral isoflavone supplementation might have different effects in different populations and at different daily doses. Multiple-centre, larger, and long-term trials are deserved to further evaluate its effect. PMID:26967050

  14. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating cysteamine in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Verny, Christophe; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Durr, Alexandra; Goizet, Cyril; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Simonin, Clémence; Tranchant, Christine; Calvas, Fabienne; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Charles, Perrine; Youssov, Katia; Scherer, Clarisse; Prundean, Adriana; Olivier, Audrey; Reynier, Pascal; Saudou, Frédéric; Maison, Patrick; Allain, Philippe; von Studnitz, Erica; Bonneau, Dominique

    2017-06-01

    Cysteamine has been demonstrated as potentially effective in numerous animal models of Huntington's disease. Ninety-six patients with early-stage Huntington's disease were randomized to 1200 mg delayed-release cysteamine bitartrate or placebo daily for 18 months. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the UHDRS Total Motor Score. A linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was used to assess treatment effect, expressed as the least-squares mean difference of cysteamine minus placebo, with negative values indicating less deterioration relative to placebo. At 18 months, the treatment effect was not statistically significant - least-squares mean difference, -1.5 ± 1.71 (P = 0.385) - although this did represent less mean deterioration from baseline for the treated group relative to placebo. Treatment with cysteamine was safe and well tolerated. Efficacy of cysteamine was not demonstrated in this study population of patients with Huntington's disease. Post hoc analyses indicate the need for definitive future studies. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  16. Effects of Lornoxicam on Anastomotic Healing: A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Control Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Drakopoulou, Stamatoula; Vezakis, Antonios; Karandrea, Despoina; Aravidou, Eftychia; Konti-Paphiti, Agathi; Argyra, Erifili; Voros, Dionisios

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. With the implementation of multimodal analgesia regimens, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered for optimal pain control and reduction of opioid use. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of lornoxicam, a NSAID, on anastomotic healing employing an animal model. Materials and Methods. A total of 28 Wistar rats were randomly assigned in two groups. All animals underwent ascending colonic transection followed by an end-to-end hand sewn anastomosis. Group 1 received intraperitoneally lornoxicam before and daily after surgery. Group 2 received intraperitoneally an equal volume of placebo. Half of the animals in each group were euthanized on the 3rd pod and the remaining on the 7th pod. Macro- and microscopic indicators of anastomotic healing were compared using a two-tailed Fisher exact test. Results. The lornoxicam group significantly decreased fibroblast in growth and reepithelization of the mucosa at the anastomotic site on the 3rd pod and significantly increased occurrence of deep reaching defects, necrosis, and microabscess on the 7th pod. Conclusion. Lornoxicam administration during the perioperative period adversely affects histologic parameters of intestinal anastomotic healing. These effects of lornoxicam administration were not found to induce significant increase of anastomotic dehiscence in the rat model. PMID:27144224

  17. Citicoline Combination Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Roohi-Azizi, Mahtab; Arabzadeh, Somaye; Amidfar, Meysam; Salimi, Samrand; Zarindast, Mohammad Reza; Talaei, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    Residual symptoms of major depressive disorder are a source of long-term morbidity. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate this morbidity and enhance patient quality of life. Citicoline has been used for vascular accidents and has been effective in cognitive rehabilitation. It has been used successfully to reduce craving in patients with substance abuse disorder and for mood management of bipolar disorder. Here, we test citicoline effectiveness as an adjuvant therapy in major depression. A double-blind randomized trial was designed on 50 patients with major depressive disorder who were under treatment with citalopram. Patients were allocated to 2 groups and received citicoline (100 mg twice a day) or placebo as an adjuvant treatment for 6 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Significantly greater improvement was observed in the HDRS scores of the citicoline group compared with the placebo group from baseline to weeks 2, 4, and 6 (Ps = 0.030, 0.032, and 0.021, respectively). Repeated-measures general linear model demonstrated a significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS score (F2.10,101.22 = 3.12, P = 0.04). Remission rate was significantly higher in the citicoline group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.045). Citicoline was an effective adjuvant to citalopram in the therapy of major depressive disorder.

  18. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Alavinia, Mohammad; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of herbal plants have been reported to treat various gynecological problems of women. This study was set out to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in high school girls. Ninety-two young women who experienced HMB and met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Participants were evaluated for six consecutive menstrual cycles. During 3 assessment cycles, their HMB was confirmed by Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart. They were then randomly allocated to two study groups to receive either ginger or placebo capsules. The participants filled in the same chart during three intervention cycles. The level of menstrual blood loss dramatically declined during the three intervention cycles in ginger-receiving group. The decrease of blood loss in ginger-receiving group was significantly more remarkable than that of participants receiving placebo (p<0.001). Minimum number of participants reported adverse effects. HMB is highly prevalent among young women. Considering the significance of appropriate and timely treatment and also the importance of prevention of unwanted consequences, ginger may be considered as an effective therapeutic option for HMB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Vitamin E neuroprotection against cisplatin ototoxicity: Preliminary results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Villani, Veronica; Zucchella, Chiara; Cristalli, Giovanni; Galiè, Edvina; Bianco, Francesco; Giannarelli, Diana; Carpano, Silvia; Spriano, Giuseppe; Pace, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of vitamin E in reducing the cisplatin (CDDP)-induced ototoxicity. This study evaluated vitamin E supplementation as a protecting agent against CDDP-induced ototoxicity. Patients who started CDDP were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E supplementation at 400 mg per day (group 1) or placebo (group 2). Audiograms and evoked brainstem responses were obtained at baseline, and after 1, 2, and 3 months. Twenty-three patients affected by solid malignancies were enrolled (13 in group 1 and 10 in group 2). At 1 month, a significant hearing loss in group 2 at both 2000 HZ (right ear: p = .05; left ear: p = .04) and 8000 HZ (right ear: p = .04; left ear: p = .03) was detected when compared to baseline values. Audiograms did not show significant changes. At 1 month, evoked brainstem responses remained unchanged in both arms without significant differences between groups. These preliminary findings confirm the neuroprotective properties of vitamin E against the CDDP-induced ototoxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2118-E2121, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kim, Soeun; Cederblom, Lisa; Moe, Ardis; Ling, Walter; Steven, Shoptaw

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare modafinil to placebo for reducing methamphetamine (MA) use, improving retention, and reducing depressive symptoms and MA cravings. Rates of adverse events and cigarette smoking with modafinil versus placebo were also compared. Methods Following a 2-week, non-medication lead-in period, 71 treatment-seeking MA dependent participants were randomly assigned to modafinil (400 mg once daily; N= 34) or placebo (once daily; N= 37) for 12-weeks under double-blind conditions. Participants attended clinic thrice weekly to provide urine samples analyzed for MA-metabolite, to complete research assessments, and to receive contingency management and weekly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) sessions. Results There were no statistically significant effects for modafinil on MA use, retention, depressive symptoms, or MA cravings in pre-planned analyses. Outcomes for retention and MA use favored modafinil in a post hoc analysis among participants with low CBT attendance and among participants with baseline high frequency of MA use (MA use on >18 of past 30 days), but did not reach statistical significance in these small subgroups. Modafinil was safe and well tolerated and did not increase cigarette smoking. Conclusions Modafinil was no more effective than placebo at 400 mg daily in a general sample of MA users. A post hoc analysis showing a trend favoring modafinil among subgroups with baseline high frequency MA use and low CBT attendance suggests that further evaluation of modafinil in MA users is warranted. PMID:20092966

  1. Electromyographic assessment of dexamethasone in treatment of post-tonsillectomy pain: randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Aviram, Eliad; Krakovski, Daniel; Gavriel, Haim; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2011-06-01

    Surface electromyographic (sEMG) study of post-tonsillectomy swallow-evoked muscular reactions was performed to assess analgesic properties of dexamethasone. Sixty randomly chosen operated adults were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 30) was treated with dexamethasone (Dexacort, 20 mg); group 2 (n = 30) was treated with placebo. Pain assessment included visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score and the EMG data such as the timing, electric amplitude and graphic patterns of muscular activity during deglutition. We investigated masseter, infrahyoid and submental-submandibular muscles. Records from trapezius muscle were used for control. The results were compared with previously established normative database. The sEMG data were compared with VAS pain score with regard to changes in clinical condition of the patients. Surface EMG signs of analgesia after tonsillectomy did not always correspond with the VAS pain score. Dexamethasone normalizes muscular activity in deglutition as detected by the EMG records. Statistically significant difference in muscle reactions was detected between the 2 groups. If dexamethasone is administered, the reduction of the postoperative pain could be secondary to the reduction of edema. The sEMG might be used for quantitative evaluation of analgesics via assessment of neuromuscular reactions to analgesia.

  2. Premedication with peppermint oil capsules in colonoscopy: a double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial study.

    PubMed

    Shavakhi, A; Ardestani, S K; Taki, M; Goli, M; Keshteli, A H

    2012-09-01

    Colonic spasm is an important problem in colonoscopy for endoscopists to advance the colonoscope and visualize the mucosa. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin) as an orally administered antispasmodic premedication in colonoscopy. Sixty-five adult patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomized to receive either Colpermin (n = 33) or placebo capsules (n = 32) as premedication, 4 hours before the procedure. An experienced endoscopist performed colonoscopy. Outcome measures included cecal intubation and total procedure time, spasm score, pain score, endoscopist satisfaction and patients' willingness to repeat colonoscopy. Duration of both total procedure time and cecal intubation time in patients in the Colpermin group were shorter than that in ones in the placebo group. Scores for colonic spasm and pain were significantly lower in the Colpermin group. The endoscopist satisfaction score was higher in the Colpermin group and patients in the Colpermin group were more willing to repeat colonoscopy in the future. Premedication with Colpermin was beneficial in terms of the time required for cecal intubation and total procedure time, reducing colonic spasm, increasing endoscopist satisfaction and decreasing pain in patients during colonoscopy.

  3. Relationship Between Blood Flow and Performance Recovery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Borne, Rachel; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, François

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of different limb blood-flow levels on cycling-performance recovery, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate. Thirty-three high-intensity intermittent-trained athletes completed two 30-s Wingate anaerobic test sessions, 3 × 30-s (WAnT 1-3) and 1 × 30-s (WAnT 4), on a cycling ergometer. WAnT 1-3 and WAnT 4 were separated by a randomly assigned 24-min recovery intervention selected from among blood-flow restriction, passive rest, placebo stimulation, or neuromuscular electrical-stimulation-induced blood flow. Calf arterial inflow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography at regular intervals throughout the recovery period. Performance was measured in terms of peak and mean power output during WAnT 1 and WAnT 4. After the recovery interventions, a large (r = .68 [90% CL .42; .83]) and very large (r = .72 (90% CL .49; .86]) positive correlation were observed between the change in calf arterial inflow and the change in mean and peak power output, respectively. Calf arterial inflow was significantly higher during the neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation recovery intervention than with the blood-flow-restriction, passive-rest, and placebo-stimulation interventions (P < .001). This corresponds to the only intervention that allowed performance recovery (P > .05). No recovery effect was linked to heart rate or blood lactate concentration levels. For the first time, these data support the existence of a positive correlation between an increase in blood flow and performance recovery between bouts of high-intensity exercise. As a practical consideration, this effect can be obtained by using neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced blood flow since this passive, simple strategy could be easily applied during short-term recovery.

  4. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study of D-Cycloserine in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kallos, Justiss; Housley, Stephen N.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Up to 60% of patients do not fully recover despite intensive physical therapy treatment. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) have been shown to play a role in synaptic plasticity when activated. D-Cycloserine promotes NMDA receptor function by binding to receptors with unoccupied glycine sites. These receptors are involved in learning and memory. We hypothesized that D-cycloserine, when combined with robotic-assisted physiotherapy (RAP), would result in greater gains compared with placebo + RAP in stroke survivors. Participants (n = 14) were randomized to D-cycloserine plus RAP or placebo plus RAP. Functional, cognitive, and quality-of-life measures were used to assess recovery. There was significant improvement in grip strength of the affected hand within both groups from baseline to 3 weeks (95% confidence interval for mean change, 3.95 ± 2.96 to 4.90 ± 3.56 N for D-cycloserine and 5.72 ± 3.98 to 8.44 ± 4.90 N for control). SIS mood domain showed improvement for both groups (95% confidence interval for mean change, 72.6 ± 16.3 to 82.9 ± 10.9 for D-cycloserine and 82.9 ± 13.5 to 90.3 ± 9.9 for control). This preliminary study does not provide evidence that D-cycloserine can provide greater gains in learning compared with placebo for stroke survivors. PMID:26587287

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of antidepressants in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, M.P.; Kurlan, R.; Lyness, J.M.; Como, P.G.; Pearson, N.; Factor, S.A.; Juncos, J.; Serrano Ramos, C.; Brodsky, M.; Manning, C.; Marsh, L.; Shulman, L.; Fernandez, H.H.; Black, K.J.; Panisset, M.; Christine, C.W.; Jiang, W.; Singer, C.; Horn, S.; Pfeiffer, R.; Rottenberg, D.; Slevin, J.; Elmer, L.; Press, D.; Hyson, H.C.; McDonald, W.; Richard, Irene; McDonald, William; McDermott, Michael; Como, Peter G.; Kurlan, Roger; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Pearson, Nancy; Sommerfeld, Barbara; Deeley, Cheryl; de la Torre, Tania; Barnard, Michele; Wilson, April; Lincoln, Maryann; Damgaard, Paula; Gerstenhaber, Melissa; Dustin, Kelly; Zappala, Nancy; Swartz, Camille; Creech, Mary; Shipley, Elda; Blankenship, Samantha; Beland, Monica; Roth, Jessie; Burnette, Heather; Foxworth, Tamara; Quesada, Monica; Lloyd, Mary; Pfeiffer, Brenda; Hansen, Joy; Folie, Joy; Wagner, Renee; Spears, Julia; Taylor, Colleen; Brown, Rachel; Iguchi, Lisa; Lim, Chen; LaDonna, Kori; Megens, Julie; Menza, Matthew; Cummings, Jeffrey; Hamer, Robert; Shannon, Kathleen; Odenkirchen, Joanne; Conwit, Robin; Beck, Christopher; LaDonna, Donna; Bausch, Jan; Kim, Scott; Chismar, Ron; Quinn, Sinead; Bean, Steve; Daigneault, Susan; Lindsay, Patricia; Ross, Tori; Kompoliti, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) in the treatment of depression in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: A total of 115 subjects with PD were enrolled at 20 sites. Subjects were randomized to receive an SSRI (paroxetine; n = 42), an SNRI (venlafaxine extended release [XR]; n = 34), or placebo (n = 39). Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for a depressive disorder, or operationally defined subsyndromal depression, and scored >12 on the first 17 items of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Subjects were followed for 12 weeks (6-week dosage adjustment, 6-week maintenance). Maximum daily dosages were 40 mg for paroxetine and 225 mg for venlafaxine XR. The primary outcome measure was change in the HAM-D score from baseline to week 12. Results: Treatment