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Sample records for prostate cancer based

  1. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  2. [Pharmaco and diet based prostate cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Rossi, Dominique; Cussenot, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, in France, 8,790 men died from prostate cancer despite a low and decreasing mortality rate. The individual risk/benefit ratio of prostate cancer screening is the focus of controversy and currently not in favor of a systematic screening program. Therefore, only prevention could reduce incidence, side effects of treatment and related mortality. Interestingly, prostate cancer prevention is also a field of controversy mainly about 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, it could be expected that pharmaco- or diet-based prevention will be a huge tool for cancer control, even more for prostate cancer burden. This review comprehensively analyses which molecules or compounds could be used in preventive trials. With regard to pharmaco-prevention, three different kinds of drugs could be identified. First drugs, which aim at mainly or even solely reduce prostate cancer risk such as 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Drugs, which aim at wider preventive impact such as: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or difluoromethylornithine. Lastly, drugs for which reducing prostate cancer incidence is merely a side effect such as statins, metformin or histones desacetylase inhibitors. With regard to diet-based prevention, two main approaches could be identified: aliments and nutriments, on one hand, and vitamin and minerals, on the other. Interestingly if compounds reach experimental plausibility, natural foods or even global diet seem to have a higher impact. Lastly, besides assessment of efficacy, effectiveness required the critical step of compliance, which might actually be the weakest link of the prevention chain.

  3. Promoter-Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0430 TITLE: Promoter -Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Pomper CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 – 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Promoter -Based...n/a 1. INTRODUCTION: This project leverages cancer-specific promoters for molecular- genetic endoradiotherapy and in the development of a universal

  4. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer What Is Prostate Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  5. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  6. Prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, D; Waxman, J

    2002-01-01

    It is a paradigm in cancer treatment that early detection and treatment improves survival. However, although screening measures lead to a higher rate of detection, for small bulk localised prostate cancer it remains unclear whether early detection and early treatment will lead to an overall decrease in mortality. The management options include surveillance, radiotherapy, and radical prostatectomy but there is no evidence base to evaluate the benefits of each approach. Advanced prostate cancer is managed by hormonal therapy. There have been major changes in treatment over the last two decades with the use of more humane treatment and developments in both chemotherapy and radiation. In this article we review the natural history and management of prostate cancer. PMID:12415080

  7. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  8. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling PRINCIPAL...in suppressing androgen signaling in prostate cancer cells. We next examined the efficacy of emodin and finasteride in growth arrest in LNCaP...phosphorylated and suppressed by AKT [32,33], which is an important survival molecule for prostate cancer . In prostate cancer cells, androgen

  9. Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    prostate cancer ." Am J Pathol 181(1): 34-42. Li, M. and L. A. Cannizzaro (1999). "Identical clonal origin of synchronous and metachronous low-grade...significant prostate cancer based on molecular alterations associated with cancer in non-neoplastic prostate tissue PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...significant prostate cancer based on molecular alterations associated with cancer in non-neoplastic prostate tissue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  10. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  11. An RBF-PSO based approach for modeling prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perracchione, Emma; Stura, Ilaria

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men; it grows slowly and it could be diagnosed in an early stage by dosing the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). However, a relapse after the primary therapy could arise in 25 - 30% of cases and different growth characteristics of the new tumor are observed. In order to get a better understanding of the phenomenon, a two parameters growth model is considered. To estimate the parameters values identifying the disease risk level a novel approach, based on combining Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with meshfree interpolation methods, is proposed.

  12. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Bey, P; Beckendorf, V; Stinès, J

    2001-10-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extracapsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk.

  13. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the cancer has not spread outside the prostate gland, common treatments include: Surgery ( radical prostatectomy ) Radiation therapy , including brachytherapy and proton therapy If you are older, your doctor may recommend simply monitoring the cancer with PSA tests and biopsies. Hormone therapy is ...

  14. Difference in the rate of rectal complications following prostate brachytherapy based on the prostate-rectum distance and the prostate longitudinal length among early prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Moon Hyung; Yu, Young Dong; Shin, Hyun Soo; Oh, Jong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the difference in rectal complications rate following prostate low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy based on prostate-rectum distance and prostate longitudinal length among early prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods From March 2008 to February 2013, 245 prostate cancer patients with a Gleason score ≤7 were treated with 125-I LDR brachytherapy. Among them, 178 patients with prostate volume 20-35 mL and a follow-up period ≥6 months were evaluated for radiation proctitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for a prebrachytherapy evaluation, and prostate-rectum distance and prostate longitudinal length were measured. The radiation proctitis was confirmed and graded via colonoscopy based on the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) toxicity criteria. Results Twenty-three patients received a colonoscopy for proctitis evaluation, and 12 were identified as grade 1 on the RTOG scale. Nine patients were diagnosed as grade 2 and 2 patients were grade 3. No patient developed grade 4 proctitis. The rectal-complication group had a mean prostate-rectum distance of 2.51±0.16 mm, while non-rectal-complication control group had 3.32±0.31 mm. The grade 1 proctitis patients had a mean prostate-rectum distance of 2.80±0.15 mm, which was significantly longer than 2.12±0.31 mm of grades 2 and 3 patient groups (p=0.045). All 11 patients of grades 2 and 3 had a prostate longitudinal length of 35.22±2.50 mm, which was longer than group 1, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.214). Conclusions As the prostate-rectum distance increased, fewer postimplantation rectal symptoms were observed. Patients with a shorter prostate-rectum distance in MRI should receive modified implantation techniques or radical prostatectomy. PMID:26366276

  15. Rare Paravertebral and Skull Base Metastases in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi; Isbell, Amir; Ogbonna, Onyekachi; Iftikhar, Hasan; Sakruti, Susmita; Atanda, Adebayo; Manchandani, Raj P.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed visceral cancer in the United States. A majority of cases exhibit an insidious course and nonaggressive tumor behavior. Prostate cancer can manifest as lesions which remain localized, regionally invading or metastasize to lymph nodes, bones, and lungs. Here, we report a unique case of metastatic prostate cancer to the right upper mediastinum, presenting as a paravertebral mass within 2 years of initial tissue diagnosis. Paravertebral spread has not been described for prostate cancer, and herein, we discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, and possible therapeutic options available in light of the literature. PMID:27920711

  16. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  17. Cohort Profile: the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden and Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0.

    PubMed

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Wigertz, Annette; Sandin, Fredrik; Garmo, Hans; Hellström, Karin; Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders; Lambe, Mats; Adolfsson, Jan; Varenhorst, Eberhard; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Stattin, Pär

    2013-08-01

    In 1987, the first Regional Prostate Cancer Register was set up in the South-East health-care region of Sweden. Other health-care regions joined and since 1998 virtually all prostate cancer (PCa) cases are registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden to provide data for quality assurance, bench marking and clinical research. NPCR includes data on tumour stage, Gleason score, serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and primary treatment. In 2008, the NPCR was linked to a number of other population-based registers by use of the personal identity number. This database named Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) has now been extended with more cases, longer follow-up and a selection of two control series of men free of PCa at the time of sampling, as well as information on brothers of men diagnosed with PCa, resulting in PCBaSe 2.0. This extension allows for studies with case-control, cohort or longitudinal case-only design on aetiological factors, pharmaceutical prescriptions and assessment of long-term outcomes. The NPCR covers >96% of all incident PCa cases registered by the Swedish Cancer Register, which has an underreporting of <3.7%. The NPCR is used to assess trends in incidence, treatment and outcome of men with PCa. Since the national registers linked to PCBaSe are complete, studies from PCBaSe 2.0 are truly population based.

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  19. Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0744 TITLE: Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated...Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0744 5c...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop biopsy based assays to

  20. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Brand, Timothy C; Canby-Hagino, Edith D; Pratap Kumar, A; Ghosh, Rita; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian M

    2006-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy with multiple potential opportunities for cancer prevention. As the genetic basis of this malignancy is further understood, prevention strategies will be developed for individual patients based on specific risk factors and pathways of carcinogenesis. The PCPT has conclusively proven that prostate cancer prevention is possible. The results of the SELECT should be available within several years. An enormous challenge for the medical community will be the development of an efficient strategy to evaluate the substantial number of dietary, behavioral, and pharmacologic prevention opportunities. Ultimately, the goal of prostate can-cer prevention is to (1) identify men who are destined to develop clinically significant prostate cancer, and (2) provide individualized agents to prevent disease development.

  1. Molecular Engineering of Vector-Based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lily Wu, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...SUBTITLE Molecular Engineering of Vector-based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Advanced Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT...reproductions will be in black and white. 14. ABSTRACT Hormone refractory and metastatic prostate cancer are not well understood. Better animal models

  2. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF? Featured Blue Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms The conversation about PSA screening really applies ... That’s why screening is such an important topic. Prostate Cancer Basics About the Prostate Risk Factors Prevention Symptoms ...

  3. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  4. Internet-Based Education for Prostate Cancer Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    or removed. This helps to keep cancer cells from growing. • Cryotherapy : A special probe is placed inside or near the prostate cancer. This...radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or cryotherapy , or a combination of these treatments. Average-risk: Benign: Not cancerous. Benign prostatic...to answer medical questions and to find better ways to prevent or treat disease. Cryotherapy : Treatment performed with an instrument that freezes

  5. CTLA-4 Blockade-Based Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor in...Kwon ED, Truong T, Choi EM, Greenberg NM, et al. Combination immunotherapy of primary prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse model using CTLA-4 blockade

  6. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Ingvar, Christian; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2016-05-01

    An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma.

  7. A Novel Imaging Approach for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Based on Endogenous Zinc Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subrata K.; Kim, Pilhan; Zhang, Xiao-an; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Moore, Anna; Lippard, Stephen J.; Medarova, Zdravka

    2010-01-01

    The early detection of prostate cancer is a life-saving event in patients harboring potentially aggressive disease. With the development of malignancy there is a dramatic reduction in the zinc content of prostate tissue associated with the inability of cancer cells to accumulate the ion. In the current study, we utilized endogenous zinc as an imaging biomarker for prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. We employed a novel fluorescent sensor for mobile zinc (ZPP1) to detect and monitor the development of prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse model of prostate adenocarcinoma, using in vivo optical imaging correlated with biological fluid-based methods. We demonstrated that the progression of prostate cancer could be monitored in vivo judging by decreasing zinc content in the prostates of tumor-bearing mice in an age-dependent manner. In a novel quantitative assay, we determine the concentration of mobile zinc in both prostate cell lysates and mouse prostate extracts through simple titration of the ZPP1 sensor. Our findings fulfill the promise of zinc-based prostate cancer diagnostics with the prospect for immediate clinical translation. PMID:20610630

  8. MR Imaging Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    treatment planning for radiotherapy : Dosimetric verification for prostate IiMRT" and " Dosimetric evaluation of MRI-based treatment planning for...Shawn M, Ma C-M, Freedman GM and Pollack A. MRI-Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy : Dosimetric Verification for Prostate IMRT. International...Freedman GM and Pollack A. MRI- Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy : Dosimetric Verification for Prostate ]IMRT. International Journal of Radiation

  9. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer with emphasis on ultrasound-based approaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mehdi; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer and focuses, in particular, on ultrasound-based techniques for detection of cancer in prostate tissue. The current standard procedure for diagnosis of prostate cancer, i.e., ultrasound-guided biopsy followed by histopathological analysis of tissue samples, is invasive and produces a high rate of false negatives resulting in the need for repeated trials. It is against these backdrops that the search for new methods to diagnose prostate cancer continues. Image-based approaches (such as MRI, ultrasound and elastography) represent a major research trend for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Due to the integration of ultrasound imaging in the current clinical procedure for detection of prostate cancer, we specifically provide a more detailed review of methodologies that use ultrasound RF-spectrum parameters, B-scan texture features and Doppler measures for prostate tissue characterization. We present current and future directions of research aimed at computer-aided detection of prostate cancer and conclude that ultrasound is likely to play an important role in the field.

  11. In vivo MRI based prostate cancer localization with random forests and auto-context model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chunjun; Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Yousuf, Ambereen; Yang, Xiaoping; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death for men. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is being increasingly used as an important modality to localize prostate cancer. Therefore, localizing prostate cancer in MRI with automated detection methods has become an active area of research. Many methods have been proposed for this task. However, most of previous methods focused on identifying cancer only in the peripheral zone (PZ), or classifying suspicious cancer ROIs into benign tissue and cancer tissue. Few works have been done on developing a fully automatic method for cancer localization in the entire prostate region, including central gland (CG) and transition zone (TZ). In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based multi-source integration framework to directly localize prostate cancer regions from in vivo MRI. We employ random forests to effectively integrate features from multi-source images together for cancer localization. Here, multi-source images include initially the multi-parametric MRIs (i.e., T2, DWI, and dADC) and later also the iteratively-estimated and refined tissue probability map of prostate cancer. Experimental results on 26 real patient data show that our method can accurately localize cancerous sections. The higher section-based evaluation (SBE), combined with the ROC analysis result of individual patients, shows that the proposed method is promising for in vivo MRI based prostate cancer localization, which can be used for guiding prostate biopsy, targeting the tumor in focal therapy planning, triage and follow-up of patients with active surveillance, as well as the decision making in treatment selection. The common ROC analysis with the AUC value of 0.832 and also the ROI-based ROC analysis with the AUC value of 0.883 both illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. MYC and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cheryl M.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Dang, Chi V.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell–like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology. PMID:21779461

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  14. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  15. Spiritually Based Resources in Adaptation to Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survival: Perspectives of Elderly Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Boehm, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    Spiritually based resources (SBR) generally have a salutary effect on coping with cancer diagnosis and treatment. Few studies address this relationship in long-term cancer survivorship, however. As part of a study on long-term prostate cancer survivorship, wives' ways of coping with cancer-related issues were explored through longitudinal…

  16. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  17. Risk and preventive factors for prostate cancer in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective (JPHC) study

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Norie

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian than in Western populations. Lifestyle and dietary habits may play a major role in the etiology of this cancer. Given the possibility that risk factors for prostate cancer differ by disease aggressiveness, and the fact that 5-year relative survival rate of localized prostate cancer is 100%, identifying preventive factors against advanced prostate cancer is an important goal. Using data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, the author elucidates various lifestyle risk factors for prostate cancer among Japanese men. The results show that abstinence from alcohol and tobacco might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer. Moreover, the isoflavones and green tea intake in the typical Japanese diet may decrease the risk of localized and advanced prostate cancers, respectively. PMID:28135193

  18. CTLA-4 Blockade-Based Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Sci U S A 1997;94(15):8099-103. 8 4. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of...Cancer Res 1999;5(7):1738-44. 6. Hurwitz AA, Foster BA, Kwon ED, Truong T, Choi EM, Greenberg NM, et al. Combination immunotherapy of primary

  19. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer treatment and can improve many aspects of health, including muscle strength, balance, fatigue, cardiovascular fitness, and depression. Physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis is linked to ...

  20. Association between gallbladder stone disease and prostate cancer: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic inflammation and abnormal cholesterol metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder stone disease (GSD) and that of prostate cancer in experimental studies. We assessed the association between GSD and prostate cancer in this population-based study. Results The cumulative incidence of prostate cancer (log-rank test: P <.001) and the risk of prostate cancer (1.64 vs 1.14 per 10 000 person-y, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.39) were greater in the patients with GSD than in those without GSD. Furthermore, the risk of prostate cancer increased with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD, particularly after 9 years of follow-up (aHR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.74-2.19). Materials and Methods We identified 9496 patients who were diagnosed with GSD between 1998 and 2011 from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort. We randomly selected 37 983 controls from the non-GSD population and used frequency matching by age, sex, and index year for the control cohort. All patient cases were followed until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion GSD is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, and the risk increases with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD. PMID:27147576

  1. Cratylia mollis lectin nanoelectrode for differential diagnostic of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia based on label-free detection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Priscila M S; Lima, Amanda L R; Silva, Bárbara V M; Coelho, Luana C B B; Dutra, Rosa F; Correia, Maria T S

    2016-11-15

    The research for new biomarkers of cancer has studied the role of fetuin glycoprotein on the metastatic disease diagnosis. Cratylia mollis is a lectin with high finity to fetuin, and used here to differentiate prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. A label-free electrochemical nanosensor based on assembled carboxylated carbon nanotubes (COOH-CNTs) and poly-L-lysine (PLL) film was developed and applied to serum samples of prostate cancer positive for Gleason score. The electrode analytical response to fetuin in PBS samples, obtained by square wave voltammetry, exhibited a linear range from 0.5 to 25µgmL(-1), with a high correlation coefficient (r=0.994, p<0.001) and low limit of detection (0.017µgmL(-1)). The lectin nanoelectrode showed a good repeatability (1.24% RSD) and reproducibility (4.24% RSD). A pool of serum samples from prostate cancer patients with known the Gleason score were tested showing a significant statistically correlation. Thus, the lectin nanoelectrode was able to distinguish the degree of staging prostate cancer, providing the diagnostic differentiation of benign and malign hyperplasia. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first biosensor for this application using a lectin.

  2. Realizing the Translational Potential of Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue-Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue- Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Elizabeth A. Platz CONTRACTING...Translational Potential of Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue- Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0545 5c...combination of telomere length variability in prostate cancer cells and short telomere length in cancer -associated stromal cells is an independent

  3. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  4. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  5. Statin Use Reduces Prostate Cancer All-Cause Mortality: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Studies have suggested that statin use is related to cancer risk and prostate cancer mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether using statins in prostate cancer patients is associated with reduced all-cause mortality rates. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5179 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who used statins for at least 6 months between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010. To form a comparison group, each patient was randomly frequency-matched (according to age and index date) with a prostate cancer patient who did not use any type of statin-based drugs during the study period. The study endpoint was mortality. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models. Among prostate cancer patients, statin use was associated with significantly decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.60-0.71). This phenomenon was observed among various types of statin, age groups, and treatment methods. Analyzing the defined daily dose of statins indicated that both low- and high-dose groups exhibited significantly decreased death rates compared with nonusers, suggesting a dose-response relationship. The results of this population-based cohort study suggest that using statins reduces all-cause mortality among prostate cancer patients, and a dose-response relationship may exist.

  6. Optimal Management of Prostate Cancer Based on its Natural Clinical History.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Gaetano; Perri, Francesco; Misso, Gabriella; D Aniello, Carmine; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Rossetti, Sabrina; Pepa, Chiara Della; Pisconti, Salvatore; Unteregger, Gerhard; Cossu, Alessia; Caraglia, Michele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Cavaliere, Carla

    2017-02-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in males and, despite a marked improvement in diagnostic techniques, a not small percentage of prostate tumours is still diagnosed in advanced stage. It is now clear that prostate cancer passes through distinct phases during its natural history, starting from an initial phase, in which the disease has a locoregional extent, until a very late phase when it becomes refractory to hormone therapy. It is important to distinguish between local disease, in which tumor may be considered localized in the gland and a systemic disease characterized by high tumor burden and/or dissemination of circulating tumour cells. All the prostate cancers, at first diagnosis, are characterized by high sensitivity to the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, during the natural history, after a variable period, they become castration resistant. In the past, few therapy options were available for castration resistant prostate cancer, while at present much more approaches can be employed, both hormone-based therapies and chemotherapy regimens. Hypercastration agents are defined as drugs capable to target the androgen-androgen receptor axis even in castrate resistant conditions. Abiraterone and enzalutamide are the only two hypercastration agents available for clinical use. Osteoclast targeted agents, such as zoledronic acid and denosumab can always been employed, but their use should be limited to the castrate resistant setting. The optimal understanding of all phases characterizing the natural history of prostate cancer may certainly be useful for the selection of the best therapeutic options in prostate cancer.

  7. Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early? Screening is testing to find ... Health Care Team About Prostate Cancer? More In Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  9. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... well. Proton therapy is another kind of radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. Proton beams target the tumor precisely, so there is less damage to the surrounding tissue. This therapy is not widely accepted or used. Prostate Brachytherapy ...

  10. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0535 TITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate...30Sep2014 - 29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate...different between aggressive and indolent tumors. For the third year of the grant, we evaluated the gene expression of these 8 CTAs in PCa and benign

  11. Image Guidance Based on Prostate Position for Prostate Cancer Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos Wagner, Marcus; Indelicato, Daniel; Fryer, Amber; Horne, David; Chellini, Angela; McKenzie, Craig; Lawlor, Paula; Mahajan, Chaitali; Li Zuofeng; Lin Liyong; Keole, Sameer

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To determine the target coverage for proton therapy with and without image guidance and daily prebeam reorientation. Methods and Materials: A total of 207 prostate positions were analyzed for 9 prostate cancer patients treated using our low-risk prostate proton therapy protocol (University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute 001). The planning target volume was defined as the prostate plus a 5-mm axial and 8-mm superoinferior extension. The prostate was repositioned using 5- and 10-mm shifts (anteriorly, inferiorly, posteriorly, and superiorly) and for Points A-D using a combination of 10-mm multidimensional movements (anteriorly or inferiorly; posteriorly or superiorly; and left or right). The beams were then realigned using the new prostate position. The prescription dose was 78 Gray equivalent (GE) to 95% of the planning target volume. Results: For small movements in the anterior, inferior, and posterior directions within the planning target volume ({<=}5 mm), treatment realignment demonstrated small, but significant, improvements in the clinical target volume (CTV) coverage to the prescribed dose (78 GE). The anterior and posterior shifts also significantly increased the minimal CTV dose ({delta} +1.59 GE). For prostate 10-mm movements in the inferior, posterior, and superior directions, the beam realignment produced larger and significant improvements for both the CTV V{sub 78} ({delta} +6.4%) and the CTV minimal dose ({delta} +8.22 GE). For the compounded 10-mm multidimensional shifts, realignment significantly improved the CTV V{sub 78} ({delta} +11.8%) and CTV minimal dose ({delta} +23.6 GE). After realignment, the CTV minimal dose was >76.6 GE (>98%) for all points (A-D). Conclusion: Proton beam realignment after target shift will enhance CTV coverage for different prostate positions.

  12. Vasectomy and risk of prostate cancer: population based matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert J; Macdonald, Erin M; Li, Qing; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Earle, Craig C; Kulkarni, Girish S; Jarvi, Keith A; Juurlink, David N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer, adjusting for measures of health seeking behaviour. Design Population based matched cohort study. Setting Multiple validated healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, 1994-2012. Participants 326 607 men aged 20 to 65 who had undergone vasectomy were identified through physician billing codes and matched 1:1 on age (within two years), year of cohort entry, comorbidity score, and geographical region to men who did not undergo a vasectomy. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome was incident prostate cancer. Secondary outcomes were prostate cancer related grade, stage, and mortality. Results 3462 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified after a median follow-up of 10.9 years: 1843 (53.2%) in the vasectomy group and 1619 (46.8%) in the non-vasectomy group. In unadjusted analysis, vasectomy was associated with a slightly increased risk of incident prostate cancer (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.20). After adjustment for measures of health seeking behaviour, however, no association remained (adjusted hazard ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.09). Moreover, no association was found between vasectomy and high grade prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.66), advanced stage prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 0.81 to 1.34), or mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.06, 0.60 to 1.85). Conclusion The findings do not support an independent association between vasectomy and prostate cancer. PMID:27811008

  13. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods/Design EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. Discussion The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic

  14. PREDICTING FIFTEEN-YEAR CANCER-SPECIFIC MORTALITY BASED ON THE PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Eggener, Scott E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Trock, Bruce J.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Wood, David P.; Eastham, James A.; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Rabah, Danny M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Yu, Changhong; Klein, Eric A.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy is poorly defined in the era of widespread screening. An understanding of the treated natural history of screen-detected cancers and the pathological risk factors for PCSM are needed for treatment decision-making. Methods Using Fine and Gray competing risk regression analysis, the clinical and pathological data and follow-up information of 11,521 patients treated by radical prostatectomy at four academic centers from 1987 to 2005 were modeled to predict PCSM. The model was validated on 12,389 patients treated at a separate institution during the same period. Results The overall 15-year PCSM was 7%. Primary and secondary pathological Gleason grade 4–5 (P < 0.001 for both), seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.001), and year of surgery (P = 0.002) were significant predictors of PCSM. A nomogram predicting 15-year PCSM based on standard pathological parameters was accurate and discriminating with an externally-validated concordance index of 0.92. Stratified by patient age, 15-year PCSM for Gleason score ≤ 6, 3+4, 4+3, and 8–10 ranged from 0.2–1.2%, 4.2–6.5%, 6.6–11%, and 26–37%, respectively. The 15-year PCSM risks ranged from 0.8–1.5%, 2.9–10%, 15–27%, and 22–30% for organ-confined cancer, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node metastasis, respectively. Only 3 of 9557 patients with organ-confined, Gleason score ≤ 6 cancers have died from prostate cancer. Conclusions The presence of poorly differentiated cancer and seminal vesicle invasion are the prime determinants of PCSM after radical prostatectomy. The risk of PCSM can be predicted with unprecedented accuracy once the pathological features of prostate cancer are known. PMID:21239008

  15. Restriction spectrum imaging improves MRI-based prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    McCammack, Kevin C.; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; White, Nathan S.; Best, Shaun R.; Marks, Robert M.; Heimbigner, Jared; Kane, Christopher J.; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Desikan, Rahul S.; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca A.; Liss, Michael A.; Margolis, Daniel J. A.; Raman, Steven S.; Shabaik, Ahmed; Dale, Anders M.; Karow, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), with that of conventional multi-parametric (MP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer (PCa) detection in a blinded reader-based format. Methods Three readers independently evaluated 100 patients (67 with proven PCa) who underwent MP-MRI and RSI within 6 months of systematic biopsy (N = 67; 23 with targeting performed) or prostatectomy (N = 33). Imaging was performed at 3 Tesla using a phased-array coil. Readers used a five-point scale estimating the likelihood of PCa present in each prostate sextant. Evaluation was performed in two separate sessions, first using conventional MP-MRI alone then immediately with MP-MRI and RSI in the same session. Four weeks later, another scoring session used RSI and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) without conventional diffusion-weighted or dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. Reader interpretations were then compared to prostatectomy data or biopsy results. Receiver operating characteristic curves were performed, with area under the curve (AUC) used to compare across groups. Results MP-MRI with RSI achieved higher AUCs compared to MP-MRI alone for identifying high-grade (Gleason score greater than or equal to 4 + 3=7) PCa (0.78 vs. 0.70 at the sextant level; P < 0.001 and 0.85 vs. 0.79 at the hemigland level; P = 0.04). RSI and T2WI alone achieved AUCs similar to MP-MRI for high-grade PCa (0.71 vs. 0.70 at the sextant level). With hemigland analysis, high-grade disease results were similar when comparing RSI + T2WI with MP-MRI, although with greater AUCs compared to the sextant analysis (0.80 vs. 0.79). Conclusion Including RSI with MP-MRI improves PCa detection compared to MP-MRI alone, and RSI with T2WI achieves similar PCa detection as MP-MRI. PMID:26910114

  16. Stromal Response to Prostate Cancer: Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Partners Distinguishes Prostate Cancer Associated Stroma from That of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Elizabeth; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Imam, S. Ashraf; Smith, David; Loera, Sofia; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2 neutrophil and

  17. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elizabeth; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Imam, S Ashraf; Smith, David; Loera, Sofia; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2 neutrophil and

  18. Urinary Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ross, Ashley E; Sokoll, Lori J; Partin, Alan W; Pavlovich, Christian P

    2016-02-01

    In light of the overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with widespread prostate-specific antigen-based screening, controversy persists surrounding the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Given its anatomic proximity to the prostate, urine has been proposed as a noninvasive substrate for prostatic biomarkers. With greater understanding of the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis and significant technological advances, the breadth of potential biomarkers is substantial. In this review, the authors aim to provide an evidence-based assessment of current and emerging urinary biomarkers used in the detection and prognostication of PCa and high-grade PCa, with particular attention on clinically relevant findings.

  19. Lipids and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suburu, Janel; Chen, Yong Q.

    2012-01-01

    The role of lipid metabolism has gained particular interest in prostate cancer research. A large body of literature has outlined the unique upregulation of de novo lipid synthesis in prostate cancer. Concordant with this lipogenic phenotype is a metabolic shift, in which cancer cells use alternative enzymes and pathways to facilitate the production of fatty acids. These newly synthesized lipids may support a number of cellular processes to promote cancer cell proliferation and survival. Hence, de novo lipogenesis is under intense investigation as a therapeutic target. Epidemiologic studies suggest dietary fat may also contribute to prostate cancer; however, whether dietary lipids and de novo synthesized lipids are differentially metabolized remains unclear. Here, we highlight the lipogenic nature of prostate cancer, especially the promotion of de novo lipid synthesis, and the significance of various dietary lipids in prostate cancer development and progression. PMID:22503963

  20. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-08-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process.

  1. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers that don't respond to hormone therapy. Biological therapy Biological therapy (immunotherapy) uses your body's immune system to fight cancer cells. One type of biological therapy called sipuleucel-T (Provenge) has been developed ...

  2. Genetic Variation in Base Excision Repair Pathway Genes, Pesticide Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Berndt, Sonja I.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Burdette, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Lubin, Jay H.; Ma, Xiaomei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research indicates increased prostate cancer risk for pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers. Although underlying mechanisms are unknown, evidence suggests a role of oxidative DNA damage. Objectives: Because base excision repair (BER) is the predominant pathway involved in repairing oxidative damage, we evaluated interactions between 39 pesticides and 394 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 31 BER genes among 776 prostate cancer cases and 1,444 male controls in a nested case–control study of white Agricultural Health Study (AHS) pesticide applicators. Methods: We used likelihood ratio tests from logistic regression models to determine p-values for interactions between three-level pesticide exposure variables (none/low/high) and SNPs (assuming a dominant model), and the false discovery rate (FDR) multiple comparison adjustment approach. Results: The interaction between fonofos and rs1983132 in NEIL3 [nei endonuclease VIII-like 3 (Escherichia coli)], which encodes a glycosylase that can initiate BER, was the most significant overall [interaction p-value (pinteract) = 9.3 × 10–6; FDR-adjusted p-value = 0.01]. Fonofos exposure was associated with a monotonic increase in prostate cancer risk among men with CT/TT genotypes for rs1983132 [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for low and high use compared with no use were 1.65 (0.91, 3.01) and 3.25 (1.78, 5.92), respectively], whereas fonofos was not associated with prostate cancer risk among men with the CC genotype. Carbofuran and S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) interacted similarly with rs1983132; however, these interactions did not meet an FDR < 0.2. Conclusions: Our significant finding regarding fonofos is consistent with previous AHS findings of increased prostate cancer risk with fonofos exposure among those with a family history of prostate cancer. Although requiring replication, our findings suggest a role of BER genetic variation in pesticide

  3. Dietary cadmium exposure and prostate cancer incidence: a population-based prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Julin, B; Wolk, A; Johansson, J-E; Andersson, S-O; Andrén, O; Åkesson, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Experimental data convincingly propose the toxic metal cadmium as a prostate carcinogen. Cadmium is widely dispersed into the environment and, consequently, food is contaminated. Methods: A population-based cohort of 41 089 Swedish men aged 45–79 years was followed prospectively from 1998 through 2009 to assess the association between food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1998) and incidence of prostate cancer (3085 cases, of which 894 were localised and 794 advanced) and through 2008 for prostate cancer mortality (326 fatal cases). Results: Mean dietary cadmium exposure was 19 μg per day±s.d. 3.7. Multivariable-adjusted dietary cadmium exposure was positively associated with overall prostate cancer, comparing extreme tertiles; rate ratio (RR) 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.24). For subtypes of prostate cancer, the RR was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.08–1.53) for localised, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.87–1.25) for advanced, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.86–1.51) for fatal cases. No statistically significant difference was observed in the multivariable-adjusted risk estimates between tumour subtypes (Pheterogeneity=0.27). For localised prostate cancer, RR was 1.55 (1.16–2.08) among men with a small waist circumference and RR 1.45 (1.15, 1.83) among ever smokers. Conclusion: Our findings provide support that dietary cadmium exposure may have a role in prostate cancer development. PMID:22850555

  4. Targeting prostate cancer cells with genetically engineered polypeptide-based micelles displaying gastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Garg, Sanjay; Eldi, Preethi; Zhou, Fiona Huan-Huan; Johnson, Ian R D; Brooks, Doug A; Lam, Frankie; Rychkov, Grigori; Hayball, John; Albrecht, Hugo

    2016-11-20

    In recent years G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as crucial tumorigenic factors that drive aberrant cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Consequently, a number of GPCRs are strongly expressed in cancer derived cell lines and tissue samples. Therefore a rational anti-cancer strategy is the design of nano-medicines that specifically target GPCRs to bind and internalise cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells. Herein, we report the genetic engineering of a self-assembling nanoparticle based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which has been fused with gastrin releasing peptide (GRP). These nanoparticles increased intracellular calcium concentrations when added to GRP receptor positive PC-3 prostate cancer cells, demonstrating specific receptor activation. Moreover, GRP-displaying fluorescent labelled nanoparticles showed specific cell-surface interaction with PC-3 prostate cancer cells and increased endocytic uptake. These nanoparticles therefore provide a targeted molecular carrier system for evaluating the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells.

  5. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for prostate cancer. It concluded that the expected harms of PSA screening are greater than the potential ... exam or other screening tests. Potential Benefits and Harms The main goal of a cancer screening test ...

  6. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  7. Prostate cancer immunotherapy: beyond immunity to curability.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jonathan W

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. It is the first prevalent cancer in which overall survival in advanced disease is modestly, but objectively, improved with outpatient delivered dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. More prostate cancer patients have enrolled through Facebook and trusted-site Internet searches in clinical trials for prostate cancer vaccine-based immunotherapy than in immunotherapy trials for lung, breast, colon, pancreas, ovarian, and bladder cancer combined in the past 7 years. Exceptional responses to anti-CTLA-4 treatment have been documented in clinics, and prostate cancer neoantigen characterization and T-cell clonotyping are in their research ascendancy. The prostate is an accessory organ; it is not required for fertility, erectile function, or urinary continence. The true evolutionary advantage of having a prostate for male mammalian physiology is a topic of speculation in seminar rooms and on bar stools, but it remains unknown. Hundreds of prostate lineage-unique proteins (PLUP) exist among the >37,000 normal human prostate lineage-unique open reading frames that can be targeted for immunologic ablation of PLUP(+) prostate cancer cells by prostate-specific autoimmunity. This bioengineered graft-versus-prostate disease is a powerful strategy that can eliminate deaths from prostate cancer. Immunologic tolerance to prostate cancer can be overcome at every clinical stage of presentation. This Cancer Immunology at the Crossroads article aims to present advances in the past two decades of basic, translational, and clinical research in prostate cancer, including bioengineering B-cell and T-cell responses, and ongoing prostate cancer immunotherapy trials.

  8. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    androgen -insensitive prostate cancer patients based upon our work. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer , Neuroendocrine, Progression...two androgen - ines PC-3 and DU-145 by examining the status of publication. a Src kinase inhibitor AZ independent prostate cancer cell l...differentiation in prostate cancer . AR activation. Together with our studies in the chimeric growth of androgen -sensitive and androgen -insensitive cells,

  9. NMR-based metabolomics of prostate cancer: a protagonist in clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish; Nath, Kavindra

    2016-06-01

    Advances in the application of NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer comprises a potential tactic for understanding the impaired biochemical pathways arising due to a disease evolvement and progression. This technique involves qualitative and quantitative estimation of plethora of small molecular weight metabolites of body fluids or tissues using state-of-the-art chemometric methods delivering an important platform for translational research from basic to clinical, to reveal the pathophysiological snapshot in a single step. This review summarizes the present arrays and recent advancements in NMR-based metabolomics and a glimpse of currently used medical imaging tactics, with their role in clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  10. Development of a peptide-based vaccine targeting TMPRSS2:ERG fusion positive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kissick, Haydn Thomas; Sanda, Martin George; Dunn, Laura Kathleen; Arredouani, Mohamed Simo

    2013-01-01

    Identification of novel vaccine targets is critical for the design and advancement of prostate cancer (PCa) immunotherapy. Ideal targets are proteins that are abundant in prostate tumors while absent in extra-prostatic tissues. The fusion of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene with the ETS transcription factor ERG occurs in approximately 50% of prostate cancer cases and results in aberrant ERG expression. Because expression of ERG is very low in peripheral tissue, we evaluated the suitability of this protein as an antigen target in PCa vaccines. ERG-derived HLA-A*0201-restricted immunogenic epitopes were identified through a 3-step strategy that included in silico, in vitro, and in vivo validation. Algorithms were used to predict potential HLA-A*0201-binding epitopes. High scoring epitopes were tested for binding to HLA-A*0201 using the T2-based stabilization assay in vitro. Five peptides were found to bind HLA-A*0201 and were subsequently tested for immunogenicity in humanized HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The in vivo screening identified three immunogenic peptides. One of these peptides, ERG295, overcame peripheral tolerance in HLA-A*0201 mice that expressed prostate restricted ERG. Also, this peptide induced an antigen specific response against ERG-expressing human prostate tumor cells. Finally, tetramer assay showed detectable and responsive ERG295-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes in peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201+ prostate cancer patients. Detection of ERG-specific CTLs in both mice and the blood of prostate cancer patients indicates that ERG-specific tolerance can be overcome. Additionally, these data suggest that ERG is a suitable target antigen for PCa immunotherapy. PMID:24149465

  11. Development of a peptide-based vaccine targeting TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kissick, Haydn Thomas; Sanda, Martin George; Dunn, Laura Kathleen; Arredouani, Mohamed Simo

    2013-12-01

    Identification of novel vaccine targets is critical for the design and advancement of prostate cancer (PCa) immunotherapy. Ideal targets are proteins that are abundant in prostate tumors while absent in extra-prostatic tissues. The fusion of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene with the ETS transcription factor ERG occurs in approximately 50 % of prostate cancer cases and results in aberrant ERG expression. Because expression of ERG is very low in peripheral tissue, we evaluated the suitability of this protein as an antigen target in PCa vaccines. ERG-derived HLA-A*0201-restricted immunogenic epitopes were identified through a 3-step strategy that included in silico, in vitro, and in vivo validation. Algorithms were used to predict potential HLA-A*0201-binding epitopes. High-scoring epitopes were tested for binding to HLA-A*0201 using the T2-based stabilization assay in vitro. Five peptides were found to bind HLA-A*0201 and were subsequently tested for immunogenicity in humanized, HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The in vivo screening identified three immunogenic peptides. One of these peptides, ERG295, overcame peripheral tolerance in HLA-A*0201 mice that expressed prostate-restricted ERG. Also, this peptide induced an antigen-specific response against ERG-expressing human prostate tumor cells. Finally, tetramer assay showed detectable and responsive ERG295-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes in peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201(+) prostate cancer patients. Detection of ERG-specific CTLs in both mice and the blood of prostate cancer patients indicates that ERG-specific tolerance can be overcome. Additionally, these data suggest that ERG is a suitable target antigen for PCa immunotherapy.

  12. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    regulates androgen receptor, and finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, has a synerigistic effect in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cells...Liu, Y., Ling, Y. Z., and Brodie, A. M. Antiandrogenic effects of novel androgen synthesis inhibitors on hormone-dependent prostate cancer . Cancer ...reductase inhibitor, inhibits androgen action and promotes cell death in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Prostate , 58: 130-144, 2004. 14

  13. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vemana, Goutham; Hamilton, Robert J; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence.

  14. Synthesis of PSA Inhibitors as SPECT- and PET-Based Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    for their ability to inhibit PSA and chymotrypsin. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer , PSA inhibitors, boronic acids, peptidomimetics, serine protease...prostate cancer . First, all men undergoing androgen ablation, eventually relapse and no longer respond to hormone treatment . Therefore, there is an...Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maya Kostova, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Johns Hopkins University

  15. Cryosurgery for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, W E; Bissada, N K

    2003-01-01

    Choice of management for patients with prostate cancer is influenced by patient and disease characteristics and life expectancy. Management options include expectance (watchful waiting), radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP). The role of cryotherapy in the management of prostate cancer is still evolving. Continued research has allowed the introduction of efficient and safe cryosurgical equipment exemplified by the current third-generation cryosurgical machines. CSAP can be performed in an ambulatory surgery setting or as inpatient surgery with overnight stay. The procedure is performed under continuous ultrasonic monitoring. Mature data from the use of second-generation cryosurgical equipment indicate that CSAP is an effective therapeutic modality for managing patients with prostate cancer. Current data with the third-generation cryosurgical equipment are not mature. However, the favorable side effect profile and the good early responses seem to indicate that this modality will have a prominent role in the management of patients with prostate cancer.

  16. Sanguinarine: A Novel Agent Against Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    surgical approaches have not been successful in the management of prostate cancer (CaP). Natural plant - based products have shown promise as anticancer...or treatment of prostate cancer . Several studies have shown that plant -derived alkaloids possess remarkable anticancer effects. Sanguinarine, an...Preclinical evaluation of plant alkaloid sanguinarine against prostate cancer development in a nude mice xenograft model. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer

  17. Tobago Prostate Survey: Prostate Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Study of Men of African Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    control studies suggest that sex hormone related polymorphisms and surrogate hormone measures are related to prostate cancer. This Tobago population...our hypothesis that, as observed in African American men, Afro-Caribbean men experience a high risk for prostate cancer. Results from the pilot case

  18. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Slovin, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit. PMID:27843208

  19. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  20. New Combination Therapies for Advanced Prostate Cancer Based on the Radiosensitizing Potential of 5-azacytidine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    prostate cancer cells and xenografts by modulation of NHEJ-mediated DNA break repair , the experiments performed in year 1 of this project have not...response of prostate to radiation therapy by repressing the ability of prostate cancer cells to repair radiation induced DNA breaks. This is likely...epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine increases the responsiveness of prostate cancer cells and xenografts to radiation therapy by impairment of DNA double

  1. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0934 REPORT DATE...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT University of...Phase III trial designed to test a diet-based intervention for prostate cancer and the first non - industry sponsored trial designed to test an

  2. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Shahana; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease. PMID:28168057

  3. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Shahana; Adil, Mohammed Abdul Majid; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50-85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  4. Baltimore City Faith-Based Prostate Cancer Prevention and Control Coalition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis are not cancer Signs and Symptoms of a Problem • Need to urinate frequently, especially an night...blocking normal urine flow • Symptoms of enlarged prostate in >59% of men ages 60-7-, 90% in men ages 70-90 • Non-cancerous changes such as benign

  5. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gene Mapped To X Chromosome 1998 Researchers Link Gene to Hereditary Form of Prostate Cancer 2002 Get Email Updates Advancing human health through genomics research Privacy Copyright Contact Accessibility Plug-ins Site Map Staff Search FOIA Share Top

  6. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  7. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... if it has spread to: • Bones • Lungs • Liver • Brain • Lymph nodes outside the pelvis • Other organs You may be diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer when you are first diagnosed, after having completed ...

  8. Zinc and prostatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Ho, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Aim to understand the connection between zinc and prostatic cancer, and to summarize the recent findings about the functions of zinc in the maintenance of prostate health. Recent findings Contradictory findings have been reported by epidemiologic studies examining the association between zinc intake and the risk of prostate cancer. However, a growing body of experimental evidence support that high zinc levels are essential for prostate health. The possible mechanisms include the effects of zinc on the inhibition of terminal oxidation, induction of mitochondrial apoptogenesis, and suppression of NFκB activity. The most recent finding is the effects of zinc in the maintenance of DNA integrity in normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) by modulating the expression and activity of DNA repair and damage response proteins, especially p53. Zinc depletion in PrEC increased p53 expression but compromised p53 DNA binding activity resulting an impaired DNA repair function. Moreover, recent findings support the role of zinc transporters as tumor suppressors in the prostate. Summary Future studies need to discover sensitive and specific zinc biomarkers and perform more in vivo studies on the effects of zinc on prostate functions in normal animals or prostate cancer models. PMID:19684515

  9. Quantum dot nanoprobe-based quantitative analysis for prostate cancer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Benedict J.; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer causes one of the leading cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the United State of America. However, it has a high recovery rate indicating when a proper treatment is delivered to a patient. There are cases of over- or under-treatments which exacerbate the disease states indicating the importance of proper therapeutic approach depending on stage of the disease. Recognition of the unmet needs has raised a need for stratification of the disease. There have been attempts to stratify based on biomarker expression patterns in the course of disease progression. To closely observe the biomarker expression patterns, we propose the use of quantitative imaging method by using fabricated quantum dot-based nanoprobe to quantify biomarker expression on the surface of prostate cancer cells. To characterize the cell line and analyze the biomarker levels, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD 44), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) are used. Each selected biomarker per cell line has been quantified from which we established a signature of biomarkers of a prostate cancer cell line.

  10. Imaging Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0125 TITLE: Imaging Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography...ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 Sept 2013-31 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Imaging Prostate Cancer ...proposal is to develop peptide based radiopharmaceuticals and evaluate them as PET imaging agents in preclinical animal models of prostate cancer

  11. The Impact of Brachytherapy on Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality for Definitive Radiation Therapy of High-Grade Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xinglei; Keith, Scott W.; Mishra, Mark V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This population-based analysis compared prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of patients with high-risk prostate cancer after nonsurgical treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), or combination (BT + EBRT). Methods and Materials: We identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database patients diagnosed from 1988 through 2002 with T1-T3N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma of poorly differentiated grade and treated with BT, EBRT, or BT + EBRT. During this time frame, the database defined high grade as prostate cancers with Gleason score 8-10, or Gleason grade 4-5 if the score was not recorded. This corresponds to a cohort primarily with high-risk prostate cancer, although some cases where only Gleason grade was recorded may have included intermediate-risk cancer. We used multivariate models to examine patient and tumor characteristics associated with the likelihood of treatment with each radiation modality and the effect of radiation modality on PCSM. Results: There were 12,745 patients treated with EBRT (73.5%), BT (7.1%), or BT + EBRT (19.4%) included in the analysis. The median follow-up time for all patients was 6.4 years. The use of BT or BT + EBRT increased from 5.1% in 1988-1992 to 31.4% in 1998-2002. Significant predictors of use of BT or BT + EBRT were younger age, later year of diagnosis, urban residence, and earlier T-stage. On multivariate analysis, treatment with either BT (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.86) or BT + EBRT (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence ratio, 0.66-0.90) was associated with significant reduction in PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade prostate cancer, treatment with brachytherapy is associated with reduced PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Our results suggest that brachytherapy should be investigated as a component of definitive treatment strategies for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  12. Decision support system for localizing prostate cancer based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vijay; Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Pang, Yuxi; Pohida, Thomas; Merino, Maria J.; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.; Bernardo, Marcelino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need to localize prostate cancers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to facilitate the use of image guided biopsy, focal therapy, and active surveillance follow up. Our goal was to develop a decision support system (DSS) for detecting and localizing peripheral zone prostate cancers by using machine learning approach to calculate a cancer probability map from multiparametric MR images (MP-MRI). Methods: This IRB approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study consisted of 31 patients (mean age and serum prostate specific antigen of 60.4 and 6.62 ng/ml, respectively) who had MP-MRI at 3 T followed by radical prostatectomy. Seven patients were excluded due to technical issues with their MP-MRI (e.g., motion artifact, failure to perform all sequences). Cancer and normal regions were identified in the peripheral zone by correlating them to whole mount histology slides of the excised prostatectomy specimens. To facilitate the correlation, tissue blocks matching the MR slices were obtained using a MR-based patient-specific mold. Segmented regions on the MP-MRI were correlated to histopathology and used as training sets for the learning system that generated the cancer probability maps. Leave-one-patient-out cross-validation on the cancer and normal regions was performed to determine the learning system's efficacy, an evolutionary strategies approach (also known as a genetic algorithm) was used to find the optimal values for a set of parameters, and finally a cancer probability map was generated. Results: For the 24 patients that were used in the study, 225 cancer and 264 noncancerous regions were identified from the region maps. The efficacy of DSS was first determined without optimizing support vector machines (SVM) parameters, where a region having a cancer probability greater than or equal to 50% was considered as a correct classification. The nonoptimized system had an f-measure of 85% and the

  13. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000931.htm Understanding your prostate cancer risk To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Are you at risk for developing prostate cancer in your lifetime? Learn about the risk factors ...

  14. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  15. Cancer-related hospitalisations and ‘unknown’ stage prostate cancer: a population-based record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xue Qin; Smith, David Paul; Goldsbury, David Eamon; Cooke-Yarborough, Claire; Patel, Manish Indravadan; O'Connell, Dianne Lesley

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify reasons for prostate cancer stage being recorded as ‘unknown’ in Australia's largest population-based cancer registry. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting New South Wales (NSW) is the most populous state in Australia, with almost one third of the total national population. Participants NSW Cancer Registry (NSWCR) records for prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2001–2009 were linked to the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) for 2000–2010. All patients in this study had a minimum of 12 months follow-up in the hospital episode records after their date of diagnosis as recorded by the NSWCR. Main outcome measures Incidence of ‘unknown’ stage prostate cancer and cancer-specific survival. Results Of 50 597 prostate cancer cases, 39.9% were recorded as having ‘unknown’ stage. Up to 4 months after diagnosis, 77.2% of cases without a hospital-reported cancer diagnosis were recorded as having ‘unknown’ stage. Among those patients with a hospital-reported cancer diagnosis, stage was ‘unknown’ for 7.6% of cases who received a radical prostatectomy (RP) and for 34.0% of cases who had procedures other than RP. In the latter group, the factors that were related to having ‘unknown’ stage were living in disadvantaged areas (adjusted OR (aOR) range: 1.13 to 1.20), attending a private hospital (aOR range: 1.25 to 2.13), having day-only admission for care (aOR=1.23, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.36), or having procedures other than multiple procedures with imaging (eg, biopsy only, aOR range: 1.11 to 1.45). Conclusions Over half of ‘unknown’ stage prostate cancer cases did not have a hospital-reported prostate cancer diagnosis within the 4 months after initial diagnosis. We identified differences in the likelihood of cases being recorded as ‘unknown’ stage based on socioeconomic status and facility type, which suggests that further investigation of reporting practices in relation to diagnostic and treatment

  16. Detection of prostate stem cell antigen expression in human prostate cancer using quantum-dot-based technology.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuan; Yu, Weimin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Xiaobin; Larré, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorescent labeling for biological and biomedical applications. In this study, we detected prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression correlated with tumor grade and stage in human prostate cancer by QDs-based immunolabeling and conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC), and evaluated the sensitivity and stability of QDs-based immunolabeling in comparison with IHC. Our data revealed that increasing levels of PSCA expression accompanied advanced tumor grade (QDs labeling, r = 0.732, p < 0.001; IHC, r = 0.683, p < 0.001) and stage (QDs labeling, r = 0.514, p = 0.001; IHC, r = 0.432, p = 0.005), and the similar tendency was detected by the two methods. In addition, by comparison between the two methods, QDs labeling was consistent with IHC in detecting the expression of PSCA in human prostate tissue correlated with different pathological types (K = 0.845, p < 0.001). During the observation time, QDs exhibited superior stability. The intensity of QDs fluorescence remained stable for two weeks (p = 0.083) after conjugation to the PSCA protein, and nearly 93% of positive expression with their fluorescence still could be seen after four weeks.

  17. Testosterone and prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of pathogenesis and oncologic risk.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jason E; Billups, Kevin L; Partin, Alan W

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone plays a central role in male development and health. Likewise, androgen deficiency, or hypogonadism, is associated with a variety of symptoms including decreased energy, diminished libido and erectile dysfunction, among others. Male androgen levels steadily decline with age, and, in a subset of symptomatic older men, can result in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Over the last decade, increased awareness of hypogonadism among patients and providers has led to a significant rise in the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism, and especially in LOH. Accompanying the rise in TRT are concerns of potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular risks and the promotion of prostate cancer. The 'androgen hypothesis' asserts that prostate cancer development and progression is driven by androgens, and thus TRT has the theoretical potential to drive prostate cancer development and progression. In this review, we examine existing data surrounding testosterone and prostate cancer. There is significant evidence that androgens promote prostate cancer in experimental systems. However, there is no clear evidence that elevations in endogenous testosterone levels promote the development of prostate cancer in humans. As a result of experimental and historical data on the progression of prostate cancer following TRT, there has been widespread belief that TRT will promote disease progression in prostate cancer patients. Despite these fears, there are a growing number of studies demonstrating no increase in prostate cancer incidence among men on TRT. Furthermore, in studies involving a small number of patients, there has been no discernable increase in disease progression in prostate cancer patients on TRT. While data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are absent, TRT in select prostate cancer patients is likely safe. In the end, the use of TRT in prostate cancer patients is still considered experimental and should only be offered

  18. Testosterone and prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of pathogenesis and oncologic risk

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Jason E.; Billups, Kevin L.; Partin, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone plays a central role in male development and health. Likewise, androgen deficiency, or hypogonadism, is associated with a variety of symptoms including decreased energy, diminished libido and erectile dysfunction, among others. Male androgen levels steadily decline with age, and, in a subset of symptomatic older men, can result in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Over the last decade, increased awareness of hypogonadism among patients and providers has led to a significant rise in the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism, and especially in LOH. Accompanying the rise in TRT are concerns of potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular risks and the promotion of prostate cancer. The ‘androgen hypothesis’ asserts that prostate cancer development and progression is driven by androgens, and thus TRT has the theoretical potential to drive prostate cancer development and progression. In this review, we examine existing data surrounding testosterone and prostate cancer. There is significant evidence that androgens promote prostate cancer in experimental systems. However, there is no clear evidence that elevations in endogenous testosterone levels promote the development of prostate cancer in humans. As a result of experimental and historical data on the progression of prostate cancer following TRT, there has been widespread belief that TRT will promote disease progression in prostate cancer patients. Despite these fears, there are a growing number of studies demonstrating no increase in prostate cancer incidence among men on TRT. Furthermore, in studies involving a small number of patients, there has been no discernable increase in disease progression in prostate cancer patients on TRT. While data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are absent, TRT in select prostate cancer patients is likely safe. In the end, the use of TRT in prostate cancer patients is still considered experimental and should only be

  19. A Magnetic Bead-Based Sensor for the Quantification of Multiple Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jokerst, Jesse V.; Chen, Zuxiong; Xu, Lingyun; Nolley, Rosalie; Chang, Edwin; Mitchell, Breeana; Brooks, James D.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Novel biomarker assays and upgraded analytical tools are urgently needed to accurately discriminate benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) from prostate cancer (CaP). To address this unmet clinical need, we report a piezeoelectric/magnetic bead-based assay to quantitate prostate specific antigen (PSA; free and total), prostatic acid phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1), osteonectin, IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6sr), and spondin-2. We used the sensor to measure these seven proteins in serum samples from 120 benign prostate hypertrophy patients and 100 Gleason score 6 and 7 CaP using serum samples previously collected and banked. The results were analyzed with receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. There were significant differences between BPH and CaP patients in the PSA, CA1, and spondin-2 assays. The highest AUC discrimination was achieved with a spondin-2 OR free/total PSA operation—the area under the curve was 0.84 with a p value below 10−6. Some of these data seem to contradict previous reports and highlight the importance of sample selection and proper assay building in the development of biomarker measurement schemes. This bead-based system offers important advantages in assay building including low cost, high throughput, and rapid identification of an optimal matched antibody pair. PMID:26421725

  20. Targeting prostate cancer based on signal transduction and cell cycle pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John T.; Lehmann, Brian D.; Terrian, David M.; Chappell, William H.; Stivala, Franca; Libra, Massimo; Martelli, Alberto M.; Steelman, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains a leading cause of death in men despite increased capacity to diagnose at earlier stages. After prostate cancer has become hormone independent, which often occurs after hormonal ablation therapies, it is difficult to effectively treat. Prostate cancer may arise from mutations and dysregulation of various genes involved in regulation signal transduction (e.g., PTEN, Akt, etc.,) and the cell cycle (e.g., p53, p21Cip1, p27Kip1, Rb, etc.,). This review focuses on the aberrant interactions of signal transduction and cell cycle genes products and how they can contribute to prostate cancer and alter therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:18594202

  1. Sanguinarine: A Novel Agent Against Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    The traditional therapeutic and surgical approaches have not been successful in the management of prostate cancer (CaP). Natural plant - based...Natural plant -based products have shown promise as anticancer agents. Ideally, the anti- cancer drugs should specifically target the neoplastic cells... plant alkaloid sanguinarine against prostate cancer development in a nude mice xenograft model. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 46: 1012-1013, 2005. 3

  2. [Sexuality and prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Colson, M-H; Lechevallier, E; Rambeaud, J-J; Alimi, J-C; Faix, A; Gravis, G; Hannoun-Levi, J-M; Quintens, H; Rébillard, X; Droupy, S

    2012-09-01

    All treatments of prostate cancer have a negative effect on both sexuality and male fertility. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of quality of life, sexual, urinary, bowel and vitality according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintain a satisfying sex is the main concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatment. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before diagnosis of prostate cancer in order to deliver complete information and to consider early and appropriate treatment options at the request of the couple. Forms of sexuality sexual preference settings stored (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, be an alternative to the couple to maintain intimacy and complicity. In all cases, a specific management and networking will in many cases to find a satisfactory sexuality. Consequences of the treatment on male fertility should be part of the information of patients with prostate cancer and their partners. The choice of treatment must take into account the desire of paternity of the couple. A semen analysis with sperm cryopreservation before any therapy should be routinely offered in men with prostate cancer, particularly among men under 55, with a partner under 43 years old or without children. If the desire for parenthood among couples, sperm cryopreservation before treatment and medical assisted reproduction are recommended.

  3. Promoter Hypermethylation in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prostate gland is the most common site of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in American men. It is well known that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation within the regulatory (promoter) regions of genes are associated with transcriptional silencing in cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of critical pathway genes could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. Methods This review discusses current information on methylated genes associated with prostate cancer development and progression. Results Over 30 genes have been investigated for promoter methylation in prostate cancer. These methylated genes are involved in critical pathways, such as DNA repair, metabolism, and invasion/metastasis. The role of hypermethylated genes in regulation of critical pathways in prostate cancer is reviewed. Conclusions These findings may provide new information of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Certain epigenetic alterations in prostate tumors are being translated into clinical practice for therapeutic use. PMID:20861812

  4. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  5. A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification system targeting primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Bertrand; Jain, Pallavi; Têtu, Bernard; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric

    2016-01-12

    Targeting specifically primary prostate cancer (PCa) cells for immune therapy, gene therapy or molecular imaging is of high importance. The PCA3 long non-coding RNA is a unique PCa biomarker and oncogene that has been widely studied. This gene has been mainly exploited as an accurate diagnostic urine biomarker for PCa detection. In this study, the PCA3 promoter was introduced into a new transcriptional amplification system named the 3-Step Transcriptional Amplification System (PCA3-3STA) and cloned into type 5 adenovirus. PCA3-3STA activity was highly specific for PCa cells, ranging between 98.7- and 108.0-fold higher than that for benign primary prostate epithelial or non-PCa cells, respectively. In human PCa xenografts, PCA3-3STA displayed robust bioluminescent signals at levels that are sufficient to translate to positron emission tomography (PET)-based reporter imaging. Remarkably, when freshly isolated benign or cancerous prostate biopsies were infected with PCA3-3STA, the optical signal produced from primary PCa biopsies was significantly higher than from benign prostate biopsies (4.4-fold, p < 0.0001). PCA3-3STA therefore represents a PCa-specific expression system with the potential to target, with high accuracy, primary or metastatic PCa epithelial cells for imaging, vaccines, or gene therapy.

  6. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  7. Genetic variants of DNA repair genes and prostate cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Jamie D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Gao, Yu-Tang; Deng, Jie; Levine, Paul; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hsing, Ann W

    2005-07-01

    As part of a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China, we investigated whether variants in several DNA repair genes, either alone or in conjunction with other risk factors, are associated with prostate cancer risk. Genomic DNA from 162 patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and 251 healthy men randomly selected from the population were typed for five nonsynonymous DNA repair markers. We found that the XRCC1-Arg399Gln AA and the MGMT-Leu84Phe CT+TT genotypes were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR), 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-4.81 and OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.34, respectively]. In contrast, XRCC3-Thr241Met, XPD-Lys751Gln, and MGMT-Ile143Val markers showed no significant associations with risk, although due to the much lower frequency of their variant alleles in this population we cannot rule out small to modest effects. There was a significant interaction between the MGMT-84 marker and insulin resistance (P(interaction) = 0.046). Relative to men with the MGMT-84 CC genotype and a low insulin resistance (<0.097), those having the CT-TT genotype and a greater insulin resistance had a 5.4-fold risk (OR, 5.39; 95% CI, 2.46-11.82). In addition, for the XRCC3-241 marker, relative to men with the CC genotype and a low intake of preserved foods (<12.7 g/d), those harboring the CT+TT genotype and having a higher intake of preserved foods (>12.7 g/d), which contain nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors, had a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer risk (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.13-6.06). In contrast, men with the CT+TT genotype and a low intake of preserved foods had a 69% reduction in risk (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.96; P(interaction) = 0.005). These results suggest that genetic variants in the DNA repair pathways may be involved in prostate cancer etiology and that other risk factors, including preserved foods and insulin resistance, may modulate prostate cancer risk in combination with genetic

  8. Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    , especially in the presence of increased AR levels, it becomes important to discover more potent and purely antagonistic blockers of AR. The data obtained with compounds under development are promising. While waiting for this (these) new anti-androgen(s), combined treatment with castration and a pure anti-androgen (bicalutamide, flutamide or nilutamide) is the only available and the best scientifically based means of treating prostate cancer by hormone therapy at any stage of the disease with the optimal chance of success and even cure in localized disease.

  9. Antibody-Based Drug Carriers for Targeted Prostate Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    kappa and lambda chains and Not I cloning site (See Figure 1). Following completion of the PCR...phage display library by introducing a prostate-homing peptide into the 3rd CDR loop of the light chain . The modified library was used to select a...APPENDICES. None SUPPORTING DATA. Fig.1 Amplification of VL kappa and lambda

  10. A magnetic resonance imaging-based workflow for planning radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Greer, Peter B; Dowling, Jason A; Lambert, Jonathon A; Fripp, Jurgen; Parker, Joel; Denham, James W; Wratten, Chris; Capp, Anne; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-02-21

    Dose planning for prostate radiation therapy is performed using computed tomography (CT) scans that provide the electron density information needed for individual patients' radiation dose calculations. For visualising the prostate and determining the target volume for radiation treatment, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives vastly superior soft-tissue contrast. However, currently, MRI scans cannot be used for dose planning, as they do not provide the electron density information. We aimed to develop an alternative and efficient MRI-only image-based workflow, enabling both organ delineation and dose planning to be performed using MRI, with "pseudo-CT scans" generated from MRI scans supplying the information for dose planning. The feasibility of implementing MRI-based prostate radiation therapy planning is being investigated through collaboration between the clinical and medical physics group at the Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital/University of Newcastle and the biomedical imaging processing group at the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Australian e-Health Research Centre. Results comparing Hounsfield units calculated from CT scans and from MRI-based pseudo-CT scans for 39 patients showed very similar average values for the prostate, bladder, bones and rectum, confirming that pseudo-CT scans can replace CT scans for accurate radiation dose calculations. MRI-based radiotherapy planning can also be used for tumours in other locations, such as head and neck, and breast cancers.

  11. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that men have a chance to ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to receptors expressed on the surface of target cells with...institutions. A major project in the lab is targeted therapy of prostate cancer using PSMA-guided aptamers . Prabhat Goswami, PhD; Professor...participate. The Schultz lab also works to identify key cell-surface receptor residues as targets for novel peptide- and aptamer -based receptor

  13. A novel shape similarity based elastography system for prostate cancer assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haisu; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Samani, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer among men worldwide and remains the second leading cancer-related cause of death in mature men. The disease can be cured if it is detected at early stage. This implies that prostate cancer detection at early stage is very critical for desirable treatment outcome. Conventional techniques of prostate cancer screening and detection, such as Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) and Trans Rectal Ultra-Sonography (TRUS), are known to have low sensitivity and specificity. Elastography is an imaging technique that uses tissue stiffness as contrast mechanism. As the association between the degree of prostate tissue stiffness alteration and its pathology is well established, elastography can potentially detect prostate cancer with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a novel elastography technique which, unlike other elastography techniques, does not require displacement data acquisition system. This technique requires the prostate's pre-compression and postcompression transrectal ultrasound images. The conceptual foundation of reconstructing the prostate's normal and pathological tissues elastic moduli is to determine these moduli such that the similarity between calculated and observed shape features of the post compression prostate image is maximized. Results indicate that this technique is highly accurate and robust.

  14. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    are underway. The specific goals of this program are: (1) To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying normal prostate growth and differentiation and elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate oncogenesis. (2) To build on fundamental knowledge to develop effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of prostate cancer. (3) To improve the control of prostate cancer through early detection, chemoprevention, and outreach and education. This new disease-based program is structured to improve interdisciplinary interactions and translational results. Already, through the dynamic leadership of Drs. Cory Abate-Shen and Robert DiPaola, new investigators were attracted to the field, new collaborations engendered, and numerous investigator-initiated trials implemented. Progress in GPCC and the program overall has been outstanding. The Center has success in uniting investigators with broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer in patients and populations at risk. Members wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Studies in cell culture and powerful animal models developed recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and chemoprevention are underway.

  15. Expectant Management (Watchful Waiting) and Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Watchful Waiting or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some ... Away or Comes Back After Treatment More In Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  16. What Are the Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer How common is prostate cancer? ... at some point are still alive today. For statistics related to survival, see Survival Rates for Prostate ...

  17. Incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania after introduction of the Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, G; Aleknaviciene, B

    2012-12-01

    In Lithuania, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is offered to healthy asymptomatic men as a screening test in the population-based Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme (EPCDP). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of prostate cancer before and after introduction of the EPCDP in Lithuania. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry were analysed for the period 1990-2008. Age-specific incidence and mortality data were adjusted to the European Standard Population. There have been extraordinary changes in the incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania following introduction of the EPCDP, and there is strong evidence that these changes are the result of increased detection rates, especially in men of screening age. Further observation of changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania may help to determine the extent to which PSA testing at the population level influences incidence and mortality in the general population.

  18. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  19. Vitamin E and Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E, its metabolites or its analogs, might help prevent prostate cancer initiation or progression. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States, exceeded only by lung cancer. About 218,890 new cases of prost...

  20. Particle radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Suefuji, Hiroaki; Sinoto, Makoto; Matsunobu, Akira; Toyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Kudo, Sho

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in external beam radiotherapy have allowed us to deliver higher doses to the tumors while decreasing doses to the surrounding tissues. Dose escalation using high-precision radiotherapy has improved the treatment outcomes of prostate cancer. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy has been widely used throughout the world as the most advanced form of photon radiotherapy. In contrast, particle radiotherapy has also been under development, and has been used as an effective and non-invasive radiation modality for prostate and other cancers. Among the particles used in such treatments, protons and carbon ions have the physical advantage that the dose can be focused on the tumor with only minimal exposure of the surrounding normal tissues. Furthermore, carbon ions also have radiobiological advantages that include higher killing effects on intrinsic radio-resistant tumors, hypoxic tumor cells and tumor cells in the G0 or S phase. However, the degree of clinical benefit derived from these theoretical advantages in the treatment of prostate cancer has not been adequately determined. The present article reviews the available literature on the use of particle radiotherapy for prostate cancer as well as the literature on the physical and radiobiological properties of this treatment, and discusses the role and the relative merits of particle radiotherapy compared with current photon-based radiotherapy, with a focus on proton beam therapy and carbon ion radiotherapy.

  1. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Cancer.gov

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  2. Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mols, Floortje Korfage, Ida J.; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Kil, Paul J.M.; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems.

  3. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  4. The Zinc-Schiff Base-Novicidin Complex as a Potential Prostate Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Vedran; Haddad, Yazan; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Moulick, Amitava; Polanska, Hana; Hynek, David; Heger, Zbynek; Kopel, Pavel; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells control energy metabolism by chelating intracellular zinc. Thus, zinc delivery has been a popular therapeutic approach for prostate cancer. Here, we propose the use of the membrane-penetrating peptide Novicidin connected to zinc-Schiff base as a carrier vehicle for the delivery of zinc to prostate cells. Mass spectrometry, electrochemistry and spectrophotometry confirmed the formation/stability of this complex and provided insight regarding the availability of zinc for complex interactions. This delivery system showed minor toxicity in normal PNT1A cells and high potency towards PC3 tumor cells. The complex preferentially penetrated PC3 tumor cells in contrast to confinement to the membranes of PNT1A. Furthermore, zinc uptake was confirmed in both cell lines. Molecular analysis was used to confirm the activation of zinc stress (e.g., ZnT-1) and apoptosis (e.g., CASP-1). Our results strongly suggest that the zinc-Schiff base-Novicidin complex has great potential as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:27727290

  5. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    PubMed

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  6. A self-adaptive case-based reasoning system for dose planning in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Nishikant; Petrovic, Sanja; Sundar, Santhanam

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the male population. Radiotherapy is often used in the treatment for prostate cancer. In radiotherapy treatment, the oncologist makes a trade-off between the risk and benefit of the radiation, i.e., the task is to deliver a high dose to the prostate cancer cells and minimize side effects of the treatment. The aim of our research is to develop a software system that will assist the oncologist in planning new treatments. Methods: A nonlinear case-based reasoning system is developed to capture the expertise and experience of oncologists in treating previous patients. Importance (weights) of different clinical parameters in the dose planning is determined by the oncologist based on their past experience, and is highly subjective. The weights are usually fixed in the system. In this research, the weights are updated automatically each time after generating a treatment plan for a new patient using a group based simulated annealing approach. Results: The developed approach is analyzed on the real data set collected from the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK. Extensive experiments show that the dose plan suggested by the proposed method is coherent with the dose plan prescribed by an experienced oncologist or even better. Conclusions: The developed case-based reasoning system enables the use of knowledge and experience gained by the oncologist in treating new patients. This system may play a vital role to assist the oncologist in making a better decision in less computational time; it utilizes the success rate of the previously treated patients and it can also be used in teaching and training processes.

  7. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol is a neutral lipid that accumulates in liquid-ordered, detergent-resistant membrane domains called lipid rafts. Lipid rafts serve as membrane platforms for signal transduction mechanisms that mediate cell growth, survival, and a variety of other processes relevant to cancer. A number of studies, going back many years, demonstrate that cholesterol accumulates in solid tumors and that cholesterol homeostasis breaks down in the prostate with aging and with the transition to the malignant state. This review summarizes the established links between cholesterol and prostate cancer (PCa), with a focus on how accumulation of cholesterol within the lipid raft component of the plasma membrane may stimulate signaling pathways that promote progression to hormone refractory disease. We propose that increases in cholesterol in prostate tumor cell membranes, resulting from increases in circulating levels or from dysregulation of endogenous synthesis, results in the coalescence of raft domains. This would have the effect of sequestering positive regulators of oncogenic signaling within rafts, while maintaining negative regulators in the liquid-disordered membrane fraction. This approach toward examining the function of lipid rafts in prostate cancer cells may provide insight into the role of circulating cholesterol in malignant growth and on the potential relationship between diet and aggressive disease. Large-scale characterization of proteins that localize to cholesterol-rich domains may help unveil signaling networks and pathways that will lead to identification of new biomarkers for disease progression and potentially to novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D.; Mehra, Rohit; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer prevalence increases, challenges remain in the diagnosis of clinically relevant prostate cancer as well as the management of the metastatic and androgen-independent metastatic disease states. PMID:17786228

  9. Prostate cancer vaccines in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lubaroff, David M

    2012-07-01

    This review presents important information about the current state of the art for vaccine immunotherapy of prostate cancer. It includes important preclinical research for each of the important prostate cancer vaccines to have reached clinical trials. To date, the only prostate cancer vaccine that has completed Phase III trials and has been approved and licensed by the US FDA is Sipuleucel-T, which immunizes patients against the prostate-associated antigen prostatic acid phosphatase. The benefits and concerns associated with the vaccine are presented. A current Phase III trial is currently underway using the vaccinia-based prostate-specific antigen vaccine Prostvac-TRICOM. Other immunotherapeutic vaccines in trials include the Ad/prostate-specific antigen vaccine Ad5-prostate-specific antigen and the DNA/prostatic acid phosphatase vaccine. A cellular vaccine, GVAX, has been in clinical trials but has not seen continuous study. This review also delves into the multiple immune regulatory elements that must be overcome in order to obtain strong antitumor-associated antigen immune responses capable of effectively destroying prostate tumor cells.

  10. Treatment profile and complications associated with cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Calpurnyia B.; Jang, Thomas L.; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Kabadi, Shaum; Moore, Dirk F.; Lu-Yao, Grace L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and 3 to 12-month complication rates associated with receiving prostate cryotherapy in a population-based study. Men > 65 years diagnosed with incident localized prostate cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) - Medicare linked database from 2004 to 2005 were identified. A total of 21,344 men were included in the study, of which 380 were treated initially with cryotherapy. Recipients of cryotherapy versus aggressive forms of prostate therapy (i.e. radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy) were more likely to be older, have one co-morbidity, low income, live in the South, and be diagnosed with indolent cancer. Complication rates increased from 3 to 12 months following cryotherapy. By the twelfth month, the rates for urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract obstruction, erectile dysfunction, and bowel bleeding reached 9.8%, 28.7%, 20.1%, and 3.3%, respectively. Diagnoses of hydronephrosis, urinary fistula, or bowel fistula were not evident. The rates of corrective invasive procedures for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were both <2.9% by the twelfth month. Overall, complications post cryotherapy were modest; however, diagnoses for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were common. PMID:21519347

  11. Chimeric Amino Acid Rearrangements as Immune Targets in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    cancer using a variety of approaches, including dendritic cell-based vaccines (e.g. Provegene), pox-based vaccines (e.g. PROSTVAC) as well as...Background: Cancer vaccines aim to elicit antigen-specific T cell responses against tumor antigens. Most prostate cancer vaccines to date target mis...therapeutic vaccination against fusion oncogenes in prostate cancer. IMMUNOGENICITY OF CHIMERIC AMINO ACID SEQUENCES IN PROSTATE CANCER Jennifer L

  12. Testosterone Therapy and Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Emily; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Changes in understanding regarding the relationship of androgens and prostate cancer have led to changes in the use of testosterone therapy. The evidence supports a finite ability of androgens to stimulate prostate cancer growth, with a maximum achieved at low testosterone concentrations, called the saturation model. The saturation point corresponds with maximal androgenic stimulation at 250 ng/dL. Evidence is reviewed herein regarding the relationship of testosterone to prostate cancer and the relatively new practice of offering testosterone therapy to men with a history of prostate cancer. Although no prospective controlled trials have been performed, results have been reassuring.

  13. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Maryam; Ghodsbin, Fariba; Jahanbin, Iran; Ariafar, Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Izadi, Tayyebe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based education on knowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93) and control (n=87) groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS), and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05) in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05). The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013090911691N3 PMID:26793731

  14. Prostate Cancer MR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J.

    With a total of 192,280 new cases predicted for 2009, prostate cancer (PC) now accounts for 25% of all new male cancers diagnosed in the United States [1]. Furthermore, in their lifetime, one in six men will be clinically diagnosed with having PC, although many more men are found to have histological evidence of PC at autopsy [2,3,4]. Presently, approximately 1 in 10 men will die of PC [5,6]. The ever-aging population and wider spread use of the blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test [7,8], as well as the tendency to apply lower cut-off levels for this test [9], will further increase the diagnosis of this disease [10].

  15. Phase of care prevalence for prostate cancer in New South Wales, Australia: A population-based modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Smith, David P.; Clements, Mark S.; Patel, Manish I.; O’Connell, Dianne L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop a method for estimating the future numbers of prostate cancer survivors requiring different levels of care. Design, setting and participants Analysis of population-based cancer registry data for prostate cancer cases (aged 18–84 years) diagnosed in 1996–2007, and a linked dataset with hospital admission data for men with prostate cancer diagnosed during 2005–2007 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Cancer registry data (1996–2007) were used to project complete prostate cancer prevalence in NSW, Australia for 2008–2017, and treatment information from hospital records (2005–2007) was used to estimate the inpatient care needs during the first year after diagnosis. The projected complete prevalence was divided into care needs-based groups. We first divided the cohort into two groups based on patient’s age (<75 and 75–84 years). The younger cohort was further divided into initial care and monitoring phases. Cause of death data were used as a proxy for patients requiring last year of life prostate cancer care. Finally, episode data were used to estimate the future number of cases with metastatic progression. Results Of the estimated total of 60,910 men with a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer in 2017, the largest groups will be older patients (52.0%) and younger men who require monitoring (42.5%). If current treatment patterns continue, in the first year post-diagnosis 41% (1380) of patients (<75 years) will have a radical prostatectomy, and 52.6% (1752) will be likely to have either active surveillance, external beam radiotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy. About 3% will require care for subsequent metastases, and 1288 men with prostate cancer are likely to die from the disease in 2017. Conclusions This method extends the application of routinely collected population-based data, and can contribute much to the knowledge of the number of men with prostate cancer and their health care requirements. This could be of

  16. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient.

  17. Tocotrienols and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    factors [1-3]. Some evidence supports the protective effects of tomato products ( lycopene ), soy products (isoflavonoids) and fruits. Secondary...tocopherols and tocotrienols, have variable growth inhibitory effects on both types of prostate cancer cell line models. The gamma isoforms are more... effective than the alpha isoforms and the tocotrienols are more effective than the tocopherols. This study further showed that the vitamin E-mediated

  18. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer using cylinder diffuse radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenming; Li, Li; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of diseases with high mortality in man. Many clinical imaging modalities are utilized for the detection, grading and staging of prostate cancer, such as ultrasound, CT, MRI, etc. But they lacked adequate sensitivity and specificity for finding cancer in transition or central zone of prostate. To overcome these problems, we propose a photoacoustic imaging modality based on cylinder diffuse radiation through urethra for prostate cancer detection. We measure the related parameters about this system like lateral resolution (~2mm) and axial resolution(~333μm). Finally, simulated sample was imaged by our system. The results demonstrate the feasibility for detecting prostate cancer by our system.

  19. Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Oscar; Drean, Gael; Ospina, Juan David; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; Lafond, Caroline; De Crevoisier, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    The majority of current models utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One of their main drawbacks is the lack of spatial accuracy, since they consider the organs as a whole volume and thus ignore the heterogeneous intra-organ radio-sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a dose-image-based framework to reveal the relationships between local dose and toxicity. In this approach, the three-dimensional (3D) planned dose distributions across a population are non-rigidly registered into a common coordinate system and compared at a voxel level, therefore enabling the identification of 3D anatomical patterns, which may be responsible for toxicity, at least to some extent. Additionally, different metrics were employed in order to assess the quality of the dose mapping. The value of this approach was demonstrated by prospectively analyzing rectal bleeding (≥Grade 1 at 2 years) according to the CTCAE v3.0 classification in a series of 105 patients receiving 80Gy to the prostate by IMRT. Within the patients presenting bleeding, a significant dose excess (6Gy on average, p<0.01) was found in a region of the anterior rectal wall. This region, close to the prostate (1cm), represented less than 10% of the rectum. This promising voxel-wise approach allowed subregions to be defined within the organ that may be involved in toxicity and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step. PMID:23528429

  20. Automatic MRI Atlas-Based External Beam Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Jason; Lambert, Jonathan; Parker, Joel; Greer, Peter B.; Fripp, Jurgen; Denham, James; Ourselin, Sébastien; Salvado, Olivier

    Prostate radiation therapy dose planning currently requires computed tomography (CT) scans as they contain electron density information needed for patient dose calculations. However magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images have significantly superior soft-tissue contrast for segmenting organs of interest and determining the target volume for treatment. This paper describes work on the development of an alternative treatment workflow enabling both organ delineation and dose planning to be performed using MRI alone. This is achieved by atlas based segmentation and the generation of pseudo-CT scans from MRI. Planning and dosimetry results for three prostate cancer patients from Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital (Australia) are presented supporting the feasibility of this workflow. Good DSC scores were found for the atlas based segmentation of the prostate (mean 0.84) and bones (mean 0.89). The agreement between MRI/pseudo-CT and CT planning was quantified by dose differences and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi values indicate that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions are equivalent.

  1. Adoption of a plant-based diet by patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacquelyn Y; Major, Jacqueline M; Knott, Cynthia J; Freeman, Karen M; Downs, Tracy M; Saxe, Gordon A

    2006-09-01

    The Western diet has been associated with prostate cancer incidence as well as risk of disease progression after treatment. Conversely, plant-based diets have been associated with decreased risks. A pilot clinical trial of a 6-month dietary change and stress reduction intervention for asymptomatic, hormonally untreated patients experiencing a consistently rising PSA level, the first sign of recurrence of prostate cancer after surgery or radiation therapy, was conducted to investigate the level of intake of plant-based foods and the relationship between intake and the change in the rate of PSA rise. A pre-post design was employed in which each patient served as his own control. In this multifaceted intervention, patients and their spouses were encouraged to adopt and maintain a plant-based diet. The prestudy rate of PSA rise (from the time of posttreatment recurrence to the start of the study) was ascertained by review of patients' medical records. Dietary assessments were performed and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ascertained at baseline, prior to the start of intervention, and at 3 and 6 months. Changes in numbers of servings of plant-based food groups were calculated and compared with rates of PSA rise over the corresponding time intervals. Median intake of whole grains increased from 1.7 servings/d at baseline to 6.9 and 5.0 servings/d at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Median intake of vegetables increased from 2.8 servings/d at baseline to 5.0 and 4.8 servings/d at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The rate of PSA rise decreased when comparing the prestudy period (0.059) to the period from 0 to 3 months (-0.002, P < .01) and increased slightly, though not significantly, when comparing the period from 0 to 3 months to the period from 3 to 6 months (0.029, P = .4316). These results provide preliminary evidence that adoption of a plant-based diet is possible to achieve as well as to maintain for several months in patients with recurrent prostate cancer

  2. A Population-Based Study of Dietary Acrylamide and Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    occupational acrylamide exposure were thought to be limited to tobacco products and drinking water. The data establishing acrylamide as a carcinogen comes...case-control study on prostate cancer. The exposure to acrylamide was estimated by using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and by hemoglobin adducts...two estimates. The relative risk of prostate cancer was 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.27) for the highest quintile of exposure compare to the lowest quintile

  3. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system . The prostate is just below the bladder (the ... part of the semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  4. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients’ sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:26039628

  5. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Ludwig, Nicole; Meese, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients' sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  6. Genomic Rearrangements in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Christopher E.; Rubin, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Genomic instability is a fundamental feature of human cancer, leading to the activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressors. In prostate cancer, structural genomic rearrangements, resulting in gene fusions, amplifications and deletions, are a critical mechanism effecting these alterations. Here we review recent literature regarding the importance of genomic rearrangements in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and the potential impact on patient care. Recent findings Next generation sequencing has revealed a striking abundance, complexity, and heterogeneity of genomic rearrangements in prostate cancer. These recent studies have nominated a number of processes in predisposing prostate cancer to genomic rearrangements, including androgen-induced transcription. Summary Structural rearrangements are the critical mechanism resulting in the characteristic genomic changes associated with prostate cancer pathogenesis and progression. Future studies will determine if the impact of these events on tumor phenotypes can be translated to clinical utility for patient prognosis and choices of management strategies. PMID:25393273

  7. Internet-Based Education for Prostate Cancer Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    cells. n Hormone therapy: Certain hormones are given or removed. This helps to keep cancer cells from growing. n Cryotherapy : A special probe is placed...treatment: Surgery, external radiation therapy, internal radiation therapy, hormone therapy, cryotherapy , or a combination of these treatments. The term...involving people that is designed to answer medical questions and to find better ways to prevent or treat disease. Cryotherapy : Treatment performed

  8. Angiostatic Therapy: A New Treatment Modality for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    could be a new innovative treatment regimen for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. This was to be achieved with human prostate cancer tissue and...indices, low cell death and a highly invasive phenotype. Using this model we identified surgical castration, COX-2 inhibition and dendritic cell based immunotherapy as effective mono and combined therapies for prostate carcinoma.

  9. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  10. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer What’s New in Prostate Cancer Research? Research into the causes, ... in many medical centers throughout the world. Genetics New research on gene changes linked to prostate cancer ...

  11. Metallated DNA Aptamers For Prostate Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    including a polydA tail in one aptamer complex and a polydT tail in a second aptamer complex, with dimerization occurring by Watson - Crick base pair...by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-10-1-0132 Metallated DNA Aptamers for Prostate Cancer Treatment Dr. William Gmeiner Wake Forest University Winston...efficacious for prostate cancer treatment. Significant progress has been made on refining novel Zn2+-binding DNA motifs that utilize FdU

  12. High Prevalence of Screen Detected Prostate Cancer in West Africans: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Ann W.; Yeboah, Edward; Biritwum, Richard; Tettey, Yao; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Adjei, Andrew; Netto, George J.; Yu, Kai; Li, Yan; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Chia, David; Partin, Alan; Thompson, Ian M.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Niwa, Shelley; Tarone, Robert; Hoover, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana. Materials and Methods We randomly selected 1,037 healthy men 50 to 74 years old from Accra, Ghana for prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. Men with a positive screen result (positive digital rectal examination or prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml) underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies. Results Of the 1,037 men 154 (14.9%) had a positive digital rectal examination and 272 (26.2%) had prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml, including 166 with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. A total of 352 men (33.9%) had a positive screen by prostate specific antigen or digital rectal examination and 307 (87%) underwent biopsy. Of these men 73 were confirmed to have prostate cancer, yielding a 7.0% screen detected prostate cancer prevalence (65 patients), including 5.8% with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. Conclusions In this relatively unscreened population in Africa the screen detected prostate cancer prevalence is high, suggesting a possible role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology and the disparity in prostate cancer risk between black and white American men. Further studies are needed to confirm the high prostate cancer burden in African men and the role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:24747091

  13. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    PubMed

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  14. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-02-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer.

  15. Update: Immunological Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in US men. Along with initial therapy using surgery, radiotherapy, or cryotherapy, hormonal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. For men with advanced (metastatic) disease, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and provides a significant survival advantage. This relative paucity of treatment options drives an ongoing quest for additional treatment modalities; among these is immunotherapy. The concept that prostate cancer is a malignancy that can be targeted by the immune system may seem counterintuitive; certainly kidney cancer and melanoma are more traditionally thought of as immune responsive cancers. However, prostate cancer arises in a relatively unique organ and may express a number of proteins (antigens) against which an immune response can be generated. More importantly, several of these agents have now demonstrated a significant survival benefit in randomized controlled clinical trials, and one agent in particular (Sipuleucel-T, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA) could be FDA-approved in 2010. This update summarizes recent clinical developments in the field of prostate cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on dendritic cell vaccines, virus-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and cell-based vaccines. In addition, the notion of agents that target immune checkpoints is introduced. Enthusiasm for prostate cancer immunotherapy is founded upon its potential to mediate targeted, specific, tumor cell destruction without significant systemic toxicity; however, this has yet to be fully realized in the clinical arena. PMID:20425628

  16. Update: immunological strategies for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Drake, Charles G; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2010-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in US men. Along with initial therapy using surgery, radiotherapy, or cryotherapy, hormonal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. For men with advanced (metastatic) disease, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and provides a significant survival advantage. This relative paucity of treatment options drives an ongoing quest for additional treatment modalities; among these is immunotherapy. The concept that prostate cancer is a malignancy that can be targeted by the immune system may seem counterintuitive; certainly kidney cancer and melanoma are more traditionally thought of as immune responsive cancers. However, prostate cancer arises in a relatively unique organ and may express a number of proteins (antigens) against which an immune response can be generated. More importantly, several of these agents have now demonstrated a significant survival benefit in randomized controlled clinical trials, and one agent in particular (Sipuleucel-T, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA) could be FDA-approved in 2010. This update summarizes recent clinical developments in the field of prostate cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on dendritic cell vaccines, virus-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and cell-based vaccines. In addition, the notion of agents that target immune checkpoints is introduced. Enthusiasm for prostate cancer immunotherapy is founded upon its potential to mediate targeted, specific, tumor cell destruction without significant systemic toxicity; however, this has yet to be fully realized in the clinical arena.

  17. Clinical controversies: proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mouw, Kent W; Trofimov, Alexei; Zietman, Anthony L; Efstathiou, Jason A

    2013-04-01

    Proton therapy has been used in the treatment of prostate cancer for several decades, and interest surrounding its use continues to grow. Proton-based treatment techniques have evolved significantly over this period, and several centers now routinely use technologies such as pencil-beam scanning. However, whether the theoretical dosimetric advantages of the proton beam translate into clinically meaningful improvements for prostate cancer patients is unknown, and outcomes from single-arm experiences using whole courses of proton beam therapy in the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer have shown mixed results when compared with contemporary intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A randomized trial comparing proton beam therapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in early-stage disease has been launched and will be important in defining the role for proton therapy in this setting. We review the available evidence and present the current state of proton beam therapy for prostate cancer.

  18. Chemotherapy of prostate cancer: present and future.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald; Lau, Yiu-Keung

    2003-06-01

    The role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer continues to evolve. In men with symptomatic androgen-independent prostate cancer, significant reduction in pain and analgesic requirements are achievable with mitoxantrone and glucocorticoid combinations compared with glucocorticoids alone. However, survival rates are not improved. Taxane-based combinations with estramustine phosphate or other new agents show promise. Prostate-specific antigen response rates with these combinations appear to be 1.5 to 2 times more frequent than with mitoxantrone-based combinations. Randomized trials of taxane versus mitoxantrone-based therapies are underway. New agents and applications of current agents in adjuvant settings should be explored if survival in men with prostate cancer is to be improved.

  19. 18F-DCFBC PET/CT for PSMA-Based Detection and Characterization of Primary Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Sheila F.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Cornish, Toby C.; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Guner, Gunes; Munari, Enrico; Partin, Alan W.; Pavlovich, Christian P.; Han, Misop; Carter, H. Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Blackford, Amanda; Holt, Daniel; Dannals, Robert F.; Netto, George J.; Lodge, Martin A.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.; Cho, Steve Y.

    2015-01-01

    cancer was less than MR imaging, 18F-DCFBC PET was able to detect the more clinically significant high-grade and larger-volume tumors (Gleason score 8 and 9) with higher specificity than MR imaging. In particular, there was relatively low 18F-DCFBC PET uptake in benign prostatic hypertrophy lesions, compared with cancer in the prostate, which may allow for more specific detection of primary prostate cancer by 18F-DCFBC PET. This study demonstrates the utility of PSMA-based PET, which may be used in conjunction with MR imaging to identify clinically significant prostate cancer. PMID:26069305

  20. Molecular pathways and targets in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shtivelman, Emma; Beer, Tomasz M.; Evans, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer co-opts a unique set of cellular pathways in its initiation and progression. The heterogeneity of prostate cancers is evident at earlier stages, and has led to rigorous efforts to stratify the localized prostate cancers, so that progression to advanced stages could be predicted based upon salient features of the early disease. The deregulated androgen receptor signaling is undeniably most important in the progression of the majority of prostate tumors. It is perhaps because of the primacy of the androgen receptor governed transcriptional program in prostate epithelium cells that once this program is corrupted, the consequences of the ensuing changes in activity are pleotropic and could contribute to malignancy in multiple ways. Following localized surgical and radiation therapies, 20-40% of patients will relapse and progress, and will be treated with androgen deprivation therapies. The successful development of the new agents that inhibit androgen signaling has changed the progression free survival in hormone resistant disease, but this has not changed the almost ubiquitous development of truly resistant phenotypes in advanced prostate cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular pathways involved in localized and metastatic prostate cancer, with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the new knowledge. PMID:25277175

  1. Functional imaging for prostate cancer: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Mari Aparici, Carina; Seo, Youngho

    2012-09-01

    Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]/CT, positron emission tomography [PET]/CT, and PET/magnetic resonance imaging), are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer, particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regard to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, although the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging, including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects.

  2. Factors associated with prostate cancer patients' and their spouses' satisfaction with a family-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Harden, Janet; Falahee, Margaret; Bickes, Joan; Schafenacker, Ann; Walker, Julie; Mood, Darlene; Northouse, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Only a few programs are designed to help couples cope with the effects of prostate cancer, and typically, only their intervention outcomes are reported. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer patients' and their spouses' satisfaction with an efficacious supportive-educative, family-based intervention, and factors associated with their satisfaction. We assessed the relationship of overall satisfaction with the intervention to (1) the patients' and spouses' appraisal and the resource and quality-of-life baseline scores and (2) changes in those scores after completing the intervention. Results showed that participants were very satisfied with the program. Patients who had higher scores on baseline measures, indicating more positive appraisal of their illness, better use of resources (eg, coping, self-efficacy), and higher overall quality of life, reported more satisfaction with the intervention. For spouses, few baseline measures were related to their satisfaction; however, spouses who reported positive changes after intervention (less negative appraisal and uncertainty, better communication) reported higher satisfaction with the program. Although satisfied with the program, factors associated with patients' and spouses' satisfaction differed. To translate effective interventions to clinical practice settings, it is important to assess participants' satisfaction with program content and delivery, as well as program outcomes.

  3. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    line was provided by Dr. Charles L. Sawyers at the University of California at Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. Both LNCaP and LAPC-4...androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther 2006;5(4):913– 918. 43. Zhang SM, Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Manson JE...RJ, Christen WG, Kurth T, Belanger C, MacFadyen J, Bubes V, Manson JE, Sesso HD, Buring JE. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total

  4. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  5. MR Imaging Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    recomputing MRI- based IMRT plans using patient CT data and an IMRT QA phantom . The differences in dose distributions between MRI plans and the...corresponding recomputed plans were generally within 3%/3mm. The differences in isocenter doses between MRI dose calculation and phantom measurements were...GDC correction due to system induced distortion. We performed phantom measurements to calibrate/quantify MRI distortion at different axial planes to

  6. Phosphoramidate-based Peptidomimetic Prostate Cancer PET Imaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    develop a PET imaging agent based on modifying the peptidomimetic PSMA inhibitor which will result in improved tumor uptake and clearance mechanism...Different fluorination approaches were attempted with PSMA module compounds such as direct labeling, cupper free chemistry and the use of...labeling approaches are established, and then the labeling of the modified PSMA inhibitor analogues will be investigated in vitro as well as in vivo. 15

  7. Phosphoramidate-based Peptidomimetic Prostate Cancer PET Imaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    goal is to develop a PET imaging agent based on modifying the peptidomimetic PSMA inhibitor which will result in improved tumor uptake and clearance...mechanism. Different fluorination approaches were attempted with PSMA module compounds such as direct labeling, cupper free chemistry and the use of...the labeling approaches are established, and then the labeling of the modified PSMA inhibitor analogues will be investigated in vitro as well as in

  8. Centrosome-Based Mechanisms, Prognostics and Therapeutics in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    42 48 72 hrs % c el ls w it h m is lo ca liz ed c en tr os om al R II % T el o. c ...in membrane trafficking to the midbody. As a first test ofsis in C . elegans presumably due to inhibition of post- Golgi secretory-vesicle trafficking...SNAP23 in non-neuronal cells. Biochem. J. 375, 33–440. hen, C ., and Contreras, R. (2004). The bud scar-based screening ystem for hunting human genes

  9. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    dihydrotestosterone in the prostate by the enzyme 5α-reductase. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) demonstrated that treatment with finasteride , an...demand. Finasteride , despite being an older drug, has several advantages over dutasteride. First, its efficacy has been proven by a phase III trial... finasteride treatment. No such information is available with dutasteride. Third, finasteride is available commercially from Steraloids (Newport, RI

  10. PACE4-based molecular targeting of prostate cancer using an engineered ⁶⁴Cu-radiolabeled peptide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; D'Anjou, François; Day, Robert; Guérin, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML), and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA) to the ML peptide for copper-64 ((64)Cu) labeling and positron emission tomography (PET)- based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the (64)Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a (64)Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor-based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy.

  11. Parafilm-assisted microdissection: a sampling method for mass spectrometry-based identification of differentially expressed prostate cancer protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Quanico, J; Franck, J; Gimeno, J P; Sabbagh, R; Salzet, M; Day, R; Fournier, I

    2015-03-18

    Mass spectrometry-based methods for prostate cancer biomarker discovery are hampered by their low-throughput capabilities because of extensive sample preparation. We present the parafilm-assisted microdissection technique coupled with label-free quantification and bioinformatics analysis as a means to evaluate directly protein expression changes on benign and tumor regions.

  12. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system . It lies just below the bladder (the organ ... part of the semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  14. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  15. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amar; Dan, Tu D.; Williams, Noelle L.; Pridjian, Andrew; Den, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Methods: Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Results: Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. Conclusions: The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life. PMID:27843209

  16. A database-augmented, exosome-based mass spectrometry approach exemplarily identifies circulating claudin 3 as biomarker in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Worst, Thomas Stefan; von Hardenberg, Jost; Gross, Julia Christina; Erben, Philipp; Schnoelzer, Martina; Hausser, Ingrid; Bugert, Peter; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Boutros, Michael

    2017-04-09

    In prostate cancer and other malignancies sensitive and robust biomarkers are lacking or have relevant limitations. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), the only biomarker widely used in prostate cancer, is suffering from low specificity. Exosomes offer new perspectives in the discovery of blood-based biomarkers. Here we present a proof-of principle study for a proteomics-based identification pipeline, implementing existing data sources, to exemplarily identify exosome-based biomarker candidates in prostate cancer. Exosomes from malignant PC3 and benign PNT1A cells and from FBS-containing medium were isolated using sequential ultracentrifugation. Exosome and control samples were analyzed on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. Proteomic data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003651. We developed a scoring scheme to rank 64 proteins exclusively found in PC3 exosomes, integrating data from four public databases and published mass spectrometry datasets. Among the top candidates, we focused on the tight junction protein claudin 3. Retests under serum-free conditions using immunoblotting and immunogold labeling confirmed the presence of claudin 3 on PC3 exosomes. Claudin 3 levels were determined in the blood plasma of patients with localized (n=58; 42 with Gleason score 6-7, 16 with Gleason score ≥8) and metastatic prostate cancer (n=11) compared to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (n=15) and healthy individuals (n=15) using ELISA, without prior laborious exosome isolation. ANOVA showed different CLDN3 plasma levels in these groups (p=0.004). CLDN3 levels were higher in patients with Gleason ≥8 tumors compared to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (p=0.012) and Gleason 6-7 tumors (p=0.029). In patients with localized tumors CLDN3 levels predicted a Gleason score ≥ 8 (AUC=0.705; p=0.164) and did not correlate with serum PSA. By using the described workflow claudin 3 was identified and validated as a potential blood-based biomarker

  17. Family history and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lesko, S M; Rosenberg, L; Shapiro, S

    1996-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between family history of prostate cancer and the risk of this cancer in a population-based case-control study conducted in Massachusetts between December 1992 and October 1994. Cases were all incident cases of prostate cancer in men younger than 70 years (n = 563); controls were men with no history of the disease matched to the cases on age and town of residence (n = 703). Prostate cancer risk was increased among men who reported a history of this cancer in either their fathers or brothers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3). Risk varied with the number of relatives affected and their relationship to the case. For a history of prostate cancer in one relative, the OR was 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.2); if two or more relatives were affected, it was 3.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.2). For prostate cancer in the father, the OR was 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0); for prostate cancer in a brother, it was 3.0 (95% CI 1.8-4.9). Risk was inversely related to the subject's age and to age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in his affected relative. Among probands younger than 60 years, the OR was 5.3 (95% CI 2.5-12); for those 60-64 years of age, the OR was 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5); and for those 65 years of age and older, the OR was 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5). For prostate cancer diagnosed in a relative before age 65, the OR was 4.1 (95% CI 2.3-7.3); for detection of the disease after age 74, the OR was 0.76 (95% CI 0.38-1.5). The association was present both among men with local and advanced stage disease and among men whose prostate cancer was detected either by screening or because of symptoms. These data provide evidence that after controlling for diet and other potential confounders, familial factors are significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

  18. Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Drean, Gael; Ospina, Juan D; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; Lafond, Caroline; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2013-04-21

    The majority of current models utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One of their main drawbacks is the lack of spatial accuracy, since they consider the organs as a whole volume and thus ignore the heterogeneous intra-organ radio-sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a dose-image-based framework to reveal the relationships between local dose and toxicity. In this approach, the three-dimensional (3D) planned dose distributions across a population are non-rigidly registered into a common coordinate system and compared at a voxel level, therefore enabling the identification of 3D anatomical patterns, which may be responsible for toxicity, at least to some extent. Additionally, different metrics were employed in order to assess the quality of the dose mapping. The value of this approach was demonstrated by prospectively analyzing rectal bleeding (≥Grade 1 at 2 years) according to the CTCAE v3.0 classification in a series of 105 patients receiving 80 Gy to the prostate by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Within the patients presenting bleeding, a significant dose excess (6 Gy on average, p < 0.01) was found in a region of the anterior rectal wall. This region, close to the prostate (1 cm), represented less than 10% of the rectum. This promising voxel-wise approach allowed subregions to be defined within the organ that may be involved in toxicity and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step.

  19. Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Oscar; Drean, Gael; Ospina, Juan D.; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; Lafond, Caroline; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2013-04-01

    The majority of current models utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One of their main drawbacks is the lack of spatial accuracy, since they consider the organs as a whole volume and thus ignore the heterogeneous intra-organ radio-sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a dose-image-based framework to reveal the relationships between local dose and toxicity. In this approach, the three-dimensional (3D) planned dose distributions across a population are non-rigidly registered into a common coordinate system and compared at a voxel level, therefore enabling the identification of 3D anatomical patterns, which may be responsible for toxicity, at least to some extent. Additionally, different metrics were employed in order to assess the quality of the dose mapping. The value of this approach was demonstrated by prospectively analyzing rectal bleeding (⩾Grade 1 at 2 years) according to the CTCAE v3.0 classification in a series of 105 patients receiving 80 Gy to the prostate by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Within the patients presenting bleeding, a significant dose excess (6 Gy on average, p < 0.01) was found in a region of the anterior rectal wall. This region, close to the prostate (1 cm), represented less than 10% of the rectum. This promising voxel-wise approach allowed subregions to be defined within the organ that may be involved in toxicity and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step.

  20. Dendritic cell based PSMA immunotherapy for prostate cancer using a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Williams, Briana Jill; Bhatia, Shilpa; Adams, Lisa K; Boling, Susan; Carroll, Jennifer L; Li, Xiao-Lin; Rogers, Donna L; Korokhov, Nikolay; Kovesdi, Imre; Pereboev, Alexander V; Curiel, David T; Mathis, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells). To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ). Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Polyphenols and Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    prostate chemoprevention are the soy isoflavone, genistein, and the tea catechin , (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Another polyphenol that has...diet high in soy products have reduced incidence of clinically manifested prostate cancers. Likewise, Asians have a long history of drinking tea

  2. Improving Couples' Quality of Life Through a Web-Based Prostate Cancer Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lixin; Rini, Christine; Deal, Allison M.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Chang, Hao; Kinneer, Patty; Teal, Randall; Johnson, David C.; Dunn, Mary W.; Mark, Barbara; Palmer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a newly developed web-based, couple-oriented intervention called Prostate Cancer Education and Resources for Couples (PERC). Design Quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods approach. Setting Oncology outpatient clinics at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at UNC–Chapel Hill. Sample 26 patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) and their partners. Methods Pre- and postpilot quantitative assessments and a postpilot qualitative interview were conducted. Main Research Variables General and PCa-specific symptoms, quality of life, psychosocial factors, PERC's ease of use, and web activities. Findings Improvement was shown in some PCa-specific and general symptoms (small effect sizes for patients and small-to-medium effect sizes for partners), overall quality of life, and physical and social domains of quality of life for patients (small effect sizes). Web activity data indicated high PERC use. Qualitative and quantitative analyses indicated that participants found PERC easy to use and understand, as well as engaging, of high quality, and relevant. Overall, participants were satisfied with PERC and reported that PERC improved their knowledge about symptom management and communication as a couple. Conclusions PERC was a feasible, acceptable method of reducing the side effects of PCa treatment–related symptoms and improving quality of life. Implications for Nursing PERC has the potential to reduce the negative impacts of symptoms and enhance quality of life for patients with localized PCa and their partners, particularly for those who live in rural areas and have limited access to post-treatment supportive care. PMID:25806885

  3. Simple diagrammatic method to delineate male urethra in prostate cancer radiotherapy: an MRI based approach.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Tejinder; Gupta, Deepak; Goyal, Shikha; Bisht, Shyam S; Chaudhary, Ravi; Narang, Kushal; Banerjee, Susovan; Basu, Trinanjan; Abhishek, Ashu; Sambasivam, Sasikumar; Vishnu, Nisha T

    2016-12-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being increasingly utilized in the treatment of prostate cancer. With the advent of high-precision radiosurgery systems, it is possible to obtain dose distributions akin to high-dose rate brachytherapy with SBRT. However, urethral toxicity has a significant impact on the quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Contouring the male urethra on a CT scan is difficult in the absence of an indwelling catheter. In this pictorial essay, we have used the MRI obtained for radiotherapy planning to aid in the delineation of the male urethra and have attempted to define guidelines for the same.

  4. Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastases: Pathobiology and Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    in higher levels in prostate carcinoma than in benign prostatic hyperplasia [35, 36], and is found in human metastatic lesions in bone [37]. However...compared to normal controls, benign prostatic hyperplasia , prostatitis, and localized or recurrent disease. In an animal model, prostate tumor cells...Malakouti S, Antar S, Kukreja S. Enhanced expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in prostate cancer as compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia . Hum

  5. Heterogeneous patterns of DNA methylation-based field effects in histologically normal prostate tissue from cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Mia; Strand, Siri Hundtofte; Mundbjerg, Kamilla; Liang, Gangning; Gill, Inderbir; Haldrup, Christa; Borre, Michael; Høyer, Søren; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis is based on histological evaluation of prostate needle biopsies, which have high false negative rates. Here, we investigated if cancer-associated epigenetic field effects in histologically normal prostate tissue may be used to increase sensitivity for PC. We focused on nine genes (AOX1, CCDC181 (C1orf114), GABRE, GAS6, HAPLN3, KLF8, MOB3B, SLC18A2, and GSTP1) known to be hypermethylated in PC. Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR, we analysed 66 malignant and 134 non-malignant tissue samples from 107 patients, who underwent ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (67 patients had at least one cancer-positive biopsy, 40 had exclusively cancer-negative biopsies). Hypermethylation was detectable for all genes in malignant needle biopsy samples (AUC: 0.80 to 0.98), confirming previous findings in prostatectomy specimens. Furthermore, we identified a four-gene methylation signature (AOX1xGSTP1xHAPLN3xSLC18A2) that distinguished histologically non-malignant biopsies from patients with vs. without PC in other biopsies (AUC = 0.65; sensitivity = 30.8%; specificity = 100%). This signature was validated in an independent patient set (59 PC, 36 adjacent non-malignant, and 9 normal prostate tissue samples) analysed on Illumina 450 K methylation arrays (AUC = 0.70; sensitivity = 40.6%; specificity = 100%). Our results suggest that a novel four-gene signature may be used to increase sensitivity for PC diagnosis through detection of epigenetic field effects in histologically non-malignant prostate tissue samples. PMID:28084441

  6. Heterogeneous patterns of DNA methylation-based field effects in histologically normal prostate tissue from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mia; Strand, Siri Hundtofte; Mundbjerg, Kamilla; Liang, Gangning; Gill, Inderbir; Haldrup, Christa; Borre, Michael; Høyer, Søren; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard

    2017-01-13

    Prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis is based on histological evaluation of prostate needle biopsies, which have high false negative rates. Here, we investigated if cancer-associated epigenetic field effects in histologically normal prostate tissue may be used to increase sensitivity for PC. We focused on nine genes (AOX1, CCDC181 (C1orf114), GABRE, GAS6, HAPLN3, KLF8, MOB3B, SLC18A2, and GSTP1) known to be hypermethylated in PC. Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR, we analysed 66 malignant and 134 non-malignant tissue samples from 107 patients, who underwent ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (67 patients had at least one cancer-positive biopsy, 40 had exclusively cancer-negative biopsies). Hypermethylation was detectable for all genes in malignant needle biopsy samples (AUC: 0.80 to 0.98), confirming previous findings in prostatectomy specimens. Furthermore, we identified a four-gene methylation signature (AOX1xGSTP1xHAPLN3xSLC18A2) that distinguished histologically non-malignant biopsies from patients with vs. without PC in other biopsies (AUC = 0.65; sensitivity = 30.8%; specificity = 100%). This signature was validated in an independent patient set (59 PC, 36 adjacent non-malignant, and 9 normal prostate tissue samples) analysed on Illumina 450 K methylation arrays (AUC = 0.70; sensitivity = 40.6%; specificity = 100%). Our results suggest that a novel four-gene signature may be used to increase sensitivity for PC diagnosis through detection of epigenetic field effects in histologically non-malignant prostate tissue samples.

  7. Advantages and limitations of navigation-based multicriteria optimization (MCO) for localized prostate cancer IMRT planning

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, Conor K.; Bokrantz, Rasmus; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2014-10-01

    Efficacy of inverse planning is becoming increasingly important for advanced radiotherapy techniques. This study’s aims were to validate multicriteria optimization (MCO) in RayStation (v2.4, RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden) against standard intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization in Oncentra (v4.1, Nucletron BV, the Netherlands) and characterize dose differences due to conversion of navigated MCO plans into deliverable multileaf collimator apertures. Step-and-shoot IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with localized prostate cancer using both standard optimization and MCO. Acceptable standard IMRT plans with minimal average rectal dose were chosen for comparison with deliverable MCO plans. The trade-off was, for the MCO plans, managed through a user interface that permits continuous navigation between fluence-based plans. Navigated MCO plans were made deliverable at incremental steps along a trajectory between maximal target homogeneity and maximal rectal sparing. Dosimetric differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans were also quantified. MCO plans, chosen as acceptable under navigated and deliverable conditions resulted in similar rectal sparing compared with standard optimization (33.7 ± 1.8 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.117). The dose differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans increased as higher priority was placed on rectal avoidance. If the best possible deliverable MCO was chosen, a significant reduction in rectal dose was observed in comparison with standard optimization (30.6 ± 1.4 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.047). Improvements were, however, to some extent, at the expense of less conformal dose distributions, which resulted in significantly higher doses to the bladder for 2 of the 3 tolerance levels. In conclusion, similar IMRT plans can be created for patients with prostate cancer using MCO compared with standard optimization. Limitations exist within MCO regarding conversion of navigated plans to

  8. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genes. Others act as tumor suppressors through different pathways. Changes in these genes probably make only a small contribution to overall prostate cancer risk. However, researchers suspect that the combined influence ...

  9. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions. PMID:28292092

  10. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years, metastasis represents the... metastasis to lymph nodes and bone. Metastasis to bone is especially noteworthy, not only because it reflects more advanced tumors, but also because of the...the growth and metastasis of androgen-independent tumors, it may be possible to better diagnose and treat prostate cancers by inhibiting growth of

  11. Plant-based diets relatively low in bioavailable phosphate and calcium may aid prevention and control of prostate cancer by lessening production of fibroblast growth factor 23.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2017-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormonal regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism produced primarily in bone by osteocytes and mature osteoblasts, is now known to have growth factor activity for many prostate cancers. In some of these cancers, autocrine production of FGF23 drives their proliferation. FGF23 synthesized within bone likely promotes the expansion of prostate cancer bone metastases. Hence, dietary or lifestyle factors which boost bone's production of FGF23 may encourage the induction and spread of prostate cancer. High dietary intakes of bioavailable phosphorus and of calcium have been found to boost FGF23 levels, and this accords well with prospective epidemiology pointing to high intakes of both phosphate and calcium as risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer. Hence, prospective studies correlating baseline FGF23 levels with subsequent risk for prostate cancer, or advanced prostate cancer, are needed. Natural plant-based diets, though not inherently low in calcium or phosphorus, provide forms of these that are less bioavailable than those in animal products, and hence may be expected to down-regulate bone's production of FGF23. This may play a role in the lower risk for clinical prostate cancer observed in vegans and quasi-vegan cultures. Other factors, such as decreased IGF-I levels and mTORC1 activity, may also play a role in this regard.

  12. [Prostate cancer dependance upon cholesterol, statins and diet].

    PubMed

    Pilch, Paweł; Radziszewski, Piotr; Maciukiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work is to analyze the influence of higher cholesterol and LDL level on risk of prostate cancer. The work is based on the available literature in that field. The metabolism of cholesterol is mainly regulated by the statins, which may thus inhibit prostate cancer growth. Keeping the appropriate body mass and level of cholesterol by proper diet and physical exercises may be the prophylaxis of prostate cancer.

  13. How Precisely Can Prostate Cancer Be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Progress has been made in applying genetic information to disease management in the postgenomic era, and precision medicine is emerging in prostate cancer management. The prostate health index, the 4-kallikrein (4K) score, and the PCA3, TMPRSS2-ERG, and Prostarix tests have potential for refining prostate cancer screening in conjunction with traditional prostate-specific antigen testing. The Confirm MDx and PCA3 tests have shown promise in identifying men who need be rebiopsied after a primary negative biopsy. Oncotype DX, Prolaris, the biopsy-based Decipher prostate cancer test, and ProMark may improve predictive risk stratification in addition to the traditional Gleason score and tumor stage. Decipher and Prolaris may predict biochemical recurrence and metastasis after radical prostatectomy and possibly help identify patients who need adjuvant therapy. Androgen receptor splice variant 7 appears effective in guiding the selection of second hormonal manipulation with abiraterone or enzalutamide versus chemotherapy when treating metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:27915475

  14. A personalised approach to prostate cancer screening based on genotyping of risk founder alleles

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, C; Wokołorczyk, D; Kluźniak, W; Kashyap, A; Gołąb, A; Słojewski, M; Sikorski, A; Puszyński, M; Soczawa, M; Borkowski, T; Borkowski, A; Antczak, A; Przybyła, J; Sosnowski, M; Małkiewicz, B; Zdrojowy, R; Domagała, P; Piotrowski, K; Menkiszak, J; Krzystolik, K; Gronwald, J; Jakubowska, A; Górski, B; Dębniak, T; Masojć, B; Huzarski, T; Muir, K R; Lophatananon, A; Lubiński, J; Narod, S A

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate whether genotyping for 18 prostate cancer founder variants is helpful in identifying high-risk individuals and for determining optimal screening regimens. Methods: A serum PSA level was measured and a digital rectal examination (DRE) was performed on 2907 unaffected men aged 40–90. Three hundred and twenty-three men with an elevated PSA (⩾4 ng ml−1) or an abnormal DRE underwent a prostate biopsy. All men were genotyped for three founder alleles in BRCA1 (5382insC, 4153delA and C61G), for four alleles in CHEK2 (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, del5395 and I157T), for one allele in NBS1 (657del5), for one allele in HOXB13 (G84E), and for nine low-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results: On the basis of an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 135 of 2907 men (4.6%). In men with a CHEK2 missense mutation I157T, the cancer detection rate among men with an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE was much higher (10.2%, P=0.0008). The cancer detection rate rose with the number of SNP risk genotypes observed from 1.2% for men with no variant to 8.6% for men who carried six or more variants (P=0.04). No single variant was helpful on its own in predicting the presence of prostate cancer, however, the combination of all rare mutations and SNPs improved predictive power (area under the curve=0.59; P=0.03). Conclusion: These results suggest that testing for germline CHEK2 mutations improves the ability to predict the presence of prostate cancer in screened men, however, the clinical utility of incorporating DNA variants in the screening process is marginal. PMID:23722471

  15. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    well-established principles of social cognitive theory.1,2 This relatively straightforward, low-cost intervention—which utilizes behavior ... modification to increase vegetable intake and decrease fat intake—is the first to utilize diet as a form of primary clinical therapy for prostate cancer. Due

  16. Lycopene: redress for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-03-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals.

  17. Lycopene: Redress for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals. PMID:24826034

  18. Sirolimus, Docetaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Metastatic Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-10

    Castration Levels of Testosterone; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; PSA Progression; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  19. Comparison of quantum-dots- and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-based technology for detecting prostate-specific antigen expression in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Y; Yu, W; Cheng, F; Zhang, X; Rao, T; Xia, Y; Larré, S

    2011-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorescent labelling for biological and biomedical applications. In this study, the authors evaluated the sensitivity and stability of quantum-dots-based immunolabelling, in comparison with the conventional fluorescein-isothiocyanate-based immunolabelling (FITC), for detecting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in human prostate cancer. The authors' data revealed that the two methods had similar sensitivity in differential display of the PSA expression correlated with tumour stage and grade (=0.88, p<0.001). Moreover, the intensity of QDs fluorescence remain stable for 10 days after conjugation to the PSA protein in 97% of the cases and more than 1 month in 92% of the cases, although the FITC fluorescence became undetectable after 6 min for all cases.

  20. Prognostic Value of Survivin in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Study Based on RTOG 8610

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Min; Ho, Alex; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Bermudez, R. Scott; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Pilepich, Michael; Shipley, William U.; Sandler, Howard; Khor, Li-Yan; Pollack, Alan; Chakravarti, Arnab

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To examine the prognostic value of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression in men with locally advanced prostate cancer who were enrolled in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 8610. Methods and Materials: RTOG 8610 was a Phase III randomized study comparing the effect of radiotherapy plus short-term androgen deprivation with radiotherapy alone. Of the 456 eligible patients, 68 patients had suitably stained tumor material for nuclear survivin analysis and 65 patients for cytoplasmic survivin. Results: Compared with patients with nuclear survivin intensity scores of {<=}191.2, those with intensity scores >191.2 had significantly improved prostate cancer survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-1.00, p = 0.0452). On multivariate analysis, nuclear survivin intensity scores >191.2 were significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25-0.86; p = 0.0156) and prostate cancer survival (HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.84; p = 0.0173). On univariate analysis, compared with patients with cytoplasmic survivin integrated optical density {<=}82.7, those with an integrated optical density >82.7 showed a significantly increased risk of local progression (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.03-6.01; p = 0.0421). Conclusion: Nuclear overexpression of survivin was associated with improved overall and prostate cancer survival on multivariate analysis, and cytoplasmic overexpression of survivin was associated with increased rate of local progression on univariate analysis in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated on RTOG 8610. Our results might reflect the different functions of survivin and its splice variants, which are known to exist in distinct subcellular compartments.

  1. Differential blood-based diagnosis between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: miRNA as source for biomarkers independent of PSA level, Gleason score, or TNM status.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Petra; Hart, Martin; Backes, Christina; Rheinheimer, Stefanie; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart

    2016-08-01

    Since the benefit of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening remains controversial, new non-invasive biomarkers for prostate carcinoma (PCa) are still required. There is evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) in whole peripheral blood can separate patients with localized prostate cancer from healthy individuals. However, the potential of blood-based miRNAs for the differential diagnosis of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not been tested. We compared the miRNome from blood of PCa and BPH patients and further investigated the influence of the tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, Gleason score, pretreatment risk status, and the pretreatment PSA value on the miRNA pattern. By microarray approach, we identified seven miRNAs that were significantly deregulated in PCa patients compared to BPH patients. Using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), we confirmed downregulation of hsa-miR-221* (now hsa-miR-221-5p) and hsa-miR-708* (now hsa-miR-708-3p) in PCa compared to BPH. Clinical parameters like PSA level, Gleason score, or TNM status seem to have only limited impact on the overall abundance of miRNAs in patients' blood, suggesting a no influence of these factors on the expression of deregulated miRNAs.

  2. Impact of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis on Non-Cancer Hospitalizations among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries with Incident Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amit D.; Madhavan, Suresh; Mattes, Malcolm D.; Salkini, Mohamad; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To analyze the impact of cancer diagnosis on non-cancer hospitalizations (NCHs) by comparing these hospitalizations between the pre- and post-cancer period in a cohort of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with incident prostate cancer. METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) -Medicare linked database for the years 2000 to 2010. The study cohort consisted of 57,489 elderly men (≥ 67 years) with incident prostate cancer. NCHs were identified in six time periods (t1–t6) before and after the incidence of prostate cancer. Each time period consisted of 120 days. For each time period, NCHs were defined as inpatient admissions with primary diagnosis codes not related to prostate cancer, prostate cancer-related procedures or bowel, sexual and urinary dysfunction. Bivariate and multivariate comparisons on rates of NCHs between the pre- and post-cancer period accounted for the repeated measures design. RESULTS The rate of NCHs during the post-cancer period (5.1%) was higher as compared to the pre-cancer period (3.2%). In both unadjusted and adjusted models, elderly men were 37% (Odds Ratio, OR: 1.37, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.32, 1.41) and 38% (Adjusted OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.46) more likely to have any NCH during the post-cancer period as compared to the pre-cancer period. CONCLUSIONS Elderly men with prostate cancer had a significant increase in the risk of NCHs after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The study highlights the need to design interventions for reducing the excess NCHs after diagnosis of prostate cancer among elderly men. PMID:26850489

  3. COMPACT CdZnTe-BASED GAMMA CAMERA FOR PROSTATE CANCER IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; LALL, T.; TSUI, B.; YU, J.; MAHLER, G.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.; VASKA, P.; DeGERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; MEINKEN, G.; JOYAL, J.; BARRETT, J.; CAMARDA, G.; HOSSAIN, A.; KIM, K.H.; YANG, G.; POMPER, M.; CHO, S.; WEISMAN, K.; SEO, Y.; BABICH, J.; LaFRANCE, N.; AND JAMES, R.B.

    2011-10-23

    In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high false-positive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera

  4. Compact CdZnTe-based gamma camera for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yonggang; Lall, Terry; Tsui, Benjamin; Yu, Jianhua; Mahler, George; Bolotnikov, Aleksey; Vaska, Paul; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Meinken, George; Joyal, John; Barrett, John; Camarda, Giuseppe; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yang, Ge; Pomper, Marty; Cho, Steve; Weisman, Ken; Seo, Youngho; Babich, John; LaFrance, Norman; James, Ralph B.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high falsepositive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integratedcircuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera

  5. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  6. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Early Detection What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer Early? The tests discussed below are used to ... also found in the blood. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter ( ...

  7. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stelloo, Suzan; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; van der Poel, Henk G; de Jong, Jeroen; van Leenders, Geert JLH; Jenster, Guido; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Bergman, Andries M; Zwart, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer progression, we assessed changes in chromatin state during tumor development and progression. Based on this, we assessed genomewide androgen receptor/chromatin binding and identified a distinct androgen receptor/chromatin binding profile between primary prostate cancers and tumors with an acquired resistance to therapy. These differential androgen receptor/chromatin interactions dictated expression of a distinct gene signature with strong prognostic potential. Further refinement of the signature provided us with a concise list of nine genes that hallmark prostate cancer outcome in multiple independent validation series. In this report, we identified a novel gene expression signature for prostate cancer outcome through generation of multilevel genomic data on chromatin accessibility and transcriptional regulation and integration with publically available transcriptomic and clinical datastreams. By combining existing technologies, we propose a novel pipeline for biomarker discovery that is easily implementable in other fields of oncology. PMID:26412853

  8. Disruption of Prostate Epithelial Differentiation Pathways and Prostate Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Sander B.; Miranti, Cindy K.

    2013-01-01

    One of the foremost problems in the prostate cancer (PCa) field is the inability to distinguish aggressive from indolent disease, which leads to difficult prognoses and thousands of unnecessary surgeries. This limitation stems from the fact that the mechanisms of tumorigenesis in the prostate are poorly understood. Some genetic alterations are commonly reported in prostate tumors, including upregulation of Myc, fusion of Ets genes to androgen-regulated promoters, and loss of Pten. However, the specific roles of these aberrations in tumor initiation and progression are poorly understood. Likewise, the cell of origin for PCa remains controversial and may be linked to the aggressive potential of the tumor. One important clue is that prostate tumors co-express basal and luminal protein markers that are restricted to their distinct cell types in normal tissue. Prostate epithelium contains layer-specific stem cells as well as rare bipotent cells, which can differentiate into basal or luminal cells. We hypothesize that the primary oncogenic cell of origin is a transient-differentiating bipotent cell. Such a cell must maintain tight temporal and spatial control of differentiation pathways, thus increasing its susceptibility for oncogenic disruption. In support of this hypothesis, many of the pathways known to be involved in prostate differentiation can be linked to genes commonly altered in PCa. In this article, we review what is known about important differentiation pathways (Myc, p38MAPK, Notch, PI3K/Pten) in the prostate and how their misregulation could lead to oncogenesis. Better understanding of normal differentiation will offer new insights into tumor initiation and may help explain the functional significance of common genetic alterations seen in PCa. Additionally, this understanding could lead to new methods for classifying prostate tumors based on their differentiation status and may aid in identifying more aggressive tumors. PMID:24199173

  9. Coverage-based treatment planning to accommodate delineation uncertainties in prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huijun; Gordon, J. James; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two coverage-based planning (CP) techniques with fixed margin-based (FM) planning for high-risk prostate cancer treatments, with the exclusive consideration of the dosimetric impact of delineation uncertainties of target structures and normal tissues. Methods: In this work, 19-patient data sets were involved. To estimate structure dose for each delineated contour under the influence of interobserver contour variability and CT image quality limitations, 1000 alternative structures were simulated by an average-surface-of-standard-deviation model, which utilized the patient-specific information of delineated structure and CT image contrast. An IMRT plan with zero planning-target-volume (PTV) margin on the delineated prostate and seminal vesicles [clinical-target-volume (CTVprostate) and CTVSV] was created and dose degradation due to contour variability was quantified by the dosimetric consequences of 1000 alternative structures. When D98 failed to achieve a 95% coverage probability objective D98,95 ≥ 78 Gy (CTVprostate) or D98,95 ≥ 66 Gy (CTVSV), replanning was performed using three planning techniques: (1) FM (PTVprostate margin = 4,5,6 mm and PTVSV margin = 4,5,7 mm for RL, PA, and SI directions, respectively), (2) CPOM which optimized uniform PTV margins for CTVprostate and CTVSV to meet the D98,95 objectives, and (3) CPCOP which directly optimized coverage-based objectives for all the structures. These plans were intercompared by computing percentile dose-volume histograms and tumor-control probability/normal tissue complication probability (TCP/NTCP) distributions. Results: Inherent contour variability resulted in unacceptable CTV coverage for the zero-PTV-margin plans for all patients. For plans designed to accommodate contour variability, 18/19 CP plans were most favored by achieving desirable D98,95 and TCP/NTCP values. The average improvement of probability of complication free control was 9.3% for CPCOP plans and 3.4% for CPOM plans

  10. Proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Bradford; Henderson, Randal; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, Romaine C; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2011-06-01

    Proton therapy has been used in the treatment of cancer for over 50 years. Due to its unique dose distribution with its spread-out Bragg peak, proton therapy can deliver highly conformal radiation to cancers located adjacent to critical normal structures. One of the important applications of its use is in prostate cancer, since the prostate is located adjacent to the rectum and bladder. Over 30 years of data have been published on the use of proton therapy in prostate cancer; these data have demonstrated high rates of local and biochemical control as well as low rates of urinary and rectal toxicity. Although before 2000 proton therapy was available at only a couple of centers in the United States, several new proton centers have been built in the last decade. With the increased availability of proton therapy, research on its use for prostate cancer has accelerated rapidly. Current research includes explorations of dose escalation, hypofractionation, and patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. Early results from these studies are promising and will likely help make proton therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer more cost-effective.

  11. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  12. Prostate Cancer Genetics: Variation by Race, Ethnicity, and Geography.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer rates vary substantially by race, ethnicity, and geography. These disparities can be explained by variation in access to screening and treatment, variation in exposure to prostate cancer risk factors, and variation in the underlying biology of prostate carcinogenesis (including genomic propensity of some groups to develop biologically aggressive disease). It is clear that access to screening and access to treatment are critical influencing factors of prostate cancer rates; yet, even among geographically diverse populations with similar access to care (eg, low- and medium-income countries), African descent men have higher prostate cancer rates and poorer prognosis. To date, the proportion of prostate cancer that can be explained by environmental exposures is small, and the effect of these factors across different racial, ethnic, or geographical populations is poorly understood. In contrast, prostate cancer has one of the highest heritabilities of all major cancers. Numerous genetic susceptibility markers have been identified from family-based studies, candidate gene association studies, and genome-wide association studies. Some prostate cancer loci, including the risk loci found at chromosome 8q24, have consistent effects in all groups studied to date. However, replication of many susceptibility loci across race, ethnicity, and geography remains limited, and additional studies in certain populations (particularly in men of African descent) are needed to better understand the underlying genetic basis of prostate cancer.

  13. A DNA methylation microarray-based study identifies ERG as a gene commonly methylated in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzman, Jacob; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Corless, Christopher L; Jin, Jennifer; Zarour, Luai; Higano, Celestia; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; McWeeney, Shannon K; Bova, G. Steven; Partin, Alan W; Mori, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation of promoter regions is a common event in prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Because prior reports demonstrating that DNA methylation is important in prostate cancer studied a limited number of genes, we systematically quantified the DNA methylation status of 1,505 CpG dinucleotides for 807 genes in 78 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples and three normal prostate samples. The ERG gene, commonly repressed in prostate cells in the absence of an oncogenic fusion to the TMPRSS2 gene, was one of the most commonly methylated genes, occurring in 74% of prostate cancer specimens. In an independent group of patient samples, we confirmed that ERG DNA methylation was common, occurring in 57% of specimens, and cancer-specific. The ERG promoter is marked by repressive chromatin marks mediated by polycomb proteins in both normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells, which may explain ERG's predisposition to DNA methylation and the fact that tumors with ERG DNA methylation were more methylated, in general. These results demonstrate that bead arrays offer a high-throughput method to discover novel genes with promoter DNA methylation such as ERG, whose measurement may improve our ability to more accurately detect prostate cancer. PMID:21946329

  14. Counseling the Client with Prostate Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell C.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is prevalent in the United States and has a far-reaching effect on men and their relationships. Being diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer often causes men to experience side effects that induce physical, emotional, and social change. Counselors need to be aware of prostate cancer's impact on men and their families.…

  15. Microtubule Control of Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lynne Cassimeris CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Microtubule Control of Metabolism in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0071 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The current standard chemotherapy treatment for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer is the microtubule

  16. Microtubule Control of Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lynne Cassimeris CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 18015-3008 REPORT...Control of Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Dr. Lynne Cassimeris lc07@lehigh.edu Lehigh University 526 Brodhead Avenue Bethlehem, PA 18015-3008 U.S...tested whether metabolic inhibitors, metformin or 2-deoxy-glucose, function synergistically with docetaxel to block prostate cancer cell proliferation

  17. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    JF, Levine AC. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 suppresses angiogenesis and the growth of prostate cancer in vivo. J Urol 2000:164:820-5 10. Mahmud...Tzivony Y, Flescher E. Contrasting effects of aspirin on prostate cancer cells: suppression of proliferation and induction of drug resistance...TITLE: Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nicholas Daniels, MD MPH, Principal Investigator

  18. Prostate cancer brachytherapy: guidelines overview

    PubMed Central

    Białas, Brygida

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer, due to wide availability of PSA tests, is very often diagnosed in early stage, nowadays. This makes management of this disease even harder in every day oncology care. There is a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiotherapy and active surveillance, but essential question is which treatment patient and oncologist should decide for. Due to recent publication of Prostate Cancer Results Study Group, in which brachytherapy is one of supreme curative options for prostate cancer, we decided to overview most present european and north american recommendations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Brachytherapy Society, European Association of Urology and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology guidelines are overviewed, particularly focusing on HDR and LDR brachytherapy. PMID:23349655

  19. Prostate cancer brachytherapy: guidelines overview.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Piotr; Białas, Brygida

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer, due to wide availability of PSA tests, is very often diagnosed in early stage, nowadays. This makes management of this disease even harder in every day oncology care. There is a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiotherapy and active surveillance, but essential question is which treatment patient and oncologist should decide for. Due to recent publication of Prostate Cancer Results Study Group, in which brachytherapy is one of supreme curative options for prostate cancer, we decided to overview most present european and north american recommendations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Brachytherapy Society, European Association of Urology and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology guidelines are overviewed, particularly focusing on HDR and LDR brachytherapy.

  20. The Relationship between Statins and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    In 2011, it is estimated that 240,890 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and 33,720 men will die from prostate cancer. Few prevention ...strategies for prostate cancer exist. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, may prevent prostate cancer incidence and progression. We previously...prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study and Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort study. Prostate cancer is commonly diagnosed and prevention

  1. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Evolving transcriptomic fingerprint based on genome‐wide data as prognostic tools in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Mark; Shin, Heesun; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai

    2015-01-01

    Background Information Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common disease but only a small subset of patients are at risk of developing metastasis and lethal disease, and identifying which patients will progress is challenging because of the heterogeneity underlying tumour progression. Understanding this heterogeneity at the molecular level and the resulting clinical impact is a critical step necessary for risk stratification. Defining genomic fingerprint elucidates molecular variation and may improve PCa risk stratification, providing more accurate prognostic information of tumour aggressiveness (or lethality) for prognostic biomarker development. Therefore, we explored transcriptomic differences between patients with indolent disease outcome and patients who developed metastasis post‐radical prostatectomy using genome‐wide expression data in the post radical prostatectomy clinical space before metastatic spread. Results Based on differential expression analysis, patients with adverse pathological findings who are at higher risk of developing metastasis have a distinct transcriptomic fingerprint that can be detected on surgically removed prostate specimens several years before metastasis detection. Nearly half of the transcriptomic fingerprint features were non‐coding RNA highlighting their pivotal role in PCa progression. Protein‐coding RNA features in the fingerprint are involved in multiple pathways including cell cycle, chromosome structure maintenance and cytoskeleton organisation. The metastatic transcriptomic fingerprint was determined in independent cohorts verifying the association between the fingerprint and metastatic patients. Further, the fingerprint was confirmed in metastasis lesions demonstrating that the fingerprint represents early metastatic transcriptomic changes, suggesting its utility as a prognostic tool to predict metastasis and provide clinical value in the early radical prostatectomy setting. Conclusions Here, we show that transcriptomic

  3. Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    West Society of Toxicology in Breckenridge, CO in September 2007: “Identification of Curcumin Analogs Toxic against Prostate Cancer Cells Through...quantitative structure-activity relationship ( QSAR ) and ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) to explore the possibility of improving their efficacy...Student in my laboratory has presented part of this data at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Mountain West Society of Toxicology in Breckenridge, CO in

  4. Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-02-15

    Although alcohol and smoking have not been established as risk factors for prostate cancer, they are important risk factors for other human cancers and potentially major avoidable factors. Alcohol drinkers and smokers might be less likely to get screening, which might lead to attenuation of the positive association. Here, we investigated the association of alcohol drinking and smoking and prostate cancer according to stage, as well as prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms, in a large prospective study among Japanese men. The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study) was established in 1990 for Cohort I and in 1993 for Cohort II. Subjects were 48,218 men aged 40-69 years who completed a questionnaire, which included their alcohol and smoking habits at baseline, and who were followed until the end of 2010. During 16 years of follow-up, 913 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer; of whom 248 had advanced cases, 635 were organ-localized and 30 were of an undetermined stage. Alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with advanced prostate cancer [nondrinkers: reference, 0-150 g/week: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.82; 150-300 g/week: HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.04-2.19; ≥ 300 g/week: HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.97-2.05, p for trend = 0.02]. The positive association was not substantially changed among cancers detected by subjective symptoms. Smoking was inversely associated with prostate cancer among total subjects, but tended to increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms. In conclusion, abstinence from alcohol and prohibition of smoking might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer.

  5. Coprescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Western Medications among Prostate Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2012-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine is popular among cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the coprescription of CHM and WM among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. This cross-sectional retrospective study used a population-based database containing one million beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Claims and prescriptions were analyzed. In 2007, 218 (22.4%) prostate cancer patients were CHM users. Among CHM users, 200 (91.7%) patients with 5618 (79.5%) CHM prescriptions were on coprescription of CHM and WM. A total of 484 types of CHM and 930 types of WM were used. The most commonly used CHMs on coprescription were Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang, Ma Zi Ren Wan, and Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang. The most commonly used WMs on coprescription were magnesium oxide, amlodipine, and aspirin. The average number of prescriptions per user per year was 261.2 versus 151.7 in all (P < 0.001), 123.6 versus 76.9 in WM (P = 0.033), and 34.8 versus 5.1 in CHM (P < 0.001) for patients with and without coprescription, respectively. In conclusion, use of CHM among prostate cancer patients was popular in Taiwan. Most CHMs were used with WM concurrently. The potential drug-herb interactions should be investigated, especially for patients with more prescriptions. PMID:21792368

  6. Chronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure Does Not Promote Prostate Cancer in Prostate Specific PTEN Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Robert U.; Bannick, Nadine L.; Marin, Maximo J.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lynch, Charles F.; Henry, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are likely to interact with genetic determinants to influence prostate cancer progression. The Agricultural Health Study has identified an association between exposure to organophosphorous pesticides including chlorpyrifos, and increased prostate cancer risk in pesticide applicators with a first-degree family history of this disease. Exploration of this potential gene-environment interaction would benefit from the development of a suitable animal model. Utilizing a previously described mouse model that is genetically predisposed to prostate cancer through a prostate-specific heterozygous PTEN deletion, termed C57/Luc/Ptenp+/−, we used bioluminescence imaging and histopathological analyses to test whether chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos in a grain-based diet for 32 weeks was able to promote prostate cancer development. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos in the diet did not promote prostate cancer development in C57/Luc/Ptenp+/− mice despite achieving sufficient levels to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in plasma. We found no significant differences in numbers of murine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions or disease progression in chlorpyrifos versus control treated animals up to 32 weeks. The mechanistic basis of pesticide-induced prostate cancer may be complex and may involve other genetic variants, multiple genes, or nongenetic factors that might alter prostate cancer risk during pesticide exposure in agricultural workers. PMID:23758150

  7. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Ellen; Essand, Magnus; Bangma, Chris H; Barber, Chris; Behr, Jean-Paul; Briggs, Simon; Carlisle, Robert; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Danielsson, Angelika; Dautzenberg, Iris J C; Dzojic, Helena; Erbacher, Patrick; Fisher, Kerry; Frazier, April; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J; Hoeben, Rob; Kochanek, Stefan; Koppers-Lalic, Daniela; Kraaij, Robert; Kreppel, Florian; Lindholm, Leif; Magnusson, Maria; Maitland, Norman; Neuberg, Patrick; Nilsson, Berith; Ogris, Manfred; Remy, Jean-Serge; Scaife, Michelle; Schooten, Erik; Seymour, Len; Totterman, Thomas; Uil, Taco G; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, Joke L M; de Vrij, Jeroen; van Weerden, Wytske; Wagner, Ernst; Willemsen, Ralph

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is at present the most common malignancy in men in the Western world. When localized to the prostate, this disease can be treated by curative therapy such as surgery and radiotherapy. However, a substantial number of patients experience a recurrence, resulting in spreading of tumor cells to other parts of the body. In this advanced stage of the disease only palliative treatment is available. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for new treatment modalities that can, on the one hand, enhance the cure rate of primary therapy for localized prostate cancer and, on the other hand, improve the treatment of metastasized disease. Gene therapy is now being explored in the clinic as a treatment option for the various stages of prostate cancer. Current clinical experiences are based predominantly on trials with adenoviral vectors. As the first of a trilogy of reviews on the state of the art and future prospects of gene therapy in prostate cancer, this review focuses on the clinical experiences and progress of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy for this disease.

  8. Gene Expression in Single Cells Isolated from the CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cell Line and Human Prostate Tissue Based on the Side Population Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gangavarapu, Kalyan J; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Defining biological signals at the single cell level can identify cancer initiating driver mutations. Techniques to isolate single cells such as microfluidics sorting and magnetic capturing systems have limitations such as: high cost, labor intense, and the requirement of a large number of cells. Therefore, the goal of our current study is to identify a cost and labor effective, reliable, and reproducible technique that allows single cell isolation for analysis to promote regular laboratory use, including standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). In the current study, we utilized single prostate cells isolated from the CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line and human prostate clinical specimens, based on the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter efflux of dye cycle violet (DCV), side population assay. Expression of four genes: ABCG2; Aldehyde dehydrogenase1A1 (ALDH1A1); androgen receptor (AR); and embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, were determined. Results from the current study in the CWR-R1 cell line showed ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 gene expression in 67% of single side population cells and in 17% or 100% of non-side population cells respectively. Studies using single cells isolated from clinical specimens showed that the Oct-4 gene is detected in only 22% of single side population cells and in 78% of single non-side population cells. Whereas, AR gene expression is in 100% single side population and non-side population cells isolated from the same human prostate clinical specimen. These studies show that performing RT-PCR on single cells isolated by FACS can be successfully conducted to determine gene expression in single cells from cell lines and enzymatically digested tissue. While these studies provide a simple yes/no expression readout, the more sensitive quantitative RT-PCR would be able to provide even more information if necessary. PMID:27785389

  9. Molecular Profiling of Prostate Cancer Specimens Using Multicolor Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    0117 TITLE: Molecular profiling of prostate cancer specimens using Multicolor Quantum Dots PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiaohu Gao...profiling of prostate cancer specimens using Multicolor Quantum Dots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0117 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC061345 5c...based on the biology of their tumors. We proposed to develop oligonucleotide tagged quantum dots and antibodies for multiplexed imaging of prostate

  10. Detection of DNA viruses in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Smelov, Vitaly; Bzhalava, Davit; Arroyo Mühr, Laila Sara; Eklund, Carina; Komyakov, Boris; Gorelov, Andrey; Dillner, Joakim; Hultin, Emilie

    2016-04-28

    We tested prostatic secretions from men with and without prostate cancer (13 cases and 13 matched controls) or prostatitis (18 cases and 18 matched controls) with metagenomic sequencing. A large number (>200) of viral reads was only detected among four prostate cancer cases (1 patient each positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus and Human Papillomavirus types 89 or 40, respectively). Lower numbers of reads from a large variety of viruses were detected in all patient groups. Our knowledge of the biology of the prostate may be furthered by the fact that DNA viruses are commonly shed from the prostate and can be readily detected by metagenomic sequencing of expressed prostate secretions.

  11. Development and assessment of an evidence-based prostate cancer intervention programme for black men: the W.O.R.D. on prostate cancer video

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi; Oluwayemisi, Awoyemi O; Pressey, Shannon; Gaddy, Samuel; Egensteiner, Eva; Ojewale, Ezekiel O; Moline, Olivia Myra; Martin, Chloe Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the numerous prostate cancer (CaP) intervention programmes that have been implemented to address the disparities experienced by black men, CaP prevention, risk reduction, and early detection behaviours remain low among black men. The lack of formal theoretical frameworks to guide the development and implementation of interventions has been recognised as one of the primary reasons for the failure of health interventions. Members of the Florida Prostate Cancer Health Disparity (CaPHD) group employed the Personal Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity (PIPCaD) model and the Health Communication Process Model to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention programme, the ‘Working through Outreach to Reduce Disparity (W.O.R.D. on Prostate Cancer)’ video for black men. The location for the video was in a barbershop, a popular setting for the targeted group. The video starred CaP survivors, CaP advocates, a radio personality, and barbers. In addition, remarks were provided by a CaP scientist, a urologist, a CaP advocate, a former legislator, and a minister. The W.O.R.D. video was developed to assist black men in meeting the Healthy People 2020 goal for the United States of America. The efficacy of the W.O.R.D. video was successfully established among 143 black men in Florida. Exposure to the video was found to statistically increase CaP knowledge and intention to participate in CaP screening. Furthermore, exposure to the video statistically decreased participants’ perception of the number of factors contributing to decision, uncertainty about CaP screening. Participants were highly satisfied with the video content and rated the quality of the video to be very good. Participants also rated the video as credible, informative, useful, relevant, understandable, not too time consuming, clear, and interesting. PMID:25228916

  12. Development and assessment of an evidence-based prostate cancer intervention programme for black men: the W.O.R.D. on prostate cancer video.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Folakemi; Oluwayemisi, Awoyemi O; Pressey, Shannon; Gaddy, Samuel; Egensteiner, Eva; Ojewale, Ezekiel O; Moline, Olivia Myra; Martin, Chloe Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the numerous prostate cancer (CaP) intervention programmes that have been implemented to address the disparities experienced by black men, CaP prevention, risk reduction, and early detection behaviours remain low among black men. The lack of formal theoretical frameworks to guide the development and implementation of interventions has been recognised as one of the primary reasons for the failure of health interventions. Members of the Florida Prostate Cancer Health Disparity (CaPHD) group employed the Personal Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity (PIPCaD) model and the Health Communication Process Model to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention programme, the 'Working through Outreach to Reduce Disparity (W.O.R.D. on Prostate Cancer)' video for black men. The location for the video was in a barbershop, a popular setting for the targeted group. The video starred CaP survivors, CaP advocates, a radio personality, and barbers. In addition, remarks were provided by a CaP scientist, a urologist, a CaP advocate, a former legislator, and a minister. The W.O.R.D. video was developed to assist black men in meeting the Healthy People 2020 goal for the United States of America. The efficacy of the W.O.R.D. video was successfully established among 143 black men in Florida. Exposure to the video was found to statistically increase CaP knowledge and intention to participate in CaP screening. Furthermore, exposure to the video statistically decreased participants' perception of the number of factors contributing to decision, uncertainty about CaP screening. Participants were highly satisfied with the video content and rated the quality of the video to be very good. Participants also rated the video as credible, informative, useful, relevant, understandable, not too time consuming, clear, and interesting.

  13. Nanoparticle therapeutics for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Vanna; Sechi, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine is offering many exciting possibilities in healthcare. Engineered nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and the therapy of several diseases, particularly by targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Prostate cancer, the second most common cancer in men, represents one of the major epidemiological problems, especially for patients in the advanced age. There is a substantial interest in developing therapeutic options for treatment of prostate cancer based on use of nanodevices, to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents as well as for the early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. Herein, we highlight on the recent development of nanotechnology strategies adopted for the management of prostate cancer. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has recently resulted in the clinical development of BIND-014, a promising targeted Docetaxel-loaded nanoprototype, which can be validated for use in the prostate cancer therapy. However, several limitations facing nanoparticle delivery to solid tumours, such as heterogeneity of intratumoural barriers and vasculature, cytotoxicity and/or hypersensitivity reactions to currently available cancer nanomedicines, and the difficult in developing targeted nanoparticles with optimal biophysicochemical properties, should be still addressed for a successful tumour eradication.

  14. Prostate cancer guidelines on Web 2.0-based sites: the screening dilemma continues online.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Koskan, Alexis; Rose, India D

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about prostate cancer (PrCA) screening information on participatory, interactive, and consumer-generated websites collectively referred to as Web 2.0. A content analysis was conducted of PrCA resources on four highly trafficked Web 2.0 social bookmarking sites. A total of 127 webpages were analyzed. Most content was from news websites (48.9%) and blogs (37.8%). PrCA screening was mentioned on 95.3% of pages; only 30.7% discussed the prostate-specific antigen test. Less than half (43.8%) mentioned current screening guidelines. PrCA content is inconsistent on Web 2.0 sites. Future research should assess the readability and usability of Web 2.0 cancer resources.

  15. Mechanisms of Chinese Red Yeast Rice Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. Early prostate cancer is androgen -dependent...rice vs lovas tatin effects on prostate cancer cells with and wit hout androgen rec eptor overexpression) (This paper is attached in appendix...Based on the in vitro study, androgen -dependent and –independent prostate cancer xenograft model was set up and the in vivo xenograft study as a functi

  16. New Combination Therapies for Advanced Prostate Cancer Based on the Radiosensitizing Potential of 5-Azacytidine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    drug is known to impair the activity of DNA- methyltransferases, which blocks promoter cytosine methylation and alters gene expression on an epigenetic...repair genes . In addition, we have analyzed the effects of 5-azacytidine exposure on regulatory miRNA levels in prostate cancer cells. In the...third, final year. Effects of 5-azacytidine on epigenetic modulation of DNA repair genes . As discussed in our previous reports, we first

  17. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    4 Fig 1. Characterization of three prostate cancer cell lines by western blot. COXIV is used as a loading control...characterize our three prostate cancer cell lines , LNCaP, DU145 and PC3, which are being used in this project. We showed that prostate specific antigen...PSA) is expressed in the LNCaP cells, but absent in the DU145 cells whereas AMACR (P504S) is expressed in all prostate cancer cell lines (Fig 1

  18. Metastatic Prostate Cancer of Hand

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Koji; Ishimaru, Daichi; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue metastases of prostate cancer to other sites are extremely rare, and, to our best knowledge, there have been no reports of metastasis to soft tissue of the hand. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with prostatic cancer. During treatment, bone and soft tissue metastases to the right hand, appearing in the first web space, were observed. The tumor was resected, along with both the first and second metacarpal bones. The thumb was reconstructed by pollicization of the remaining index finger, enabling the patient to use the pollicized thumb for activities of daily living. This is the first case report of prostate cancer metastasizing to the soft tissue in hand. After wide resection, pollicization was able to reconstruct a functional hand and thumb. PMID:27843661

  19. CyberKnife-based prostate cancer patient radioablation – early results of irradiation in 200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Napieralska, Aleksandra; Namysł-Kaletka, Agnieszka; Głowacki, Grzegorz; Grabińska, Kinga; Woźniak, Grzegorz; Stąpór-Fudzińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostrate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies and is frequently treated with an 8-week course of radiotherapy. CyberKnife (CK) based radioablation enables completion of therapy within 5-9 days. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the effectiveness and tolerance of CyberKnife-based radioablation in prostate cancer patients. Material and methods 200 PC patients (94 low risk [LR], 106 intermediate risk [IR]) underwent CK irradiation every other day (fraction dose [fd] 7.25 Gy, total dose [TD] 36.25 Gy, time 9 days). PSA varied from 1.1 to 19.5 (median 7.7) and T stage from T1c to T2c. The percentage of patients with Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT), GI (gastrointestinal) and GU (genitourinary) toxicity (EORTC/RTOG scale), and PSA were checked at 1, 4 and 8 months, and thereafter every 6 months – up to a total of 26 months – post-treatment. Results The percentage of patients without ADT increased from 47.5% to 94.1% after 26 months. The maximum percentage of acute G3 adverse effects was 0.6% for GI, 1% for GU and G2 – 2.1% for GI and 8.5% for GU. No late G3 toxicity was observed. The maximum percentage of late G2 toxicity was 0.7% for GI and 3.4% for GU. Median PSA decreased from 7.7 to 0.1 ng/ml during FU. One patient relapsed and was treated with salvage brachytherapy. Conclusions We conclude that CK-based radioablation in low and intermediate risk PC patients is an effective treatment modality enabling OTT reduction and presents a very low percentage of adverse effects. PMID:26568868

  20. Protein interaction network constructing based on text mining and reinforcement learning with application to prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Zhang, Xiaofang; Shen, Bairong

    2015-08-01

    Constructing interaction network from biomedical texts is a very important and interesting work. The authors take advantage of text mining and reinforcement learning approaches to establish protein interaction network. Considering the high computational efficiency of co-occurrence-based interaction extraction approaches and high precision of linguistic patterns approaches, the authors propose an interaction extracting algorithm where they utilise frequently used linguistic patterns to extract the interactions from texts and then find out interactions from extended unprocessed texts under the basic idea of co-occurrence approach, meanwhile they discount the interaction extracted from extended texts. They put forward a reinforcement learning-based algorithm to establish a protein interaction network, where nodes represent proteins and edges denote interactions. During the evolutionary process, a node selects another node and the attained reward determines which predicted interaction should be reinforced. The topology of the network is updated by the agent until an optimal network is formed. They used texts downloaded from PubMed to construct a prostate cancer protein interaction network by the proposed methods. The results show that their method brought out pretty good matching rate. Network topology analysis results also demonstrate that the curves of node degree distribution, node degree probability and probability distribution of constructed network accord with those of the scale-free network well.

  1. Proteomics in prostate cancer research.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Magnus; Lexander, Helena; Franzén, Bo; Egevad, Lars

    2007-02-01

    The incidence of early prostate cancer (PCa) among middle-aged men has increased rapidly. For many of these men, curatively intended treatment does more harm than good. Established prognostic factors are tumor stage and grade. As a result of earlier detection a majority of patients now have nonpalpable tumors (T1c) of intermediate grade (Gleason score 6). Prostate specific antigen in serum in such cases is generally at a low level and not a reliable predictor of prognosis. Altogether there is an urgent need for adjunctive prognostic indicators. In the search for relevant tumor markers for improved patient selection an exploration of the proteome (the human proteins) could be fruitful. This paper critically reviews the use of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) for proteome research. Additional steps such as image analysis and mass spectrometry are described. Techniques based on non-2-DE platforms: surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI), isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT) and array-based technologies are also summarized. Although labor-intensive and time-consuming, 2-DE is presently the most powerful method for analysis of cellular protein phenotype and may potentially reveal gene regulations that cannot be detected on a genetic level.

  2. The Prostate Health Index Selectively Identifies Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G.; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Bangma, Chris H.; Wei, John T.; Partin, Alan W.; Klee, George G.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.; Catalona, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. Materials and Methods From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. Results The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and “Epstein significant” cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. Conclusions The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. PMID:25463993

  3. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  4. Droplet Digital PCR Based Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7) Detection from Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yafeng; Luk, Alison; Young, Francis P; Lynch, David; Chua, Wei; Balakrishnar, Bavanthi; de Souza, Paul; Becker, Therese M

    2016-08-04

    Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7) was recently identified as a valuable predictive biomarker in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report a new, sensitive and accurate screen for AR-V7 mRNA expression directly from circulating tumor cells (CTCs): We combined EpCAM-based immunomagnetic CTC isolation using the IsoFlux microfluidic platform with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to analyze total AR and AR-V7 expression from prostate cancer patients CTCs. We demonstrate that AR-V7 is reliably detectable in enriched CTC samples with as little as five CTCs, even considering tumor heterogeneity, and confirm detection of AR-V7 in CTC samples from advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with AR-V7 detection limited to castrate resistant disease status in our sample set. Sensitive molecular analyses of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor nucleic acids present exciting strategies to detect biomarkers, such as AR-V7 from non-invasive blood samples, so-called blood biopsies.

  5. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  6. Couples-based interventions following prostate cancer treatment: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Emanu, Jessica C.; Avildsen, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual dysfunction following prostate cancer (PC) treatment often results in sexual avoidance and a loss of sexual intimacy, which can lead to relationship distress. This review aims to evaluate six studies intended to address relational and sexual intimacy following PC treatment and discuss methodological concerns which may help produce more effective interventions. Methods Electronic databases used to conduct literature searches included Medline, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. Studies were included if they were: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using samples of men diagnosed with PC of any stage, had a psychosocial intervention, and addressed at least one sexual and relational outcome. Results As a whole, the literature has produced mixed results. While significant findings were reported, many of the primary hypotheses were not achieved. The six studies show that men with PC may benefit from education and support related to treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED), whereas their partners may benefit more from interventions focused on relational issues. Important methodological limitations included: selection of general outcome measures as opposed to measures specific to sexuality or intimacy outcomes, lack of assessing distress or bother of the patient/couples as study entry criteria, heterogeneity of study populations, and lack of innovative intervention content as the current studies tested standard educational interventions, sex therapies techniques, and couples therapy strategies with only marginal success. Conclusions Interventions based on innovative theoretical approaches as well as study designs that address the outlined methodological limitations are needed in this area. PMID:26813683

  7. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7–9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIMCT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  8. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7-9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIM-CT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  9. SU-E-J-239: IMRT Planning of Prostate Cancer for a MRI-Linac Based On MRI Only

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X; Prior, P; Paulson, E; Lawton, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: : To investigate dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based IMRT planning for prostate cancer, the impact of a magnetic field in a MRI-Linac, and to explore the feasibility of IMRT planning based on MRI alone. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on CT and MRI images acquired on two representative prostate-cancer patients using clinical dose volume constraints. A research planning system (Monaco, Elekta), which employs a Monte Carlo dose engine and includes a perpendicular magnetic field of 1.5T from an MRI-Linac, was used. Bulk electron density assignments based on organ-specific values from ICRU 46 were used to convert MRI (T2) to pseudo CT. With the same beam configuration as in the original CT plan, 5 additional plans were generated based on CT or MRI, with or without optimization (i.e., just recalculation) and with or without the magnetic field. The plan quality in terms of commonly used dose volume (DV) parameters for all plans was compared. The statistical uncertainty on dose was < 1%. Results: For plans with the same contour set but without re-optimization, the DV parameters were different from those for the original CT plan, mostly less than 5% with a few exceptions. These differences were reduced to mostly less than 3% when the plans were re-optimized. For plans with contours from MRI, the differences in the DV parameters varied depending on the difference in the contours as compared to CT. For the optimized plans with contours from MR, the differences for PTV were less than 3%. Conclusion: The prostate IMRT plans based on MRI-only for a MR-Linac were practically similar as compared to the CT plan under the same beam and optimization configuration if the difference on the structure delineation is excluded, indicating the feasibility of using MRI-only for prostate IMRT.

  10. Infections and inflammation in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sfanos, Karen S; Isaacs, William B; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-12-25

    The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an "enabling characteristic" of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections.

  11. Infections and inflammation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S; Isaacs, William B; Marzo, Angelo M De

    2013-01-01

    The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an “enabling characteristic” of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections. PMID:25110720

  12. [Interdisciplinary and individualized therapy of prostate cancer : International prostate cancer symposium Bonn 2013 - challenges and targets].

    PubMed

    Schwardt, M; Debus, J; Feick, G; Hadaschik, B; Hohenfellner, M; Schüle, R; Zacharias, J-P; Combs, S E

    2015-11-01

    Multimodal treatment of prostate cancer is based on specific staging via imaging, clinical parameters, tumor markers and histopathological grading. Risk-adapted therapy encompasses wait and see, active surveillance, surgical intervention, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Some patients also need a combination of these treatment options. Even though clinical parameters guide the treatment plan, patient wishes and preferences are incorporated. Against this background leading basic research scientists, urologists, radiotherapists, epidemiologists and members of other associated disciplines discussed state of the art treatment concepts, innovative trial designs and translational research projects at the international meeting "Challenges and Chances in Prostate Cancer Research" organized by the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe).

  13. Radiotherapy and Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Esther H. Ellis, Rodney J.; Cherullo, Edward; Colussi, Valdir; Xu Fang; Chen Weidong; Gupta, Sanjay; Whalen, Christopher C.; Bodner, Donald; Resnick, Martin I.; Rimm, Alfred A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of overall and disease-specific survival with the five standard treatment modalities for prostate cancer (CaP): radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and no treatment (NT) within 6 months after CaP diagnosis. Methods and Materials: The study population included 10,179 men aged 65 years and older with incident CaP diagnosed between 1999 and 2001. Using the linked Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicare, and death certificate files, overall and disease-specific survival through 2005 among the five clinically accepted therapies were analyzed. Results: Disease-specific survival rates were 92.3% and 23.9% for patients with localized vs. distant disease at 7 years, respectively. Controlling for age, race, comorbidities, stage, and Gleason score, results from the Cox multiple regression models indicated that the risk of CaP-specific death was significantly reduced in patients receiving RP or BT, compared with NT. For localized disease, compared with NT, in the monotherapy cohort, RP and BT were associated with reduced hazard ratios (HR) of 0.25 and 0.45 (95% confidence intervals 0.13-0.48 and 0.23-0.87, respectively), whereas in the combination therapy cohort, HR were 0.40 (0.17-0.94) and 0.46 (0.27-0.80), respectively. Conclusions: The present population-based study indicates that RP and BT are associated with improved survival outcomes. Further studies are warranted to improve clinical determinates in the selection of appropriate management of CaP and to improve predictive modeling for which patient subsets may benefit most from definitive therapy vs. conservative management and/or observation.

  14. Prostate-related antigen-derived new peptides having the capacity of inducing prostate cancer-reactive CTLs in HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mamoru; Matsueda, Satoko; Yao, Akihisa; Ogata, Rika; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo

    2004-09-01

    Prostate-related antigens, including prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), can be targets in specific immunotherapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to newly identify epitope peptides from these 2 antigens, which are immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2+ prostate cancer patients. Twenty-nine peptides (PSMA with 15 and PAP with 14) were prepared based on the HLA-A2 binding motif. Based on our previous finding that antigenic peptides recognized by both cellular and humoral immune systems are useful for peptide-based immunotherapy, peptide candidates were screened first by their ability to be recognized by immunoglobulin G (IgG), and then by their ability to induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). As a result, PSMA441-450 and PAP112-120 peptides were found to be frequently recognized by IgG in plasma from prostate cancer patients. These 2 candidates effectively induced HLA-A2-restricted and prostate cancer-reactive CTLs in HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients with several HLA-A2 subtypes. In addition, their cytotoxicity was mainly dependent on peptide-specific and CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that these PSMA441-450 and PAP112-120 peptides could be promising candidates for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A2(+) prostate cancer.

  15. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  16. New gene expressed in prostate: a potential target for T cell-mediated prostate cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Vittore; Poole, Diane J; Palena, Claudia; Das, Sudipto; Bera, Tapan K; Remondo, Cinzia; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Yokokawa, Junko; Pastan, Ira; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y

    2010-01-01

    New gene expressed in prostate (NGEP) is a prostate-specific gene encoding either a small cytoplasmic protein (NGEP-S) or a larger polytopic membrane protein (NGEP-L). NGEP-L expression is detectable only in prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate. We have identified an HLA-A2 binding NGEP epitope (designated P703) which was used to generate T cell lines from several patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer. These T cell lines were able to specifically lyse HLA-A2 and NGEP-expressing human tumor cells. NGEP-P703 tetramer binding assays demonstrated that metastatic prostate cancer patients had a higher frequency of NGEP-specific T cells when compared with healthy donors. Moreover, an increased frequency of NGEP-specific T cells was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer patients post-vaccination with a PSA-based vaccine, further indicating the immunogenicity of NGEP. These studies thus identify NGEP as a potential target for T cell-mediated immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  17. Patient Positioning Based on a Radioactive Tracer Implanted in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: A Performance and Safety Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kruijf, Willy J.M. de; Verstraete, Jan; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Hol, Sandra; Venselaar, Jack L.M.; Davits, Rob J.; Wijsman, Bart P.; Van den Bergh, Laura; Budiharto, Tom; Oyen, Raymond; Haustermans, Karin; Poortmans, Philip M.P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance and safety of a radiation therapy positioning system (RealEye) based on tracking a radioactive marker (Tracer) implanted in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-arm multi-institutional trial in 20 patients. The iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir)-containing Tracer was implanted in the patient together with 4 standard gold seed fiducials. Patient prostate-related symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for treatment planning, during treatment, and after treatment to evaluate the migration stability of the Tracer. At 5 treatment sessions, cone beam CT was performed to test the positioning accuracy of the RealEye. Results: The Tracer was successfully implanted in all patients. No device or procedure-related adverse events occurred. Changes in IPSS scores were limited. The difference between the mean change in Tracer-fiducial distance and the mean change in fiducial-fiducial distance was -0.39 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] upper boundary, -0.22 mm). The adjusted mean difference between Tracer position according to RealEye and the Tracer position on the CBCT for all patients was 1.34 mm (95% CI upper boundary, 1.41 mm). Conclusions: Implantation of the Tracer is feasible and safe. Migration stability of the Tracer is good. Prostate patients can be positioned and monitored accurately by using RealEye.

  18. Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Cheynet, Valérie; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Oriol, Guy; Mugnier, Nathalie; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Ruffion, Alain; Mallet, François

    2013-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the main diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer in clinical use, but it lacks specificity and sensitivity, particularly in low dosage values1​​. ‘How to use PSA' remains a current issue, either for diagnosis as a gray zone corresponding to a concentration in serum of 2.5-10 ng/ml which does not allow a clear differentiation to be made between cancer and noncancer2 or for patient follow-up as analysis of post-operative PSA kinetic parameters can pose considerable challenges for their practical application3,4. Alternatively, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in human cancer, with the potential to serve as novel markers of disease, e.g. PCA3 in prostate cancer5,6 and to reveal uncharacterized aspects of tumor biology. Moreover, data from the ENCODE project published in 2012 showed that different RNA types cover about 62% of the genome. It also appears that the amount of transcriptional regulatory motifs is at least 4.5x higher than the one corresponding to protein-coding exons. Thus, long terminal repeats (LTRs) of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) constitute a wide range of putative/candidate transcriptional regulatory sequences, as it is their primary function in infectious retroviruses. HERVs, which are spread throughout the human genome, originate from ancestral and independent infections within the germ line, followed by copy-paste propagation processes and leading to multicopy families occupying 8% of the human genome (note that exons span 2% of our genome). Some HERV loci still express proteins that have been associated with several pathologies including cancer7-10. We have designed a high-density microarray, in Affymetrix format, aiming to optimally characterize individual HERV loci expression, in order to better understand whether they can be active, if they drive ncRNA transcription or modulate coding gene expression. This tool has been applied in the prostate cancer field (Figure 1

  19. Evaluation and optimization of the parameters used in multiple-atlas-based segmentation of prostate cancers in radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lucullus H T; Kwong, Dora L W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and optimize the parameters used in multiple-atlas-based segmentation of prostate cancers in radiation therapy. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, and the accuracy of the multiple-atlas-based segmentation was tested on 30 patients. The effect of library size (LS), number of atlases used for contour averaging and the contour averaging strategy were also studied. The autogenerated contours were compared with the manually drawn contours. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff distance were used to evaluate the segmentation agreement. Results: Mixed results were found between simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) and majority vote (MV) strategies. Multiple-atlas approaches were relatively insensitive to LS. A LS of ten was adequate, and further increase in the LS only showed insignificant gain. Multiple atlas performed better than single atlas for most of the time. Using more atlases did not guarantee better performance, with five atlases performing better than ten atlases. With our recommended setting, the median DSC for the bladder, rectum, prostate, seminal vesicle and femurs was 0.90, 0.77, 0.84, 0.56 and 0.95, respectively. Conclusion: Our study shows that multiple-atlas-based strategies have better accuracy than single-atlas approach. STAPLE is preferred, and a LS of ten is adequate for prostate cases. Using five atlases for contour averaging is recommended. The contouring accuracy of seminal vesicle still needs improvement, and manual editing is still required for the other structures. Advances in knowledge: This article provides a better understanding of the influence of the parameters used in multiple-atlas-based segmentation of prostate cancers. PMID:26539630

  20. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Center IRB, and the I owa City VA Medical Center Research and Development Committee. During the second and t hird years we have been recruiting pa...American Urologic Association (AUA). (3) Talks to prostate cancer survivor support groups in at the University of I owa , Mercy Medical Center in Cedar

  1. Snus use, smoking and survival among prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Markt, Sarah C; Fang, Fang; Nordenvall, Caroline; Rider, Jennifer R; Ye, Weimin; Adami, Hans-Olov; Stattin, Pär; Nyrén, Olof; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-12-15

    Smoking is associated with prostate cancer mortality. The Scandinavian smokeless tobacco product snus is a source of nicotine but not the combustion products of smoke and has not been studied with respect to prostate cancer survival. The study is nested among 9,582 men with incident prostate cancer within a prospective cohort of 336,381 Swedish construction workers. Information on tobacco use was collected at study entry between 1971 and 1992, and categorized into (i) never users of any tobacco, (ii) exclusive snus: ever users of snus only, (iii) exclusive smokers: ever smokers (cigarette, cigar and/or pipe) only and (iv) ever users of both snus and smoking. Hazard ratios for prostate cancer-specific and total mortality for smoking and snus use based on Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, calendar period at diagnosis and body mass index at baseline. During 36 years of follow-up, 4,758 patients died-2,489 due to prostate cancer. Compared to never users of tobacco, exclusive smokers were at increased risk of prostate cancer mortality (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.27) and total mortality (HR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09-1.26). Exclusive snus users also had increased risks for prostate cancer mortality (HR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03-1.49) and total mortality (HR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.37). Among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic disease, the HR for prostate cancer death among exclusive snus users was 3.17 (95% CI: 1.66-6.06). The study is limited by a single assessment of tobacco use prior to diagnosis. Snus use was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer and total mortality among prostate cancer patients. This suggests that tobacco-related components such as nicotine or tobacco-specific carcinogens may promote cancer progression independent of tobacco's combustion products.

  2. Regulation of the Prostate Cancer Tumor Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    epithelium , stroma, as well as immune system, and the fixed nature of the prostate model with expression of the large T antigen, which may have...prostate cancer glandular architecture formed (Figure 10). Figure 10. Subcutanous TRAMP Model to Recapitulate Prostate Cancer. TRAMP C2 cells...specifically modulate the TLR signaling pathway in prostate epithelium , stroma, and immune system. To parse out the role of TLR signaling in

  3. Targeting prostate cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Mathews, Lesley A; Farrar, William L; Hurt, Elaine M

    2009-12-01

    Cancer stem cells are the sub-population of cells present within tumors responsible for tumorigenesis. These cells have unique biological properties including self-renewal and the ability to differentiate. Furthermore, it is thought that these cells are more resistant to conventional chemotherapy and, as a result, are responsible for patient relapse. We will discuss the identification of prostate cancer stem cells, their unique properties and how these cells may be targeted for more efficacious therapies.

  4. Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    effective marker for diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer. Low concentrations of PSA would be detected using acoustic wave sensors because of...associated electrical field. For biological sensors, binding of a substance onto the resonating membrane surface causes a decrease in the acoustic...of diverse conditions and diseases including those that affect the thyroid, HIV, diabetes , pregnancy, and several types of cancer. In clinical

  5. Progress Against Prostate Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Click ... This can narrow the urethra, decreasing urine flow. Prostate cancer is made up of cells the body does ...

  6. First Pharmacophore-Based Identification of Androgen Receptor Down-regulating Agents: Discovery of Potent Anti-Prostate Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Chopra, Pankaj; Maheshwari, Neha; Gediya, Lalji K; Vasaitis, Tadas S.; Bruno, Robert; Clement, Omoshile O.; Njar, Vincent C. O.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative 3D pharmacophore model (a common feature based model or Catalyst HipHop algorithm) was developed for well known natural product androgen receptor down-regulating agents (ARDAs). The four common chemical features identified included: one hydrophobic group, one ring aromatic group and two hydrogen bond acceptors. This model served as a template in virtual screening of the Maybridge and NCI databases that resulted in identification of 6 new ARDAs (EC50 values 17.5 – 212 μM). Five of these molecules strongly inhibited the growth of human prostate LNCaP cells. These novel compounds may be used as leads to develop other novel anti-prostate cancer agents. PMID:17383188

  7. Immunotherapy of prostate cancer in a murine model using a novel GnRH based vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jesús A; Peschke, Peter; Zuna, Ivan; Ehemann, Volker; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Reyes, Osvaldo; Calzada, Lesvia; Castro, María D; Arteaga, Niurka; López, Yovisleidis; Garay, Hilda; Hernández, Héctor; Bringas, Ricardo; Guillén, Gerardo E

    2007-12-05

    Previous studies with gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH/LHRH) vaccines have shown the usefulness of immunization against this hormone in prostate cancer. To this end, we have generated a completely synthetic peptide modified at position 6 and attached to the 830-844 tetanic toxoid (TT) helper T cell sequence. Through this work we have demonstrated that the GnRHm1-TT molecule was highly immunogenic when it is formulated as an oil-based emulsion adjuvated with Montanide ISA 51. That results correlated directly with testosterone reduction and tumor growth inhibition of the Dunning R3327-H androgen responsive prostate tumor model in rats. GnRHm1-TT, proved to be safe and useful for future clinical trials.

  8. Echo-Planar Imaging Based J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    2007;15(3):433–48. 18. Turkbey B, Pinto PA, Mani H, et al. Prostate cancer: value of multiparamet- ric MR imaging at 3T for detection—histopathologic...Padhani AR, Gapinski CJ, Macvicar DA, Parker GJ, Suckling J, Revell PB, Leach MO, Dearnaley DP, Husband JE. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of prostate

  9. Comparison of prostate-specific promoters and the use of PSP-driven virotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Chang, Guimin; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men today. Although virus-based gene therapy is a promising strategy to combat advanced prostate cancer, its current effectiveness is limited partially due to inefficient cellular transduction in vivo. To overcome this obstacle, conditional oncolytic viruses (such as conditional replication adenovirus (CRAD)) are developed to specifically target prostate without (or with minimal) systemic toxicity due to viral self-replication. In this study, we have analyzed and compared three prostate-specific promoters (PSA, probasin, and MMTV LTR) for their specificity and activity both in vitro and in vivo. Both mice model with xenograft prostate tumor model and canine model were used. The best PSP was selected to construct a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus (CRAD) by controlling the adenoviral E1 region. The efficacy and specificity of CRAD on prostate cancer cells were examined in cell culture and animal models.

  10. Daily dose monitoring with atlas-based auto-segmentation on diagnostic quality CT for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen; Vassil, Andrew; Xia, Ping; Zhong, Yahua

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of daily dose monitoring using a patient specific atlas-based autosegmentation method on diagnostic quality verification images.Methods: Seven patients, who were treated for prostate cancer with intensity modulated radiotherapy under daily imaging guidance of a CT-on-rails system, were selected for this study. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were manually contoured on the first six and last seven sets of daily verification images. For each patient, three patient specific atlases were constructed using manual contours from planning CT alone (1-image atlas), planning CT plus first three verification CTs (4-image atlas), and planning CT plus first six verification CTs (7-image atlas). These atlases were subsequently applied to the last seven verification image sets of the same patient to generate the auto-contours. Daily dose was calculated by applying the original treatment plans to the daily beam isocenters. The autocontours and manual contours were compared geometrically using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and dosimetrically using the dose to 99% of the prostate CTV (D99) and the D5 of rectum and bladder.Results: The DSC of the autocontours obtained with the 4-image atlases were 87.0%± 3.3%, 84.7%± 8.6%, and 93.6%± 4.3% for the prostate, rectum, and bladder, respectively. These indices were higher than those from the 1-image atlases (p < 0.01) and comparable to those from the 7-image atlases (p > 0.05). Daily prostate D99 of the autocontours was comparable to those of the manual contours (p= 0.55). For the bladder and rectum, the daily D5 were 95.5%± 5.9% and 99.1%± 2.6% of the planned D5 for the autocontours compared to 95.3%± 6.7% (p= 0.58) and 99.8%± 2.3% (p < 0.01) for the manual contours.Conclusions: With patient specific 4-image atlases, atlas-based autosegmentation can adequately facilitate daily dose monitoring for prostate cancer.

  11. Association of Anterior and Lateral Extraprostatic Extensions with Base-Positive Resection Margins in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abalajon, Mark Joseph; Jang, Won Sik; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Joo Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Positive surgical margins (PSM) detected in the radical prostatectomy specimen increase the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR). Still, with formidable number of patients never experiencing BCR in their life, the reason for this inconsistency has been attributed to the artifacts and to the spontaneous regression of micrometastatic site. To investigate the origin of margin positive cancers, we have looked into the influence of extraprostatic extension location on the resection margin positive site and its implications on BCR risk. Materials & Methods The clinical information and follow-up data of 612 patients who had extraprostatic extension and positive surgical margin at the time of robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in the single center between 2005 and 2014 were modeled using Fine and Gray’s competing risk regression analysis for BCR. Extraprostatic extensions were divided into categories according to location as apex, base, anterior, posterior, lateral, and posterolateral. Extraprostatic extensions were defined as presence of tumor beyond the borders of the gland in the posterior and posterolateral regions. Tumor admixed with periprostatic fat was additionally considered as having extraprostatic extension if capsule was vague in the anterior, apex, and base regions. Positive surgical margins were defined as the presence of tumor cells at the inked margin on the inspection under microscopy. Association of these classifications with the site of PSM was evaluated by Cohen’s Kappa analysis for concordance and logistic regression for the odds of apical and base PSMs. Results Median follow-up duration was 36.5 months (interquartile range[IQR] 20.1–36.5). Apex involvement was found in 158 (25.8%) patients and base in 110 (18.0%) patients. PSMs generally were found to be associated with increased risk of BCR regardless of location, with BCR risk highest for base PSM (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.40–2.68, p<0.001) after adjusting for age, initial

  12. The Impact of Definitive Local Therapy for Lymph Node-Positive Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Chad G.; Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Raben, David; Dewitt, Peter E.; Crawford, E. David; Maroni, Paul D.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival outcomes for patients with lymph node-positive, nonmetastatic prostate cancer undergoing definitive local therapy (radical prostatectomy [RP], external beam radiation therapy [EBRT], or both) versus no local therapy (NLT) in the US population in the modern prostate specific antigen (PSA) era. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients with T1-4N1M0 prostate cancer diagnosed from 1995 through 2005. To allow comparisons of equivalent datasets, patients were analyzed in separate clinical (cN+) and pathologically confirmed (pN+) lymph node-positive cohorts. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) estimates were generated, with accompanying univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazards comparisons. Results: A total of 796 cN+ and 2991 pN+ patients were evaluable. Among cN+ patients, 43% underwent EBRT and 57% had NLT. Outcomes for cN+ patients favored EBRT, with 10-year OS rates of 45% versus 29% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 67% versus 53% (P<.001). Among pN+ patients, 78% underwent local therapy (RP 57%, EBRT 10%, or both 11%) and 22% had NLT. Outcomes for pN+ also favored local therapy, with 10-year OS rates of 65% versus 42% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 78% versus 56% (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, local therapy in both the cN+ and pN+ cohorts remained independently associated with improved OS and PCSS (all P<.001). Local therapy was associated with favorable hazard ratios across subgroups, including patients aged ≥70 years and those with multiple positive lymph nodes. Among pN+ patients, no significant differences in survival were observed between RP versus EBRT and RP with or without adjuvant EBRT. Conclusions: In this large, population-based cohort, definitive local therapy was associated with significantly improved survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer.

  13. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Białek, Waldemar; Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-12-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  14. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin. PMID:28138411

  15. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of Prostatic Fluids for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    most widely used marker of prostate cancer - and prostate cancer risk. Moreover, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is also strongly associated...Vigneron, D.B., Konety, B., Nelson, S.J., Narayan, P., and Hricak, H. Citrate as in vivo marker to discriminate prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia and

  16. Evidence-based recommendations on androgen deprivation therapy for localized and advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Jonathan; Drewa, Tomasz; Kołodziej, Anna; Skoneczna, Iwona; Milecki, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Słojewski, Marcin; Chłosta, Piotr L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of prostate cancer (PC) is still evolving. Although, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an established treatment option, particularly in patients with disseminated disease, important data regarding hormonal manipulation have recently emerged. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence on ADT, make recommendations and address areas of controversy associated with its use in men with PC. Material and methods An expert panel was convened. Areas related to the hormonal management of patients with PC requiring evidence review were identified and questions to be addressed by the panel were determined. Appropriate literature review was performed and included a search of online databases, bibliographic reviews and consultation with experts. Results The panel was able to provide recommendations on: 1) which patients with localised PC should receive androgen deprivation in conjunction with radiotherapy (RT); 2) what standard initial treatment should be used in metastatic hormone-naïve PC (MHNPC); 3) efficacy of androgen deprivation agents; 4) whether ADT should be continued in patients with castration resistant PC (CRPC). However, no recommendations could be made for combined ADT and very high-dose RT in patients with an intermediate-risk disease. Conclusions ADT remains the cornerstone of treatment for both metastatic hormone-naïve and castration-resistant PC. According to the expert panel's opinion, based on the ERG report, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists might not be equivalent but this needs to be confirmed in long-term data. The combined use of ADT and RT improves outcome and survival in men with high-risk localised disease. The benefits in patients with intermediate-risk disease, particularly those subject to escalated dose RT are controversial. PMID:27551549

  17. [Prostate cancer brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Pommier, P; Guérif, S; Peiffert, D; Créhange, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-09-01

    Prostate brachytherapy techniques are described, concerning both Iodine 125 high dose rate brachytherapy. The following parts are presented: brachytherapy indications, technical description, immediate postoperative management and post-treatment evaluation, and 4 to 6 weeks as well as long-term follow-up.

  18. Evaluation of atlas-based auto-segmentation software in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Greenham, Stuart; Dean, Jenna; Fu, Cheuk Kuen Kenneth; Goman, Joanne; Mulligan, Jeremy; Tune, Deanna; Sampson, David; Westhuyzen, Justin; McKay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The performance and limitations of an atlas-based auto-segmentation software package (ABAS; Elekta Inc.) was evaluated using male pelvic anatomy as the area of interest. Methods Contours from 10 prostate patients were selected to create atlases in ABAS. The contoured regions of interest were created manually to align with published guidelines and included the prostate, bladder, rectum, femoral heads and external patient contour. Twenty-four clinically treated prostate patients were auto-contoured using a randomised selection of two, four, six, eight or ten atlases. The concordance between the manually drawn and computer-generated contours were evaluated statistically using Pearson's product–moment correlation coefficient (r) and clinically in a validated qualitative evaluation. In the latter evaluation, six radiation therapists classified the degree of agreement for each structure using seven clinically appropriate categories. Results The ABAS software generated clinically acceptable contours for the bladder, rectum, femoral heads and external patient contour. For these structures, ABAS-generated volumes were highly correlated with ‘as treated’ volumes, manually drawn; for four atlases, for example, bladder r = 0.988 (P < 0.001), rectum r = 0.739 (P < 0.001) and left femoral head r = 0.560 (P < 0.001). Poorest results were seen for the prostate (r = 0.401, P < 0.05) (four atlases); however this was attributed to the comparison prostate volume being contoured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rather than computed tomography (CT) data. For all structures, increasing the number of atlases did not consistently improve accuracy. Conclusions ABAS-generated contours are clinically useful for a range of structures in the male pelvis. Clinically appropriate volumes were created, but editing of some contours was inevitably required. The ideal number of atlases to improve generated automatic contours is yet to be determined. PMID:26229651

  19. Evaluation of atlas-based auto-segmentation software in prostate cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Greenham, Stuart; Dean, Jenna; Fu, Cheuk Kuen Kenneth; Goman, Joanne; Mulligan, Jeremy; Tune, Deanna; Sampson, David; Westhuyzen, Justin; McKay, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The performance and limitations of an atlas-based auto-segmentation software package (ABAS; Elekta Inc.) was evaluated using male pelvic anatomy as the area of interest. Contours from 10 prostate patients were selected to create atlases in ABAS. The contoured regions of interest were created manually to align with published guidelines and included the prostate, bladder, rectum, femoral heads and external patient contour. Twenty-four clinically treated prostate patients were auto-contoured using a randomised selection of two, four, six, eight or ten atlases. The concordance between the manually drawn and computer-generated contours were evaluated statistically using Pearson's product–moment correlation coefficient (r) and clinically in a validated qualitative evaluation. In the latter evaluation, six radiation therapists classified the degree of agreement for each structure using seven clinically appropriate categories. The ABAS software generated clinically acceptable contours for the bladder, rectum, femoral heads and external patient contour. For these structures, ABAS-generated volumes were highly correlated with ‘as treated’ volumes, manually drawn; for four atlases, for example, bladder r = 0.988 (P < 0.001), rectum r = 0.739 (P < 0.001) and left femoral head r = 0.560 (P < 0.001). Poorest results were seen for the prostate (r = 0.401, P < 0.05) (four atlases); however this was attributed to the comparison prostate volume being contoured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rather than computed tomography (CT) data. For all structures, increasing the number of atlases did not consistently improve accuracy. ABAS-generated contours are clinically useful for a range of structures in the male pelvis. Clinically appropriate volumes were created, but editing of some contours was inevitably required. The ideal number of atlases to improve generated automatic contours is yet to be determined.

  20. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...DDRs in prostate cancer . During the first funding period, we conducted immunohistochemical studies by staining a 200 case Grade/Stage tissue

  1. Multifunctional Nanotherapeutic System for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    therapy for drug resistant prostate cancer cells. In addition the findings from this study can be extended to the combinatorial therapy involving...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0571 TITLE: “Multifunctional Nanotherapeutic System for Advanced Prostate Cancer ...29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multifunctional Nanotherapeutic System for Advanced Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0571 5b

  2. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  3. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Florida Department of Corrections (FDOC) as a model for elucidating the genetic, epigenetic , and socio-environmental etiologies of prostate cancer . 9 | P...TITLE: Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Meghan E. Borysova, Ph.D...1 Sep 2011 - 31 Aug 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  4. The Infectious Pathogenesis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    al. Plasma antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2006;15...infectious agents with respect to prostate cancer: T vaginalis , the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and the recently identified...To characterize the role of the infectious protozoa T. vaginalis in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. The current study is nested within the

  5. Roles of Eicosanoids in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nithipatikom, Kasem; Campbell, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Eicosanoids, the metabolites of arachidonic acid, have diverse functions in the regulation of cancer including prostate cancer. This review will provide an overview of the roles of eicosanoids and endocannabinoids and their potential as therapeutic targets for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:24563660

  6. Radiation Induced Immune Response in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    trials of antibodies to TIP-1 in patients receiving radiotherapy for radiation. Publications, Abstracts, and Presentations none Inventions...therapy. Because radiotherapy is a primary mode of treatment of both localized prostate cancer and metastatic prostate cancer. These antigens are...antigens that are specifically over- expressed in cancer resulting in too few molecular targets and small percentages of patients who can be treated

  7. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Young, Charles Y. F.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention. PMID:21991434

  8. Analysis of Urinary Prostate-Specific Antigen Glycoforms in Samples of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Chen, Chein-Hung; Yang, Wen-Horng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Glycans of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer were found to be different from that in benign disease. It is difficult to analyze heterogeneous PSA glycoforms in each individual specimen because of low protein abundance and the limitation of detection sensitivity. We developed a method for prostate cancer diagnosis based on PSA glycoforms. Specific glycoforms were screened in each clinical sample based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ion accumulation. To look for potential biomarkers, normalized abundance of each glycoform in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and in prostate cancer was evaluated. The PSA glycoform, Hex5HexNAc4NeuAc1dHex1, and monosialylated, sialylated, and unfucosylated glycoforms differed significantly between the prostate cancer and BPH samples. The detection sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (60%) for prostate cancer identification are higher than those of the serum PSA marker. As low as 100 amol PSA could be detected with the ion accumulation method which has not been reported before. The improved detection specificity can help reduce unnecessary examinations. PMID:27065039

  9. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"183","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","clas | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  10. The use of collagen-based scaffolds to simulate prostate cancer bone metastases with potential for evaluating delivery of nanoparticulate gene therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Guo, Jianfeng; Tierney, Erica G; Curtin, Caroline M; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Darcy, Raphael; O'Brien, Fergal J; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases are a leading cause of cancer-related death in men with current treatments offering only marginally improved rates of survival. Advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of prostate cancer provide the opportunity to develop gene-based medicines capable of treating metastatic disease. The aim of this work was to establish a 3D cell culture model of prostate cancer bone metastasis using collagen-based scaffolds, to characterise this model, and to assess the potential of the model to evaluate delivery of gene therapeutics designed to target bone metastases. Two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and LNCaP) were cultured in 2D standard culture and compared to 3D cell growth on three different collagen-based scaffolds (collagen and composites of collagen containing either glycosaminoglycan or nanohydroxyapatite). The 3D model was characterised for cell proliferation, viability and for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzyme and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) secretion. Chemosensitivity to docetaxel treatment was assessed in 2D in comparison to 3D. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing siRNA formulated using a modified cyclodextrin were delivered to the cells on the scaffolds and gene silencing was quantified. Both prostate cancer cell lines actively infiltrated and proliferated on the scaffolds. Cell culture in 3D resulted in reduced levels of MMP1 and MMP9 secretion in PC3 cells. In contrast, LNCaP cells grown in 3D secreted elevated levels of PSA, particularly on the scaffold composed of collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Both cell lines grown in 3D displayed increased resistance to docetaxel treatment. The cyclodextrin.siRNA nanoparticles achieved cellular uptake and knocked down the endogenous GAPDH gene in the 3D model. In conclusion, development of a novel 3D cell culture model of prostate cancer bone metastasis has been initiated resulting, for the first time, in the successful delivery of gene therapeutics in a 3D in vitro model

  11. Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Soah; Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook; Lee, Se Byeong Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

  12. The Infectious Pathogenesis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    progression; 2-) To characterize the role of the infectious protozoa T. vaginalis in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. The current study is...understanding of the infectious pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Aim II. To characterize the role of the infectious protozoa T. vaginalis in prostate

  13. Prostate Cancer Diagnostics and Prognostics Based on Interphase Spatial Genome Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    architecture in quiescent and senescent human fibroblasts. Curr Biol 10, 149–152. Cooperberg MR, Broering JM, Carroll PR (2010). Time trends and local...10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.043. 832 Spatial Genome Organization based Diagnostics 20 Cooperberg, M.R., Broering, J.M., and Carroll , P.R. (2009). Risk...835 Cooperberg, M.R., Broering, J.M., and Carroll , P.R. (2010). Time trends and local variation in 836 primary treatment of localized prostate

  14. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    objective is to develop dendrimer -based theranostic agent with prostate cancer specificity and positron emission tomography imaging capability that...The goal of this project is to construct dendrimer nanoconjuate containing a prostate specific cell permeation peptide, peptide therapeutic(s) and...bifunctional chelator for PET imaging. Dr. Simanek’s laboratory will make dendrimers that bear functional handles for conjugation with imaging

  15. Microsatellite instability in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, A.L.; Wick, M.J.; Persons, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been documented in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as in sporadic forms of human cancers. Two of the genes which appear to be responsible for this particular tumor phenotype, hMSH2 and hMLH1, have now been identified. To determine the potential role of these mutator genes in prostate cancer, we have examined 95 prostate adenocarcinomas (40 paraffin embedded and 55 fresh frozen) for the presence of genetic instability at four microsatellite markers. The markers are localized to chromosome arms 5q(APC-CA1), 8p(Mfd 210Z), 15q(635/636), and 17q(p53-CA). Patients from whom paraffin embedded material was obtained were divided into short term (<3 years, n=18), and long term (>3 years, n=22) survivors. Of the 95 tumors examined, only four tumors (4%) demonstrated MIN: two tumors demonstrated MIN at 3 loci (p53-CA, APC-CA1, 635/636), one tumor demonstrated MIN at 2 loci (APC-CA1 and 635/636), and one tumor demonstrated instability at 635/636 only. All tumors exhibiting MIN had Gleason scores of {ge} 4+4. A correlation between MIN and survival was not observed. Information on family history was limited. However, of the two patients demonstrating MIN at three loci, one patient was diagnosed with a second malignancy (TCC of the ureter), but otherwise had a negative family history, while the second patient had one first degree relative with esophageal cancer. The patient demonstrating MIN at two loci had a negative family history, while the remaining patient had two first degree relatives with cancer (prostate and stomach). These results suggest that hMSH2 and hMLH1 (as reflected by the small percentage of tumors displaying MIN) do not play a prominent role in the process of prostate tumorigenesis.

  16. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    FAS activity in prostatectomy samples, intraprostatic lipid as measured by MRSI and prostate tumor aggressiveness. 3) To quantify key metabolic ...intermediates involved in lipid metabolism , mitochondrial function, inflammation, and apoptosis in the prostatectomy samples. 15. SUBJECT TERMS : none...vivo intraprostatic fat as measured by 1H MRSI, metabolic signatures of lipid oxidation and metabolism , and prostate cancer aggressiveness, our

  17. Mitochondria, prostate cancer, and biopsy sampling error.

    PubMed

    Parr, Ryan L; Mills, John; Harbottle, Andrew; Creed, Jennifer M; Crewdson, Gregory; Reguly, Brian; Guimont, François S

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondria and their associated genome are emerging as sophisticated indicators of prostate cancer biology. Alterations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been implicated in cell proliferation, metastatic behavior, androgen independence, as a signal for apoptosis, and as a predictor of biochemical recurrence. Somatic mutation patterns in complete mtgenomes are associated with prostate specific antigen levels (PSA) in prostate cancer patients and a large-scale mtgenome deletion (3.4 kb) is consistent with a prostate "cancerization" field effect. This review will focus on the biological characteristics of mitochondria and their direct clinical application to prostate cancer. Mitochondrial science is currently influencing clinical prostate cancer diagnostics and the rapid progress in this area indicates future, break-through contributions in the general field of oncology.

  18. Short hairpin RNA library-based functional screening identified ribosomal protein L31 that modulates prostate cancer cell growth via p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yojiro; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sato, Wataru; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Okamoto, Koji; Takeda, Satoru; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor is a primary transcription factor involved in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Thus, hormone therapy using antiandrogens, such as bicalutamide, is a first-line treatment for the disease. Although hormone therapy initially reduces the tumor burden, many patients eventually relapse, developing tumors with acquired endocrine resistance. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying endocrine resistance is therefore a fundamental issue for the understanding and development of alternative therapeutics for advanced prostate cancer. In the present study, we performed short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated functional screening to identify genes involved in bicalutamide-mediated effects on LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Among such candidate genes selected by screening using volcano plot analysis, ribosomal protein L31 (RPL31) was found to be essential for cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression in bicalutamide-resistant LNCaP (BicR) cells, based on small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown experiments. Of note, RPL31 mRNA is more abundantly expressed in BicR cells than in parental LNCaP cells, and clinical data from ONCOMINE and The Cancer Genome Altas showed that RPL31 is overexpressed in prostate carcinomas compared with benign prostate tissues. Intriguingly, protein levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and its targets, p21 and MDM2, were increased in LNCaP and BicR cells treated with RPL31 siRNA. We observed decreased degradation of p53 protein after RPL31 knockdown. Moreover, the suppression of growth and cell cycle upon RPL31 knockdown was partially recovered with p53 siRNA treatment. These results suggest that RPL31 is involved in bicalutamide-resistant growth of prostate cancer cells. The shRNA-mediated functional screen in this study provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets of advanced prostate cancer.

  19. WITHDRAWN: Can the conventional sextant prostate biopsy reliably diagnose unilateral prostate cancer in low-risk, localized, prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Mayes, J M; Mouraviev, V; Sun, L; Madden, J F; Polascik, T J

    2008-05-13

    The authors hereby retract the e-publication dated 13 May 2008 and entitled, 'Can the conventional sextant prostate biopsy reliably diagnose unilateral prostate cancer in low-risk, localized, prostate cancer?' The authors are submitting a revised version with the same title. This article's statistics were performed for predicting bilateral prostate cancer outcomes. The article was written to help predict unilateral prostate cancer. Although the statistical numbers are correct, they are backwards. We apologize that the statistics indicate a contrary outcome (eg predicting bilateral cancer instead of unilateral disease).

  20. Height-related risk factors for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Norrish, A E; McRae, C U; Holdaway, I M; Jackson, R T

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that adult height is positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer. The authors carried out a population-based case-control study involving 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 controls to further investigate the possibility that height is more strongly associated with advanced, compared with localized forms of this disease. Since the inherited endocrine factors, which in part determine height attained during the growing years, may influence the risk of familial prostate cancer later in life, the relationship with height was also investigated for familial versus sporadic prostate cancers. Adult height was not related to the risk of localized prostate cancer, but there was a moderate positive association between increasing height and the risk of advanced cancer (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.73, upper versus lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.07). Height was more strongly associated with the risk of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history compared with those reporting a negative family history. The RR of advanced prostate cancer for men in the upper height quartile with a positive family history was 7.41 (95% CI 1.68-32.67, P-trend = 0.02) compared with a reference group comprised of men in the shortest height quartile with a negative family history. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels did not correlate with height amongst men with familial or sporadic prostate cancers. These findings provide evidence for the existence of growth-related risk factors for prostate cancer, particularly for advanced and familial forms of this disease. The possible existence of inherited mechanisms affecting both somatic and tumour growth deserves further investigation.

  1. Computer-Aided Detection and diagnosis for prostate cancer based on mono and multi-parametric MRI: a review.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Guillaume; Martí, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C; Walker, Paul M; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer of men all over the world. In the last few decades, new imaging techniques based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have been developed to improve diagnosis. In practise, diagnosis can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. In this regard, computer-aided detection and computer-aided diagnosis systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. Research on computer-aided systems specifically focused for prostate cancer is a young technology and has been part of a dynamic field of research for the last 10 years. This survey aims to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in this lapse of time, focusing on the different stages composing the work-flow of a computer-aided system. We also provide a comparison between studies and a discussion about the potential avenues for future research. In addition, this paper presents a new public online dataset which is made available to the research community with the aim of providing a common evaluation framework to overcome some of the current limitations identified in this survey.

  2. Comparison of Automated Atlas-Based Segmentation Software for Postoperative Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Delpon, Grégory; Escande, Alexandre; Ruef, Timothée; Darréon, Julien; Fontaine, Jimmy; Noblet, Caroline; Supiot, Stéphane; Lacornerie, Thomas; Pasquier, David

    2016-01-01

    Automated atlas-based segmentation (ABS) algorithms present the potential to reduce the variability in volume delineation. Several vendors offer software that are mainly used for cranial, head and neck, and prostate cases. The present study will compare the contours produced by a radiation oncologist to the contours computed by different automated ABS algorithms for prostate bed cases, including femoral heads, bladder, and rectum. Contour comparison was evaluated by different metrics such as volume ratio, Dice coefficient, and Hausdorff distance. Results depended on the volume of interest showed some discrepancies between the different software. Automatic contours could be a good starting point for the delineation of organs since efficient editing tools are provided by different vendors. It should become an important help in the next few years for organ at risk delineation. PMID:27536556

  3. Olaparib With or Without Cediranib in Treating Patients With Metastatic Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-04

    Castration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma With Focal Neuroendocrine Differentiation; Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; Prostate Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Adenocarcinoma

  4. An inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mina, Kym; Fritschi, Lin; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that fish consumption may be a protective factor against the development of prostate cancer. We investigated the association between prostate cancer risk and fresh and preserved fish consumption among participants of a population-based case-control study (1,534 cases, 1,607 controls). Fish intake was measured using a dietary questionnaire that collected both frequency of consumption of a given portion size. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer risk for all levels of consumption, but reductions only reached statistical significance for the category of 1 to 3 servings of preserved fish per month (odds ratio = 0.78, confidence interval = 0.64-0.95). Consumption of any fat or energy from preserved fish was also associated with reduced risk. There was no suggestion of reduced prostate cancer risk with consumption of fresh and canned fish. Our results suggest that consumption of preserved fish may reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer.

  5. Attitude of African-Americans regarding prostate cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S B; Ashley, M; Haynes, M A

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively assess attitudes associated with the willingness of African-Americans to participate in prostate cancer clinical trials. Fifty-six African-American males, 40 years of age and older, were recruited from South Central Los Angeles. Respondents were divided into lower or middle socio-economic groups based on education and occupation. Focus group discussions were conducted to assess their knowledge about prostate cancer and willingness to participate in prostate cancer clinical trials. In addition, information was obtained to identify their incentives and barriers towards participating in prostate cancer research. Middle socio-economic respondents expressed a greater willingness to participate in prostate cancer clinical trials than did men of lower socio-economic status. Many indicated that they would be more likely to participate if they were encouraged to do so by a physician or researcher who was viewed as being competent and compassionate. Barriers to participation in prostate cancer clinical trials included concerns about drug toxicity, medical experimentation and distrust of the medical establishment. Endeavors aimed at increasing minority representation in prostate cancer clinical studies should address these issues.

  6. American Cancer Society prostate cancer survivorship care guidelines.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Ted A; Wolf, Andrew M D; Erb, Nicole L; Brooks, Durado D; Rivers, Brian M; Underwood, Willie; Salner, Andrew L; Zelefsky, Michael J; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Slovin, Susan F; Wittmann, Daniela A; Hoyt, Michael A; Sinibaldi, Victoria J; Chodak, Gerald; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer survivors approach 2.8 million in number and represent 1 in 5 of all cancer survivors in the United States. While guidelines exist for timely treatment and surveillance for recurrent disease, there is limited availability of guidelines that facilitate the provision of posttreatment clinical follow-up care to address the myriad of long-term and late effects that survivors may face. Based on recommendations set forth by a National Cancer Survivorship Resource Center expert panel, the American Cancer Society developed clinical follow-up care guidelines to facilitate the provision of posttreatment care by primary care clinicians. These guidelines were developed using a combined approach of evidence synthesis and expert consensus. Existing guidelines for health promotion, surveillance, and screening for second primary cancers were referenced when available. To promote comprehensive follow-up care and optimal health and quality of life for the posttreatment survivor, the guidelines address health promotion, surveillance for prostate cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, long-term and late effects assessment and management, psychosocial issues, and care coordination among the oncology team, primary care clinicians, and nononcology specialists. A key challenge to the development of these guidelines was the limited availability of published evidence for management of prostate cancer survivors after treatment. Much of the evidence relies on studies with small sample sizes and retrospective analyses of facility-specific and population databases.

  7. Functional Angiogenic Mediators in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    FUNDING NUMBERS Functional Angiogenic Mediators in Prostate Cancer DAMD17-99- 1 -9521 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer A. Doll, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...transition in the prostate by 1 ) identifying the key angiogenic mediators , 2) investigating the clinical significance of mediator levels in prostatic fluid...our proposal, we set out to 1 ) identify such mediators in the prostate, 2) assess the clinical usefulness of measuring angiogenic mediator levels in

  8. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  9. Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging.

    PubMed

    Hoeks, Caroline M A; Barentsz, Jelle O; Hambrock, Thomas; Yakar, Derya; Somford, Diederik M; Heijmink, Stijn W T P J; Scheenen, Tom W J; Vos, Pieter C; Huisman, Henkjan; van Oort, Inge M; Witjes, J Alfred; Heerschap, Arend; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2011-10-01

    This review presents the current state of the art regarding multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of prostate cancer. Technical requirements and clinical indications for the use of multiparametric MR imaging in detection, localization, characterization, staging, biopsy guidance, and active surveillance of prostate cancer are discussed. Although reported accuracies of the separate and combined multiparametric MR imaging techniques vary for diverse clinical prostate cancer indications, multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate has shown promising results and may be of additional value in prostate cancer localization and local staging. Consensus on which technical approaches (field strengths, sequences, use of an endorectal coil) and combination of multiparametric MR imaging techniques should be used for specific clinical indications remains a challenge. Because guidelines are currently lacking, suggestions for a general minimal protocol for multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate based on the literature and the authors' experience are presented. Computer programs that allow evaluation of the various components of a multiparametric MR imaging examination in one view should be developed. In this way, an integrated interpretation of anatomic and functional MR imaging techniques in a multiparametric MR imaging examination is possible. Education and experience of specialist radiologists are essential for correct interpretation of multiparametric prostate MR imaging findings. Supportive techniques, such as computer-aided diagnosis are needed to obtain a fast, cost-effective, easy, and more reproducible prostate cancer diagnosis out of more and more complex multiparametric MR imaging data.

  10. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  11. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin-like Growth Factor II Receptor in DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells. UNMC Summer Undergraduate...Lynnette Lefall Date Published: Friday, August 6, 2010 Keidra Bryant – Abstract Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin...cleaved at the cell surface by a protease that is inhibited by metal ion chelators. This work was done in a human embryonic kidney cell line. The goal

  12. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    this laboratory concentrates on the area of tumor immunology with an emphasis on immunotherapy. We have constructed microbial vaccines to be used...to the transgene product induced by the vaccine are underway. Additionally, we are carrying our "translational" research in the form of clinical...trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to induce anti

  13. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    i mmunology with an emphasis on immunotherapy. We ha ve constructed microbial vaccines to be used for the investigation of gene and immunotherapy... vaccine are underway. Additionally, we are carrying our "translational" research in the fo rm of clinical trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with...prostate cancer. Important in thes e trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to in duce anti-tumor immunity. We have recently completed

  14. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...growth of androgen-dependent cancer cells, and result in clinical tumor control . After a median time of 2 years, patients progress into a clinical...calculogenesis. Finally, Bischoff and Goerttler (38) used Gelfoam in human prostate therapeutic embolization with success. Our laboratory, in collaboration

  15. Protease Profiling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    acid synthase, which contains a serine hydrolase domain. We identified a lead inhibitor of this domain of fatty acid synthase, called Orlistat, which...SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Prostate cancer, tumor biology, protease, proteomics, transgenic, 20 animal model, fatty acid synthase, orlistat 16...the enzymes we identified is fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid synthase is the sole enzyme responsible for the cellular synthesis of fatty acids . This

  16. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Su, L Joseph; Steck, Susan E; Ang, Alfonso; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness using data from a population-based incident CaP study within the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Classification of CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis was based on clinical criteria for 1,049 African-American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian-American (CA) research subjects. Coffee consumption was measured using a modified NCI Dietary History Questionnaire. No significant associations were found between CaP aggressiveness and consumption of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. The OR for high aggressive CaP among consumers of more than 4 cups per day was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.61, 1.39), compared to non-coffee-drinkers. Results stratified by race found no significant associations and no noticeable trends in either AAs (P for trend = 0. 62) or CAs (P for trend = 0.42). In contrast to a recent report on a select population that has less complete information on CaP aggressiveness suggesting that coffee prevents aggressive CaP, this rapid case ascertainment population-based study, in a biracial population with differing risks of CaP did not demonstrate a protective relationship between high coffee consumption and risk of high aggressive CaP.

  17. Utility of ADC measurement on diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiation of prostate cancer, normal prostate and prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Esen, Meltem; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Akpolat, Nusret; Orhan, Irfan; Kocakoc, Ercan

    2013-08-01

    To determine the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiation of prostate cancer from normal prostate parenchyma and prostatitis we obtained ADC values of 50 patients at b 100, 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2) diffusion gradients. The ADC values of prostate cancer group were significantly lower than normal prostate and prostatitis group at b 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2) gradients. The ADC values at high diffusion gradients may be used in differentiation prostate cancer from normal prostate and prostatitis.

  18. DNA Vaccines for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McNeel, Douglas G.; Becker, Jordan T.; Johnson, Laura E.; Olson, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding an antigen of interest has been demonstrated to be an effective means of immunization, capable of eliciting antigen-specific T cells. Plasmid DNA vaccines offer advantages over other anti-tumor vaccine approaches in terms of simplicity, manufacturing, and possibly safety. The primary disadvantage is their poor transfection efficiency and subsequent lower immunogenicity relative to other genetic vaccine approaches. However, multiple preclinical models demonstrate anti-tumor efficacy, and many efforts are underway to improve the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect of these vaccines. Clinical trials using DNA vaccines as treatments for prostate cancer have begun, and to date have demonstrated safety and immunological effect. This review will focus on DNA vaccines as a specific means of antigen delivery, advantages and disadvantages of this type of immunization, previous experience in preclinical models and human trials specifically conducted for the treatment of prostate cancer, and future directions for the application of DNA vaccines to prostate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24587772

  19. Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giovanna; Mischi, Massimo; Scheepens, Wout; De la Rosette, Jean J; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Today, angiogenesis is known to play a key role in cancer growth and development. Emerging cancer treatments are based on the suppression of angiogenesis, and modern imaging techniques investigate changes in the microvasculature that are caused by angiogenesis. As for other forms of cancers, angiogenesis is well recognised as a fundamental process in the development of prostate cancer. The novelty of this extensive report on angiogenesis in cancer, with particular attention on prostate cancer and the imaging techniques able to detect it, is the new prospective to the subject. In contrast with the other available reviews, this report goes from 'theory' to 'practice', establishing a clear link between angiogenesis development and imaged angiogenesis features. Once the key role of angiogenesis in the development of cancer and in particular prostate cancer has been fully described, attention is turned to the current imaging methods with the potential to assess the angiogenesis process and, as a consequence, to detect and localise prostate cancer. • As confirmed by all available statistics, cancer represents a major clinical and societal problem in the developed world. The form of cancer with the highest incidence in men is prostate cancer. For prostate cancer, as well as for most forms of cancer, detection of the disease at an early stage is critical to reduce mortality and morbidity. • Today, it is well known that pathological angiogenesis represents a crucial step in cancer development and progression. Comparable with most forms of cancer, angiogenesis also plays a fundamental role for prostate cancer growth. • As a consequence, angiogenesis is an ideal target not only for novel anti-angiogenic therapies, but also for modern imaging techniques that aim at cancer localisation by detection of angiogenic microvascular changes. • These techniques are mainly based on magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolism in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, PEIYING; CARTWRIGHT, CARRIE A.; LI, JIN; WEN, SIJIN; PROKHOROVA, INA N.; SHUREIQI, IMAD; TRONCOSO, PATRICIA; NAVONE, NORA M.; NEWMAN, ROBERT A.; KIM, JERI

    2012-01-01

    The arachidonic acid pathway is important in the development and progression of numerous malignant diseases, including prostate cancer. To more fully evaluate the role of individual cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolites in prostate cancer, we measured mRNA and protein levels of COXs and LOXs and their arachidonate metabolites in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3 and DU145) prostate cancer cell lines, bone metastasis-derived MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cell lines and their corresponding xenograft models, as well as core biopsy specimens of primary prostate cancer and nonneoplastic prostate tissue taken ex vivo after prostatectomy. Relatively high levels of COX-2 mRNA and its product PGE2 were observed only in PC-3 cells and their xenografts. By contrast, levels of the exogenous 12-LOX product 12-HETE were consistently higher in MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 cells and their corresponding xenograft tissues than were those in LNCaP cells. More strikingly, the mean endogenous level of 12-HETE was significantly higher in the primary prostate cancers than in the nonneoplastic prostate tissue (0.094 vs. 0.010 ng/mg protein, respectively; p=0.019). Our results suggest that LOX metabolites such as 12-HETE are critical in prostate cancer progression and that the LOX pathway may be a target for treating and preventing prostate cancer. PMID:22895552

  1. Caveolin-1 and prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Yang, Wei; Di Vizio, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 was identified in the 1990s as a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. The caveolin-1 protein localizes to vesicular structures called caveolae and has been shown to bind and regulate many signaling proteins involved in oncogenesis. Caveolin-1 also has lipid binding properties and mediates aspects of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism and can elicit biological responses in a paracrine manner when secreted. Caveolin-1 is also present in the serum of prostate cancer patients and circulating levels correlate with extent of disease. Current evidence indicates that increased expression of caveolin-1 in prostate adenocarcinoma cells and commensurate downregulation of the protein in prostate stroma, mediate progression to the castration-resistant phase of prostate cancer through diverse pathways. This chapter summarizes the current state of our understanding of the cellular and physiologic mechanisms in which caveolin-1 participates in the evolution of prostate cancer cell phenotypes.

  2. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  3. Linking Estrogens, Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    provide the first direct evidence linking phy siologic estr ogen up- regulation an d pr ostate ma lignancy via inflammation. Ellem, Stuart J...inflammation and malignancy in the prostate. The identification of estr ogen as a cause of prostatitis, as well as a fac tor in the development of

  4. Genetic variation: effect on prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sissung, Tristan M.; Price, Douglas K.; Del Re, Marzia; Ley, Ariel M.; Giovannetti, Elisa; Danesi, Romano

    2014-01-01

    Summary The crucial role of androgens in the development of prostate cancer is well established. The aim of this review is to examine the role of constitutional (germline) and tumor-specific (somatic) polymorphisms within important regulatory genes of prostate cancer. These include genes encoding enzymes of the androgen biosynthetic pathway, the androgen receptor gene, genes that encode proteins of the signal transduction pathways that may have a role in disease progression and survival, and genes involved in prostate cancer angiogenesis. Characterization of deregulated pathways critical to cancer cell growth have lead to the development of new treatments, including the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone and clinical trials using novel drugs that are ongoing or recently completed [1]. The pharmacogenetics of the drugs used to treat prostate cancer will also be addressed. This review will define how germline polymorphisms are known affect a multitude of pathways, and therefore phenotypes, in prostate cancer etiology, progression, and treatment. PMID:25199985

  5. Review of selenium and prostate cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Pascal, Mouracade; Wu, Xiao-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. Surgery or radiation are sometimes unsatisfactory treatments because of the complications such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Selenium was found to be effective to prevent prostate cancer in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPC), which motivated two other clinical trials: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and a Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. However, these two trials failed to confirm the results of the NPC trial and indicated that the selenium may not be preventive of prostate cancer. In this article we review the three clinical trials and discuss some different points which might be potential factors underlying variation in results obtained.

  6. An updated prostate cancer staging nomogram (Partin tables) based on cases from 2006 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Eifler, John B.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Lin, Brian M.; Partin, Michael T.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Trock, Bruce J.; Partin, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To update the 2007 Partin tables in a contemporary patient population. Patients and Methods The study population consisted of 5,629 consecutive men who underwent RP and staging lymphadenectomy at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between January 1, 2006 and July 30, 2011 and met inclusion criteria. Polychotomous logistic regression analysis was used to predict the probability of each pathologic stage category: organ-confined disease (OC), extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle involvement (SV+), or lymph node involvement (LN+) based on preoperative criteria. Preoperative variables included biopsy Gleason score (6, 3+4, 4+3, 8, and 9–10), serum PSA (0–2.5, 2.6–4.0, 4.1–6.0, 6.1–10.0, greater than 10.0 ng/mL), and clinical stage (T1c, T2c, and T2b/T2c). Bootstrap re-sampling with 1000 replications was performed to estimate 95% confidence intervals for predicted probabilities of each pathologic state. Results The median PSA was 4.9 ng/mL, 63% had Gleason 6 disease, and 78% of men had T1c disease. 73% of patients had OC disease, 23% had EPE, 3% had SV+ but not LN+, and 1% had LN+ disease. Compared to the previous Partin nomogram, there was no change in the distribution of pathologic state. The risk of LN+ disease was significantly higher for tumours with biopsy Gleason 9–10 than Gleason 8 (O.R. 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–7.6). The c-indexes for EPE vs. OC, SV+ vs. OC, and LN+ vs. OC were 0.702, 0.853, and 0.917, respectively. Men with biopsy Gleason 4+3 and Gleason 8 had similar predicted probabilities for all pathologic stages. Most men presenting with Gleason 6 disease or Gleason 3+4 disease have <2% risk of harboring LN+ disease and may have lymphadenectomy omitted at RP. Conclusions The distribution of pathologic stages did not change at our institution between 2000–2005 and 2006–2011. The updated Partin nomogram takes into account the updated Gleason scoring system and may be more accurate for contemporary patients diagnosed with prostate cancer

  7. [Second cancer after starting treatment for prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Mikata, Noriharu; Imao, Sadao; Fukasawa, Ritu

    2002-08-01

    The subjects for the present study were 270 patients with prostate cancer who underwent initial treatment at our hospital over the 14 years from 1986 to 1999. They were investigated to assess the relationship between their treatment and metachronous tumors. Sixteen patients (5.9%) developed cancer of other organs after starting treatment for prostate cancer. These metachronous tumors included gastric cancer in six patients as well as lung cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, and mediastinal adenocarcinoma. Treatment for prostate cancer other than surgery included radiotherapy in eight patients, administration of estramustine phosphate sodium in nine patients, and LH-RH analogues in six patients. The chi-square test showed no significant difference in the incidence of metachronous cancer in relation to the presence/absence of these three therapies. The present study therefore ruled out the possible induction of other tumors by treatment for prostate cancer.

  8. Regulation of the Prostate Cancer Tumor Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    epithelium , stroma, as well as immune system, and the fixed nature of the prostate model with expression of the large T antigen, which may have limited...cancer glandular architecture formed (Figure 8). Figure 8. Subcutanous TRAMP Model to Recapitulate Prostate Cancer. TRAMP C2 cells with and...model to be able to alter the aggressiveness of the tumor and specifically modulate the TLR signaling pathway in prostate epithelium , stroma, and immune

  9. Brachytherapy optimization using radiobiological-based planning for high dose rate and permanent implants for prostate cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, Kaelyn; Cunha, J. Adam; Hong, Tae Min

    2017-01-01

    We discuss an improvement in brachytherapy--a prostate cancer treatment method that directly places radioactive seeds inside target cancerous regions--by optimizing the current standard for delivering dose. Currently, the seeds' spatiotemporal placement is determined by optimizing the dose based on a set of physical, user-defined constraints. One particular approach is the ``inverse planning'' algorithms that allow for tightly fit isodose lines around the target volumes in order to reduce dose to the patient's organs at risk. However, these dose distributions are typically computed assuming the same biological response to radiation for different types of tissues. In our work, we consider radiobiological parameters to account for the differences in the individual sensitivities and responses to radiation for tissues surrounding the target. Among the benefits are a more accurate toxicity rate and more coverage to target regions for planning high-dose-rate treatments as well as permanent implants.

  10. Customizable radiotherapy enhancement (CuRE) for prostate cancer using platinum based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifter, Gizem

    New approach to prostate cancer (PCa) therapy titled "Customizable Radiotherapy Enhancement (CuRE)" employs cisplatin (C), carboplatin (Ca) and oxaliplatin (O) nanoparticles (CNPs, CaNPs and ONPs) as adjuvants to brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), with the CNPs/CaNPs/ONPs released in situ from either brachytherapy spacers or fudicials loaded with the nanoparticles. The chemotherapy dose from the nanoparticles released in situ from within the prostate capsule, is enhanced by the physical dose due to photon interactions with the nanoparticles. The physical dose enhancement is due to low energy photons from the brachytherapy and EBRT sources interacting with the high-Z platinum component of the nanoparticles, causing emission of short-range photoelectrons to boost dose to the tumor. By varying the nanoparticle parameters, such as size, initial concentration, functionalization, location of spacer or fiducial, and intra-tumor biodistribution, the dose enhancement can be customized to maximize dose to tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to healthy cells. The hypothesis is that the CuRE approach will be a more efficacious method for concomitant cisplatin/carboplatin/oxaliplatin and radiotherapy treatment of localized prostate cancer due to significant dose boost to the PCa cells with minimal toxicity to healthy tissue. To investigate this hypothesis, microdosimetry calculations employing the energy loss formula of Cole were used to calculate the dose enhancement to the PCa cells from the CNPs/CaNPs/OPNs. The dose enhancement ratio (DEF) representing the ratio of the overall dose in the presence of CNPs/CaNPs/ONPs to the dose without CNPs/CaNPs/ONPs was determined for a range of CNP/CaNP/OPN concentrations up to their FDA approved limits. The dose enhancement to endothelial cells with (EDEF) with single concentration of cisplatin (42.8 mg/g) was found 2.6 with Pd-103. When EBRT source was used with single concentration of cisplatin, with 10cm x 10

  11. Urinary microRNA-based signature improves accuracy of detection of clinically relevant prostate cancer within the prostate-specific antigen grey zone

    PubMed Central

    SALIDO-GUADARRAMA, ALBERTO IVAN; MORALES-MONTOR, JORGE GUSTAVO; RANGEL-ESCAREÑO, CLAUDIA; LANGLEY, ELIZABETH; PERALTA-ZARAGOZA, OSCAR; COLIN, JOSE LUIS CRUZ; RODRIGUEZ-DORANTES, MAURICIO

    2016-01-01

    At present, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used as a clinical biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis; however, a large number of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with PSA levels in the ʻgray areaʼ (4–10 ng/ml) are currently subjected to unnecessary biopsy due to overdiagnosis. Certain microRNAs (miRs) have been proven to be useful biomarkers, several of which are detectable in bodily fluids. The present study identified and validated a urinary miR-based signature to enhance the specificity of PCa diagnosis and to reduce the number of patients with benign conditions undergoing biopsy. Seventy-three urine samples from Mexican patients with diagnosis of PCa with a Gleason score ≥7 and 70 patients diagnosed with BPH were collected after digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate. miR expression profiles were determined using TaqMan Low Density Array experiments, and normalized Ct values for the miRs were compared between PCa and BPH groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate whether miR detection in urine is suitable for distinguishing patients with PCa from those with BPH. The identified miR-100/200b signature was significantly correlated with PCa. Using a multivariable logistic regression approach, a base model including the clinical variables age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the percentage of free PSA and DRE was generated, and a second base model additionally contained the miR-100/200b signature. ROC analysis demonstrated that the combined model significantly outperformed the capacity of PSA (P<0.001) and the base model (P=0.01) to discriminate between PCa and BPH patients. In terms of evaluation of the sub-group of patients in the gray zone of PSA levels, the performance of the combined model for predicting PCa cases was significantly superior to PSA level determination (P<0.001) and the base model (P=0.009). In addition, decision curve analysis demonstrated that the use of

  12. Circadian Genes and Risk for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could prevent prostate cancer... finasteride  (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could  prevent prostate cancer. Included in our study are approximately 1,800 case‐control pairs

  13. Circadian Genes and Risk for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could prevent prostate cancer. In Year 3 of the...risk. Our study is nested within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride

  14. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    developing cancer diagnostic biomarkers. Genome Research 22: 183-187, 2012. Sarah Hawley, Ladan Fazli , Jesse K. McKenney, Jeff Simko, Dean Troyer, Marlo...MUC1 in human prostate cancers. Prostate 74: 1059-1067, 2014. Troyer D, Jamaspishvili T, Wei W, Feng Z, Good J, Hawley S, Fazli L, McKenney J

  15. A history of prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The increased incidence of prostate cancer has led to remarkable changes in diagnosis and treatment over the past century. What were the first ways in which prostate cancer was treated, and how did these evolve into the variety of therapeutic strategies from which patients have to choose today? PMID:12044015

  16. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    receiving appropriate education, genetic counseling , and/or referral. During each interview the research coordinator identifies at risk family members...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Aug 2013 – 14 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Genetics in

  17. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  18. Detection of DNA viruses in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smelov, Vitaly; Bzhalava, Davit; Arroyo Mühr, Laila Sara; Eklund, Carina; Komyakov, Boris; Gorelov, Andrey; Dillner, Joakim; Hultin, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    We tested prostatic secretions from men with and without prostate cancer (13 cases and 13 matched controls) or prostatitis (18 cases and 18 matched controls) with metagenomic sequencing. A large number (>200) of viral reads was only detected among four prostate cancer cases (1 patient each positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus and Human Papillomavirus types 89 or 40, respectively). Lower numbers of reads from a large variety of viruses were detected in all patient groups. Our knowledge of the biology of the prostate may be furthered by the fact that DNA viruses are commonly shed from the prostate and can be readily detected by metagenomic sequencing of expressed prostate secretions. PMID:27121729

  19. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    was upregulated in a subset of patients and the upregulation was associated with chemotherapy resistance. In vitro analysis showed that OXCT1 was...hypothesis that OXCT1 plays important role prostate cancer chemotherapy sensitivity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS chemosensitivity, OXCT1, docetaxel...prostate cancer resistance to docetaxel-based chemotherapy has never been tested. OXCT1 encodes the rate limiting enzyme converting ketone bodies to

  20. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer Enters Its Golden Age

    PubMed Central

    Boikos, Sosipatros A.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men and ranks second in terms of mortality. Although recurrent or metastatic disease can be managed initially with androgen ablation, most patients eventually develop castration-resistant disease within a number of years, for which conventional treatments (eg, chemotherapy) provide only modest benefits. In the last few years, immunotherapy has emerged as an exciting therapeutic modality for advanced prostate cancer, and this field is evolving rapidly. Encouragingly, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved two novel immunotherapy agents for patients with advanced cancer: the antigen presenting cell-based product sipuleucel-T and the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) antibody ipilimumab, based on improvements in overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic melanoma, respectively. Currently, a number of trials are investigating the role of various immunological approaches for the treatment of prostate cancer, many of them with early indications of success. As immunotherapy for prostate cancer enters its golden age, the challenge of the future will be to design rational combinations of immunotherapy agents with each other or with other standard prostate cancer treatments in an effort to improve patient outcomes further. PMID:22844202

  1. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday

  2. Bone-targeting agents in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzman, Daniel L.; Boikos, Sosipatros A.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases are present in the vast majority of men with advanced prostate cancer, representing the main cause for morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or metastatic disease is managed initially with androgen deprivation but the majority of the patients eventually will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer, with patients developing bone metastases in most of the cases. Survival and growth of the metastatic prostate cancer cells is dependent on a complex microenvironment (onco-niche) that includes the osteoblasts, the osteoclasts, the endothelium, and the stroma. This review summarizes agents that target the pathways involved in this complex interaction between prostate cancer and bone micro-environment and aim to transform lethal metastatic prostate cancer into a chronic disease. PMID:24398856

  3. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Cancer 101: 2371–2490 15. Clinton SK et al. (1988) The combined effects of dietary protein and fat intake during the promotion phase of 7,12...and BMI as Risk Factors for CaP progression in AA men. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates correlate well with the average intake of fats...reduced fat intake [15-17]. One meta-analysis showed a 5% excess risk of developing prostate cancer for each 5 kg/m2 increment of BMI [18]. When disease

  4. Analysis of Ethnic Admixture in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    The Study of Early Onset Prostate Cancer (1993–1995) was based in the San Francisco –Oakland Bay Area and included only individuals with histologically...Matusik R, Thomas GV, Sawyers CL (2003) Cancer Cell 4:223–238. 23. Williams K, Fernandez S, Stien X, Ishii K, Love HD, Lau YF, Roberts RL, Hayward SW (2005...Genet 2003;12(22):3007–3016. 11. Sarrio D, Moreno -Bueno G, Hardisson D, Sanchez-Estevez C, Guo M, Herman J, Gamallo C, Esteller M, Palacios J. Epigenetic

  5. Establishing a population-based patient-reported outcomes study (PROMs) using national cancer registries across two jurisdictions: the Prostate Cancer Treatment, your experience (PiCTure) study

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, F J; Kinnear, H; Donnelly, C; O'Leary, E; O'Brien, K; Burns, R M; Gavin, A; Sharp, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an international patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) study among prostate cancer survivors, up to 18 years postdiagnosis, in two countries with different healthcare systems and ethical frameworks. Design A cross-sectional, postal survey of prostate cancer survivors sampled and recruited via two population-based cancer registries. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) evaluated patients for eligibility to participate. Questionnaires contained validated instruments to assess health-related quality of life and psychological well-being, including QLQ-C30, QLQ-PR25, EQ-5D-5L, 21-question Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Decisional Regret Scale. Setting Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). Primary outcome measures Registration completeness, predictors of eligibility and response, data missingness, unweighted and weighted PROMs. Results Prostate cancer registration was 80% (95% CI 75% to 84%) and 91% (95% CI 89% to 93%) complete 2 years postdiagnosis in NI and RoI, respectively. Of 12 322 survivors sampled from registries, 53% (n=6559) were classified as eligible following HCP screening. In the multivariate analysis, significant predictors of eligibility were: being ≤59 years of age at diagnosis (p<0.001), short-term survivor (<5 years postdiagnosis; p<0.001) and from RoI (p<0.001). 3348 completed the questionnaire, yielding a 54% adjusted response rate. 13% of men or their families called the study freephone with queries for assistance with questionnaire completion or to talk about their experience. Significant predictors of response in multivariate analysis were: being ≤59 years at diagnosis (p<0.001) and from RoI (p=0.016). Mean number of missing questions in validated instruments ranged from 0.12 (SD 0.71; EQ-5D-5L) to 3.72 (SD 6.30; QLQ-PR25). Weighted and unweighted mean EQ-5D-5L, QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 scores were similar, as were the weighted and unweighted prevalences of depression, anxiety and

  6. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: emerging strategies against a formidable foe

    PubMed Central

    Bilusic, Marijo; Heery, Christopher; Madan, Ravi A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown therapeutic vaccines to be promising treatment modalities against prostate cancer. Unlike preventive vaccines that teach the immune system to fight off specific microorganisms, therapeutic vaccines stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack certain cancer-associated proteins. Additional strategies are being investigated that combine vaccines and standard therapeutics, including radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and hormonal therapy, to optimize the vaccines’ effects. Recent vaccine late-phase clinical trials have reported evidence of clinical benefit while maintaining excellent quality of life. One such vaccine, sipuleucel-T, was recently FDA-approved for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Another vaccine, PSA-TRICOM, is also showing promise in completed and ongoing randomized multicenter clinical trials in both early and late stage prostate cancer. Clinical results available to date indicate that immune-based therapies could play a significant role in the treatment of prostate and other malignancies. PMID:21741424

  7. Endometase in Androgen-Repressed Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia from multiple patients were significantly higher than those in prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and normal prostate glandular...prostate cancer cell invasion. 3. We showed that the levels of MMP-26 protein in human prostate carcinomas from multiple patients were significantly...inhibitors of MMP-26 block prostate cancer invasion. We have showed that the levels of MMP-26 protein in human prostate carcinomas from multiple patients were

  8. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 < 30, 30 < 35 and ≥35 kg/m(2), respectively, compared to the reference (18.5 < 25 kg/m(2)). No statistically significant associations were seen between BMI and prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels.

  9. Nanohybride Materials Based on Magnetite-Gold Nanoparticles for Diagnostics of Prostate Cancer: Synthesis and In Vitro Testing.

    PubMed

    Machulkin, A E; Garanina, A S; Zhironkina, O A; Beloglazkina, E K; Zyk, N V; Savchenko, A G; Kotelyanskii, V E; Mazhuga, A G

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized a fluorescence conjugate and modified magnetite-gold nanoparticles carrying prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as the ligand. Analysis of their binding to human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 (PSMA(-)) and LNCaP (PSMA(+)) showed selective interaction of the synthesized conjugate and modified nanoparticles with LNCaP cells. These findings suggest that these nanoparticles can be used in tissue-specific magnetic-resonance imaging.

  10. PACE4-Based Molecular Targeting of Prostate Cancer Using an Engineered 64Cu-Radiolabeled Peptide Inhibitor1☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; D’Anjou, François; Day, Robert; Guérin, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML), and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA) to the ML peptide for copper-64 (64Cu) labeling and positron emission tomography (PET)– based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor–based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy. PMID:25220591

  11. Controversies in proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Curtis; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, R Charles; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2016-08-01

    Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use. In this review, we summarize the results of recently published studies that support the safety and efficacy of PT in the treatment of prostate cancer. We also review the available cost-effectiveness data for PT and discuss the future of PT, including the current randomized trial comparing PT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the need for additional research that may help to establish the relative benefit of PT when compared to photon-based radiation therapy.

  12. Prostate cancer support groups, health literacy and consumerism: are community-based volunteers re-defining older men's health?

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; McKenzie, Michael M; Hislop, T Gregory; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Oglov, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    In this article we describe the connections between prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) and men's health literacy and consumer orientation to health care services. The study findings are drawn from participant observations conducted at 16 PCSGs in British Columbia, Canada and 54 individual interviews that focused on men's experiences of attending group meetings. Men's communication and interactions at PCSGs provide important insights for how men talk about and conceptualize health and illness. For example, biomedical language often predominated at group meetings, and men used numbers and measures to engage with risk discourses in linking prostate cancer markers to various treatment options and morbidity and mortality rates. Many groups afforded opportunities for men to interact with health care providers as a means to better understand the language and logic of prostate cancer management. The health literacy skills fostered at PCSGs along with specific group-informed strategies could be mobilized in the men's subsequent clinical consultations. Consumer discourses and strategies to contest power relations with health care professionals underpinned many men's search for prostate cancer information and their commitment to assisting other men. Key were patients' rights, and perhaps responsibility, to compare diverse health products and services in making decisions across the entire trajectory of their prostate cancer. Overall, the study findings reveal PCSGs as having the capacity to contest as well as align with medical expertise and services facilitating men's transition from patient to informed health care consumers. The processes through which this occurs may direct the design of older men's health promotion programs.

  13. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  14. Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Transdisciplinary Research in Epigenetics and Cancer Journal Clubs and Transdisciplinary Science Meetings, biweekly and monthly 3. To gain expertise...Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Lamb CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Washington University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genes in

  15. Defining the radiobiology of prostate cancer progression: An important question in translational prostate cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Vourganti, Srinivas; Donaldson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Linda; Turkbey, Baris; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Kotula, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting men worldwide. High mortality rates from advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States are contrasted by a relatively indolent course in the majority of cases. This gives hope for finding methods that could direct personalized diagnostic, preventative, and treatment approaches to patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) offer a noninvasive diagnostic intervention which allows correlation of prostate tumor image characteristics with underlying biologic evidence of tumor progression. The power of MP-MRI includes examination of both local invasion and nodal disease and might overcome the challenges of analyzing the multifocal nature of prostate cancer. Future directions include a careful analysis of the genomic signature of individual prostatic lesions utilizing image-guided biopsies. This review examines the diagnostic potential of MRI in prostate cancer. PMID:24879423

  16. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach.

    PubMed

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  17. A Systematic Review of the Incidence and Risk Factors for Taxane Acute Pain Syndrome in Patients Receiving Taxane-Based Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Mazzarello, Sasha; Hutton, Brian; Shorr, Risa; Ibrahim, Mohammed F K; Jacobs, Carmel; Ong, Michael; Clemons, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Taxane acute pain syndrome (TAPS) is characterized by myalgia and arthralgia starting 24 to 48 hours after taxane-based chemotherapy and lasting ≤ 7 days. Little is known about its incidence and predisposing factors in patients with prostate cancer. A systematic review was performed to identify studies reporting the incidence and risk factors for TAPS in patients receiving taxane-based chemotherapy for prostate cancer. Embase, Ovid Medline, and other nonindexed citations were searched from 1947 to July 7, 2015. Randomized trials and prospective observational studies reporting the outcomes for prostate cancer patients who had received taxane-based chemotherapy were assessed. Four reviewers independently screened the citations and full text reports for data collection. Of 980 citations, 5 studies (2710 patients) met the eligibility criteria. The incidence of myalgia and arthralgia was reported in 4 trials (14%, [29% and 38%], 44.2%, and 46%). TAPS was not reported with cabazitaxel chemotherapy. Clinical risk factors were identified in 4 studies, suggesting that TAPS was numerically more common in the castrate-resistant setting and when concurrent medications (eg, corticosteroids) were not used. Although the TAPS incidence has been poorly reported in clinical practice, the results of the present study suggest that arthralgia and myalgia are a common toxicity in patients with prostate cancer. An improved and universal definition of TAPS, patient-directed reporting of TAPS, and improved standardized assessments are needed to better identify patients at the greatest risk of experiencing TAPS and improving patient care.

  18. Prostate cancer: state of the art imaging and focal treatment.

    PubMed

    Woodrum, D A; Kawashima, A; Gorny, K R; Mynderse, L A

    2017-04-03

    In 2016, it is estimated 180,890 men are newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and 3,306,760 men live with prostate cancer in the United States. The introduction of multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate, standardised interpretation guidelines such as Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS version 2), and MRI-based targeted biopsy has improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Accurate risk stratification (Gleason grade/score and tumour stage) using imaging and image-guided targeted biopsy has become critical for the management of patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in MRI-guided minimally invasive ablative treatment (MIAT) utilising cryoablation, laser ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, have allowed accurate focal or regional delivery of optimal thermal energy to the biopsy proven, MRI-detected tumour, under real-time or near simultaneous MRI monitoring of the ablation zone. A contemporary review on prostate mpMRI, MRI-based targeted biopsy, and MRI-guided ablation techniques is presented.

  19. Development and Preliminary Testing of PROGRESS: A Web-based Education Program for Prostate Cancer Survivors Transitioning from Active Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Suzanne M.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Fleisher, Linda; Raivitch, Stephanie; Belton, Tanisha; Roy, Gem; Njoku, Anuli; Scarpato, John; Viterbo, Rosalia; Buyyounouski, Mark; Denlinger, Crystal; Miyamoto, Curtis; Reese, Adam; Baman, Jayson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This formative research study describes the development and preliminary evaluation of a theory-guided, on-line multimedia psycho-educational program (PROGRESS) designed to facilitate adaptive coping among prostate cancer patients transitioning from treatment into long-term survivorship. Methods Guided by the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing Model (C-SHIP) and using health communications best practices, we conducted a two phase, qualitative formative research study with early stage prostate cancer patients (n=29) to inform the web program development. Phase 1 included individual (n=5) and group (n=12) interviews to help determine intervention content and interface. Phase 2 employed iterative user/usability testing (n=12) to finalize the intervention. Interview data were independently coded and collectively analyzed to achieve consensus. Results Survivors expressed interest in action-oriented content on: (1) managing treatment side effects; (2) handling body image and co-morbidities related to overweight/obesity; (3) coping with emotional and communication issues; (4) tips to reduce disruptions of daily living activities, and (5) health skills training tools. Patients also desired the use of realistic and diverse survivor images. Conclusions Incorporation of an established theoretical framework, application of multimedia intervention development best practices, and an evidence-based approach to content and format, resulted in a psycho-educational tool that comprehensively addresses survivors' needs in a tailored fashion. Implications for Cancer Survivors The results suggest that an interactive web-based multimedia program is useful for survivors if it covers the key topics of symptom control, emotional well-being, and coping skills training; this tool has the potential to be disseminated and implemented as an adjunct to routine clinical care. PMID:25697335

  20. [Mediterranean diet, micronutrients and prostate carcinoma: a rationale approach to primary prevention of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Miano, Lucio

    2003-09-01

    Cancer of the prostate is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men living in Italy. With an ageing population, the number of men living with early stages of prostate cancer is expected to increase. There is an impelling need to prevent the onset of the cancer or delay the progression of carcinogenesis in this organ. The chemoprevention of cancer is a relatively new concept defined as the administration of pharmacological agents (drug or diet-derived supplements) to prevent, delay or reverse the carcinogenesis. Epidemiological data showing ethnic and geographic variations in the incidence of, and mortality from, prostate cancer have suggested that the consumption of dietary factors may be protective. There is increasing evidence that diet (particularly dietary fat intake) may play a significant role in early prostate carcinogenesis. Dietary micronutrients and antioxidants are under intense scrutiny. These factors include the vitamin D and E, lycopene, selenium, zinc, poliphenols, isoflavonoids, and phytoestrogens (especially soy products and green tea). The old Mediterranean diet (based on cereals, vegetables, polyunsaturated fats, fruits, fish and low quantities of dairy products and meat) is now sparingly adopted because of the globalisation of the food chain which now involves also our country. Nevertheless, our traditional dietary habits are considered of great value in the prevention of cardiovascular or cancerous diseases and particularly of prostate cancer.

  1. ETS fusion genes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gasi Tandefelt, Delila; Boormans, Joost; Hermans, Karin; Trapman, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancer is very common in elderly men in developed countries. Unravelling the molecular and biological processes that contribute to tumor development and progressive growth, including its heterogeneity, is a challenging task. The fusion of the genes ERG and TMPRSS2 is the most frequent genomic alteration in prostate cancer. ERG is an oncogene that encodes a member of the family of ETS transcription factors. At lower frequency, other members of this gene family are also rearranged and overexpressed in prostate cancer. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated gene that is preferentially expressed in the prostate. Most of the less frequent ETS fusion partners are also androgen-regulated and prostate-specific. During the last few years, novel concepts of the process of gene fusion have emerged, and initial experimental results explaining the function of the ETS genes ERG and ETV1 in prostate cancer have been published. In this review, we focus on the most relevant ETS gene fusions and summarize the current knowledge of the role of ETS transcription factors in prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of TMRPSS2-ERG and other ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer.

  2. Prostate Cancer and Bone: The Elective Affinities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, determining increased morbidity and a drastic fall in survival expectancy. Bone is a common site of metastases in few types of cancer, and it represents the most frequent metastatic site in prostate cancer. Of note, the prevalence of tumor relapse to the bone appears to be increasing over the years, likely due to a longer overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Bone tropism represents an intriguing challenge for researchers also because the preference of prostate cancer cells for the bone is the result of a sequential series of targetable molecular events. Many factors have been associated with the peculiar ability of prostate cancer cells to migrate in bone marrow and to determine mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic lesions. As anticipated by the success of current targeted therapy aimed to block bone resorption, a better understanding of molecular affinity between prostate cancer and bone microenvironment will permit us to cure bone metastasis and to improve prognosis of prostate cancer patients. PMID:24971315

  3. A dimerized urea-based inhibitor of the prostate-specific membrane antigen for 68Ga-PET imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternative positron-emission tomography (PET) probes like labeled inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are of emerging clinical impact as they show the ability to image small lesions of recurrent prostate cancer. Here, the dimerization of the pharmacophore Glu‐ureido‐Lys via the 68Ga chelator N,N′-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) was investigated to further improve the binding characteristics and pharmacokinetics. Methods The peptidomimetic structures were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry, and the resulting products were coupled with the respective 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol esters of HBED-CC to form the monomeric reference and the dimeric Glu‐ureido‐Lys derivative. The binding properties were analyzed in competitive binding, internalization, and cell surface retention experiments. PET images and biodistribution data were obtained 1 h after injection in BALB/c nu/nu mice bearing LNCaP tumor xenografts. Results Cell binding data revealed significant better binding properties of the dimer (IC50 = 3.9 ± 1.8 nM; IC50 (monomer) = 12.1 ± 2.1 nM). The inhibition potency investigated by the enzyme-based NAALADase assay confirmed these results. Specific internalization in LNCaP cells was demonstrated for both, the monomer and dimer. As shown by efflux measurements, the dimeric compound was more effectively retained on the cell surface, resulting in advanced in vivo properties (T/BMonomer = 9.2; T/BDimer = 26.5). Conclusions The dimeric [68Ga]7 is a promising imaging agent for PSMA-expressing tumors as it shows higher tumor uptake while observing more favorable background clearance. As compared to the respective monomer, the higher affinity and prolonged tumor retention additionally represent promising features and warrant further evaluation regarding 68Ga-PET imaging of PSMA expression. PMID:22673157

  4. Identification of Genes Required for the Survival of Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    cancer lines ( PrCa ) versus the normal prostate epithelial line RWPE-1. Identifying PCL genes that are either common across all prostate cancer...marked differences between the PrCa cell lines and the normal prostate epithelial line RWPE-1. Many of these differences likely represent the sought...after PCL genes. Of the highest ranking PCL hairpins, based on absolute differences between PrCa and normal prostate epithelial cells (Δlog2

  5. Prostate cancer educational intervention among men in Western Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Capanna, Christian; Chujutalli, Ricardo; Murray, Shushawna; Lwin, Kyaw; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    To conduct and evaluate the impact of a theory-based health education intervention on awareness of prostate cancer and intention to screen among men in Western Jamaica and determine screening rates of men participating in the intervention at 6 months post-intervention. 454 men utilizing various clinics and hospitals in Western Jamaica completed an interviewer-administered pretest survey on general prostate cancer knowledge and intention to screen. Upon completing the pretest, participants observed a prostate cancer health education intervention and immediately completed a posttest survey. Statistically significant improvements in the percentage of correct responses between the pretest and posttest were evident (p < 0.05). Additionally, screening rates increased dramatically by 6 months post-intervention with over 33% of men receiving a prostate exam after participating in the educational intervention. The theory-based educational intervention increased participants' knowledge of prostate cancer, types of screening tests, frequency of screenings and risk factors and symptoms, and was effective in increasing screening rates among the men in Western Jamaica within 6 months post-intervention. This theory-based educational intervention may be replicated to promote awareness of prostate cancer and further increase screening rates in other areas of Jamaica and other developing countries. PMID:26568910

  6. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system . It lies just below the bladder (the organ ... part of the semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  8. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system . It lies just below the bladder (the organ ... part of the semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  9. Sipuleucel-T in the treatment of prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Graff, Julie N; Chamberlain, Erin D

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal form of cancer of the prostate. Five new agents that prolong survival in this group have emerged in the past 5 years, and sipuleucel-T is among them. Sipuleucel-T is the only immunotherapy shown to improve survival in prostate cancer. It is currently indicated in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients, as it has never shown a direct cancer effect. This paper describes the process of creating the sipuleucel-T product from the manufacturing and patient aspects. It discusses the four placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of sipuleucel-T, focusing on survival and adverse events. There are three RCTs in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, all of which showed improved overall survival without meaningful decreases in symptoms, tumor volumes, or prostate-specific antigen levels. One RCT in castration-sensitive, biochemically relapsed prostate cancer attempted to find a decrease in biochemical failure, but that endpoint was not reached. Adverse events in all four of these studies centered around cytokine release. This paper also reviews a Phase II study of sipuleucel-T given neoadjuvantly that speaks to its mechanism of action. Additionally, there is a registry study of sipuleucel-T that has been used to evaluate immunological parameters of the product in men ≥80 years of age and men who had previously been treated with palliative radiation. Attempts to find early markers of response to sipuleucel-T are described. Further ongoing studies that explore the efficacy of sipuleucel-T in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors and second-generation hormonal therapies that are summarized. Finally, the only published economic analysis of sipuleucel-T is discussed.

  10. Validation of prostate cancer risk-related loci identified from genome-wide association studies using family-based association analysis: evidence from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG).

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangfu; Lu, Lingyi; Cooney, Kathleen A; Ray, Anna M; Zuhlke, Kimberly A; Lange, Ethan M; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Camp, Nicola J; Teerlink, Craig C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Stanford, Janet L; Wiley, Kathleen E; Isaacs, Sarah D; Walsh, Patrick C; Foulkes, William D; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Severi, Gianluca; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Rinckleb, Antje; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Egrot, Christophe; Cussenot, Olivier; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Whittemore, Alice S; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Catalona, William J; Zheng, S Lilly; Ostrander, Elaine A; Isaacs, William B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2012-07-01

    Multiple prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci have been discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on case-control designs. However, GWAS findings may be confounded by population stratification if cases and controls are inadvertently drawn from different genetic backgrounds. In addition, since these loci were identified in cases with predominantly sporadic disease, little is known about their relationships with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC). The association between seventeen reported PCa susceptibility loci was evaluated with a family-based association test using 1,979 hereditary PCa families of European descent collected by members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, with a total of 5,730 affected men. The risk alleles for 8 of the 17 loci were significantly over-transmitted from parents to affected offspring, including SNPs residing in 8q24 (regions 1, 2 and 3), 10q11, 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11. In subgroup analyses, three loci, at 8q24 (regions 1 and 2) plus 17q12, were significantly over-transmitted in hereditary PCa families with five or more affected members, while loci at 3p12, 8q24 (region 2), 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11 were significantly over-transmitted in HPC families with an average age of diagnosis at 65 years or less. Our results indicate that at least a subset of PCa risk-related loci identified by case-control GWAS are also associated with disease risk in HPC families.

  11. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    saturation bands (six for fat and two for water) were used to minimize lipid/water contamination to the VOI. The 2D MRSI sequence details are: TR/TE... fat as measured by in-vivo imaging using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the prediction of prostate disease aggressiveness...histology, in-vivo intraprostatic fat as measured by 1H MRSI, metabolic signatures of lipid oxidation and metabolism, and prostate cancer

  12. Stable Upconversion Nanohybrid Particles for Specific Prostate Cancer Cell Immunodetection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; Shi, Bingyang; Dass, Arun V. Everest; Lu, Yiqing; Sayyadi, Nima; Kautto, Liisa; Willows, Robert D.; Chung, Roger; Piper, James; Nevalainen, Helena; Walsh, Bradley; Jin, Dayong; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the male killing diseases and early detection of prostate cancer is the key for better treatment and lower cost. However, the number of prostate cancer cells is low at the early stage, so it is very challenging to detect. In this study, we successfully designed and developed upconversion immune-nanohybrids (UINBs) with sustainable stability in a physiological environment, stable optical properties and highly specific targeting capability for early-stage prostate cancer cell detection. The developed UINBs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and luminescence spectroscopy. The targeting function of the biotinylated antibody nanohybrids were confirmed by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. The UINB system is able to specifically detect prostate cancer cells with stable and background-free luminescent signals for highly sensitive prostate cancer cell detection. This work demonstrates a versatile strategy to develop UCNPs based sustainably stable UINBs for sensitive diseased cell detection. PMID:27874051

  13. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    PubMed

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P < 0.01) compared with PC and prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P < 0.05). Men (33%) with BPH had PSA antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. These discoveries may find clinical application in differential diagnosis among prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis.

  14. Humanin: A Novel Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; n=107), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN; n=41) and invasive prostate cancer (Cancer; n=574). Both cytoplasmic...expression was significantly higher in cancer (ProsCa) compared to normal (NL; p=0028), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; p=0.0017). Humanin expression

  15. Comparison of Distribution- and Anchor-Based Approaches to Infer Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life of Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar; Malkowicz, Stanley Bruce; Wittink, Marsha; Wein, Alan J; Chhatre, Sumedha

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the minimal important difference (MID) in generic and prostate-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using distribution- and anchor-based methods. Study Design and Setting Prospective cohort study of 602 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients recruited from an urban academic hospital and a Veterans Administration hospital. Participants completed generic (SF-36) and prostate-specific HRQoL surveys at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months posttreatment. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to develop MID estimates. We compared the proportion of participants returning to baseline based on MID estimates from the two methods. Results MID estimates derived from combining distribution- and anchor-based methods for the SF-36 subscales are physical function = 7, role physical = 14, role emotional = 12, vitality = 9, mental health = 6, social function = 9, bodily pain = 9, and general health = 8; and for the prostate-specific scales are urinary function = 8, bowel function = 7, sexual function = 8, urinary bother = 9, bowel bother = 8, and sexual bother = 11. Proportions of participants returning to baseline values corresponding to MID estimates from the two methods were comparable. Conclusions This is the first study to assess the MID for generic and prostate-specific HRQoL using anchor-based and distribution-based methods. Although variation exists in the MID estimates derived from these two methods, the recovery patterns corresponding to these estimates were comparable. PMID:22417225

  16. Inorganic Arsenic and Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We critically evaluated the etiologic role of inorganic arsenic in human prostate cancer. Data sources We assessed data from relevant epidemiologic studies concerning environmental inorganic arsenic exposure. Whole animal studies were evaluated as were in vitro model systems of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in the prostate. Data synthesis Multiple studies in humans reveal an association between environmental inorganic arsenic exposure and prostate cancer mortality or incidence. Many of these human studies provide clear evidence of a dose–response relationship. Relevant whole animal models showing a relationship between inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer are not available. However, cellular model systems indicate arsenic can induce malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. Arsenic also appears to impact prostate cancer cell progression by precipitating events leading to androgen independence in vitro. Conclusion Available evidence in human populations and human cells in vitro indicates that the prostate is a target for inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis. A role for this common environmental contaminant in human prostate cancer initiation and/or progression would be very important. PMID:18288312

  17. Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the...cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. The tumor

  18. Primary and salvage cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Finley, David S; Pouliot, Frederic; Miller, David C; Belldegrun, Arie S

    2010-02-01

    Cryotherapy is a technique to ablate tissue by local induction of extremely cold temperatures. Recently, the American Urological Association Best Practice Statement recognized cryoablation of the prostate as an established treatment option for men with newly diagnosed or radiorecurrent organ-confined prostate cancer. Emerging data suggest that, in select cases, cryoablation may have a role in focal ablation of prostate. The current state of the art of cryoablation in these applications is reviewed.

  19. Prostate cancer immunology - an update for Urologists.

    PubMed

    Rajarubendra, Nieroshan; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M; Klotz, Laurence; Davis, Ian D

    2011-04-01

    A better understanding of the immune processes in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer (CaP) may point the way towards improved treatment modalities. The challenge is to amplify immune responses to combat tumour escape mechanisms. Infection and inflammation may have a role in prostate carcinogenesis, including the newly discovered xenotropic murine leukaemia virus (XMRV). These inflammatory states damage defence mechanisms and induce a high proliferative state favouring further mutation and impaired immune surveillance. With this knowledge we are able to explore the use of immunotherapy to rejuvenate the immune system in combating CaP. Recently Sipuleucel-T, an immunotherapeutic agent for metastatic androgen independent CaP, has resulted in improved survival and might be the first immunotherapeutic agent to obtain approval for CaP treatment. This short review will focus on the growing body of evidence suggesting an immunity-based link between CaP and inflammation and infection.

  20. [Safety and efficacy of docetaxel in prostate cancer patients: based on the post-marketing surveillance in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mera, Takeshi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2012-04-01

    The safety and efficacy of docetaxel in prostate cancer were evaluated based on the results of post-marketing surveillance. 149 patients were enrolled between September 2008 and May 2010. The starting dose of docetaxel was 75 mg/m² in 53 patients(36%), 70 mg/m² in 55 (37%), and ≤ 60 mg/m² in 41(28%). The median number of treatment cycles was 8 (range, 1 to 10). There was no age difference observed in the starting doses and the treatment cycles. The most common ≥ grade 3 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were neutropenia (71%)and leukocytopenia (51%), and they occurred more frequently in patients receiving ≥ 70 mg/m². However, the multi-variate analyses revealed that ≥ grade 3 ADRs did not correlate with the starting doses. Infection-related events (≥ grade 3) and interstitial pneumonia were observed in 15% and 1% of patients, respectively. Prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) flare appeared in 19% of 95 evaluable patients at median period of 26 days from treatment initiation. It continued with median duration of 39. 5 days. PSA response rate as defined ≥ 50% level decline was 37%(95%confidence interval: 27-47) in evaluable patients. It was low in patients receiving ≤ 60 mg/m² (18%). There was no notable difference between patients with initial dose of 75 and 70 mg/m². Further investigation for the longer term is warranted.

  1. A structural-functional MRI-based disease atlas: application to computer-aided-diagnosis of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, G.; Bloch, B.; Chappelow, J.; Genega, E.; Rofsky, N.; Lenkinski, R.; Madabhushi, A.

    2010-03-01

    proclivity of the disease, and (c) feature extraction and the construction of the data-driven multi-protocol MRI based prostate cancer atlas. The marriage of data driven and spatial atlases could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to identifying structural and functional imaging disease signatures so as to make better, more informed diagnoses. Each spatial location in this atlas can be associated with a high dimensional multi-attribute quantitative feature vector. Additionally, since the feature vectors are extracted from across multiple patient studies, each spatial location in the data-driven atlas can be characterized by a feature distribution (in turn characterized by a mean and standard deviation). Preliminary investigation in quantitatively correlating the disease signatures from across the spatial and data driven atlases suggests that our quantitative atlas framework could emerge as a powerful tool for discovering prostate cancer imaging signatures.

  2. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    PubMed

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  3. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Madu, Chikezie O.; Lu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form. A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues. Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. The

  4. Prediction of Erectile Function Following Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Regan, Meredith M.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Wei, John T.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hembroff, Larry; Sadetsky, Natalia; Saigal, Christopher S.; Litwin, Mark S.; Klein, Eric; Kibel, Adam S.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Pisters, Louis L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kaplan, Irving D.; Wood, David P.; Ciezki, Jay; Dunn, Rodney L.; Carroll, Peter R.; Sanda, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Context Sexual function is the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domain most commonly impaired after prostate cancer treatment; however, validated tools to enable personalized prediction of erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment are lacking. Objective To predict long-term erectile function following prostate cancer treatment based on individual patient and treatment characteristics. Design Pretreatment patient characteristics, sexual HRQOL, and treatment details measured in a longitudinal academic multicenter cohort (Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction With Treatment Quality Assessment; enrolled from 2003 through 2006), were used to develop models predicting erectile function 2 years after treatment. A community-based cohort (community-based Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor [CaPSURE]; enrolled 1995 through 2007) externally validated model performance. Patients in US academic and community-based practices whose HRQOL was measured pretreatment (N = 1201) underwent follow-up after prostatectomy, external radiotherapy, or brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Sexual outcomes among men completing 2 years’ follow-up (n = 1027) were used to develop models predicting erectile function that were externally validated among 1913 patients in a community-based cohort. Main Outcome Measures Patient-reported functional erections suitable for intercourse 2 years following prostate cancer treatment. Results Two years after prostate cancer treatment, 368 (37% [95% CI, 34%–40%]) of all patients and 335 (48% [95% CI, 45%–52%]) of those with functional erections prior to treatment reported functional erections; 531 (53% [95% CI, 50%–56%]) of patients without penile prostheses reported use of medications or other devices for erectile dysfunction. Pretreatment sexual HRQOL score, age, serum prostate-specific antigen level, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and intended treatment details were associated with functional erections 2

  5. Nanotherapies for treating prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danquah, Michael

    Current prostate cancer treatment remains ineffective primarily due to ineffectual therapeutic strategies and numerous tumor-associated physiological barriers which hinder efficacy of anticancer agents. Therefore, the focus of this study was to investigate a new combination therapy approach for treating prostate cancer and develop polymeric nanocarriers to facilitate anticancer drug and nucleic acid delivery. It was hypothesized that simultaneously targeting androgen-androgen receptor (AR) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) signaling pathways would be effective in treating prostate cancer. The effect of bicalutamide (antiandrogen) and embelin (XIAP inhibitor) on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was first examined. Embelin induced caspase 3 and 9 activation in LNCaP and C4-2 cells by decreasing XIAP expression and was more potent than bicalutamide in killing prostate tumor cells irrespective of their androgen status. Using a combination of MTT assay and isobologram analyses, combination of bicalutamide and embelin was observed to be cell line and schedule dependent. Since bicalutamide and embelin are extremely hydrophobic, polymeric micelles were fabricated using polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-b-PLA) copolymer to improve drug solubility. Micellar formulations were found to result in at least 60-fold increase in the aqueous solubility of bicalutamide and embelin. Tumor growth was also effectively regressed upon treatment with bicalutamide, but the extent of tumor regression was significantly higher when bicalutamide was formulated in micelles. To further improve bicalutamide aqueous solubility, a series of novel biodegradable copolymers for the systematic micellar delivery of bicalutamide was designed and synthesized. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χFH) was used to assess compatibility between bicalutamide and poly (L-lactide) or poly (carbonate-co-lactide) polymer pairs. Polyethylene glycol-b-poly (carbonate

  6. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-15

    cancer sextant localization based on measured fluorocholine uptake. Recruitment of human subjects for this project was completed in 2008. A final one... sextants of the prostate gland. The rationale for evaluating fluorocholine as an oncologic tracer applicable to prostate cancer is based on observations...method of sextant localization of primary prostate cancer through a collaboration with Phillips Research (Phillips Medical Systems, N.A.). A proposal

  7. PET/CT and radiotherapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    De Jong, I J; De Haan, T D; Wiegman, E M; Van Den Bergh, A C M; Pruim, J; Breeuwsma, A J

    2010-10-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the corner stone treatments for patients with prostate cancer. Especially for locally advanced tumors radiotherapy +/- adjuvant androgen deprivation treatment is standard of care. This brings up the need for accurate assessment of extra prostatic tumor growth and/or the presence of nodal metastases for selection of the optimal radiation dose and treatment volume. Morphological imaging like transrectal ultra sound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used but are limited in their accuracy in detecting extra prostatic extension and nodal metastases. In this article we present a structured review of the literature on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients with emphasis on: 1) the pretreatment assessment of extra prostatic tumor extension, nodal and distant metastases; 2) the intraprostatic tumor characterization and radiotherapy treatment planning; and 3) treatment evaluation and the use of PET/CT in guidance of salvage treatment. PET/CT is not an appropriate imaging technique for accurate T-staging of prostate cancer prior to radiotherapy. Although macroscopic disease beyond the prostatic capsule and into the periprostatic fat or in seminal vesicle is often accurately detected, the microscopic extension of prostate cancer remains undetected. Choline PET/CT holds a great potential as a single step diagnostic procedure of lymph nodes and skeleton, which could facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning. At present the use of PET/CT for treatment planning in radiotherapy is still experimental. Choline PET based tumor delineation is not yet standardized and different segmentation-algorithms are under study. However, dose escalation using dose-painting is feasible with only limited increases of the doses to the bladder and rectum wall. PET/CT using either acetate or choline is able to detect recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy but stratification of patients

  8. Statin Use in Prostate Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Babcook, Melissa A.; Joshi, Aditya; Montellano, Jeniece A.; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords “statin and prostate cancer” within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. These human studies consist of meta-analyses of secondary endpoints obtained from randomized, controlled cardiovascular disease clinical trials of statins, patient database, observational studies, and a few, small case–control studies, directly addressing statin use on prostate cancer pathology and recurrence. This review summarizes and discusses the recent clinical literature on statins and prostate cancer with a recommendation to move forward with randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, investigating the use of statins. Additional preclinical testing of statins on prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo models is needed to elucidate pathways and determine its efficacy for prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer, more specifically, the difference in the effectiveness of lipophilic versus hydrophilic statins in prostate cancer. PMID:27441003

  9. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  10. Vaccine Therapy and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant, Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-23

    Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  11. Prostate Specific or Enriched Genes as Composite Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    plays important roles in endocytosis.7 DYF-2, the C . elegans orthologue of WDR19, is involved in intraciliary/intraflagellar transport. Loss of DYF-2...chemosensation in C . elegans (35). The mouse WDR19 was shown to localize to granule structures inside of the cell at the base of cilia in the ependymal...Prostate Specific or Enriched Genes as Composite Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Biaoyang Lin, Ph.D

  12. Prostate segmentation by sparse representation based classification

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yaozong; Liao, Shu; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The segmentation of prostate in CT images is of essential importance to external beam radiotherapy, which is one of the major treatments for prostate cancer nowadays. During the radiotherapy, the prostate is radiated by high-energy x rays from different directions. In order to maximize the dose to the cancer and minimize the dose to the surrounding healthy tissues (e.g., bladder and rectum), the prostate in the new treatment image needs to be accurately localized. Therefore, the effectiveness and efficiency of external beam radiotherapy highly depend on the accurate localization of the prostate. However, due to the low contrast of the prostate with its surrounding tissues (e.g., bladder), the unpredicted prostate motion, and the large appearance variations across different treatment days, it is challenging to segment the prostate in CT images. In this paper, the authors present a novel classification based segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment the prostate, the proposed method first uses sparse representation based classification (SRC) to enhance the prostate in CT images by pixel-wise classification, in order to overcome the limitation of poor contrast of the prostate images. Then, based on the classification results, previous segmented prostates of the same patient are used as patient-specific atlases to align onto the current treatment image and the majority voting strategy is finally adopted to segment the prostate. In order to address the limitations of the traditional SRC in pixel-wise classification, especially for the purpose of segmentation, the authors extend SRC from the following four aspects: (1) A discriminant subdictionary learning method is proposed to learn a discriminant and compact representation of training samples for each class so that the discriminant power of SRC can be increased and also SRC can be applied to the large-scale pixel-wise classification. (2) The L1 regularized sparse coding is replaced by

  13. Statistical modeling and visualization of localized prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue J.; Xuan, Jianhua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Hayes, Wendelin S.; Ebert, David S.; Lynch, John H.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, a statistically significant master model of localized prostate cancer is developed with pathologically- proven surgical specimens to spatially guide specific points in the biopsy technique for a higher rate of prostate cancer detection and the best possible representation of tumor grade and extension. Based on 200 surgical specimens of the prostates, we have developed a surface reconstruction technique to interactively visualize in the clinically significant objects of interest such as the prostate capsule, urethra, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts and the different carcinomas, for each of these cases. In order to investigate the complex disease pattern including the tumor distribution, volume, and multicentricity, we created a statistically significant master model of localized prostate cancer by fusing these reconstructed computer models together, followed by a quantitative formulation of the 3D finite mixture distribution. Based on the reconstructed prostate capsule and internal structures, we have developed a technique to align all surgical specimens through elastic matching. By labeling the voxels of localized prostate cancer by '1' and the voxels of other internal structures by '0', we can generate a 3D binary image of the prostate that is simply a mutually exclusive random sampling of the underlying distribution f cancer to gram of localized prostate cancer characteristics. In order to quantify the key parameters such as distribution, multicentricity, and volume, we used a finite generalized Gaussian mixture to model the histogram, and estimate the parameter values through information theoretical criteria and a probabilistic self-organizing mixture. Utilizing minimally-immersive and stereoscopic interactive visualization, an augmented reality can be developed to allow the physician to virtually hold the master model in one hand and use the dominant hand to probe data values and perform a simulated needle biopsy. An adaptive self- organizing

  14. Is prostate cancer screening cost-effective? A microsimulation model of prostate-specific antigen-based screening for British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Reka; Gulati, Roman; Etzioni, Ruth; Black, Peter; Chi, Kim N; Coldman, Andrew J; Pickles, Tom; Tyldesley, Scott; Peacock, Stuart

    2014-08-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer may reduce mortality, but it incurs considerable risk of over diagnosis and potential harm to quality of life. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PSA screening, with and without adjustment for quality of life, for the British Columbia (BC) population. We adapted an existing natural history model using BC incidence, treatment, cost and mortality patterns. The modeled mortality benefit of screening derives from a stage-shift mechanism, assuming mortality reduction consistent with the European Study of Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer. The model projected outcomes for 40-year-old men under 14 combinations of screening ages and frequencies. Cost and utility estimates were explored with deterministic sensitivity analysis. The incremental cost-effectiveness of regular screening ranged from $36,300/LYG, for screening every four years from ages 55 to 69 years, to $588,300/LYG, for screening every two years from ages 40 to 74 years. The marginal benefits of increasing screening frequency to 2 years or starting screening at age 40 years were small and came at significant cost. After utility adjustment, all screening strategies resulted in a loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); however, this result was very sensitive to utility estimates. Plausible outcomes under a range of screening strategies inform discussion of prostate cancer screening policy in BC and similar jurisdictions. Screening may be cost-effective, but the sensitivity of results to utility values suggests individual preferences for quality versus quantity of life should be a key consideration.

  15. CMDX©-based single source information system for simplified quality management and clinical research in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Histopathological evaluation of prostatectomy specimens is crucial to decision-making and prediction of patient outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa). Topographical information regarding PCa extension and positive surgical margins (PSM) is essential for clinical routines, quality assessment, and research. However, local hospital information systems (HIS) often do not support the documentation of such information. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of integrating a cMDX-based pathology report including topographical information into the clinical routine with the aims of obtaining data, performing analysis and generating heat maps in a timely manner, while avoiding data redundancy. Methods We analyzed the workflow of the histopathological evaluation documentation process. We then developed a concept for a pathology report based on a cMDX data model facilitating the topographical documentation of PCa and PSM; the cMDX SSIS is implemented within the HIS of University Hospital Muenster. We then generated a heat map of PCa extension and PSM using the data. Data quality was assessed by measuring the data completeness of reports for all cases, as well as the source-to-database error. We also conducted a prospective study to compare our proposed method with recent retrospective and paper-based studies according to the time required for data analysis. Results We identified 30 input fields that were applied to the cMDX-based data model and the electronic report was integrated into the clinical workflow. Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 259 reports were generated with 100% data completeness and a source-to-database error of 10.3 per 10,000 fields. These reports were directly reused for data analysis, and a heat map based on the data was generated. PCa was mostly localized in the peripheral zone of the prostate. The mean relative tumor volume was 16.6%. The most PSM were localized in the apical region of the prostate. In the retrospective study, 1623 paper-based

  16. Proteomics in diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Davalieva, K; Polenakovic, M

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men worldwide. The introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has greatly increased the number of men diagnosed with PCa but at the same time, as a result of the low specificity, led to overdiagnosis, resulting to unnecessary biopsies and high medical cost treatments. The primary goal in PCa research today is to find a biomarker or biomarker set for clear and effecttive diagnosis of PCa as well as for distinction between aggressive and indolent cancers. Different proteomic technologies such as 2-D PAGE, 2-D DIGE, MALDI MS profiling, shotgun proteomics with label-based (ICAT, iTRAQ) and label-free (SWATH) quantification, MudPIT, CE-MS have been applied to the study of PCa in the past 15 years. Various biological samples, including tumor tissue, serum, plasma, urine, seminal plasma, prostatic secretions and prostatic-derived exosomes were analyzed with the aim of identifying diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and developing a deeper understanding of the disease at the molecular level. This review is focused on the overall analysis of expression proteomics studies in the PCa field investigating all types of human samples in the search for diagnostics biomarkers. Emphasis is given on proteomics platforms used in biomarker discovery and characterization, explored sources for PCa biomarkers, proposed candidate biomarkers by comparative proteomics studies and the possible future clinical application of those candidate biomarkers in PCa screening and diagnosis. In addition, we review the specificity of the putative markers and existing challenges in the proteomics research of PCa.

  17. Association of FGFR4 genetic polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, L M; Karlins, E; Karyadi, D M; Kwon, E M; Koopmeiners, J S; Stanford, J L; Ostrander, E A

    2009-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is thought to be involved in many critical cellular processes and has been associated with prostate cancer risk. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near FGFR4 were analyzed in a population-based study of 1458 prostate cancer patients and 1352 age-matched controls. We found no evidence to suggest that any of the FGFR4 SNP genotypes were associated with prostate cancer risk or with disease aggressiveness, Gleason score or stage. A weak association was seen between rs351855 and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Subset analysis of cases that had undergone radical prostatectomy revealed an association between rs351855 and prostate cancer risk. Although our results confirm an association between FGFR4 and prostate cancer risk in radical prostatectomy cases, they suggest that the role of FGFR4 in disease risk and outcomes at a population-based level appears to be minor.

  18. Farming, reported pesticide use, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ragin, Camille; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Tadesse, Helina; Daniels, Dennis; Bunker, Clareann H; Jackson, Maria; Ferguson, Trevor S; Patrick, Alan L; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed in American men and is the second leading cancer diagnosed in men worldwide. Although studies have been conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides and/or farming, the results have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association of farming and prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to identify all published case-control studies that evaluated farming as an occupational exposure by questionnaire or interview and prostate cancer. Ten published and two unpublished studies were included in this analysis, yielding 3,978 cases and 7,393 controls. Prostate cancer cases were almost four times more likely to be farmers compared with controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; meta odds ratio [OR], crude = 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-7.48, Q-test p value = .352; two studies); similar results were obtained when non-BPH controls were considered, but with moderate heterogeneity between studies (meta OR crude = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.16-1.64, Q-test p value = .216, I (2) = 31% [95% CI = 0-73]; five studies). Reported pesticide exposure was inversely associated with prostate cancer (meta OR crude = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96, Q-test p value = .331; four studies), whereas no association with exposure to fertilizers was observed. Our findings confirm that farming is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but this increased risk may not be due to exposure to pesticides.

  19. Echo-Planar Imaging-Based, J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Am J Surg Pathol 1988;12:619- 633. PMID: 2456702 3) Weinreb JC, Blume JD, Coakley FV, et al. Prostate cancer: sextant localization at MR imaging and...ultrasound-guided sextant biopsy. The entire protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was obtained from each patient

  20. [Peptide vaccination for castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Koga, Noriko; Noguchi, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    Since both tumor cells and host immune cell repertoires are diverse and heterogeneous, immune responses against tumor associated antigens shall be substantially different among individual patients with prostate cancer. Subsequently, selection of suitable peptide vaccines for individual patients based on the pre-existing host immunity before vaccination could induce potent anti-tumor responses capable of providing clinical benefit for prostate cancer patients. We have developed a novel immunotherapeutic approach of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) in which a maximum of four human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class IA-matched peptides were selected for vaccination among pooled peptides based on both HLA-class IA type and the pre-existing host immunity before vaccination. We discuss our recent results of clinical studies of peptide vaccination for castration-resistant prostate cancer and the future direction of therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  1. Management of Complications of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, M. Dror; Cotter, Shane E.; Gargollo, Patricio C.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Dahl, Douglas M.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Treatment of men with prostate cancer commonly involves surgical, radiation, or hormone therapy. Most men with prostate cancer live for many years after diagnosis and may never suffer morbidity or mortality attributable to prostate cancer. The short-term and long-term adverse consequences of therapy are, therefore, of great importance. Adverse effects of radical prostatectomy include immediate postoperative complications and long-term urinary and sexual complications. External beam or interstitial radiation therapy in men with localized prostate cancer may lead to urinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual complications. Improvements in surgical and radiation techniques have reduced the incidence of many of these complications. Hormone treatment typically consists of androgen deprivation therapy, and consequences of such therapy may include vasomotor flushing, anemia, and bone density loss. Numerous clinical trials have studied the role of bone antiresorptive therapy for prevention of bone density loss and fractures. Other long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy may include adverse body composition changes and increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Ongoing and planned clinical trials will continue to address strategies to prevent treatment-related side effects and improve quality of life for men with prostate cancer. PMID:18502900

  2. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A.; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Results Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT

  3. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  4. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  5. Radium-223 for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared radium-223 dichloride plus the best standard of care versus a placebo plus the best standard of care in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  6. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  7. Do We Know What Causes Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... account for a small number of prostate cancers. DNA mismatch repair genes (such as MSH2 and MLH1 ): These genes normally help fix mistakes (mismatches) in DNA that are made when a cell is preparing ...

  8. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  9. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    incontinence and urinary urgency as well as sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, evidence from many sources suggests that most prostate cancers are...mainly surgery and radiation therapy, result in well documented significant morbidities, including significant lower urinary tract symptoms such as

  10. Testosterone therapy and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Rodriguez, Katherine M.; Nguyen, Taylor M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of exogenous testosterone to treat hypogonadism in the men with a history of prostate cancer (CaP) remains controversial due to fears of cancer recurrence or progression. Due to the detrimental impact of hypogonadism on patient quality of life, recent work has examined the safety of testosterone therapy (TTh) in men with a history of CaP. In this review, we evaluate the literature with regards to the safety of TTh in men with a history of CaP. TTh results in improvements in quality of life with little evidence of biochemical recurrence or progression in men with a history of CaP, or de novo cancer in unaffected men. An insufficient amount of evidence is currently available to truly demonstrate the safe use of TTh in men with low risk CaP. In men with high-risk cancer, more limited data suggest that TTh may be safe, but these findings remain inconclusive. Despite the historic avoidance of TTh in men with a history of CaP, the existing body of evidence largely supports the safe and effective use of testosterone in these men, although additional study is needed before unequivocal safety can be demonstrated. PMID:28078223

  11. Unit Nonresponse in a Population-Based Study of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Neal; Brennan, Christine; Berken, Jennifer; Su, L. Joseph; Mohler, James L.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Low unit response rates can increase bias and compromise study validity. Response rates have continued to fall over the past decade despite all efforts to increase participation. Many factors have been linked to reduced response, yet relatively few studies have employed multivariate approaches to identify characteristics that differentiate respondents from nonrespondents since it is hard to collect information on the latter. We aimed to assess factors contributing to enrollment of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. We combined data from the North Carolina-Louisiana (LA) PCa Project’s LA cohort, with additional sources such as US census tract and LA tumor registry data. We included specific analyses focusing on blacks, a group often identified as hard to enroll in health-related research. The ability to study the effect of Hurricane Katrina, which occurred amidst enrollment, as a potential determinant of nonresponse makes our study unique. Older age (≥ 70) for blacks (OR 0.65) and study phase with respect to Hurricane Katrina for both races (OR 0.59 for blacks, OR 0.48 for whites) were significant predictors of participation with lower odds. Neighborhood poverty for whites (OR 1.53) also was a significant predictor of participation, but with higher odds. Among blacks, residence in Orleans parish was associated with lower odds of participation (OR 0.33) before Katrina. The opposite occurred in whites, with lower odds (OR 0.43) after Katrina. Our results overall underscore the importance of tailoring enrollment approaches to specific target population characteristics to confront the challenges posed by nonresponse. Our results also show that recruitment-related factors may change when outside forces bring major alterations to a population's environment and demographics. PMID:27992587

  12. Construction and analysis of protein-protein interaction networks based on proteomics data of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHEN; SHEN, HONG; ZHANG, LI-GUO; LIU, JIAN; CAO, XIAO-GE; YAO, AN-LIANG; KANG, SHAO-SAN; GAO, WEI-XING; HAN, HUI; CAO, FENG-HONG; LI, ZHI-GUO

    2016-01-01

    Currently, using human prostate cancer (PCa) tissue samples to conduct proteomics research has generated a large amount of data; however, only a very small amount has been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we manually carried out the mining of the full text of proteomics literature that involved comparisons between PCa and normal or benign tissue and identified 41 differentially expressed proteins verified or reported more than 2 times from different research studies. We regarded these proteins as seed proteins to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The extended network included one giant network, which consisted of 1,264 nodes connected via 1,744 edges, and 3 small separate components. The backbone network was then constructed, which was derived from key nodes and the subnetwork consisting of the shortest path between seed proteins. Topological analyses of these networks were conducted to identify proteins essential for the genesis of PCa. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (SLC2A4) had the highest closeness centrality located in the center of each network, and the highest betweenness centrality and largest degree in the backbone network. Tubulin, beta 2C (TUBB2C) had the largest degree in the giant network and subnetwork. In addition, using module analysis of the whole PPI network, we obtained a densely connected region. Functional annotation indicated that the Ras protein signal transduction biological process, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), neurotrophin and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathway may play an important role in the genesis and development of PCa. Further investigation of the SLC2A4, TUBB2C proteins, and these biological processes and pathways may therefore provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of PCa. PMID:27121963

  13. Construction and analysis of protein-protein interaction networks based on proteomics data of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Li-Guo; Liu, Jian; Cao, Xiao-Ge; Yao, An-Liang; Kang, Shao-San; Gao, Wei-Xing; Han, Hui; Cao, Feng-Hong; Li, Zhi-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Currently, using human prostate cancer (PCa) tissue samples to conduct proteomics research has generated a large amount of data; however, only a very small amount has been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we manually carried out the mining of the full text of proteomics literature that involved comparisons between PCa and normal or benign tissue and identified 41 differentially expressed proteins verified or reported more than 2 times from different research studies. We regarded these proteins as seed proteins to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The extended network included one giant network, which consisted of 1,264 nodes connected via 1,744 edges, and 3 small separate components. The backbone network was then constructed, which was derived from key nodes and the subnetwork consisting of the shortest path between seed proteins. Topological analyses of these networks were conducted to identify proteins essential for the genesis of PCa. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (SLC2A4) had the highest closeness centrality located in the center of each network, and the highest betweenness centrality and largest degree in the backbone network. Tubulin, beta 2C (TUBB2C) had the largest degree in the giant network and subnetwork. In addition, using module analysis of the whole PPI network, we obtained a densely connected region. Functional annotation indicated that the Ras protein signal transduction biological process, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), neurotrophin and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathway may play an important role in the genesis and development of PCa. Further investigation of the SLC2A4, TUBB2C proteins, and these biological processes and pathways may therefore provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of PCa.

  14. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    to develop dendrimer -based theranostic agent with prostate cancer specificity and positron emission tomography imaging capability that can prevent...laboratories to develop a new molecular medicine. The goal of this project is to construct dendrimer nanoconjuate containing a prostate specific...cell permeation peptide, peptide therapeutic(s) and bifunctional chelator for PET imaging. Dr. Simanek’s laboratory will make dendrimers that bear

  15. Improved Sensitivity and Specificity for Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Prostate, spectroscopy, MRI 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...assessment of the correlation between MRI /MRSI and histopathology. Specific Aim 2: The development of a tumor index based on individual MRI /MRSI...Overall Status of the Project: The goal of the study is to diagnose prostate cancer more effectively using various MRI techniques, with the ultimate

  16. Circadian Genes and Risk for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could prevent prostate cancer...and that this risk differed between men who took finasteride versus those who took the placebo. The strongest association was seen for a cluster of 9...SNPs in NPAS2, which was associated with total prostate cancer risk in the finasteride group but not in the placebo group. The most significant NPAS2

  17. Imaging Prostate Cancer (Pca) Phenotype and Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    prostate cancer cells. To further investigate the effects of DFP on prostate cancer cells we carried out extracellular flux analysis experiments. Our...Extracellular flux analysis experiments with the Seahorse system showed a marked decrease in OCR after inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin...the means. Figure 5 – Extracellular flux analysis in TRAMP C2 cells incubated with different concentrations of DFP. Left: OCR measurements. Right

  18. Characterization of SPINK1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    rearrangement by FISH. A TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement through intrachromosomal deletion is indicated by loss of one 50 ( green ) ERG signal. (B) Contingency tables...pancreatic juice, its normal function is thought to be the inhibition of serine proteases such as trypsin ( Greene et al., 1976; Haverback et al., 1960; Kazal...lesions to function in prostate cancer, we assayed prostate cancer cell lines by quan- titative PCR for SPINK1 (yellow), ERG (blue), and ETV1 ( green

  19. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT About half of all prostate cancers are known to harbor a genetic mutation that fuses a gene known as ERG to the regulatory region of the gene...activity. We applied this technique to screen genetic and chemical libraries to study ERG mediated tumorigenesis and identify novel therapeutic...agents targeting ERG activity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, ERG, gene expression, high throughput screening, small molecule microarray, genetic

  20. Enhancing Therapeutic Cellular Prostate Cancer Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    10-1-0225 TITLE: “Enhancing Therapeutic Cellular Prostate Cancer Vaccines ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christian R. Gomez, Ph.D...SUBTITLE “Enhancing Therapeutic Cellular Prostate Cancer Vaccines ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0225 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...cell CaP vaccines by taking into consideration tumor-associated hypoxia as a relevant determinant of tumor antigenicity. Major Findings: Gene

  1. The Role of Metastasis-Associated Proteases and Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    we are testing the hypothesis that metastatic prostate cancer cells secrete a common signature of neuroactive peptides. We acquired two new state -of...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0250 TITLE: "The Role of Metastasis-Associated Proteases and Peptides in Prostate Cancer ...quantitation and identification MS-based proteomics workflows that allow us to interrogate the secretome of prostate cancers at unprecedented levels

  2. Mechanisms of Chinese Red Yeast Rice Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Early prostate cancer is androgen -dependent, but in later stages of the disease androgen -independent tumors arise with an eventual fatal outcome...Medicinal Food 11:657-666, 2008 (Title: Chinese red yeast rice vs lovastatin effects on prostate cancer cells with and without androgen receptor...overexpression) (This paper is attached in appendix). Based on the in vitro study, androgen -dependent and –independent prostate cancer xenograft model

  3. PATE, a gene expressed in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis, identified by a functional genomic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Tapan K.; Maitra, Rangan; Iavarone, Carlo; Salvatore, Giuliana; Kumar, Vasantha; Vincent, James J.; Sathyanarayana, B. K.; Duray, Paul; Lee, B. K.; Pastan, Ira

    2002-03-01

    To identify target antigens for prostate cancer therapy, we have combined computer-based screening of the human expressed sequence tag database and experimental expression analysis to identify genes that are expressed in normal prostate and prostate cancer but not in essential human tissues. Using this approach, we identified a gene that is expressed specifically in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis. The gene has a 1.5-kb transcript that encodes a protein of 14 kDa. We named this gene PATE (expressed in prostate and testis). In situ hybridization shows that PATE mRNA is expressed in the epithelial cells of prostate cancers and in normal prostate. Transfection of the PATE cDNA with a Myc epitope tag into NIH 3T3 cells and subsequent cell fractionation analysis shows that the PATE protein is localized in the membrane fraction of the cell. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PATE shows that it has structural similarities to a group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, which includes the extracellular domain of the type transforming growth factor receptor. Restricted expression of PATE makes it a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  4. Prostate stem cell antigen: Identification of immunogenic peptides and assessment of reactive CD8+ T cells in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Andrea; Schmitz, Marc; Stevanovic, Stefan; Weigle, Bernd; Hölig, Kristina; Füssel, Monika; Füssel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Wirth, Manfred P; Rieber, Ernst Peter

    2002-12-01

    Identification of TAAs recognized by CD8(+) CTLs paved the way for new concepts in cancer therapy. In view of the heterogeneity of tumors and their diverse escape mechanisms, CTL-based cancer therapy largely depends on an appropriate number of TAAs. In prostate cancer, the number of antigens defined as suitable targets of CTLs remains rather limited. PSCA is widely distributed in prostate cancer. In this report, we define immunogenic peptides of PSCA which are recognized by circulating CD8(+) T cells from prostate cancer patients and able to activate CTLs in vitro. Screening the amino acid sequence of PSCA for peptides containing a binding motif for HLA-A*0201 resulted in 8 candidate peptides. Specificity and affinity of peptide binding were verified in a competition assay. Frequencies of CD8(+) T lymphocytes reactive against selected epitopes were determined in the blood of prostate cancer patients using the ELISPOT assay. Increased frequencies were revealed for CD8(+) T cells recognizing the peptides ALQPGTALL and AILALLPAL. CTLs from prostate cancer patients were raised against these 2 peptides in vitro when presented by autologous DCs. They specifically recognized peptide-pulsed T2 target cells and prostate cancer cells that were HLA-A*0201- and PSCA-positive, indicating that these peptides were naturally generated by tumor cells. These data suggest that PSCA is a promising target for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  5. Magnetic Resonance-Based Electrical Property Tomography (MR- EPT) for Prostate Cancer Grade Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    inclusion gelatin phantom. Top row shows T1 MR images along the axis of phantom; two playdough inclusions at different planes show up as low intensity ...new data published in The Prostate [6] in which we demonstrated significant electrical property differences between high- and low -grade prostate...have hypothesize that it is possible to use these properties to discriminate between normal, low -grade, and high-grade malignant formations in a

  6. Vatuximab(Trademark): Optimizing Therapeutic Strategies for Prostate Cancer Based on Dynamic MR Tumor Oximetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    being developed by Peregrine Pharmaceuticals for clinical trials. Investigations of tumor hypoxia indicated that non-invasive oxygen sensitive 1H MRI ...waiting versus aggressive therapy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vascular targeting; MRI ; bioluminescent imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...prostate tumor growth delay. MRI was used to assess the onset and distribution of tumor vascular damage in a series of Dunning prostate rat tumors (R3327

  7. Role of Foxm1 in the Pathogenesis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    LADY transgenic (TG) mouse models of prostate cancer . Ubiquitous over-expression of Foxm1 accelerates development of PCa, as well as significantly...types in Rosa26-Foxm1 mice, the direct role of Foxm1 in prostate epithelial cells, the cells from which prostate cancer arises, remains unknown...prostate cancer by regulating genes critical for proliferation of prostate epithelial cells and (2) that Foxm1 is negatively regulated by p19ARF tumor

  8. TRICHOMONOSIS AND SUBSEQUENT RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously observed a positive association between a history of trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis, and prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. To determine the reproducibility of this finding, we conducted a second, prospective investigation of trichomonosis and prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Participants were men ≥55 years of age with no evidence of prostate cancer at enrollment (n=18,882). Men were screened annually for prostate cancer, and if not diagnosed during the trial, were offered an end-of-study prostate biopsy. Cases were a sample of men diagnosed with prostate cancer on any biopsy after visit 2 or on their end-of-study biopsy (n=616). Controls were men not diagnosed with prostate cancer during the trial or on their end-of-study biopsy (n=616). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, treatment arm, and family history of prostate cancer. Serum from visit 2 was tested for anti-T. vaginalis IgG antibodies. No association was observed between T. vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer. 21.5% of cases and 24.8% of controls had low seropositivity, and 15.2% and 15.0% had high seropositivity. Compared to seronegative men, the odds ratio of prostate cancer for men with low seropositivity was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–1.09), and that for men with high seropositivity was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.70–1.34). Given the original strong biologic rationale and potential for prevention, additional studies are warranted to help resolve discrepancies between study findings, and further investigate this hypothesis from a variety of different approaches. PMID:19117055

  9. Updates of prostate cancer staging: Prostate-specific membrane antigen

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Alastair; Nair, Rajesh; Geurts, Nicolas; Mitchell, Catherine; Lawrentschuk, Nathan L; Moon, Daniel A; Murphy, Declan G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to accurately stage prostate cancer in both the primary and secondary staging setting can have a major impact on management. Until recently radiological staging has relied on computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear bone scans to evaluate the extent of disease. However, the utility of these imaging technologies has been limited by their sensitivity and specificity especially in detecting early recurrence. Functional imaging using positron-emission tomography with a radiolabeled ligand targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen has transformed the prostate cancer imaging landscape. Initial results suggest that it is a substantial improvement over conventional imaging in the setting of recurrence following primary therapy by having a superior ability to detect disease and to do so at an earlier stage. Additionally, it appears that the benefits seen in the secondary staging setting may also exist in the primary staging setting. PMID:27995218

  10. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8552 of August 31, 2010 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... the last decade, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. This year alone, nearly 218,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more...

  11. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of prostate cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for prostate cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary prostate cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  12. Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Critics of screening have stated that early detection of prostate cancer does not necessarily reflect a diminishing death rate from the disease. However, several recent reports have demonstrated that the death rate from prostate cancer is decreasing, representing the most compelling validation for aggressive screening. Prostate cancer can be halted only if there is no evidence of systemic or regional metastases and the disease is confined to the surgical field or the radiation template. Surgeons and radiation oncologists must make a concerted effort to exclude men with regional and systemic metastases who are unlikely to benefit from treatment. With the widespread acceptance of prostate-specific antigen screening, a greater proportion of men are being diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer. Both radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy are able to halt disease spread in this significant subset of men, but survival outcomes indicate that radical prostatectomy is a more reliable treatment than radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Overall, the immediate treatment-related morbidity of radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy in the modern era is quite low. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy appear to have a similar impact on continence and erectile function. There is a need for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies that can be utilized in those cases where radical prostatectomy and radiation are less likely to completely eradicate or destroy the cancer. PMID:16985859

  13. Prostate cancer and diet: food for thought?

    PubMed

    Hori, Satoshi; Butler, Elizabeth; McLoughlin, John

    2011-05-01

    • There is now increasing evidence that diet plays a major role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. • In a health conscious society, it is becoming increasingly common for Urologists to be asked about the impact of diet on prostate cancer. • In the present review, we explore the current evidence for the role of different dietary components and its' effect on prostate cancer prevention and progression. • A literature search was conducted using PubMed® to identify key studies. • There was some evidence to suggest that green tea, isoflavones, lycopenes, cruciferous vegetables and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to be beneficial in the prevention and/or progression of prostate cancer. • There was also evidence to suggest that a high total fat, meat (especially well cooked) and multivitamin intake may be associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. • To date publications have been highly heterogeneous and variable in quality and design. More robust, high quality research trials are needed to help us understand the complex relationship between diet and prostate cancer.

  14. Molecular targets of selenium in prostate cancer prevention (Review).

    PubMed

    Abdulah, Rizky; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among males. Although use of the micro-nutrient selenium in prostate cancer clinical trials is limited, the outcomes indicate that selenium is a promising treatment. Furthermore, selenium inhibits prostate cancer through multiple mechanisms, and it is beneficial in controlling the development of this disease. This review highlights the latest epidemiological and biomolecular research on selenium in prostate cancer, as well as its prospects for future clinical use.

  15. Hypoxia, notch signalling, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marignol, Laure; Rivera-Figueroa, Karla; Lynch, Thomas; Hollywood, Donal

    2013-07-01

    The notch signalling pathway is involved in differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, and apoptosis. Deregulated expression of notch receptors, ligands, and targets is observed in many solid tumours, including prostate cancer. Hypoxia is a common feature of prostate tumours, leading to increased gene instability, reduced treatment response, and increased tumour aggressiveness. The notch signalling pathway is known to regulate vascular cell fate and is responsive to hypoxia-inducible factors. Evidence to date suggests similar, therapeutically exploitable, behaviour of notch-activated and hypoxic prostate cancer cells.

  16. [An unusual presentation of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Aboutaeib, R; el Moussaoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    The authors report an uncommon case of a 74-year old man with prostatic cancer revealed by pelvic mass. Ultrasound exam and CT-scan showed a bilateral laterorectal mass with high density. Presence of such a mass in an old patient is very suggestive of lymph nodes than retroperitoneal tumor. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is rather helpful in such conditions. Biopsy of the mass allows confirmation of the prostatic cancer diagnosis. Bilateral Surgical pulpectomy is performed in combination with oral hormonal therapy. Follow-up after 6 months showed a good course or ultrasound exam and PSA level.

  17. The politics of prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Penson, David F

    2014-05-01

    The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages.

  18. HIFU therapy for patients with high risk prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.

  19. Sipuleucel-T: immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brian M; McNeel, Douglas G

    2011-05-03

    Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most serious afflictions of men of advanced age, remaining the most commonly diagnosed and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. The treatment options for patients with incurable metastatic, castrate-resistant disease have long focused on various chemotherapeutic approaches, which provide a slight survival benefit while being associated with potentially significant side effects. However, the recent approval of sipuleucel-T has given patients with advanced disease an additional treatment option that has demonstrated benefit without the side effects associated with chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T is an antigen-presenting cell-based active immunotherapy that utilizes a patient's own immune cells, presumably to activate an antigen-specific immune response against tumor cells. This review focuses on the development and implementation of sipuleucel-T as a therapy for prostate cancer. Specifically, we present some of the issues associated with the management of advanced prostate cancer, the research and development that led to the approval of sipuleucel-T, how the approval of sipuleucel-T could change the clinical management of prostate cancer, and current and future areas of investigation that are being pursued with regard to sipuleucel-T and other treatments for advanced prostate cancer.

  20. Analytical variables of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based detection of disseminated prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zippelius, A; Lutterbüse, R; Riethmüller, G; Pantel, K

    2000-07-01

    Early systemic spread of occult tumor cells that may develop into founders of incurable distant metastasis has been identified in prostate cancer patients by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) amplification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA. Nevertheless, the introduction of this new staging tool into the clinical setting has been hampered by the disparate and contradictory data on the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR methods reported recently. We used PSA RT-PCR to examine the influence of analytical variables such as priming and enzyme of reverse transcriptase reaction, temperature and time of primer annealing, primer extension and denaturation, as well as the concentrations of magnesium chloride, Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphate, primers and BSA on the amplification process. By systematically varying these chemical and physical components, we could demonstrate a significant increase in amplification yield and in stringency of primer annealing. This may explain the wide variety of published findings on molecular staging of prostate cancer, which currently impedes the clinical introduction of PSA RT-PCR assays in prostate cancer. Methodological analyses are needed for standardization and quality assurance to achieve reproducible molecular methods that can be used in clinical practice.

  1. Vasectomy and prostate cancer risk: a historical synopsis of undulating false causality

    PubMed Central

    Nutt, Max; Reed, Zachary; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    The potential influence of vasectomy being a risk factor for the development of prostate cancer is not a new concept, with more than 30 publications addressing the topic. Given the global frequency of vasectomy and the prevalence of prostate cancer, this subject justifiably deserves scrutiny. Several articles have claimed that vasectomy puts men at risk for future development of prostate cancer. We explore articles that have shown the contrary (no link), explore the studies’ strengths and weaknesses, describe possible prostate cancer pathophysiologic mechanisms, and apply Bradford Hill criteria to help discern correlation with causation. The risk and interest of association of prostate cancer with vasectomy has waxed and waned over the last three decades. Based on our review, vasectomy remains a safe form of sterilization and does not increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:27486569

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  3. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

  4. Defective DNA strand break repair after DNA damage in prostate cancer cells: implications for genetic instability and prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Kumaravel, Tirukalikundram S; Jalali, Farid; Marrano, Paula; Squire, Jeremy A; Bristow, Robert G

    2004-12-01

    Together with cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair plays a pivotal role in protecting the genome from endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. Although increased genetic instability has been associated with prostate cancer progression, the relative role of DNA double-strand break repair in malignant versus normal prostate epithelial cells is not known. In this study, we determined the RNA and protein expression of a series of DNA double-strand break repair genes in both normal (PrEC-epithelial and PrSC-stromal) and malignant (LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3) prostate cultures. Expression of genes downstream of ATM after ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage reflected the p53 status of the cell lines. In the malignant prostate cell lines, mRNA and protein levels of the Rad51, Xrcc3, Rad52, and Rad54 genes involved in homologous recombination were elevated approximately 2- to 5-fold in comparison to normal PrEC cells. The XRCC1, DNA polymerase-beta and -delta proteins were also elevated. There were no consistent differences in gene expression relating to the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Despite increased expression of DNA repair genes, malignant prostate cancer cells had defective repair of DNA breaks, alkali-labile sites, and oxidative base damage. Furthermore, after ionizing radiation and mitomycin C treatment, chromosomal aberration assays confirmed that malignant prostate cells had defective DNA repair. This discordance between expression and function of DNA repair genes in malignant prostate cancer cells supports the hypothesis that prostate tumor progression may reflect aberrant DNA repair. Our findings support the development of novel treatment strategies designed to reinstate normal DNA repair in prostate cancer cells.

  5. Bladder dose accumulation based on a biomechanical deformable image registration algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, E. S.; Muren, L. P.; Sørensen, T. S.; Noe, K. Ø.; Thor, M.; Petersen, J. B.; Høyer, M.; Bentzen, L.; Tanderup, K.

    2012-11-01

    Variations in bladder position, shape and volume cause uncertainties in the doses delivered to this organ during a course of radiotherapy for pelvic tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of dose accumulation based on repeat imaging and deformable image registration (DIR) to improve the accuracy of bladder dose assessment. For each of nine prostate cancer patients, the initial treatment plan was re-calculated on eight to nine repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. The planned bladder dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were compared to corresponding parameters derived from DIR-based accumulations as well as DVH summation based on dose re-calculations. It was found that the deviations between the DIR-based accumulations and the planned treatment were substantial and ranged (-0.5-2.3) Gy and (-9.4-13.5) Gy for D2% and Dmean, respectively, whereas the deviations between DIR-based accumulations and DVH summation were small and well within 1 Gy. For the investigated treatment scenario, DIR-based bladder dose accumulation did not result in substantial improvement of dose estimation as compared to the straightforward DVH summation. Large variations were found in individual patients between the doses from the initial treatment plan and the accumulated bladder doses. Hence, the use of repeat imaging has a potential for improved accuracy in treatment dose reporting.

  6. Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

  7. Development of a real-time clinical decision support system upon the web mvc-based architecture for prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A real-time clinical decision support system (RTCDSS) with interactive diagrams enables clinicians to instantly and efficiently track patients' clinical records (PCRs) and improve their quality of clinical care. We propose a RTCDSS to process online clinical informatics from multiple databases for clinical decision making in the treatment of prostate cancer based on Web Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture, by which the system can easily be adapted to different diseases and applications. Methods We designed a framework upon the Web MVC-based architecture in which the reusable and extractable models can be conveniently adapted to other hospital information systems and which allows for efficient database integration. Then, we determined the clinical variables of the prostate cancer treatment based on participating clinicians' opinions and developed a computational model to determine the pretreatment parameters. Furthermore, the components of the RTCDSS integrated PCRs and decision factors for real-time analysis to provide evidence-based diagrams upon the clinician-oriented interface for visualization of treatment guidance and health risk assessment. Results The resulting system can improve quality of clinical treatment by allowing clinicians to concurrently analyze and evaluate the clinical markers of prostate cancer patients with instantaneous clinical data and evidence-based diagrams which can automatically identify pretreatment parameters. Moreover, the proposed RTCDSS can aid interactions between patients and clinicians. Conclusions Our proposed framework supports online clinical informatics, evaluates treatment risks, offers interactive guidance, and provides real-time reference for decision making in the treatment of prostate cancer. The developed clinician-oriented interface can assist clinicians in conveniently presenting evidence-based information to patients and can be readily adapted to an existing hospital information system and be easily

  8. Texture analysis of tissues in Gleason grading of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Gorpas, Dimitris; Maragos, Petros; Agrogiannis, George; Kavantzas, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy among maturing men and the second leading cause of cancer death in USA. Histopathological grading of prostate cancer is based on tissue structural abnormalities. Gleason grading system is the gold standard and is based on the organization features of prostatic glands. Although Gleason score has contributed on cancer prognosis and on treatment planning, its accuracy is about 58%, with this percentage to be lower in GG2, GG3 and GG5 grading. On the other hand it is strongly affected by "inter- and intra observer variations", making the whole process very subjective. Therefore, there is need for the development of grading tools based on imaging and computer vision techniques for a more accurate prostate cancer prognosis. The aim of this paper is the development of a novel method for objective grading of biopsy specimen in order to support histopathological prognosis of the tumor. This new method is based on texture analysis techniques, and particularly on Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) that estimates image properties related to second order statistics. Histopathological images of prostate cancer, from Gleason grade2 to Gleason grade 5, were acquired and subjected to image texture analysis. Thirteen texture characteristics were calculated from this matrix as they were proposed by Haralick. Using stepwise variable selection, a subset of four characteristics were selected and used for the description and classification of each image field. The selected characteristics profile was used for grading the specimen with the multiparameter statistical method of multiple logistic discrimination analysis. The subset of these characteristics provided 87% correct grading of the specimens. The addition of any of the remaining characteristics did not improve significantly the diagnostic ability of the method. This study demonstrated that texture analysis techniques could provide valuable grading decision support to the pathologists

  9. [Immunotherapy: a therapeutic revolution against prostate cancer?].

    PubMed

    Pracht, Marc; Herrera, Fernanda; Tawadros, Thomas; Berthold, Dominik

    2013-05-22

    The interaction between the immune system and cancer was an area of research interest for several decades. The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab stimulated broader interest in manipulating immunity to fight cancer. In the context of prostate cancer, the immunotherapy strategies under development are therapeutic vaccination strategies, such as sipuleucel-T and PROSTVAC-VF, or immune checkpoint blockade of CTLA-4. Improved understanding of the immune responses generated by the development of predictive biomarkers for patient selection will guide rational combinations of these treatments and provide new treatment options in prostate cancer.

  10. Genetic counseling for prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Nieder, A M; Taneja, S S; Zeegers, M P A; Ostrer, H

    2003-03-01

    Major risk factors for developing prostate cancer, including positive family history and African-American ethnicity, can be quantified for genetic counseling. Factors increasing familial risk for prostate cancer are closer degree of kinship, number of affected relatives, and early age of onset (< 50 years) among the affected relatives. Genetic testing may be useful for modification of risk, but currently should be performed only within the context of a well-designed research study that will determine penetrance and genotype-phenotype correlation of specific mutations. Even in the absence of genetic testing, African-American men and men with a strong family history of prostate cancer may opt to initiate screening by prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) screening at age 40.

  11. Prostate cancer immunology: biology, therapeutics, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Webster, W Scott; Small, Eric J; Rini, Brian I; Kwon, Eugene D

    2005-11-10

    A number of recently developed and promising approaches to antitumoral immunotherapy are being investigated as potential treatments for advanced prostate cancer. These approaches largely revolve around strategies to increase antigen-specific T-cell activation against prostate tumors as well as precise manipulations of critical co-regulatory receptors that help to maintain and prolong the activity of antigen-presenting cells and T cells that are capable of mediating tumor regression. Herein, we describe the experience with the most recent and promising approaches pertaining to prostate cancer immunotherapy. Additionally, we discuss the mechanistic basis for these approaches as well as current limitations that must still be addressed in order to propel immunotherapy into the forefront of prostate cancer treatment.

  12. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Direct Expressed Prostatic Secretions of Men with Organ-confined Versus Extracapsular Prostate Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunee; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Yao, Cindy Q.; Kalatskaya, Irina; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Lance, Raymond S.; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Troyer, Dean A.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Semmes, O. John; Drake, Richard R.; Kislinger, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Current protocols for the screening of prostate cancer cannot accurately discriminate clinically indolent tumors from more aggressive ones. One reliable indicator of outcome has been the determination of organ-confined versus nonorgan-confined disease but even this determination is often only made following prostatectomy. This underscores the need to explore alternate avenues to enhance outcome prediction of prostate cancer patients. Fluids that are proximal to the prostate, such as expressed prostatic secretions (EPS), are attractive sources of potential prostate cancer biomarkers as these fluids likely bathe the tumor. Direct-EPS samples from 16 individuals with extracapsular (n = 8) or organ-confined (n = 8) prostate cancer were used as a discovery cohort, and were analyzed in duplicate by a nine-step MudPIT on a LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. A total of 624 unique proteins were identified by at least two unique peptides with a 0.2% false discovery rate. A semiquantitative spectral counting algorithm identified 133 significantly differentially expressed proteins in the discovery cohort. Integrative data mining prioritized 14 candidates, including two known prostate cancer biomarkers: prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, which were significantly elevated in the direct-EPS from the organ-confined cancer group. These and five other candidates (SFN, MME, PARK7, TIMP1, and TGM4) were verified by Western blotting in an independent set of direct-EPS from patients with biochemically recurrent disease (n = 5) versus patients with no evidence of recurrence upon follow-up (n = 10). Lastly, we performed proof-of-concept SRM-MS-based relative quantification of the five candidates using unpurified heavy isotope-labeled synthetic peptides spiked into pools of EPS-urines from men with extracapsular and organ-confined prostate tumors. This study represents the first efforts to define the direct-EPS proteome from two major subclasses of prostate cancer

  13. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  14. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  15. Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and survival of breast, colon and prostate cancer: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Watt, Ian; Martin, Fabiola; Bland, Martin; Brackenbury, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) regulate invasion and metastasis. Several VGSC-inhibiting drugs reduce metastasis in murine cancer models. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients taking VGSC-inhibiting drugs who developed cancer live longer than those not taking these drugs. A cohort study was performed on primary care data from the QResearch database, including patients with breast, bowel or prostate cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare the survival from cancer diagnosis of patients taking VGSC-inhibiting drugs with those not exposed to these drugs. Median time to death was 9.7 years in the exposed group and 18.4 years in the unexposed group, and exposure to these medications significantly increased mortality. Thus, exposure to VGSC-inhibiting drugs associates with reduced survival in breast, bowel and prostate cancer patients. This finding is not consistent with the preclinical data. Despite the strengths of this study including the large sample size, the study is limited by missing information on potentially important confounders such as cancer stage, co-morbidities and cause of death. Further research, which is able to account for these confounding issues, is needed to investigate the relationship between VGSC-inhibiting drugs and cancer survival. PMID:26577038

  16. Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and survival of breast, colon and prostate cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Watt, Ian; Martin, Fabiola; Bland, Martin; Brackenbury, William J

    2015-11-18

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) regulate invasion and metastasis. Several VGSC-inhibiting drugs reduce metastasis in murine cancer models. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients taking VGSC-inhibiting drugs who developed cancer live longer than those not taking these drugs. A cohort study was performed on primary care data from the QResearch database, including patients with breast, bowel or prostate cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare the survival from cancer diagnosis of patients taking VGSC-inhibiting drugs with those not exposed to these drugs. Median time to death was 9.7 years in the exposed group and 18.4 years in the unexposed group, and exposure to these medications significantly increased mortality. Thus, exposure to VGSC-inhibiting drugs associates with reduced survival in breast, bowel and prostate cancer patients. This finding is not consistent with the preclinical data. Despite the strengths of this study including the large sample size, the study is limited by missing information on potentially important confounders such as cancer stage, co-morbidities and cause of death. Further research, which is able to account for these confounding issues, is needed to investigate the relationship between VGSC-inhibiting drugs and cancer survival.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of Prostatic Fluids for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    in part - to it’s strong positive association with age.6,7 Benign prostatic hyperplasia , which is also highly associated with age, contributes to...prostate cancer risk. Moreover, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is also strongly associated with age, can raise PSA levels and further muddy...contemporary referral series of men with prostate cancer. 60(4 Suppl 1):47-52, 2002 8. Fitzpatrick JM. The natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia . BJU

  18. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of Prostatic Fluids for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    strong positive association with age.6,7 Benign prostatic hyperplasia , which is also highly associated with age, contributes to increased PSA levels and...prostate cancer risk. Moreover, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is also strongly associated with age, can raise PSA levels and further muddy...contemporary referral series of men with prostate cancer. 60(4 Suppl 1):47-52, 2002 8. Fitzpatrick JM. The natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia . BJU

  19. Radiosensitization in prostate cancer: mechanisms and targets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men over the age of 45 years and is the third most common cause of cancer related deaths in American men. In 2012 it is estimated that 241,740 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and 28,170 men will succumb to prostate cancer. Currently, radiation therapy is one of the most common definitive treatment options for localized prostate cancer. However, significant number of patients undergoing radiation therapy will develop locally persistent/recurrent tumours. The varying response rates to radiation may be due to 1) tumor microenvironment, 2) tumor stage/grade, 3) modality used to deliver radiation, and 4) dose of radiation. Higher doses of radiation has not always proved to be effective and have been associated with increased morbidity. Compounds designed to enhance the killing effects of radiation, radiosensitizers, have been extensively investigated over the past decade. The development of radiosensitizing agents could improve survival, improve quality of life and reduce costs, thus benefiting both patients and healthcare systems. Herin, we shall review the role and mechanisms of various agents that can sensitize tumours, specifically prostate cancer. PMID:23351141

  20. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  1. Lateral biopsies added to the traditional sextant prostate biopsy pattern increases the detection rate of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J J; Zeng, J; Zhang, W; McLeod, D G; Sesterhenn, I A; Connelly, R R; Mun, S K; Moul, J W

    2000-07-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error and data based upon whole-mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a three-dimensional computer-assisted prostate biopsy simulator suggests that an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. The simulated 10-core biopsy pattern (traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland) was shown to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. The objective of this pilot study was to confirm the higher prostate cancer detection rate obtained using the 10-core biopsy pattern in patients. We reviewed data on 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core biopsy pattern. The frequency of positive biopsy was determined for each core. Additionally, the sextant and 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3%(19/35) were diagnosed by the sextant biopsy only. The 10-core pattern resulted in an additional 45.7%(16/35) of patients being diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. The laterally placed biopsies had the highest frequency of positive biopsies when compared to the sextant cores. In conclusion, biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 43-46

  2. Associations of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and paracetamol use with PSA-detected prostate cancer: findings from a large, population-based, case-control study (the ProtecT study).

    PubMed

    Murad, Ali S; Down, Liz; Davey Smith, George; Donovan, Jenny L; Athene Lane, Janet; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Martin, Richard M

    2011-03-15

    Evidence from laboratory studies suggests that chronic inflammation plays an important role in prostate cancer aetiology. This has resulted in speculation that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may protect against prostate cancer development. We analysed data from a cross-sectional case-control study (n(cases) = 1,016; n(controls) = 5,043), nested within a UK-wide population-based study that used prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing for identification of asymptomatic prostate cancers, to investigate the relationship of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and paracetamol use with prostate cancer. In conditional logistic regression models accounting for stratum matching on age (5-year age bands) and recruitment centre, use of non-aspirin NSAIDs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.67] or all NSAIDs (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.07-1.47) were positively associated with prostate cancer. There were weaker, not conventionally statistically significant, positive associations of aspirin (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.94-1.36) and paracetamol (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.90-1.60) with prostate cancer. Mutual adjustment for aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs or paracetamol made little difference to these results. There was no evidence of confounding by age, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index or self-reported diabetes. Aspirin, NSAID and paracetamol use were associated with reduced serum PSA concentrations amongst controls. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that NSAIDs reduce the risk of PSA-detected prostate cancer. Our conclusions are unlikely to be influenced by PSA detection bias because the inverse associations of aspirin, NSAID and paracetamol use with serum PSA would have attenuated (not generated) the observed positive associations.

  3. Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164200.html Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows Even ' ... News) -- The long-term side effects of different prostate cancer treatments vary -- and knowing that may help men ...

  4. Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163295.html Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments Researchers suggest that dealing with a patient's ... Jan. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Anxiety may prompt prostate cancer patients to opt for potentially unnecessary treatments, a ...

  5. Georgetown University and Hampton University Prostate Cancer Undergraduate Fellowship Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    TITLE: Georgetown University and Hampton University Prostate Cancer Undergraduate Fellowship Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anatoly...University Prostate Cancer Undergraduate Fellowship Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  6. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  7. GNRH-agonist or antagonist in the treatment of prostate cancer: a comparision based on oncological results.

    PubMed

    Salciccia, Stefano; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Cattarino, Susanna; Sciarra, Alessandro

    2016-11-18

    On the basis of the trials available, are we ready to consider GnRH antagonists better than agonists? Is there a population of patients who may benefit from antagonists more than agonists?We specifically focused our analysis on the significance of oncological results obtained in phase III trials directly comparing Degarelix with GnRH agonists. Oncological results were evaluated only in 1 trial (CS21) with some subanalysis and they were not the primary endpoints of the study. The follow-up duration was 364 days, and therefore, the number of events (all causes deaths and prostate cancer (PC), Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Hazard ratio (HR)-related deaths) was very low in both groups and this aspect strongly reduces the significance of overall survival evaluation. In our opinion, the CS21A open-label extension does not consent to obtain useful clinical data and the design of the study loses the possibility to have a longer randomized comparison between degarelix and agonist. Moreover, the fact that the crossover from leuprolide to degarelix was pre-defined at 12 months and not at agonist failure does not allow to gather data also on the effect of sequential treatment.The answer to the question whether we are ready to consider antagonists better than agonists, based on oncological results, is probably no. We have data in terms of testosterone suppression and PSA control rather than overall survival or clinical progression free survival. A PSA progression-free survival is a secondary endpoint that in our opinion is not sufficient. Large prospective comparative trials with long-term follow-up are needed to clarify this critical clinical question.

  8. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Position Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    prostate cancer sextant localization on the basis of measured fluorocholine uptake. The data acquired thus far with conventional PET in 15 subjects...emission tomography (PET) detection of malignancy in anatomical sextants of the prostate gland. The rationale for evaluating fluorocholine as an...correlation with step-section prostate histopathology to assess the accuracy of sextant detection of prostate malignancy based on this technique. With

  9. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Vaarala, Markku H.; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996–1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29–0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation. PMID:27446410

  10. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vaarala, Markku H; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A

    2016-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996-1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29-0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation.

  11. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies against Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    polymerase chain reaction analyses for detection of micrometastatic epithelial cancer cells in bone marrow . J Clin...Edwards, G. J. Wise and et al. (1994). Sensitive nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of circulating prostatic tumor cells ...transcription polymerase chain reaction assay based on prostate- specific membrane antigen . Clin Chem 41: 1698-704. 44.

  12. Prostate cancer metastatic to bone has higher expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) than primary prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Brown, Edward; Farris, Alton B.; Sun, Shi-Yong; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the principal regulator of the secretion of parathyroid hormone and plays key roles in extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. It is also thought to participate in the development of cancer, especially bony metastases of breast and prostate cancer. However, the expression of CaSR has not been systematically analyzed in prostate cancer from patients with or without bony metastases. By comparing human prostate cancer tissue sections in microarrays, we found that the CaSR was expressed in both normal prostate and primary prostate cancer as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used two methods to analyze the expression level of CaSR. One was the pathological score read by a pathologist, the other was the positivity% obtained from the Aperio positive pixel count algorithm. Both of the methods gave consistent results. Metastatic prostate cancer tissue obtained from bone had higher CaSR expression than primary prostate cancer (P <0.05). The expression of CaSR in primary prostate cancers of patients with metastases to tissues other than bone was not different from that in primary prostate cancer of patients with or without bony metastases (P >0.05). The expression of CaSR in cancer tissue was not associated with the stage or status of differentiation of the cancer. These results suggest that CaSR may have a role in promoting bony metastasis of prostate cancer, hence raising the possibility of reducing the risk of such metastases with CaSR-based therapeutics. PMID:26065011

  13. Tissue-type imaging (TTI) based on ultrasonic spectral and clinical parameters for detecting, evaluating, and managing prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feleppa, Ernest J.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Dasgupta, Shreedevi; Kalisz, Andrew; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Porter, Christopher R.

    2005-04-01

    This study seeks to develop more-sensitive and -specific ultrasonic methods of imaging cancerous prostate tissue and thereby to improve means of guiding biopsies and planning, targeting, and monitoring treatment. Ultrasonic radio-frequency, echo-signal data, and clinical variables, e.g., PSA, voiding function, etc., during biopsy examinations were acquired. Spectra of the radio-frequency signals were computed in each biopsied region, and used to train neural networks; biopsy results served as the gold standard. A lookup table gave scores for cancer likelihood on a pixel-by-pixel basis from locally computed spectral-parameter and global clinical-parameter values. ROC curves used leave-one-patient- and leave-one-biopsy-out approaches to minimize classification bias. Resulting ROC-curve areas were 0.80+/-0.03 for neural-networks versus 0.66+/-0.03 for conventional classification. TTIs generated from data acquired pre-surgically showed tumors that were unrecognized in conventional images and during surgery. 3-D renderings of prostatectomy histology and TTIs showed encouraging correlations, which shows promise for improving the detection and management of prostate cancer, e.g., for biopsy guidance, planning dose-escalation and tissue-sparing options for radiation or cryotherapy, and assessing the effects of treatment. Combining MRS parameters with US spectral parameters appears capable of further improving prostate-cancer imaging. [Work supported by NIH.

  14. Prostate Cancer Education, Detection, and Follow-Up in a Community-Based Multiethnic Cohort of Medically Underserved Men.

    PubMed

    Ashorobi, Omotola S; Frost, Jacqueline; Wang, Xuemei; Roberson, Pamela; Lin, E; Volk, Robert J; Lopez, David S; Jones, Lovell A; Pettaway, Curtis A

    2015-05-18

    The Prostate Outreach Project (POP) provided free prostate cancer (PCa) education and early detection to medically underserved communities. POP recruited participants in medically underserved communities. PCa education and detection events occurred in POP locations (static) or natural gathering places (mobile) within the community. PCa education was delivered by video and evaluated using a questionnaire. Screening consisted of serum prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination. A navigated follow-up strategy was utilized to provide medical care for participants with abnormal screening examinations (ASE). POP recruited 4,420 men, 62.8% (2,667) were African American (AA). Most participants had a high school education and no prior screening. Fifty-four percent (2,159) were uninsured and 41% (1,811) had no access to a physician. PCa knowledge increased following the educational video. Prostate-specific antigen levels were elevated in 9.8% (436), while 6.9% (233) had an abnormal digital rectal examination. Follow-up among 609 men with ASE was successful in 40% (244), despite a navigated approach. Overall, 3.3% (144) cancers were diagnosed among the POP with AA participants exhibiting a significantly higher incidence. Recruitment, education, and PCa testing among a medically underserved cohort was successful. However, failure to follow through on ASE could contribute to maintaining the disparity in PCa outcomes noted among AAs and the medically underserved if not addressed.

  15. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone-based vaccine, an effective candidate for prostate cancer and other hormone-sensitive neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jesús A; Basalto, Roberto; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Reyes, Osvaldo; Pimentel, Eulogio; Calzada, Lesvia; Castro, Maria D; Arteaga, Niurka; López, Yovisleidis; Hernández, Héctor; Bringas, Ricardo; Garay, Hilda; Peschke, Peter; Bertot, José; Guillén, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Prostate growth, development, functions, and neoplastic transformation is androgen dependent. Estrogens have similar effects in the ovary and breast. Previous studies using gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH/LHRH) vaccines have shown the usefulness of immunization against this hormone in prostate (PC) and breast cancer (BC). We have synthesized a peptide mutated at position 6 and attached to the 830-844 tetanic toxoid (TT) helper T cell sequence in the same synthesis process. After repeated pig immunizations, we have demonstrated a vaccine that significantly decreased testes size (p < 0.001), prostate (p < 0.01), seminal vesicles (p < 0.01), and testosterone (T) castration [0.05 nM ml(-1) (p < 0. 01)]. Similar results were obtained in adult male and female healthy dogs and Macaca fascicularis models. These data indicate that this GnRHm1-TT vaccine is safe and able to induce significant tumor growth inhibition in the Dunning R3327-H rat androgen responsive prostate tumor model. In these rats, the immunization induced high anti-GnRH titers concomitant with T castration reduction (p < 0.01) in 90% of the animals tested. In addition, 70% of the responders exhibited tumor growth inhibition (p = 0.02) and a survival rate approximately three times longer that those of untreated rats. These data indicate that GnRHm1-TT vaccine may be a potential candidate in the treatment of PC, BC, and other hormone-dependent cancers.

  16. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    accuracy of prostate cancer sextant localization based on measured fluorocholine uptake. Recruitment of human subjects for this project was completed...of malignancy in anatomical sextants of the prostate gland. The rationale for evaluating fluorocholine as an oncologic tracer applicable to...potential means to further improve the sextant localization of primary prostate cancer. The rationale for this study is based on observations of rapid

  17. Role of GGAP/PIKE-A in prostate cancer progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    isoform which also contains a COOH-terminal Arf-GAP domain and two ankyrin repeats . Both of these proteins can bind PI3-K via their proline-rich...may contribute to increased activity of GGAP2 in prostate cancer. In summary, GGAP2 may promote prostate cancer growth and progression via...that they may contribute to the functions of GGAP2 in prostate cancer. In summary, GGAP2 may promote prostate cancer growth and progression via

  18. Oxidative Stress, DNA Repair, and Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    have concluded that DRC is not a risk factor for prostate cancer microRNA prostate cancer Hua.Zhao@RoswellPark.org Table of Contents...known and suspected risk factors for prostate cancer are associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (advancing age, inflammation...association between DNA repair capacity and prostate cancer risk might be due to the fact of using surrogate tissues , not the target tissues . In this study

  19. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  20. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  1. JAGGED1 expression is associated with prostate cancer metastasis and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Sandro; Demichelis, Francesca; Riva, Alberto; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Hofer, Matthias D; Kutok, Jeffery L; Kim, Robert; Tang, Jeffery; Montie, James E; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rubin, Mark A; Aster, Jon C

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that NOTCH signaling can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and augment signaling through AKT, an important growth and survival pathway in epithelial cells and prostate cancer in particular. Here we show that JAGGED1, a NOTCH receptor ligand, is significantly more highly expressed in metastatic prostate cancer as compared with localized prostate cancer or benign prostatic tissues, based on immunohistochemical analysis of JAGGED1 expression in human tumor samples from 154 men. Furthermore, high JAGGED1 expression in a subset of clinically localized tumors was significantly associated with recurrence, independent of other clinical parameters. These findings support a model in which dysregulation of JAGGED1 protein levels plays a role in prostate cancer progression and metastasis and suggest that JAGGED1 may be a useful marker in distinguishing indolent and aggressive prostate cancers.

  2. Functional CT imaging of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Milosevic, Michael F.; Haider, Masoom A.; Yeung, Ivan W. T.

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the distribution of blood flow (F), mean capillary transit time (Tc), capillary permeability (PS) and blood volume (vb) in prostate cancer using contrast-enhanced CT. Nine stage T2-T3 prostate cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Following bolus injection of a contrast agent, a time series of CT images of the prostate was acquired. Functional maps showing the distribution of F, Tc, PS and vb within the prostate were generated using a distributed parameter tracer kinetic model, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model. The precision of the maps was assessed using covariance matrix analysis. Finally, maps were compared to the findings of standard clinical investigations. Eight of the functional maps demonstrated regions of increased F, PS and vb, the locations of which were consistent with the results of standard clinical investigations. However, model parameters other than F could only be measured precisely within regions of high F. In conclusion functional CT images of cancer-containing prostate glands demonstrate regions of elevated F, PS and vb. However, caution should be used when applying a complex tracer kinetic model to the study of prostate cancer since not all parameters can be measured precisely in all areas.

  3. [The treatment options for localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Livne, Pinhas M

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a very common tumor in men. Today the disease is very often diagnosed early because of an elevated PSA without symptoms and the disease is localized to the prostate. Patients with prostate cancer can be divided into 3 subgroups for the carcinoma: favorable, moderate, and poorly. The grouping depends mainly on the Gleason score of the prostate biopsy. According to the Gleason score, favorable cancer is up to score 6 (3 + 3), moderate score 7, and poor--Gleason score 8-10. The other favorable clinical factors are PSA < 10 ng/ml, and clinical stage by DRE of T1C or T2 (no nodule or palpable nodule not extending beyond the prostatic capsule). The treatment options for cure when the prostate cancer is localized are either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy (external or brachytherapy or combination). Each of these therapies has side effects and each has advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes the treatment choice is not for cure and the options are hormonal treatment or watchful waiting. Twenty to 30% of the patients treated for cure may fail the treatment and have elevation of PSA without any clinical symptoms, or signs of local recurrence or distant spread. Some of these patients with biochemical failure may be cured by salvage treatment: radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy and salvage radical prostatectomy or cryotherapy following failure of radiotherapy.

  4. Extremely Early Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    James, Veronica Jean

    2011-11-17

    This article reports the results of a blinded fiber diffraction study of skin samples taken from TRAMP mice and age-matched controls to determine whether changes noted in fiber diffraction studies of human skin were present in these TRAMP mice studies. These mice are bred to progress to Gleeson Type 3 to Type 5 prostate cancer. Small strips, 1 mm x 5 mm, cut from the mouse skin samples were loaded into cells in the same way as human samples and slightly stretched to remove the crimp. They remained fully hydrated throughout exposure to the synchrotron beam. The added change that was reported for prostate cancer in 2009 was obtained for all TRAMP mice samples, indicating that this change can be read as High Grade Cancer in human diagnostic tests. These changes were evident for all 3 and 7 week old TRAMP mice samples but not for any of the control samples. This indicates that the changes in the fibre diffraction patterns appear much earlier than in any other available prostate cancer diagnostic test, as none of these can verify the presence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mice before 10 weeks of age. The fiber diffraction test is therefore the most accurate and earliest test for high grade prostate cancer.

  5. Risk stratification in prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Roobol, Monique J; Carlsson, Sigrid V

    2013-01-01

    Screening for prostate cancer is a controversial topic within the field of urology. The US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial did not demonstrate any difference in prostate-cancer-related mortality rates between men screened annually rather than on an 'opportunistic' basis. However, in the world's largest trial to date--the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer--screening every 2-4 years was associated with a 21% reduction in prostate-cancer-related mortality rate after 11 years. Citing the uncertain ratio between potential harm and potential benefit, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended against serum PSA screening. Although this ratio has yet to be elucidated, PSA testing--and early tumour detection--is undoubtedly beneficial for some individuals. Instead of adopting a 'one size fits all' approach, physicians are likely to perform personalized risk assessment to minimize the risk of negative consequences, such as anxiety, unnecessary testing and biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment. The PSA test needs to be combined with other predictive factors or be used in a more thoughtful way to identify men at risk of symptomatic or life-threatening cancer, without overdiagnosing indolent disease. A risk-adapted approach is needed, whereby PSA testing is tailored to individual risk.

  6. Activation of endogenous TRPV1 fails to induce overstimulation-based cytotoxicity in breast and prostate cancer cells but not in pain-sensing neurons.

    PubMed

    Pecze, László; Jósvay, Katalin; Blum, Walter; Petrovics, György; Vizler, Csaba; Oláh, Zoltán; Schwaller, Beat

    2016-08-01

    Vanilloids including capsaicin and resiniferatoxin are potent transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonists. TRPV1 overstimulation selectively ablates capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in animal models in vivo. The cytotoxic mechanisms are based on strong Na(+) and Ca(2+) influx via TRPV1 channels, which leads to mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation and necrotic cell swelling. Increased TRPV1 expression levels are also observed in breast and prostate cancer and derived cell lines. Here, we examined whether potent agonist-induced overstimulation mediated by TRPV1 might represent a means for the eradication of prostate carcinoma (PC-3, Du 145, LNCaP) and breast cancer (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, BT-474) cells in vitro. While rat sensory neurons were highly vanilloid-sensitive, normal rat prostate epithelial cells were resistant in vivo. We found TRPV1 to be expressed in all cancer cell lines at mRNA and protein levels, yet protein expression levels were significantly lower compared to sensory neurons. Treatment of all human carcinoma cell lines with capsaicin didn't lead to overstimulation cytotoxicity in vitro. We assume that the low vanilloid-sensitivity of prostate and breast cancer cells is associated with low expression levels of TRPV1, since ectopic TRPV1 expression rendered them susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of vanilloids evidenced by plateau-type Ca(2+) signals, mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation and Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-dependent membrane disorganization. Moreover, long-term monitoring revealed that merely the ectopic expression of TRPV1 stopped cell proliferation and often induced apoptotic processes via strong activation of caspase-3 activity. Our results indicate that specific targeting of TRPV1 function remains a putative strategy for cancer treatment.

  7. Preclinical and clinical development of DNA vaccines for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Colluru, V T; Johnson, Laura E; Olson, Brian M; McNeel, Douglas G

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. It is also the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men, making it one of the largest public health concerns today. Prostate cancer is an ideal disease for immunotherapies because of the generally slow progression, the dispensability of the target organ in the patient population, and the availability of several tissue-specific antigens. As such, several therapeutic vaccines have entered clinical trials, with one autologous cellular vaccine (sipuleucel-T) recently gaining Food and Drug Administration approval after demonstrating overall survival benefit in randomized phase III clinical trials. DNA-based vaccines are safe, economical, alternative "off-the-shelf" approaches that have undergone extensive evaluation in preclinical models. In fact, the first vaccine approved in the United States for the treatment of cancer was a DNA vaccine for canine melanoma. Several prostate cancer-specific DNA vaccines have been developed in the last decade and have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials. This review summarizes anticancer human DNA vaccine trials, with a focus on those conducted for prostate cancer. We conclude with an outline of special considerations important for the development and successful translation of DNA vaccines from the laboratory to the clinic.

  8. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    PubMed Central

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine), reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites) at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion) or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes), nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research. PMID:26854164

  9. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Prostate Which Was Initially Misdiagnosed as Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Osamu, Soma; Murasawa, Hiromi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the prostate is a very rare tumor. We report a case of 65-year-old man with SFT of the prostate which was initially misdiagnosed as prostate cancer. Finally, we performed total prostatectomy and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as SFT of the prostate. The patient's clinical course has progressed favorably with no obvious recurrence 18 months postoperatively.

  10. Exploiting a Molecular Gleason Grade for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Exploiting a Molecular Gleason Grade for Prostate Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter S. Nelson, MD...Molecular Gleason Grade for Prostate Cancer Therapy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0149 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... levels of cognate serum proteins. #3 Write final report. (Note the original Aim 3 involving animal studies of altering prostate cancer grade

  11. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    0802 TITLE: Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I. Neugut, MD, PhD...Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... palliative treatments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, palliative care , ureteral obstruction, cord compression 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  12. Targeted Approach to Overcoming Treatment Resistance in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    therapy -­‐resistant   prostate   cancer  cells  and  in  combination   therapy  (SOW...treatment resistance in advanced prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karin Scarpinato CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Southern...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to determine if rescinnamine is effective against prostate cancer and

  13. 76 FR 55551 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8706 of September 1, 2011 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Prostate cancer is the second leading... only by the men living with and fighting prostate cancer, but also by their families, friends,...

  14. NCCU/BBRI-Duke/Urology Partnership In Prostate Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    endocannabinoid methanandamide- mediated cell proliferation and androgen receptor expression in EA006AA African American prostate cancer cells. 2...therapeutic intervention against prostate cancer Pilot Project #5: Feasibility of Endurance Exercise Training on Cardiovascular Risk Factors...endurance exercise training on exercise capacity following radical prostatectomy among with men with localized prostate cancer . 2. To assess the

  15. Exploiting the Immunological Effects of Standard Treatments in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the Immunological Effects of Standard Treatments in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brad H. Nelson, Ph.D...From - To) 1 MAR 2008 - 28 FEB 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting the immunological effects of standard treatments in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...treatment of prostate cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Tumor immunology , immunotherapy, prostate cancer, antibody, T cell, tumor antigen, hormone therapy

  16. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process...your prostate cancer grows) 7 Cryotherapy (process to freeze and destroy prostate tissue) 8 Chemotherapy (use of anti-cancer drugs) 9 Any other

  17. Stromal Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Damien A.; Buchanan, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer development and progression is the result of complex interactions between epithelia cells and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, in a series of dynamic process amenable to regulation by hormones. Whilst androgen action through the androgen receptor (AR) is a well-established component of prostate cancer biology, it has been becoming increasingly apparent that changes in AR signalling in the surrounding stroma can dramatically influence tumour cell behavior. This is reflected in the consistent finding of a strong association between stromal AR expression and patient outcomes. In this review, we explore the relationship between AR signalling in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and prostate cancer cells in the primary site, and detail the known functions, actions, and mechanisms of fibroblast AR signaling. We conclude with an evidence-based summary of how androgen action in stroma dramatically influences disease progression. PMID:28117763

  18. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans With Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The disproportionate incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (CaP) among African Americans ( AA ) in comparison to Caucasian American (CA...are not well understood. It is believed that high circulating androgens reported in AA men may account for such racial disparities. It has been...mass-index (BMI), which is significantly higher in AA -men, and the risk for aggressive CaP. Active steroidogenic pathways are active in adipocytes

  19. Realizing the Translational Potential of Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue-Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11...and analyze an entire prostate TMA. We demonstrated our ability to quantitate the telomere signals on a per nucleus basis in both the cancer and

  20. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer – Recent Developments and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Michael T.; Drake, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    Since the approval of sipuleucel-T for men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer in 2010, great strides in the development of anti-cancer immunotherapies have been made. Current drug development in this area has focused primarily on antigen specific [i.e. cancer vaccines and antibody based therapies)] or checkpoint inhibitor therapies, with the checkpoint inhibitors perhaps gaining the most attention as of late. Indeed, drugs blocking the inhibitory signal generated by the engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) found on T-cells has emerged as potent means to combat the immunosuppressive milieu. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has already been approved in advanced melanoma and two phase III trials evaluating ipilimumab in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer are underway. A phase III trial evaluating ProstVac-VF, a poxvirus-based therapeutic prostate cancer vaccine, is also underway. While there has been reason for encouragement over the past few years, many questions regarding the use of immunotherapies remain. Namely it is unclear what stage of disease is most likely to benefit from these approaches, how best to incorporate said treatments with each other and into our current treatment regimens and which therapy is most appropriate for which disease. Herein we review some of the recent advances in immunotherapy as related to the treatment of prostate cancer and outline some of the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:24477411