Science.gov

Sample records for prostate cancer imaging

  1. Prostate Cancer MR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J.

    With a total of 192,280 new cases predicted for 2009, prostate cancer (PC) now accounts for 25% of all new male cancers diagnosed in the United States [1]. Furthermore, in their lifetime, one in six men will be clinically diagnosed with having PC, although many more men are found to have histological evidence of PC at autopsy [2,3,4]. Presently, approximately 1 in 10 men will die of PC [5,6]. The ever-aging population and wider spread use of the blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test [7,8], as well as the tendency to apply lower cut-off levels for this test [9], will further increase the diagnosis of this disease [10].

  2. Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects. PMID:22840598

  3. Imaging of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    transformative imaging agent. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Positron Emission Tomography, Oxidative Stress, Hydrogen Peroxide, 18F, 124I, Prostate...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0029 TITLE: Imaging of Oxidative Stress in...27September2012-26September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Imaging of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  4. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    2: Evaluation of 18F-DCFPyL labelling and tracking of PSMA+ CAR T cells Title: PSMA Directed Imaging of Prostate Cancer Focus on Androgen Receptor ... receptors to treat cancer Title: Plasmid Selection and Characterisation Time Commitments: 1.20 calendar months Supporting Agency: Cancer Targeting...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0556 TITLE: Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin

  5. Heterobivalent Imaging Agents Targeting Prostate Cancer Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    has been implicated as a salient player in the pathobiology of cancers of epithelial origin, e.g. prostate, cervix , ovarian, colon and...ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-10-1-0481 Heterobivalent Imaging Agents Targeting Prostate Cancer Training Aaron LeBeau University of California, San...Francisco San Francisco, CA 94103 Annual Summary 31 MAY 2010 - 1JUN 201101-06-2011 To determine the utility of imaging MT-SP1 in cancer , xenografts of

  6. [Rational imaging in locally advanced prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Beissert, M; Lorenz, R; Gerharz, E W

    2008-11-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the principal medical problems facing the male population in developed countries with an increasing need for sophisticated imaging techniques and risk-adapted treatment options. This article presents an overview of the current imaging procedures in the diagnosis of locally advanced prostate cancer. Apart from conventional gray-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) as the most frequently used primary imaging modality we describe computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). CT and MRI not only allow assessment of prostate anatomy but also a specific evaluation of the pelvic region. Color-coded and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, real-time elastography, dynamic contrast enhancement in MR imaging, diffusion imaging, and MR spectroscopy may lead to a clinically relevant improvement in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. While bone scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-bisphosphonates is still the method of choice in the evaluation of bone metastasis, whole-body MRI and PET using (18)F-NaF, (18)F-FDG, (11)C-choline, (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-choline as tracers achieve higher sensitivities.

  7. [Significance of PSMA imaging in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Gasch, C; Düwel, C; Kopka, K; Kratochwil, C; Vinsensia, M; Eiber, M; Maurer, T; Haberkorn, U; Hadaschik, B; Giesel, F L

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies of men in developed countries. To improve clinical diagnostics of PCa, 68 Ga-PSMA-11 was recently introduced as a new PET tracer. 68 Ga-PSMA-11 is able to specifically bind to the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is upregulated on the surface of prostate cancer cells in most patients. To analyse the current significance of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET imaging in prostate cancer in relation to staging of men with initial diagnosis, biochemical recurrence and metastatic disease. Retrospective analysis of current literature (PubMed search) regarding 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET diagnostics in primary staging, in biochemical recurrence and in metastasized disease. Compared to conventional imaging, 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reaches a higher sensitivity with an excellent specificity in the clinical diagnosis of primary staging as well as staging for recurrence and advanced, metastasized disease. In biochemical recurrence, 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT shows significantly higher detection rates in comparison to choline PET/CT, especially in patients with low PSA values. In the clinical diagnosis of recurrent disease, therapy concepts were changed in more than a quarter of the patients due to the use of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. The significance of staging with 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in advanced metastasized patients remains uncertain. Due to the excellent results of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET imaging, even in patients with slightly elevated PSA levels, it will continue to play an important role in clinical diagnostics of prostate cancer and, thus, its clinical utilization will become more widely spread.

  8. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, V; Reimann, C; Geisel, D; Schreiter, N F

    2016-11-01

    The new tracer Gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (Ga-68 PSMA) yields new promising options for the PET/CT diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and its metastases. To overcome limitations of hybrid imaging, known from the use of choline derivatives, seems to be possible with the use of Ga-68 PSMA for PCa. The benefits of hybrid imaging with Ga-68 PSMA for PCa compared to choline derivatives shall be discussed in this article based on an overview of the current literature. Key Points: • Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT can achieve higher detection rates of PCa lesions than PET/CT performed with choline derivatives• The new tracer Ga-68 PSMA has the advantage of high specificity, independence of PSA-level and low nonspecific tracer uptake in surrounding tissue• The new tracer Ga-68 PSMA seems very suitable for MR-PET diagnostic Citation Format: • Schreiter V, Reimann C, Geisel D et al. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Prostate Cancer. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 1037 - 1044. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Peng, Yuan-yuan; Guo, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recently emerged as a promising imaging technique for prostate cancer. But there was still a lot of challenge in the PAI for prostate cancer detection, such as laser illumination modality. Knowledge of absorbed light distribution in prostate tissue was essential since the distribution characteristic of absorbed light energy would influence the imaging depth and range of PAI. In order to make a comparison of different laser illumination modality of photoacoustic imaging technique for prostate cancer, optical model of human prostate was established and combined with Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the light absorption distribution in the prostate tissue. Characteristic of light absorption distribution of transurethral and trans-rectal illumination case, and of tumor at different location was compared with each other.The relevant conclusions would be significant for optimizing the light illumination in a PAI system for prostate cancer detection.

  10. Detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications using advanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dou, Shewei; Bai, Yan; Shandil, Ankit; Ding, Degang; Shi, Dapeng; Haacke, E Mark; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications have a high incidence in elderly men. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of susceptibility-weighted imaging in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications. A total number of 156 men, including 34 with prostate cancer and 122 with benign prostate were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed on all the patients. One hundred and twelve prostatic calcifications were detected in 87 patients. The sensitivities and specificities of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications were calculated. McNemar's Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in sensitivities and specificities between the techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic cancer were greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic calcifications were comparable to that of computed tomography and greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). Given the high incidence of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) abnormality in prostate cancer, we conclude that susceptibility-weighted imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and computed tomography in detecting prostate cancer. Furthermore, susceptibility-weighted imaging can identify prostatic calcifications similar to computed tomography, and it is much better than conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  11. Detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications using advanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Shewei; Bai, Yan; Shandil, Ankit; Ding, Degang; Shi, Dapeng; Haacke, E Mark; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications have a high incidence in elderly men. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of susceptibility-weighted imaging in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications. A total number of 156 men, including 34 with prostate cancer and 122 with benign prostate were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed on all the patients. One hundred and twelve prostatic calcifications were detected in 87 patients. The sensitivities and specificities of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications were calculated. McNemar's Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in sensitivities and specificities between the techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic cancer were greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic calcifications were comparable to that of computed tomography and greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). Given the high incidence of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) abnormality in prostate cancer, we conclude that susceptibility-weighted imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and computed tomography in detecting prostate cancer. Furthermore, susceptibility-weighted imaging can identify prostatic calcifications similar to computed tomography, and it is much better than conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. PMID:27004542

  12. AEG-1 promoter-mediated imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Akrita; Wang, Yuchuan; Mease, Ronnie C.; Gabrielson, Matthew; Sysa, Polina; Minn, Il; Green, Gilbert; Simmons, Brian; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Sarkar, Siddik; Fisher, Paul B.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new imaging method for detecting prostate cancer, whether localized or disseminated and metastatic to soft tissues and bone. The method relies on the use of imaging reporter genes under the control of the promoter of AEG-1 (MTDH), which is selectively active only in malignant cells. Through systemic, nanoparticle-based delivery of the imaging construct, lesions can be identified through bioluminescence imaging and single photon emission-computed tomography in the PC3-ML murine model of prostate cancer at high sensitivity. This approach is applicable for the detection of prostate cancer metastases, including bone lesions for which there is no current reliable agent for non-invasive clinical imaging. Further, the approach compares favorably to accepted and emerging clinical standards, including positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [18F]sodium fluoride. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept that rationalizes clinical evaluation in patients with advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25145668

  13. Advances in Imaging in Prostate and Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Douglass, Laura M; Chernyak, Victoria; Watts, Kara L

    2017-09-01

    Recent advancements in urologic imaging techniques aim to improve the initial detection of urologic malignancies and subsequent recurrence and to more accurately stage disease. This allows the urologist to make better informed treatment decisions. In particular, exciting advances in the imaging of prostate cancer and bladder cancer have recently emerged including the use of dynamic, functional imaging with MRI and PET. In this review, we will explore these imaging modalities, in addition to new sonography techniques and CT, and how they hope to improve the diagnosis and management of prostate and bladder cancer.

  14. Optoacoustic imaging of an animal model of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michelle P.; Arsenault, Michel; Riley, Chris; Kolios, Michael; Whelan, William M.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is currently the most common cancer among Canadian men. Due to an increase in public awareness and screening, prostate cancer is being detected at earlier stages and in much younger men. This is raising the need for better treatment monitoring approaches. Optoacoustic imaging is a new technique that involves exposing tissues to pulsed light and detecting the acoustic waves generated by the tissue. Optoacoustic images of a tumour bearing mouse and an agematched control were acquired for a 775 nm illumination using a reverse-mode imaging system. A murine model of prostate cancer, TRAMP (transgenetic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate), was investigated. The results show an increase in optoacoustic signal generated by the tumour compared to that generated by the surrounding tissues with a contrast ratio of 3.5. The dimensions of the tumour in the optoacoustic image agreed with the true tumour dimensions to within 0.5 mm. In this study we show that there are detectable changes in optoacoustic signal strength that arise from the presence of a tumour in the prostate, which demonstrates the potential of optoacoustic imaging for the monitoring of prostate cancer therapy.

  15. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    affinity to denatured collagens and collagens undergoing remodeling which simulate the microenvironment of metastatic tumors. We will focus on previously...specifically target digested collagens with unfolded and partially denatured collagen triple helices. 2. Demonstration of ex vivo and in vivo targeting...invasive prostate cancer due to the absence of non-specific affinity and high propensity to hybridize with denatured collagen strand (Aim 1). We

  16. Imaging Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    critical role in tumor development. The purpose of this proposal is to utilize fibroblast activation protein alpha ( FAP ) expression on TAFs within...based cell lines, which stably express eGFP and FAP . Ongoing experiments are focused on the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of each radiopharmaceutical...and on understanding the growth characteristics of each transfected cell line in vivo. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PET, Prostate Cancer, FAP , molecular

  17. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    this application, we propose to build upon our current work to determine the association between fatty acid synthase ( FAS ) overexpression and...cancer (as determined by Gleason scoring) we propose to: 1) Determine the correlation between FAS expression in prostatectomy samples and the amount... FAS expression and FAS activity in prostatectomy samples, intraprostatic lipid as measured by MRSI and prostate tumor aggressiveness. 3) To quantify

  18. Ultrasound Activated Contrast Imaging for Prostate Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Ultrasound Activated Contrast Imaging for Prostate Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0119 5c. PROGRAM...ABSTRACT: The current project proposes todevelop a novel ultrasound contrast imaging technique (called EEI) for better visualization of the

  19. High Resolution PET Imaging Probe for the Detection, Molecular Characterization and Treatment Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    W81XWH-09-1-0420 TITLE: High Resolution PET Imaging Probe for the Detection, Molecular Characterization and Treatment Monitoring of Prostate Cancer...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-Resolution PET Imaging Probe for the Detection, Molecular Characterization and Treatment of Prostate Cancer... molecular imaging for diagnosis as well as treatment planning and monitoring in prostate cancer. This investigation hypothesizes that a dedicated

  20. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of prostate cancer. But, it can increase your prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test result. Symptoms With early prostate ... 2009 Best Practice Statement. www.auanet.org/guidelines/prostate-specific-antigen-(2009-amended-2013) . Accessed October 9, 2017. Moyer ...

  1. Feasibility of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Transrectal Photoacoustic Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    cancer imaging [1]. Currently, most PA imaging systems adopt a nanosecond pulsed laser with high pulse energy because a short light pulse can...health, including prostate cancer detection [3]. A nanosecond pulsed laser with high pulse energy is usually extremely expensive (from tens to...scattering coefficients of 0.04 cm-1 and 8.4 cm-1, respectively, measured with an ISS Oximeter ). An optically and acoustically transparent tube was filled

  2. Prostate cancer diagnosis with fluorescence lifetime imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Dall'Era, Marc; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    More than 1 million men in the United States undergo a prostate biopsy procedure annually and approximately 200,000 men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer. 5-10% of these men have to undergo a repeat biopsy due to insufficient tissue sampling. We are studying the utility of a multi-spectral time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (MS-TRFS) technique for real-time prostate cancer diagnosis. The MS-TRFS imaging setup, which includes a fiberoptic set-up with a 355nm excitation light source coupled with a blue (450nm) aiming beam, was used to image ex-vivo prostatectomy specimen. The prostate tissue from 11 patients was sectioned at 2mm thickness and the fluorescence lifetime information was overlaid spatially for histology and thus, diagnostic co-registration. Initial results show that fluorescence lifetime in the 390±40nm channel, which measures collagen and elastin signatures, is longer for glandular regions than in the stromal regions. Additionally, lifetime in the 452±45nm channel, corresponding to NAD redox state, is longer in the cancerous glandular region in comparison with the normal glandular regions. Current work is focused on developing real-time quantitative algorithms to combine the fluorescence signatures from the two channels for performing prostate cancer diagnosis on biopsies.

  3. Parametric PET/MR Fusion Imaging to Differentiate Aggressive from Indolent Primary Prostate Cancer with Application for Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Biopsies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0597 TITLE: Parametric PET /MR Fusion Imaging to...Parametric PET /MR Fusion Imaging to Differentiate Aggressive from Indolent Primary Prostate Cancer with Application for Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Biopsies...The study investigates whether fusion PET /MRI imaging with 18F-choline PET /CT and diffusion-weighted MRI can be successfully applied to target prostate

  4. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Detection Using Near Infrared Spectral Polarization Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    position. This indicates the polarization preservation nature of Cybesin. Time Resolved Fluorescence Intensity of Cybesin 60000 Perpendicular 3000 0...absorption than that of normal tissue at water absorption peaks indicating cancer tissue has less water content than that of normal tissue; (5) preliminary...rectum-and-membrane tissues.’ This indicates that our proposed approach of imaging a prostate gland through rectum using spectral polarization imaging

  6. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    and PET images. Figure 2 highlights the dynamic uptake of TSPO as compared to muscle. Across 60 minutes the %ID/cc continues to increase which is...p53 double null mutant mouse model. Towards that end, we have successfully acquired anatomic MRI and PET data in orthotopic tumors within the Pten...castration resistant prostate cancer, MRI, PET , FDHT, image optimization 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  7. Gold nanocages for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Laura; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Galbiati, Elisabetta; Locarno, Silvia A.; Macchi, Chiara; D'Alfonso, Laura; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Magni, Paolo; Collini, Maddalena; Romeo, Sergio; Chirico, Giuseppe; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanocages (AuNCs) have been shown to be a useful tool both for imaging and hyperthermia therapy of cancer, thanks to their outstanding optical properties, low toxicity and facile functionalization with targeting molecules, including peptides and antibodies. In particular, hyperthermia is a minimally invasive therapy which takes advantage of the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles to efficiently convert the absorbed light into heat. Here, we use AuNCs for the selective targeting and imaging of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we report the hyperthermic effect characterization of the AuNCs both in solution and internalized in cells. Prostate cancer cells were irradiated at different exposure times, with a pulsed near infrared laser, and the cellular viability was evaluated by confocal microscopy.

  8. Fused-data transrectal EIT for prostate cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ethan K; Wu, Xiaotian; Halter, Ryan J

    2018-05-25

    Prostate cancer is a significant problem affecting 1 in 7 men. Unfortunately, the diagnostic gold-standard of ultrasound-guided biopsy misses 10%-30% of all cancers. The objective of this study was to develop an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach that has the potential to image the entire prostate using multiple impedance measurements recorded between electrodes integrated onto an end-fired transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) device and a biopsy probe (BP). Simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the best combination of electrodes, and measured tank experiments were used to evaluate a fused-data transrectal EIT (fd-TREIT) and BP approach. Simulations and sensitivity analysis revealed that (1) TREIT measurements are not sufficiently sensitive to image the whole prostate, (2) the combination of TREIT  +  BP measurements increases the sensitive region of TREIT-only measurements by 12×, and (3) the fusion of multiple TREIT  +  BP measurements collected during a routine or customized 12-core biopsy procedure can cover up to 76.1% or 94.1% of a nominal 50 cm 3 prostate, respectively. Three measured tank experiments of the fd-TREIT  +  BP approach successfully and accurately recovered the positions of 2-3 metal or plastic inclusions. The measured tank experiments represent important steps in the development of an algorithm that can combine EIT from multiple locations and from multiple probes-data that could be collected during a routine TRUS-guided 12-core biopsy. Overall, this result is a step towards a clinically deployable impedance imaging approach to scanning the entire prostate, which could significantly help to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

  9. Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using 64Cu-Labeled Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligand.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aviral; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men, rendering the diagnosis and staging of significant medical and public interest. One of the most interesting developments in the application of nuclear oncology has been the development of novel diagnostic agents that are able to facilitate targeted therapies using the concept of theranostics. This review summarizes the current and emerging molecular imaging techniques for the investigation of patients with prostate cancer with emphasis on the potential of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT in staging, restaging, and the application of theranostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopic Imaging Approach to Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kurhanewicz, John; Swanson, Mark G.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provides a noninvasive method of detecting small molecular markers (historically the metabolites choline and citrate) within the cytosol and extracellular spaces of the prostate, and is performed in conjunction with high-resolution anatomic imaging. Recent studies in pre-prostatectomy patients have indicated that the metabolic information provided by MRSI combined with the anatomical information provided by MRI can significantly improve the assessment of cancer location and extent within the prostate, extracapsular spread, and cancer aggressiveness. Additionally, pre- and post-therapy studies have demonstrated the potential of MRI/MRSI to provide a direct measure of the presence and spatial extent of prostate cancer after therapy, a measure of the time course of response, and information concerning the mechanism of therapeutic response. In addition to detecting metabolic biomarkers of disease behavior and therapeutic response, MRI/MRSI guidance can improve tissue selection for ex vivo analysis. High-resolution magic angle spinning (1H HR-MAS) spectroscopy provides a full chemical analysis of MRI/MRSI-targeted tissues prior to pathologic and immunohistochemical analyses of the same tissue. Preliminary 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy studies have already identified unique spectral patterns for healthy glandular and stromal tissues and prostate cancer, determined the composition of the composite in vivo choline peak, and identified the polyamine spermine as a new metabolic marker of prostate cancer. The addition of imaging sequences that provide other functional information within the same exam (dynamic contrast uptake imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging) have also demonstrated the potential to further increase the accuracy of prostate cancer detection and characterization. PMID:12353259

  11. Innovations in diagnostic imaging of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pummer, Karl; Rieken, Malte; Augustin, Herbert; Gutschi, Thomas; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, various imaging modalities have been developed to improve diagnosis, staging, and localization of early-stage prostate cancer (PCa). A MEDLINE literature search of the time frame between 01/2007 and 06/2013 was performed on imaging of localized PCa. Conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is mainly used to guide prostate biopsy. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is based on the assumption that PCa tissue is hypervascularized and might be better identified after intravenous injection of a microbubble contrast agent. However, results on its additional value for cancer detection are controversial. Computer-based analysis of the transrectal ultrasound signal (C-TRUS) appears to detect cancer in a high rate of patients with previous biopsies. Real-time elastography seems to have higher sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value than conventional TRUS. However, the method still awaits prospective validation. The same is true for prostate histoscanning, an ultrasound-based method for tissue characterization. Currently, multiparametric MRI provides improved tissue visualization of the prostate, which may be helpful in the diagnosis and targeting of prostate lesions. However, most published series are small and suffer from variations in indication, methodology, quality, interpretation, and reporting. Among ultrasound-based techniques, real-time elastography and C-TRUS seem the most promising techniques. Multiparametric MRI appears to have advantages over conventional T2-weighted MRI in the detection of PCa. Despite these promising results, currently, no recommendation for the routine use of these novel imaging techniques can be made. Prospective studies defining the value of various imaging modalities are urgently needed.

  12. Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging of prostate cancer: quantitative T2 values for cancer discrimination.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, Joseph R; Haker, Steven J; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Rybicki, Frank J; Tempany, Clare M; Mulkern, Robert V

    2009-05-01

    Quantitative, apparent T(2) values of suspected prostate cancer and healthy peripheral zone tissue in men with prostate cancer were measured using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) imaging sequence in order to assess the cancer discrimination potential of tissue T(2) values. The CPMG imaging sequence was used to image the prostates of 18 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Whole gland coverage with nominal voxel volumes of 0.54 x 1.1 x 4 mm(3) was obtained in 10.7 min, resulting in data sets suitable for generating high-quality images with variable T(2)-weighting and for evaluating quantitative T(2) values on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Region-of-interest analysis of suspected healthy peripheral zone tissue and suspected cancer, identified on the basis of both T(1)- and T(2)-weighted signal intensities and available histopathology reports, yielded significantly (P<.0001) longer apparent T(2) values in suspected healthy tissue (193+/-49 ms) vs. suspected cancer (100+/-26 ms), suggesting potential utility of this method as a tissue specific discrimination index for prostate cancer. We conclude that CPMG imaging of the prostate can be performed in reasonable scan times and can provide advantages over T(2)-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) imaging alone, including quantitative T(2) values for cancer discrimination as well as proton density maps without the point spread function degradation associated with short effective echo time FSE sequences.

  13. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goals of the proposed studies are to develop, optimize and use imaging methods to non-invasively assess the temporal...relationship prostate cancer growth, androgen receptor ( AR ) levels, hypoxia, and translocator protein (TSPO) levels. As described in the statement of work

  14. MR Imaging Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    developed practical methods for heterogeneity correction for MRI - based dose calculations (Chen et al 2007). 6) We will use existing Monte Carlo ... Monte Carlo verification of IMRT dose distributions from a commercial treatment planning optimization system, Phys. Med. Biol., 45:2483-95 (2000) Ma...accuracy and consistency for MR based IMRT treatment planning for prostate cancer. A short paper entitled “ Monte Carlo dose verification of MR image based

  15. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  16. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  17. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Francesco; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss about the role of new probes for molecular imaging in the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa). This review focuses particularly on the role of new promising radiotracers for the molecular imaging with PET/computed tomography in the detection of PCa recurrence. The role of these new imaging techniques to guide lesion-target therapies and the potential application of these molecular probes as theranostics agents is discussed. Finally, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to castration in PCa and the maintenance of active androgen receptor are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Progress in SPECT/CT imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngho; Franc, Benjamin L; Hawkins, Randall A; Wong, Kenneth H; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2006-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer (other than skin cancer) among men in the United States. Although prostate cancer is one of the few cancers that grow so slowly that it may never threaten the lives of some patients, it can be lethal once metastasized. Indium-111 capromab pendetide (ProstaScint, Cytogen Corporation, Princeton, NJ) imaging is indicated for staging and recurrence detection of the disease, and is particularly useful to determine whether or not the disease has spread to distant metastatic sites. However, the interpretation of 111In-capromab pendetide is challenging without correlated structural information mostly because the radiopharmaceutical demonstrates nonspecific uptake in the normal vasculature, bowel, bone marrow, and the prostate gland. We developed an improved method of imaging and localizing 111In-Capromab pendetide using a SPECT/CT imaging system. The specific goals included: i) development and application of a novel iterative SPECT reconstruction algorithm that utilizes a priori information from coregistered CT; and ii) assessment of clinical impact of adding SPECT/CT for prostate cancer imaging with capromab pendetide utilizing the standard and novel reconstruction techniques. Patient imaging studies with capromab pendetide were performed from 1999 to 2004 using two different SPECT/CT scanners, a prototype SPECT/CT system and a commercial SPECT/CT system (Discovery VH, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). SPECT projection data from both systems were reconstructed using an experimental iterative algorithm that compensates for both photon attenuation and collimator blurring. In addition, the data obtained from the commercial system were reconstructed with attenuation correction using an OSEM reconstruction supplied by the camera manufacturer for routine clinical interpretation. For 12 sets of patient data, SPECT images reconstructed using the experimental algorithm were interpreted separately and compared with interpretation of

  19. Magnetic Resonance-Based Electrical Property Tomography (MR-EPT) for Prostate Cancer Grade Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0127 TITLE: Magnetic Resonance-Based Electrical Property Tomography (MR- EPT) for Prostate Cancer Grade Imaging...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0127 Magnetic Resonance-Based Electrical Property Tomography (MR- EPT) for Prostate Cancer Grade Imaging...developing Magnetic Resonance – Electrical Property Tomography (MR-EPT) specifically for prostate imaging. MR-EPT is an imaging modality that may enable

  20. Differentiation of prostatitis and prostate cancer using the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS).

    PubMed

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Kukuk, Guido; Wolter, Karsten; Decker, Georges; Fischer, Stefan; Marx, Christian; Traeber, Frank; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    To determine if prostate cancer (PCa) and prostatitis can be differentiated by using PI-RADS. 3T MR images of 68 patients with 85 cancer suspicious lesions were analyzed. The findings were correlated with histopathology. T2w imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), and MR-Spectroscopy (MRS) were acquired. Every lesion was given a single PI-RADS score for each parameter, as well as a sum score and a PI-RADS v2 score. Furthermore, T2-morphology, ADC-value, perfusion type, citrate/choline-level, and localization were evaluated. 44 of 85 lesions showed PCa (51.8%), 21 chronic prostatitis (24.7%), and 20 other benign tissue such as hyperplasia or fibromuscular tissue (23.5%). The single PI-RADS score for T2WI, DWI, DCE, as well as the aggregated score including and not including MRS, and the PI-RADS v2-score were all significantly higher for PCa than for prostatitis or other tissue (p<0.001). The single PI-RADS score for MRS and the PI-RADS sum score including MRS were significantly higher for prostatitis than for other tissue (p=0.029 and p=0.020), whereas the other parameters were not different. Prostatitis usually presented borderline pathological PI-RADS scores, showed restricted diffusion with ADC≥900mm(2)/s in 100% of cases, was more often indistinctly hypointense on T2WI (66.7%), and localized in the transitional zone (57.1%). An ADC≥900mm(2)/s achieved the highest predictive value for prostatitis (AUC=0.859). Prostatitis can be differentiated from PCa using PI-RADS, since all available parameters are more distinct in cases of cancer. However, there is significant overlap between prostatitis and other benign findings, thus PI-RADS is only suitable to a limited extent for the primary assessment of prostatitis. Restricted diffusion with ADC≥900mm(2)/s is believed to be a good indicator for prostatitis. MRS can help to distinguish between prostatitis and other tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  1. Malakoplakia of the Prostate as a Mimicker of Prostate Cancer on Prostate Health Index and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Fusion Prostate Biopsy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Heah, Nathaniel H; Tan, Teck Wei; Tan, Yung Khan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Isolated malakoplakia of the prostate is a rare inflammatory condition that has been clinically mistaken for prostatic malignancies. The development of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) classifications, and Prostate Health Index (PHI) has led to more accurate diagnosis of clinically significant disease and stratification of patients that may be at risk of prostate cancer. Case Presentation: We present a case of a 75-year-old male who was on follow-up with our hospital for elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA). He was admitted for an episode of urosepsis, which was treated with antibiotics and subsequently underwent further workup and was found to have a raised PHI, as well as a high PI-RADS classification and was later found to have malakoplakia based on histology of prostate tissue obtained during targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided fusion prostate biopsy. Conclusion: To our understanding, this is the first case where a prostate lesion has been labeled as a PI-RADS 5 lesion, with elevated PHI that has subsequently been proven histologically to be malakoplakia. An important possible confounder is the interval between the MRI and the episode of urosepsis and it is well known that urosepsis can affect the PSA and MRI result. We present this case to highlight the potential for a false diagnosis of prostate cancer, in spite of laboratory and radiological findings.

  2. Feasibility of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Transrectal Photoacoustic Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    cancer detection; needle biopsy is the current practice for diagnosis of the disease, aiming randomly in the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound has...been used as a guiding tool to direct tissue needle biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis; it cannot be utilized for detecting prostate cancer due to...Research Systems, CA) and used as a reference signal. The sample and the ultrasound transducer (UST, Olympus NDT, one inch in focal length) are

  3. Imaging Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Discontinued Active Surveillance on 3-T Multiparametric Prostate MRI.

    PubMed

    Habibian, David J; Liu, Corinne C; Dao, Alex; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Katz, Aaron E

    2017-03-01

    Early-stage prostate cancer may be followed with active surveillance to avoid overtreatment. Our institution's active surveillance regimen uses annual MRI in place of serial biopsies, and biopsies are performed only when clinically necessary. The objective of our study was to report the multiparametric MRI characteristics of prostate cancer patients who discontinued active surveillance at our institution after repeat imaging revealed possible evidence of tumor upgrading. The Department of Urology at Winthrop University Hospital prospectively maintains a database of prostate cancer patients who are monitored with active surveillance. At the time of this study, there were 200 prostate cancer patients being monitored with active surveillance. Of those patients, 114 patients had an initial multiparametric MRI study that was performed before active surveillance started and at least one follow-up multiparametric MRI study that was performed after active surveillance began. The MRI findings were evaluated and correlated with pathology results, if available. Fourteen patients discontinued active surveillance because changes on follow-up MRI suggested progression of cancer. Follow-up MRI showed an enlarged or more prominent lesion compared with the appearance on a previous MRI in three (21.4%) patients, a new lesion or lesions suspicious for cancer in two (14.3%) patients, and findings suspicious for or confirming extracapsular extension in nine (64.3%) patients. Seven of the 14 (50.0%) patients had a biopsy after follow-up multiparametric MRI, and biopsy results led to tumor upgrading in six of the 14 (42.9%) patients. The duration of active surveillance ranged from 4 to 110 months. All patients received definitive treatment. The small number of patients with follow-up multiparametric MRI findings showing worsening disease supports the role of MRI in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI is useful in monitoring patients on active surveillance and

  4. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging predicts the presence of prostate cancer in patients with negative prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lista, F; Castillo, E; Gimbernat, H; Rodríguez-Barbero, J M; Panizo, J; Angulo, J C

    2015-03-01

    To assess the ability of multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer in patients with prior negative transrectal prostate biopsy (TPB). mpMRI (TSE-T2-w, DWI and DCE sequences) was performed on 1.5T (Magnetom Avanto; Siemens Healthcare Solutions) in 150 patients suspicious of prostate cancer and with negative TPB. European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) criteria were used (score 1: clinically significant disease is highly unlikely to be present; score 2: clinically significant cancer is unlikely to be present; score 3: clinically significant cancer is equivocal; score 4: clinically significant cancer is likely to be present; score 5: clinically significant cancer is highly likely to be present). PSA measurement (total and free), digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRU) and a second TPB (at least 14 cylinders) were performed in all patients. Variables were submitted for independent blind analysis. The accuracy of each test was measured. Stepwise selection model for prediction of prostate cancer in second TPB was developed. Mean age was 66.2± 5 years (51-77), mean PSA 11.3± 9.6ng/mL (0.9-75) and mean prostatic volume 82.2±42 (20-250) cc. DRE was suspicious in 11 (7.3%) patients. The mean number of cylinders per patient sampled in second TRB was 17.6±2.7(14-22). Second TRB was positive in 28 patients (18.7%). mpMRI was positive (score 3-5) in 102 (68%), test sensibility was 92.9% and the NPV was 95.8%. The risk of prostate cancer diagnosis in second TPB is modified by: PSA velocity > 0.75 (OR 1.04 [0.99-1.08]; P=0.06), free/total ratio PSA <15% (OR 0.37 [0.13-1.05]; P=0.06), each cc. of prostate volume (OR 0.98 [0.97-1]; P=0.017) and mpMRI 3-5 (OR 7.87 [1.78-34.7]; P=0.006). Multivariate analysis reveals that mpMRI (OR 7.41 [1.65-33.28]; P=0.009) and prostatic volume (OR 0.31 [0.12-0.78]; P=0.01) are independent risk predictors of prostate cancer. According to ESUR guidelines and in patients

  5. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and prostate cancer: what's new?

    PubMed

    Catalá, V; Vilanova, J C; Gaya, J M; Algaba, F; Martí, T

    Prostatic multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has recently had a wide development becoming a key tool in the diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in prostate cancer (Pca). The fast development both in technology and in reading (PIRADS V2) requires a continuous updating of knowledge within this area. The aim of this article is to present an updated revision of technical aspects, reading patterns and prostatic MP-MRI in Pca, with a multidisciplinary approach. Currently guidelines establish the use of the MP-MRI when there is a high PSA and a negative prostatic biopsy; tumor staging; evaluation in candidates to active surveillance; focal treatments plans and tumoral recurrence evaluation. Although it is used in other indications in some centers, like its use in patients suspicious of Pca but with no previous biopsy, there is still the need of a cost/benefit assessment for its use to be wider. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    arsenic-based, IGF1R-targeted radiopharmaceuticals can allow for PET imaging, IRT, and monitoring the therapeutic response of PCa. Specific Aims: Aim 1: To...models with PET imaging. Aim 3: To monitor the efficacy of 76As-based IRT of PCa with multimodality imaging.

  7. MR Imaging Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Radiotherapy, MR-based treatment planning, dosimetry, Monte Carlo dose verification, Prostate Cancer, MRI -based DRRs 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...AcQPlan system Version 5 was used for the study , which is capable of performing dose calculation on both CT and MRI . A four field 3D conformal planning...prostate motion studies for 3DCRT and IMRT of prostate cancer; (2) to investigate and improve the accuracy of MRI -based treatment planning dose calculation

  8. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu; Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287; Pullambhatla, Mrudula

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeledmore » anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in

  9. Incorporating imaging into personalized medicine for the detection of prostate cancer: Pharmacological research-Urogenital pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Mertan, Francesca; Turkbey, Baris

    2016-12-01

    Imaging has played an important role in the administration of personalized medicine. From diagnosing diseases to guiding therapies, imaging has become an all-encompassing modality. With respect to prostate cancer, personalized management of the disease has been transformed by imaging. Specifically, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a vital player in the detection, characterization, and localization of the disease thus making the incorporation of imaging in personalized prostate cancer management integral. In this review, the current role of imaging in personalized medicine for the management of prostate cancer is discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    An, Julie Y; Sidana, Abhinav; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A; Türkbey, İsmail Barış

    2017-09-29

    Active surveillance has gained popularity as an acceptable management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Successful utilization of this strategy can delay or prevent unnecessary interventions - thereby reducing morbidity associated with overtreatment. The usefulness of active surveillance primarily depends on correct identification of patients with low-risk disease. However, current population-wide algorithms and tools do not adequately exclude high-risk disease, thereby limiting the confidence of clinicians and patients to go on active surveillance. Novel imaging tools such as mpMRI provide information about the size and location of potential cancers enabling more informed treatment decisions. The term "multiparametric" in prostate mpMRI refers to the summation of several MRI series into one examination whose initial goal is to identify potential clinically-significant lesions suitable for targeted biopsy. The main advantages of MRI are its superior anatomic resolution and the lack of ionizing radiation. Recently, the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System has been instituted as an international standard for unifying mpMRI results. The imaging sequences in mpMRI defined by Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 includes: T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, derived apparent-diffusion coefficient from diffusion-weighted MRI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The use of mpMRI prior to starting active surveillance could prevent those with missed, high-grade lesions from going on active surveillance, and reassure those with minimal disease who may be hesitant to take part in active surveillance. Although larger validation studies are still necessary, preliminary results suggest mpMRI has a role in selecting patients for active surveillance. Less certain is the role of mpMRI in monitoring patients on active surveillance, as data on this will take a long time to mature. The biggest obstacles to routine use of prostate MRI are quality

  11. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    expected to exhibit selective affinity to metastatic PCa tumors known to contain processed and denatured collagens. The motivating hypothesis is that the...CMP’s ability to bind to collagen/ denatured collagen can be used to image PCa in vivo as well as to determine the level of PCa malignancy. 15...targeted by antibodies (monoclonal antibody raised against denatured collagen); however antibodies have poor pharmacokinetics for in vivo imaging2. Recently

  12. Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Gallium-68-Labeled Bombesin.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Ida; Baratto, Lucia; Iagaru, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear medicine can play an important role in evaluating prostate cancer combining anatomical and functional information with hybrid techniques. Various PET radiopharmaceuticals have been used for targeting specific biological markers in prostate cancer. Research is ideally oriented towards the development of radiopharmaceuticals targeting antigens overexpressed in prostate cancer, as opposed to normal prostate tissue. In this regard, gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) are excellent candidates. Bombesin analogues targeting the GRPR have been investigated. Gallium-68 ( 68 Ga) is an interesting PET radioisotope due to several advantages, such as availability, ease of radiochemistry, half-life, and costs. The focus of this review is on 68 Ga-labeled bombesin analogues in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu; Chen Zhe; Yu, James B.

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGymore » to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior-inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT-contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.« less

  14. Parametric PET/MR Fusion Imaging to Differentiate Aggressive from Indolent Primary Prostate Cancer with Application for Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Biopsies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The study investigates whether fusion PET/MRI imaging with 18F- choline PET/CT and...imaging with 18F- choline PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI can be successfully applied to target prostate cancer using image-guided prostate...Completed task. The 18F- choline synthesis was implemented and optimized for routine radiotracer production. RDRC committee approval as part of the IRB

  15. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    There is an emerging concept of using non-cellular solid state compartment as a source for therapeutic targets and for selective imaging of micro ... using second harmonic generation and two-photon micros - copy. J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044013. Bioconjugate Chemistry Communication dx.doi.org/10.1021...Chiu WC, Lai CC, Liou GG, Li HC, Chou MY: Production of multivalent protein binders using a self- trimerizing collagen-like peptide scaffold. FASEB J

  16. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    from enlarged lymph nodes. Figure 3. Ex vivo NIRF imaging of PC-3 PIP xenograft. AI = androgen independent, AR = androgen receptor negative, PSMA ...center O.D. rim/focal ROI PC-3 rapid 0.25 ± .09 1.21 ± 0.40 PC-3 ( PSMA +) PIP rapid 0.26 ± .12 NA DU-145 slow 0.01 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.02 HP LNCaP

  17. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Jonathan Purnell CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR 97239-3098 REPORT DATE: November 2016 TYPE OF REPORT...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Oregon Health & Science University 3181 SW S AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER SW Sam...current work to determine the association between fatty acid synthase (FAS) overexpression and intraprostatic fat as measured by in-vivo imaging using

  18. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Shannon, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR 97239-3098 REPORT DATE: December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: FINAL...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Oregon Health & Science University 3181 SW S AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER SW Sam...our current work to determine the association between fatty acid synthase (FAS) overexpression and intraprostatic fat as measured by in-vivo imaging

  19. Imaging Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    of GRPR-posi- tive tumors. Since the native BBN peptide has a pyroglutamic acid at the N-terminus and an amidated methionine at the C-termi- nus...Lys3]bombesin ([Lys3]BBN) and aminocaproic acid - bombesin(7–14) (Aca-BBN(7–14)) with 18F for GRPR imaging of subcutaneous and orthotopic PC-3 tumor...xenografted mice. Methods: [Lys3]bombesin ([Lys3]BBN) was conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N,N,N-tet- raacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with

  20. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  1. Rationale for Modernising Imaging in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Padhani, Anwar R; Lecouvet, Frederic E; Tunariu, Nina; Koh, Dow-Mu; De Keyzer, Frederik; Collins, David J; Sala, Evis; Fanti, Stefano; Vargas, H Alberto; Petralia, Giuseppe; Schlemmer, Heinz Peter; Tombal, Bertrand; de Bono, Johann

    2017-04-01

    To effectively manage patients with advanced prostate cancer (APC), it is essential to have accurate, reproducible, and validated methods for detecting and quantifying the burden of bone and soft tissue metastases and for assessing their response to therapy. Current standard of care imaging with bone and computed tomography (CT) scans have significant limitations for the assessment of bone metastases in particular. We aimed to undertake a critical comparative review of imaging methods used for diagnosis and disease monitoring of metastatic APC from the perspective of their availability and ability to assess disease presence, extent, and response of bone and soft tissue disease. An expert panel of radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians, and medical physicists with the greatest experience of imaging in advanced prostate cancer prepared a review of the practicalities, performance, merits, and limitations of currently available imaging methods. Meta-analyses showed that positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with different radiotracers and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) are more accurate for bone lesion detection than CT and bone scans (BSs). At a patient level, the pooled sensitivities for bone disease by using choline (CH)-PET/CT, WB-MRI, and BS were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 83-96%), 97% (95% CI, 91-99%), and 79% (95% CI, 73-83%), respectively. The pooled specificities for bone metastases detection using CH-PET/CT, WB-MRI, and BS were 99% (95% CI, 93-100%), 95% (95% CI, 90-97%), and 82% (95% CI, 78-85%), respectively. The ability of PET/CT and WB-MRI to assess therapeutic benefits is promising but has not been comprehensively evaluated. There is variability in the cost, availability, and quality of PET/CT and WB-MRI. Standardisation of acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of WB-MRI and PET/CT scans is required to assess the performance of these techniques in clinical trials of treatment approaches in APC. PET/CT and whole-body MRI

  2. New aspects of molecular imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Cerci, Juliano J; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays several new imaging modalities are available for investigating prostate cancer (PCa) such as magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of whole body MRI and pelvic multiparametric MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) using choline as radiotracers. Nevertheless, these modalities proved sub-optimal accuracy for detecting PCa metastases, particularly in the recurrence setting. A new molecular probe targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been recently developed for PET imaging. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II, is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase over-expressed in PCa cells. It has been shown that PSMA based imaging offers higher tumor detection rate compared to choline PET/CT and radiological conventional imaging, especially at very low PSA levels during biochemical recurrence. In addition PSMA, as theranostics agent, allows both radiolabeling with diagnostic (e.g. 68Ga, 18F) or therapeutic nuclides (e.g. 177Lu, 225Ac). Initial results show that PSMA-targeted radioligand therapy can potentially delay disease progression in metastatic castrate-resistant PCa. Despite still investigational, the bombesin-based radiotracers and antagonist of gastrin releasing-peptide receptor (GRP) (RM2) and anti1-amino-3-18Ffluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-FACBC) are emerging as possible alternatives for investigating PCa. Considering the wide diffusion of PCa in the Europe and the United States, the presence of these new diagnostic techniques able to detect the disease with high sensitivity and specificity might have a clinical impact on the management of patients. PET/CT imaging with new radiopharmaceuticals can implement the patient management identifying lesion(s) not detectable with conventional imaging procedures. In this review article will be discussed the most promising new PET radiopharmaceuticals (68Ga-PSMA-11, 18F-FACBC, 68Ga-RM2) available at the moment, focusing the attention on their accuracy and their impact on

  3. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer.html National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/ ...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the new paradigm for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, J C; Catalá, V

    For various reasons, prostate cancer is a major public health problem. It is a very common cancer, but has a very low mortality rate because it comprises two types of disease: one insignificant, indolent, and much more common, and the other aggressive, significant, and much less common. The routine diagnostic approach to prostate cancer has been systematic blind biopsies, which has low detection rates and might detect low risk, insignificant prostate cancer, leading to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent cancers. The possibility of including multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic management to improve the detection of aggressive cancer while reducing the overdiagnosis of indolent cancer represents a change in the diagnostic management. This article updates knowledge about the diagnostic management of prostate cancer including multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate-specific membrane antigen for prostate cancer theranostics: from imaging to targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Frédéric; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Pouliot, Frédéric

    2018-06-22

    In recent years, major advances in molecular imaging of prostate cancers (PCa) were made with the development and clinical validation of highly accurate PET tracers to stage and restage the disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in PCa, and its expression has led to the development of PSMA-binding radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging or radioligand therapy (RLT). We herein review the recent literature published on diagnostic and therapeutic (i.e. theranostic) PSMA tracers. Development in small PSMA-targeted molecules labeled with gallium-68 and fluorine-18 show promising results for primary staging and detection of disease at biochemical recurrence using PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). Studies show a higher sensitivity and specificity, along with an improved detection rate over conventional imaging (CT scan and bone scan) or choline PET tracers, especially for restaging after prostate-specific antigen failure following loco-regional therapy. In addition, some PSMA tracers can be labeled with beta-minus and alpha particle emitters, yielding encouraging response rates and low toxicity, and potentially offering a new line of targeted therapy for metastatic castration-resistant PCa. PSMA-targeted tracers have shown unprecedented accuracy to stage and restage PCa using PET/CT. Given their specific biodistribution toward PCa tissue, PSMA RLT now offers new therapeutic possibilities to target metastatic PCa. Prospective multicenter randomized studies investigating the clinical impact management impacts of PSMA-targeted molecules are urgently needed.

  6. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  7. The Diagnostic Performance of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Significant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J E; van Leeuwen, P J; Moses, D; Shnier, R; Brenner, P; Delprado, W; Pulbrook, M; Böhm, M; Haynes, A M; Hayen, A; Stricker, P D

    2016-05-01

    We assess the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for significant prostate cancer detection before diagnostic biopsy in men with an abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination. A total of 388 men underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging before biopsy. Two radiologists used PI-RADS to allocate a score of 1 to 5 for suspicion of significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 with more than 5% grade 4). PI-RADS 3 to 5 was considered positive. Transperineal template guided mapping biopsy of 18 regions (median 30 cores) was performed with additional manually directed cores from magnetic resonance imaging positive regions. The anatomical location, size and grade of individual cancer areas in the biopsy regions (18) as the primary outcome and in prostatectomy specimens (117) as the secondary outcome were correlated to the magnetic resonance imaging positive regions. Of the 388 men who were enrolled in the study 344 were analyzed. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was positive in 77.0% of patients, 62.5% had prostate cancer and 41.6% had significant prostate cancer. The detection of significant prostate cancer by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 36%, negative predictive value of 92% and positive predictive value of 52%. Adding PI-RADS to the multivariate model, including prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, prostate volume and age, improved the AUC from 0.776 to 0.879 (p <0.001). Anatomical concordance analysis showed a low mismatch between the magnetic resonance imaging positive regions and biopsy positive regions (4 [2.9%]), and the significant prostate cancer area in the radical prostatectomy specimen (3 [3.3%]). In men with an abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging detected significant prostate cancer

  8. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  9. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  10. FLIM-FRET image analysis of tryptophan in prostate cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periasamy, Ammasi; Alam, Shagufta R.; Svindrych, Zdenek; Wallrabe, Horst

    2017-07-01

    A region of interest (ROI) based quantitative FLIM-FRET image analysis is developed to quantitate the autofluorescence signals of the essential amino acid tryptophan as a biomarker to investigate the metabolism in prostate cancer cells.

  11. In vivo optoacoustic temperature imaging for image-guided cryotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. V.; Brecht, H. P.; Motamedi, M.; Oraevsky, A. A.; Ermilov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate in vivo the feasibility of optoacoustic temperature imaging during cryotherapy of prostate cancer. We developed a preclinical prototype optoacoustic temperature imager that included pulsed optical excitation at a wavelength of 805 nm, a modified clinical transrectal ultrasound probe, a parallel data acquisition system, image processing and visualization software. Cryotherapy of a canine prostate was performed in vivo using a commercial clinical system, Cryocare® CS, with an integrated ultrasound imaging. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response of blood was employed to convert reconstructed optoacoustic images to temperature maps. Optoacoustic imaging of temperature during prostate cryotherapy was performed in the longitudinal view over a region of 30 mm (long)  ×  10 mm (deep) that covered the rectum, the Denonvilliers fascia, and the posterior portion of the treated gland. The transrectal optoacoustic images showed high-contrast vascularized regions, which were used for quantitative estimation of local temperature profiles. The constructed temperature maps and their temporal dynamics were consistent with the arrangement of the cryoprobe and readouts of the thermal needle sensors. The temporal profiles of the readouts from the thermal needle sensors and the temporal profile estimated from the normalized optoacoustic intensity of the selected vascularized region showed significant resemblance, except for the initial overshoot, that may be explained as a result of the physiological thermoregulatory compensation. The temperature was mapped with errors not exceeding  ±2 °C (standard deviation) consistent with the clinical requirements for monitoring cryotherapy of the prostate. In vivo results showed that the optoacoustic temperature imaging is a promising non-invasive technique for real-time imaging of tissue temperature during cryotherapy of prostate cancer, which can be combined

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging-directed transperineal limited-mapping prostatic biopsies to diagnose prostate cancer: a Scottish experience.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ankur; Morton, Simon; Fraser, Sioban; Salmond, Jonathan; Baxter, Grant; Leung, Hing Y

    2014-11-01

    Transperineal prostatic biopsy is firmly established as an important tool in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The benefit of additional imaging (magnetic resonance imaging) to target biopsy remains to be fully addressed. Using a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing transperineal template mapping biopsies, we studied positive biopsies in the context of magnetic resonance imaging findings and examined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting the location of transperineal template mapping biopsies-detected prostate cancer. Forty-four patients (mean age: 65 years, range 53-78) underwent transperineal template mapping biopsies. Thirty-four patients had 1-2 and 10 patients had ≥3 previous transrectal ultrasound scan-guided biopsies. The mean prostate-specific antigen was 15 ng/mL (range 2.5-79 ng/mL). High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was found in 12 (27%) patients and prostate cancer with Gleason <7, 7 and >7 in 13, 10 and 8 patients, respectively. Suspicious lesions on magnetic resonance imaging scans were scored from 1 to 5. In 28 patients, magnetic resonance imaging detected lesions with score ≥3. Magnetic resonance imaging correctly localised transperineal template mapping biopsies-detected prostate cancer in a hemi-gland approach, particularly in a right to left manner (79% positive prediction rate), but not in a quadrant approach (33% positive prediction rate). Our findings support the notion of magnetic resonance imaging-based selection of patients for transperineal template mapping biopsies and that lesions revealed by magnetic resonance imaging are likely useful for targeted biopsies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. A new imaging technique to detect recurrent prostate cancer is tested in new clinical trial | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Standard imaging techniques cannot accurately locate sites of prostate cancer metastasis. The use of 18F-DCFPyL, a second-generation PET agent, aims to improve doctors’ ability to assess high-risk primary tumors, detect sites of recurrent prostate cancer and target therapies to specific sites of recurrence. Read more...

  14. ProstateAnalyzer: Web-based medical application for the management of prostate cancer using multiparametric MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Mata, Christian; Walker, Paul M; Oliver, Arnau; Brunotte, François; Martí, Joan; Lalande, Alain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present ProstateAnalyzer, a new web-based medical tool for prostate cancer diagnosis. ProstateAnalyzer allows the visualization and analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a single framework. ProstateAnalyzer recovers the data from a PACS server and displays all the associated MRI images in the same framework, usually consisting of 3D T2-weighted imaging for anatomy, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for perfusion, diffusion-weighted imaging in the form of an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map and MR Spectroscopy. ProstateAnalyzer allows annotating regions of interest in a sequence and propagates them to the others. From a representative case, the results using the four visualization platforms are fully detailed, showing the interaction among them. The tool has been implemented as a Java-based applet application to facilitate the portability of the tool to the different computer architectures and software and allowing the possibility to work remotely via the web. ProstateAnalyzer enables experts to manage prostate cancer patient data set more efficiently. The tool allows delineating annotations by experts and displays all the required information for use in diagnosis. According to the current European Society of Urogenital Radiology guidelines, it also includes the PI-RADS structured reporting scheme.

  15. Image-guided diagnosis of prostate cancer can increase detection of tumors

    Cancer.gov

    In the largest prospective study to date of image-guided technology for identifying suspicious regions of the prostate to biopsy, researchers compared the ability of this technology to detect high-risk prostate cancer with that of the current standard of

  16. Nuclear Imaging for Assessment of Prostate Cancer Gene Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    thymidine kinase transfected EL4 cells . Further exploration of Tc-99m conjugated potential HSV1-TK substrates is still undergoing in our laboratory...prostate cancer cells , has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy for prostate cancer[10, 11]. Therefore, an adenovirus...BJ5183 together with pAdeasy-1, the viral DNA plasmid. The pAdeasy-1 is E1 and E3 deleted, its E1 function can be complemented in 293A cells . The

  17. Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Quantitative T2 Values for Cancer Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Roebuck, Joseph R.; Haker, Steven J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Rybicki, Frank J.; Tempany, Clare M.; Mulkern, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative, apparent T2 values of suspected prostate cancer and healthy peripheral zone tissue in men with prostate cancer were measured using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) imaging sequence in order to assess the cancer discrimination potential of tissue T2 values. The CPMG imaging sequence was used to image the prostates of 18 men with biopsy proven prostate cancer. Whole gland coverage with nominal voxel volumes of 0.54 × 1.1 × 4 mm3 was obtained in 10.7 minutes, resulting in data sets suitable for generating high quality images with variable T2-weighting and for evaluating quantitative T2 values on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Region-of-interest analysis of suspected healthy peripheral zone tissue and suspected cancer, identified on the basis of both T1- and T2-weighted signal intensities and available histopathology reports, yielded significantly (p < 0.0001) longer apparent T2 values in suspected healthy tissue (193 ± 49 ms) vs. suspected cancer (100 ± 26 ms), suggesting potential utility of this method as a tissue specific discrimination index for prostate cancer. We conclude that CPMG imaging of the prostate can be performed in reasonable scan times and can provide advantages over T2-weighted fast spin echo imaging alone, including quantitative T2 values for cancer discrimination as well as proton density maps without the point spread function degradation associated with short effective echo time fast spin echo (FSE) sequences. PMID:18823731

  18. Fusing MRI and Mechanical Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Western Reserve University. - PI is participating weekly Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System meeting in the Department of Radiology, Case Medical...Literary Guild (LG) seminar, Case Western Reserve University. Hosted by PI’s mentor. - PI is participating the majority of Imaging Hour meeting...Ernest Feleppa4, Dean Barratt2, Lee Ponsky5, Anant Madabhushi1 1 Center for Computational Imaging and Personalized Diagnostics, Case Western Reserve

  19. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 T in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lagemaat, Miriam W; Vos, Eline K; Maas, Marnix C; Bitz, Andreas K; Orzada, Stephan; van Uden, Mark J; Kobus, Thiele; Heerschap, Arend; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of phosphorus (P) spectra of the human prostate and to investigate changes of individual phospholipid metabolites in prostate cancer through in vivo P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 T. In this institutional review board-approved study, 15 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and 3-dimensional P MRSI at 7 T. Voxels were selected at the tumor location, in normal-appearing peripheral zone tissue, normal-appearing transition zone tissue, and in the base of the prostate close to the seminal vesicles. Phosphorus metabolite ratios were determined and compared between tissue types. Signals of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC) were present and well resolved in most P spectra in the prostate. Glycerophosphocholine signals were observable in 43% of the voxels in malignant tissue, but in only 10% of the voxels in normal-appearing tissue away from the seminal vesicles. In many spectra, independent of tissue type, 2 peaks resonated in the chemical shift range of inorganic phosphate, possibly representing 2 separate pH compartments. The PC/PE ratio in the seminal vesicles was highly elevated compared with the prostate in 5 patients. A considerable overlap of P metabolite ratios was found between prostate cancer and normal-appearing prostate tissue, preventing direct discrimination of these tissues. The only 2 patients with high Gleason scores tumors (≥4+5) presented with high PC and glycerophosphocholine levels in their cancer lesions. Phosphorus MRSI at 7 T shows distinct features of phospholipid metabolites in the prostate gland and its surrounding structures. In this exploratory study, no differences in P metabolite ratios were observed between prostate cancer and normal-appearing prostate tissue possibly because of the partial volume effects of small tumor foci in large MRSI voxels.

  20. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-based imaging in prostate cancer: impact on clinical decision making process.

    PubMed

    Demirkol, Mehmet Onur; Acar, Ömer; Uçar, Burcu; Ramazanoğlu, Sultan Rana; Sağlıcan, Yeşim; Esen, Tarık

    2015-05-01

    There is an ongoing need for an accurate imaging modality which can be used for staging purposes, metastatic evaluation, predicting biologic aggresiveness and investigating recurrent disease in prostate cancer. Prostate specific membrane antigen, given its favorable molecular characteristics, holds a promise as an ideal target for prostate cancer-specific nuclear imaging. In this study, we evaluated our initial results of PSMA based PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. A total of 22 patients with a median age and serum PSA level of 68 years and 4.15 ng/ml, respectively underwent Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in our hospital between Februrary and August 2014. Their charts were retrospectively reviewed in order to document the clinical characteristics, the indications for and the results of PSMA based imaging and the impact of Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT findings on disease management. The most common indications were rising PSA after local ± adjuvant treatment followed by staging and metastatic evaluation before definitive or salvage treatment. All except 2 patients had prostatic ± extraprostatic PSMA positive lesions. For those who had a positive result; treatment strategies were tailored accordingly. Above the PSA level of 2 ng/ml, none of the PSMA based nuclear imaging studies revealed negative results. PSMA based nuclear imaging has significantly impacted our way of handling patients with prostate cancer. Its preliminary performance in different clinical scenarios and ability to detect lesions even in low PSA values seems fairly promising and deserves to be supplemented with further clinical studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of Targeted Near-Infrared Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinning; Huang, Steve S.; Heston, Warren D.W.; Guo, Hong; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Basilion, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Radical prostatectomy remains a definitive treatment for prostate cancer. However, prostate surgeries are still performed “blindly” with the extent of tumor infiltration past the margins of the surgery only being determined postoperatively. An imaging modality that can be used during surgery is needed to help define the tumor margins. With its abundant expression in prostate cancer, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an ideal target for detection of prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop PSMA-targeted near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging probes for intraoperative visualization of prostate cancer. We synthesized a high-affinity PSMA ligand (PSMA-1) with low molecular weight and further labeled it with commercially available NIR dyes IRDy800 and Cy5.5. PSMA-1 and PSMA-1–NIR conjugates had binding affinities better than the parent ligand Cys-CO-Glu. Selective binding was measured for each of the probes in both in vitro and in vivo studies using competitive binding and uptake studies. Interestingly, the results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of the probes was dependent of the fluorophore conjugated to the PSMA-1 ligand and varied widely. These data suggest that PSMA-targeted probes have the potential to be further developed as contrast agents for clinical intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:25239933

  2. Analysis of the spatial distribution of prostate cancer obtained from histopathological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Kristians; Castaneda, Benjamin; Montero, Maria Luisa; Yao, Jorge; Joseph, Jean; Rubens, Deborah; Parker, Kevin J.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of prostate cancer and how it changes according to prostate specific antigen (PSA) values, Gleason score, and other clinical parameters may help comprehend the disease and increase the overall success rate of biopsies. This work aims to build 3D spatial distributions of prostate cancer and examine the extent and location of cancer as a function of independent clinical parameters. The border of the gland and cancerous regions from wholemount histopathological images are used to reconstruct 3D models showing the localization of tumor. This process utilizes color segmentation and interpolation based on mathematical morphological distance. 58 glands are deformed into one prostate atlas using a combination of rigid, affine, and b-spline deformable registration techniques. Spatial distribution is developed by counting the number of occurrences in a given position in 3D space from each registered prostate cancer. Finally a difference between proportions is used to compare different spatial distributions. Results show that prostate cancer has a significant difference (SD) in the right zone of the prostate between populations with PSA greater and less than 5ng/ml. Age does not have any impact in the spatial distribution of the disease. Positive and negative capsule-penetrated cases show a SD in the right posterior zone. There is SD in almost all the glands between cases with tumors larger and smaller than 10% of the whole prostate. A larger database is needed to improve the statistical validity of the test. Finally, information from whole-mount histopathological images may provide better insight into prostate cancer.

  3. Normal Central Zone of the Prostate and Central Zone Involvement by Prostate Cancer: Clinical and MR Imaging Implications

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Oguz; Franiel, Tobias; Goldman, Debra A.; Udo, Kazuma; Touijer, Karim A.; Reuter, Victor E.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the anatomic features of the central zone of the prostate on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) images and evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR imaging in detection of central zone involvement by prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board waived informed consent and approved this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant study of 211 patients who underwent T2-weighted and DW MR imaging of the prostate before radical prostatectomy. Whole-mount step-section pathologic findings were the reference standard. Two radiologists independently recorded the visibility, MR signal intensity, size, and symmetry of the central zone and scored the likelihood of central zone involvement by cancer on T2-weighted MR images and on T2-weighted MR images plus apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps generated from the DW MR images. Descriptive summary statistics were calculated for central zone imaging features. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were used to evaluate reader performance in detecting central zone involvement. Results: For readers 1 and 2, the central zone was visible, at least partially, in 177 (84%) and 170 (81%) of 211 patients, respectively. The most common imaging appearance of the central zone was symmetric, homogeneous low signal intensity. Cancers involving the central zone had higher prostate-specific antigen values, Gleason scores, and rates of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion compared with cancers not involving the central zone (P < .05). Area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity in detecting central zone involvement were 0.70, 0.30, and 0.96 for reader 1 and 0.65, 0.35, and 0.93 for reader 2, and these values did not differ significantly between T2-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging plus ADC maps. Conclusion: The central zone was visualized in most patients. Cancers involving the central zone were associated with more aggressive disease

  4. Evaluation of a novel label-free photonic-crystal biosensor imaging system for the detection of prostate cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuna, Frank; Ding, XiaoFie; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Ye, Jing Yong

    2017-02-01

    Biomarker screening for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the current clinical standard for detection of prostate cancer. However this method has shown many limitations, mainly in its specificity, which can lead to a high false positive rate. Thus, there is a growing need in developing a more specific detection system for prostate cancer. Using a Photonic- Crystal-based biosensor in a Total-Internal-Reflection (PC-TIR) configuration, we demonstrate the use of refractive index (RI) to accomplish label-free detection of prostate cancer cells against non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells. The PC-TIR biosensor possesses an open microcavity, which in contrast to traditional closed microcavities, allows for easier access of analyte molecules or cells to interact with its sensing surface. In this study, an imaging system was designed using the PC-TIR biosensor to quantify cell RI as the contrast parameter for prostate cancer detection. Non-cancerous BPH-1 prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer PC-3 cells were placed on a single biosensor and measured concurrently. Recorded image data was then analyzed through a home-built MatLab program. Results demonstrate that RI is a suitable variable for differentiation between prostate cancer cells and non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells. Our study shows clinical potential in utilizing RI test for the detection of prostate cancer.

  5. Prediction of Prostate Cancer Recurrence Using Quantitative Phase Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    The risk of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer among individuals who undergo radical prostatectomy for treatment is around 25%. Current clinical methods often fail at successfully predicting recurrence among patients at intermediate risk for recurrence. We used a label-free method, spatial light interference microscopy, to perform localized measurements of light scattering in prostatectomy tissue microarrays. We show, for the first time to our knowledge, that anisotropy of light scattering in the stroma immediately adjoining cancerous glands can be used to identify patients at higher risk for recurrence. The data show that lower value of anisotropy corresponds to a higher risk for recurrence, meaning that the stroma adjoining the glands of recurrent patients is more fractionated than in non-recurrent patients. Our method outperformed the widely accepted clinical tool CAPRA-S in the cases we interrogated irrespective of Gleason grade, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage. These results suggest that QPI shows promise in assisting pathologists to improve prediction of prostate cancer recurrence.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate cancer Genetic Testing Registry: Prostate cancer aggressiveness quantitative trait locus on chromosome 19 Genetic Testing Registry: ... OMIM (25 links) PROSTATE CANCER PROSTATE CANCER AGGRESSIVENESS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ON CHROMOSOME 19 PROSTATE CANCER ANTIGEN ...

  7. A novel imaging approach for prostate cancer is tested in new clinical trial | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer patients who have failed standard radiation therapy have the options of surgery, radioactive seed implantation or cryoablation. Deborah Citrin, M.D., of the Radiation Oncology Branch is leading a study of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to treat prostate cancer that has recurred locally after standard radiation therapy. The goal of this study is to use a novel imaging approach to guide treatment and to define the best dose of SBRT for patients whose prostate cancer has recurred after standard radiotherapy. Read more...

  8. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Carlos E; Pisters, Louis L

    2003-06-01

    Cryotherapy, or the use of freezing, is a long-established method of tumor cell destruction. Although in the past cryotherapy was widely used as a local treatment for prostate cancer, this technique was abandoned not due to lack of efficacy but because the complication rate was unacceptably high. However, there has been a re-emergence in the popularity of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer due to improvements in instrumentation, tumor localization and treatment delivery. Using transrectal ultrasound imaging, prostate cryotherapy is currently delivered with multiple probes via a percutaneous transperineal approach. The extent of freezing can be precisely controlled and monitored with thermocouples and tissue destruction is monitored with real-time visualization of the prostate and surrounding structures. The role of cryotherapy in localized prostate cancer is reviewed.

  9. Echo-Planar Imaging Based J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Scope: A major outcome is expected to be on improved detection ( specificity ) in differentiating malignant from benign prostate cancer using a novel...Digital Rectal Examination, prostate specific antigen , Four Dimensional (4D) Echo-Planar J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging (EP-JRESI); Citrate, Choline... prostate biopsy ranged from 3 to 8, while prostate - specific antigen varied from 2.8 to 20.6 ng/mL (mean of 6.84 ng/mL). A Siemens 3T MRI Scanner with

  10. Image guidance in prostate cancer - can offline corrections be an effective substitute for daily online imaging?

    PubMed

    Prasad, Devleena; Das, Pinaki; Saha, Niladri S; Chatterjee, Sanjoy; Achari, Rimpa; Mallick, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    This aim of this study was to determine if a less resource-intensive and established offline correction protocol - the No Action Level (NAL) protocol was as effective as daily online corrections of setup deviations in curative high-dose radiotherapy of prostate cancer. A total of 683 daily megavoltage CT (MVCT) or kilovoltage CT (kvCBCT) images of 30 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy were evaluated. Daily image-guidance was performed and setup errors in three translational axes recorded. The NAL protocol was simulated by using the mean shift calculated from the first five fractions and implemented on all subsequent treatments. Using the imaging data from the remaining fractions, the daily residual error (RE) was determined. The proportion of fractions where the RE was greater than 3,5 and 7 mm was calculated, and also the actual PTV margin that would be required if the offline protocol was followed. Using the NAL protocol reduced the systematic but not the random errors. Corrections made using the NAL protocol resulted in small and acceptable RE in the mediolateral (ML) and superoinferior (SI) directions with 46/533 (8.1%) and 48/533 (5%) residual shifts above 5 mm. However; residual errors greater than 5mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction remained in 181/533 (34%) of fractions. The PTV margins calculated based on residual errors were 5mm, 5mm and 13 mm in the ML, SI and AP directions respectively. Offline correction using the NAL protocol resulted in unacceptably high residual errors in the AP direction, due to random uncertainties of rectal and bladder filling. Daily online imaging and corrections remain the standard image guidance policy for highly conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  11. Treating Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer: Update of a 2008 Systematic Review . Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 146. (Prepared by the ECRI ... Prostate Cancer Research Protocol Archived March 29, 2013 Comparative Effectiveness of Therapies for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: ...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  13. Preclinical Evaluation of 18F-PSMA-1007, a New Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligand for Prostate Cancer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Jens; Schäfer, Martin; Benešová, Martina; Bauder-Wüst, Ulrike; Leotta, Karin; Eder, Matthias; Neels, Oliver C; Haberkorn, Uwe; Giesel, Frederik L; Kopka, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, several radiotracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced. Some of them have had a high clinical impact on the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. However, the number of 18 F-labeled tracers addressing PSMA is still limited. Therefore, we aimed to develop a radiofluorinated molecule resembling the structure of therapeutic PSMA-617. Methods: The nonradioactive reference compound PSMA-1007 and the precursor were produced by solid-phase chemistry. The radioligand 18 F-PSMA-1007 was produced by a 2-step procedure with the prosthetic group 6- 18 F-fluoronicotinic acid 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester. The binding affinity of the ligand for PSMA and its internalization properties were evaluated in vitro with PSMA-positive LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells. Further, organ distribution studies were performed with mice bearing LNCaP and PC-3 (prostate cancer cell line; PSMA-negative) tumors. Finally, small-animal PET imaging of an LNCaP tumor-bearing mouse was performed. Results: The identified ligand had a binding affinity of 6.7 ± 1.7 nM for PSMA and an exceptionally high internalization ratio (67% ± 13%) in vitro. In organ distribution studies, high and specific tumor uptake (8.0 ± 2.4 percentage injected dose per gram) in LNCaP tumor-bearing mice was observed. In the small-animal PET experiments, LNCaP tumors were clearly visualized. Conclusion: The radiofluorinated PSMA ligand showed promising characteristics in its preclinical evaluation, and the feasibility of prostate cancer imaging was demonstrated by small-animal PET studies. Therefore, we recommend clinical transfer of the radioligand 18 F-PSMA-1007 for use as a diagnostic PET tracer in prestaging and monitoring of prostate cancer. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  14. ProxiScan™: A Novel Camera for Imaging Prostate Cancer

    ScienceCinema

    Ralph James

    2017-12-09

    ProxiScan is a compact gamma camera suited for high-resolution imaging of prostate cancer. Developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Hybridyne Imaging Technologies, Inc., ProxiScan won a 2009 R&D 100 Award, sponsored by R&D Magazine to recognize t

  15. Imaging Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT and PET/MRI: Current and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Hope, Thomas A; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Eiber, Matthias; Emmett, Louise; Fendler, Wolfgang P; Lawhn-Heath, Courtney; Rowe, Steven P

    2018-06-27

    The purpose of this article is to describe the large number of radiotracers being evaluated for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET, which is becoming a central tool in the staging of prostate cancer. PSMA PET is a highly promising modality for the staging of prostate cancer because of its higher detection rate compared with that of conventional imaging. Both PET/CT and PET/MRI offer benefits with PSMA radiotracers, and PSMA PET findings frequently lead to changes in management. It is imperative that subsequent treatment changes be evaluated to show improved outcomes. PSMA PET also has potential applications, including patient selection for PSMA-based radioligand therapy and evaluation of treatment response.

  16. Prostate-specific membrane antigen as a target for cancer imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    KIESS, A. P.; BANERJEE, S. R.; MEASE, R. C.; ROWE, S. P.; RAO, A.; FOSS, C. A.; CHEN, Y.; YANG, X.; CHO, S. Y.; NIMMAGADDA, S.; POMPER, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a molecular target whose use has resulted in some of the most productive work toward imaging and treating prostate cancer over the past two decades. A wide variety of imaging agents extending from intact antibodies to low-molecular-weight compounds permeate the literature. In parallel there is a rapidly expanding pool of antibody-drug conjugates, radiopharmaceutical therapeutics, small-molecule drug conjugates, theranostics and nanomedicines targeting PSMA. Such productivity is motivated by the abundant expression of PSMA on the surface of prostate cancer cells and within the neovasculature of other solid tumors, with limited expression in most normal tissues. Animating the field is a variety of small-molecule scaffolds upon which the radionuclides, drugs, MR-detectable species and nanoparticles can be placed with relative ease. Among those, the urea-based agents have been most extensively leveraged, with expanding clinical use for detection and more recently for radiopharmaceutical therapy of prostate cancer, with surprisingly little toxicity. PSMA imaging of other cancers is also appearing in the clinical literature, and may overtake FDG for certain indications. Targeting PSMA may provide a viable alternative or first-line approach to managing prostate and other cancers. PMID:26213140

  17. Differentiation among prostate cancer patients with Gleason score of 7 using histopathology whole-slide image and genomic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jian; Karagoz, Kubra; Gatza, Michael; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin related cancer affecting 1 in 7 men in the United States. Treatment of patients with prostate cancer still remains a difficult decision-making process that requires physicians to balance clinical benefits, life expectancy, comorbidities, and treatment-related side effects. Gleason score (a sum of the primary and secondary Gleason patterns) solely based on morphological prostate glandular architecture has shown as one of the best predictors of prostate cancer outcome. Significant progress has been made on molecular subtyping prostate cancer delineated through the increasing use of gene sequencing. Prostate cancer patients with Gleason score of 7 show heterogeneity in recurrence and survival outcomes. Therefore, we propose to assess the correlation between histopathology images and genomic data with disease recurrence in prostate tumors with a Gleason 7 score to identify prognostic markers. In the study, we identify image biomarkers within tissue WSIs by modeling the spatial relationship from automatically created patches as a sequence within WSI by adopting a recurrence network model, namely long short-term memory (LSTM). Our preliminary results demonstrate that integrating image biomarkers from CNN with LSTM and genomic pathway scores, is more strongly correlated with patients recurrence of disease compared to standard clinical markers and engineered image texture features. The study further demonstrates that prostate cancer patients with Gleason score of 4+3 have a higher risk of disease progression and recurrence compared to prostate cancer patients with Gleason score of 3+4.

  18. Bombesin functionalized 64Cu-copper sulfide nanoparticles for targeted imaging of orthotopic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huawei; Xie, Fang; Mulgaonkar, Aditi; Chen, Lihong; Sun, Xiankai; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Peng, Fangyu; Tian, Rong; Li, Lin; Wu, Changqiang; Ai, Hua

    2018-05-22

    To synthesize and evaluate the imaging potential of Bom-PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS nanoparticles (NPs) in orothotopic prostate tumor. [ 64 Cu]CuS NPs were synthesized in aqueous solution by 64 CuCl 2 and Na 2 S reaction. Then PEG linker with or without bombesin peptide were conjugated to the surface of [ 64 Cu]CuS NPs to produce Bom-PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS and PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS NPs. These two kinds of NPs were used for testing specific uptake in prostate cancer cells in vitro and imaging of orthotopic prostate tumor in vivo. Bom-PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS and PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS NPs were successfully synthesized with core diameter of approximately 5 nm. Radioactive cellular uptake revealed that Bom-PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS was able to specifically bind to prostate cancer cells, and the microPET-CT imaging indicated clear visualization of orthotopic prostate tumors. Radiolabeled Bom-PEG-[ 64 Cu]CuS NPs have potential as an ideal agent for orthotopic prostate tumor imaging by microPET-CT.

  19. 1.5-Tesla Multiparametric-Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Popita, Cristian; Popita, Anca Raluca; Sitar-Taut, Adela; Petrut, Bogdan; Fetica, Bogdan; Coman, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    Multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) is the main imaging modality used for prostate cancer detection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI at 1.5-Tesla (1.5-T) for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. In this ethical board approved prospective study, 39 patients with suspected prostate cancer were included. Patients with a history of positive prostate biopsy and patients treated for prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were examined at 1.5-T MRI, before standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for mp-MRI were 100%, 73.68%, 80% and 100%, respectively. Our results showed that 1.5 T mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and high negative predictive value in order to rule out significant disease.

  20. Review of Gallium-68 PSMA PET/CT Imaging in the Management of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lenzo, Nat P.; Meyrick, Danielle; Turner, J. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Over 90% of prostate cancers over-express prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and these tumor cells may be accurately targeted for diagnosis by 68Ga-PSMA-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-PSMA-PET/CT) imaging. This novel molecular imaging modality appears clinically to have superseded CT, and appears superior to MR imaging, for the detection of metastatic disease. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has the ability to reliably stage prostate cancer at presentation and can help inform an optimal treatment approach. Novel diagnostic applications of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT include guiding biopsy to improve sampling accuracy, and guiding surgery and radiotherapy. In addition to facilitating the management of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), 68Ga-PSMA can select patients who may benefit from targeted systemic radionuclide therapy. 68Ga-PSMA is the diagnostic positron-emitting theranostic pair with the beta emitter Lutetium-177 PSMA (177Lu-PSMA) and alpha-emitter Actinium-225 PSMA (225Ac-PSMA) which can both be used to treat PSMA-avid metastases of prostate cancer in the molecular tumor-targeted approach of theranostic nuclear oncology. PMID:29439481

  1. Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound Fusion for Guidance.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Shyam; Jones, Tonye A; Priester, Alan M; Geoghegan, Rory; Lieu, Patricia; Delfin, Merdie; Felker, Ely; Margolis, Daniel J A; Sisk, Anthony; Pantuck, Allan; Grundfest, Warren; Marks, Leonard S

    2017-10-01

    Focal laser ablation is a potential treatment in some men with prostate cancer. Currently focal laser ablation is performed by radiologists in a magnetic resonance imaging unit (in bore). We evaluated the safety and feasibility of performing focal laser ablation in a urology clinic (out of bore) using magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion for guidance. A total of 11 men with intermediate risk prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board approved pilot study. Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion was used to guide laser fibers transrectally into regions of interest harboring intermediate risk prostate cancer. Thermal probes were inserted for real-time monitoring of intraprostatic temperatures during laser activation. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla) was done immediately after treatment and at 6 months along with comprehensive fusion biopsy. Ten of 11 patients were successfully treated while under local anesthesia. Mean procedure time was 95 minutes (range 71 to 105). Posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging revealed a confined zone of nonperfusion in all 10 men. Mean zone volume was 4.3 cc (range 2.1 to 6.0). No CTCAE grade 3 or greater adverse events developed and no changes were observed in urinary or sexual function. At 6 months magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion biopsy of the treatment site showed no cancer in 3 patients, microfocal Gleason 3 + 3 in another 3 and persistent intermediate risk prostate cancer in 4. Focal laser ablation of prostate cancer appears safe and feasible with the patient under local anesthesia in a urology clinic using magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion for guidance and thermal probes for monitoring. Further development is necessary to refine out of bore focal laser ablation and additional studies are needed to determine appropriate treatment margins and oncologic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  2. Role of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Larissa J; Janoski, Michele; Wachowicz, Keith; Yahya, Atiyah; Boychak, Oleksandr; Amanie, John; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew B; Pituskin, Edith; Fallone, B Gino; Usmani, Nawaid

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether addition of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to an active surveillance protocol could detect aggressive or progressive prostate cancer. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with low risk disease were enrolled on this active surveillance study, all of which had Gleason score 6 or less disease. All patients had clinical assessments, including digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, every 6 mo with annual 3T mpMRI scans with gadolinium contrast and minimum sextant prostate biopsies. The MRI images were anonymized of patient identifiers and clinical information and each scan underwent radiological review without the other results known. Descriptive statistics for demographics and follow-up as well as the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease were calculated. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 24.8 mo) 11 of 23 patients with low-risk prostate cancer had disease progression and were taken off study to receive definitive treatment. Disease progression was identified through upstaging of Gleason score on subsequent biopsies for all 11 patients with only 2 patients also having a PSA doubling time of less than 2 years. All 23 patients had biopsy confirmed prostate cancer but only 10 had a positive index of suspicion on mpMRI scans at baseline (43.5% sensitivity). Aggressive disease prediction from baseline mpMRI scans had satisfactory specificity (81.8%) but low sensitivity (58.3%). Twenty-two patients had serial mpMRI scans and evidence of disease progression was seen for 3 patients all of whom had upstaging of Gleason score on biopsy (30% specificity and 100% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Addition of mpMRI imaging in active surveillance decision making may help in identifying aggressive disease amongst men with indolent prostate cancer earlier than traditional methods. PMID:27158428

  3. Multiparametric dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wildeboer, Rogier R; Postema, Arnoud W; Demi, Libertario; Kuenen, Maarten P J; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) for prostate cancer (PCa) localization by means of a multiparametric approach. Thirteen different parameters related to either perfusion or dispersion were extracted pixel-by-pixel from 45 DCE-US recordings in 19 patients referred for radical prostatectomy. Multiparametric maps were retrospectively produced using a Gaussian mixture model algorithm. These were subsequently evaluated on their pixel-wise performance in classifying 43 benign and 42 malignant histopathologically confirmed regions of interest, using a prostate-based leave-one-out procedure. The combination of the spatiotemporal correlation (r), mean transit time (μ), curve skewness (κ), and peak time (PT) yielded an accuracy of 81% ± 11%, which was higher than the best performing single parameters: r (73%), μ (72%), and wash-in time (72%). The negative predictive value increased to 83% ± 16% from 70%, 69% and 67%, respectively. Pixel inclusion based on the confidence level boosted these measures to 90% with half of the pixels excluded, but without disregarding any prostate or region. Our results suggest multiparametric DCE-US analysis might be a useful diagnostic tool for PCa, possibly supporting future targeting of biopsies or therapy. Application in other types of cancer can also be foreseen. • DCE-US can be used to extract both perfusion and dispersion-related parameters. • Multiparametric DCE-US performs better in detecting PCa than single-parametric DCE-US. • Multiparametric DCE-US might become a useful tool for PCa localization.

  4. Body image predicts quality of life in men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Ford, Megan; Meyerowitz, Beth E; D'Orazio, Lina M; Christie, Kysa M; Gross, Mitchell E; Agus, David B

    2013-04-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the USA will survive. Of the many aspects of survivorship affected by prostate cancer, body image receives limited attention despite some indication that it may be important to men with the disease. The present study investigated how body image changes over time and the relations between changes in body image and quality of life (QOL) in men with prostate cancer. In a longitudinal design, patients (N = 74) completed questionnaires before treatment (T1) and at 1 month (T2) and 2 years (T3) following treatment completion. Growth curve modeling indicated that there was no significant change over time in group-level body image scores. However, hormone treatment was associated with a negative trajectory of change over 2 years. Also, analysis of individual difference scores indicated that ≥50% of patients demonstrated change of at least 0.5 standard deviation between time points. Hierarchical regression indicated that change in body image between T1 and T2 was significantly associated with change in QOL between T1 and T3, while controlling for demographic variables, treatment, treatment-related functioning, and general and treatment-specific positive expectations. In predicting change in body image between T1 and T2, treatment-specific positive expectation was the only significant predictor. The present study demonstrates that body image is an important component of the prostate cancer experience. Findings suggest that body image has a meaningful association with QOL among prostate cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 or greater was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  6. Five-year follow-up using a prostate stent as fiducial in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Carl, Jesper; Sander, Lotte

    2015-06-01

    To report results from the five-year follow-up on a previously reported study using image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) and a removable prostate stent as fiducial. Patients with local or locally advanced PC were treated using five-field 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT). The clinical target volumes (CTV) were treated to 78 Gy in 39 fractions using daily on-line image guidance (IG). Late genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities were scored using the radiotherapy oncology group (RTOG) score and the common toxicity score of adverse events (CTC) score. Urinary symptoms were also scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Median observation time was 5.4 year. Sixty-two of the 90 patients from the original study cohort were eligible for toxicity assessment. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival and biochemical freedom from failure were 85%, 96% and 80%, respectively at five years after radiotherapy. Late toxicity GU and GI RTOG scores≥2 were 5% and 0%. Comparing pre- and post-radiotherapy IPSS scores indicate that development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy may be complex. Prostate image-guided radiotherapy using a prostate stent demonstrated survival data comparable with recently published data. GU and GI toxicities at five-year follow-up were low and comparable to the lowest toxicity rates reported. These findings support that the precision of the prostate stent technique is at least as good as other techniques. IPSS revealed a complex development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for improved treatment planning of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Niranjan

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy afflicting Canadian men in 2011. Physicians use digital rectal exams (DRE), blood tests for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies for the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer. None of these tests detail the spatial extent of prostate cancer - information critical for using new therapies that can target cancerous prostate. With an MRI technique called proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI), biochemical analysis of the entire prostate can be done without the need for biopsy, providing detailed information beyond the non-specific changes in hardness felt by an experienced urologist in a DRE, the presence of PSA in blood, or the "blind-guidance" of TRUS-guided biopsy. A hindrance to acquiring high quality 1H-MRSI data comes from signal originating from fatty tissue surrounding prostate that tends to mask or distort signal from within the prostate, thus reducing the overall clinical usefulness of 1H-MRSI data. This thesis has three major areas of focus: 1) The development of an optimized 1H-MRSI technique, called conformal voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CV-MRS), to deal the with removal of unwanted lipid contaminating artifacts at short and long echo times. 2) An in vivo human study to test the CV-MRS technique, including healthy volunteers and cancer patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. 3) A study to determine the efficacy of using the 1H-MRSI data for optimized radiation treatment planning using modern delivery techniques like intensity modulated radiation treatment. Data collected from the study using the optimized CV-MRS method show significantly reduced lipid contamination resulting in high quality spectra throughout the prostate. Combining the CV-MRS technique with spectral-spatial excitation further reduced lipid contamination and opened up the possibility of detecting metabolites with short T2 relaxation times

  8. Possibility of transrectal photoacoustic imaging-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Shinchi, Masayuki; Horiguchi, Akio; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Asano, Tomohiko

    2017-03-01

    A transrectral ultrasonography (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is mandatory for histological diagnosis in patients with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but its diagnostic accuracy is not satisfactory; therefore, a considerable number of patients are forced to have an unnecessary repeated biopsy. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has the ability to visualize the distribution of hemoglobin clearly. Thus, there is the potential to acquire different maps of small vessel networks between cancerous and normal tissue. We developed an original TRUS-type PA probe consisting of a microconvex array transducer with an optical illumination system providing coregistered PA and ultrasound images. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the clinical possibility of a transrectral PA image. The prostate biopsy cores obtained by transrectal systemic biopsies under TRUS guidance were stained with HE staining and anti-CD34 antibodies as a marker of the endothelium of the blood vessel in order to find a pattern in the map of a small vessel network, which allows for imaging-based identification of prostate cancer. We analyzed the association of PA signal patterns, the cancer location by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, and the pathological diagnosis with CD34 stains as a prospective intervention study. In order to demonstrate the TRUS-merged-with-PA imaging guided targeted biopsy combined with a standard biopsy for capturing the clinically significant tumors, we developed a puncture needle guide attachment for the original TRUS-type PA probe.

  9. The role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging with radiolabeled choline analogues in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pelayo Láinez, M M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Gómez-Río, M; Vázquez-Alonso, F; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Llamas-Elvira, J M

    2014-11-01

    prostate cancer is the most frequent solid malignant tumor in Western Countries. Positron emission tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging with radiolabeled choline analogues is a useful tool for restaging prostate cancer in patients with rising prostate-specific antigen after radical treatment (in whom conventional imaging techniques have important limitations) as well as in the initial assessment of a selected group of prostate cancer patients. For this reason a literature review is necessary in order to evaluate the usefulness of this imaging test for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. a MEDLINE (PubMed way) literature search was performed using the search parameters: «Prostate cancer» and «Choline-PET/CT». Other search terms were «Biochemical failure» and/or «Staging» and/or «PSA kinetics». English and Spanish papers were selected; original articles, reviews, systematic reviews and clinical guidelines were included. according to available data, radiolabeled choline analogues plays an important role in the management of prostate cancer, especially in biochemical relapse because technique accuracy is properly correlated with prostate-specific antigen values and kinetics. Although is an emerging diagnostic technique useful in treatment planning of prostate cancer, final recommendations have not been submitted. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Incremental Value.

    PubMed

    Felker, Ely R; Wu, Jason; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J; Raman, Steven S; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Fred; Marks, Leonard S

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether changes in serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can help predict the pathological progression of prostate cancer in men on active surveillance. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 49 consecutive men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and again more than 6 months later, each followed by a targeted prostate biopsy, between January 2011 and May 2015. We evaluated whether progression on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (an increase in index lesion suspicion score, increase in index lesion volume or decrease in index lesion apparent diffusion coefficient) could predict pathological progression (Gleason 3 + 4 or greater on subsequent biopsy, in systematic or targeted cores). Diagnostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was determined with and without clinical data using a binary logistic regression model. The mean interval between baseline and followup multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 28.3 months (range 11 to 43). Pathological progression occurred in 19 patients (39%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 37%, 90%, 69% and 70%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.63. A logistic regression model using clinical information (maximum cancer core length greater than 3 mm on baseline biopsy or a prostate specific antigen density greater than 0.15 ng/ml(2) at followup biopsy) had an AUC of 0.87 for predicting pathological progression. The addition of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging data significantly improved the AUC to 0.91 (p=0.044). Serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging adds incremental value to prostate specific antigen density and baseline cancer core length for predicting Gleason 6 upgrading in men on active surveillance. Copyright © 2016

  11. Compact CdZnTe-based gamma camera for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yonggang; Lall, Terry; Tsui, Benjamin; Yu, Jianhua; Mahler, George; Bolotnikov, Aleksey; Vaska, Paul; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Meinken, George; Joyal, John; Barrett, John; Camarda, Giuseppe; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yang, Ge; Pomper, Marty; Cho, Steve; Weisman, Ken; Seo, Youngho; Babich, John; LaFrance, Norman; James, Ralph B.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high falsepositive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integratedcircuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera

  12. State-of-the-art uroradiologic imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Heijmink, Stijn W T P J; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Strum, Stephen S; Oyen, Wim J G; Frauscher, Ferdinand; Witjes, J Alfred; Barentsz, Jelle O

    2011-06-01

    In the diagnostic process of prostate cancer, several radiologic imaging modalities significantly contribute to the detection and localization of the disease. These range from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to positron emission tomography (PET). Within this review, after evaluation of the literature, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging modalities in clarifying the patient's clinical status as to whether he has prostate cancer or not and if so, where it is located, so that therapy appropriate to the patient's disease may be administered. TRUS, specifically with the usage of intravenous contrast agents, provides an excellent way of directing biopsy towards suspicious areas within the prostate in the general (screening) population. MRI using functional imaging techniques allows for highly accurate detection and localization, particularly in patients with prior negative ultrasound guided biopsies. A promising new development is the performance of biopsy within the magnetic resonance scanner. Subsequently, a proposal for optimal use of radiologic imaging is presented and compared with the European and American urological guidelines on prostate cancer.

  13. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    PubMed

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  14. Prostate ultrasound imaging: evaluation of a two-step scoring system in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Liao, Xin-Hong; Ma, Yan; Lu, Lu; Wei, Li-Yan; Yan, Xue

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility and performance of a two-step scoring system of ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. 75 patients with 888 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions were included in this study. Step 1, an initial 5-point scoring system was developed based on conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Step 2, a final scoring system was evaluated according to contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CE-TRUS). Each lesion was evaluated using the two-step scoring system (step 1 + step 2) and compared with only using conventional TRUS (step 1). 888 lesions were histologically verified: 315 of them were prostate cancer from 46 patients and 573 were benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) from 29 patients. According to the two-step scoring system, 284 lesions were upgraded and 130 lesions were downgraded from step 1 to step 2 (this means using step 2 to assess the results by step 1). However, 96 cases were improperly upgraded after step 2 and 48 malignant lesions were still missed after step 2 as score-1. For the two-step scoring system, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84.7%, 83.2%, and 83.7%, respectively, versus 22.8%, 96.6%, and 70.4%, respectively, for conventional TRUS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for lesion diagnosis was 0.799-0.952 for the two-step scoring system, versus 0.479-0.712 for conventional TRUS. The difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the two-step scoring system and conventional TRUS was statistically significant (P<0.0001). The two-step scoring system was straightforward to use and achieved a considerably accurate diagnostic performance for prostate cancer. The application of the two-step scoring system for prostate cancer is promising.

  15. MRI-Derived Cellularity Index as a Potential Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    previously diagnosed with prostate cancer via standard transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy after prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevation or...around 70% and specificity of 55% (72). Functional MR techniques enhance detection, grading, and staging of prostate cancer through the use of dynamic...and specificity in the diagnosis of prostate cancer by increasing tumor conspicuity on DWI or quantitative ADC maps. How- ever, hemorrhage, inflammatory

  16. Comparison of transrectal photoacoustic, Doppler, and magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Horiguchi, Akio; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Asano, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is the most popular imaging modality for diagnosing and treating prostate cancer. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is mandatory for the histological diagnosis of patients with elevated serum prostatespecific antigen (PSA), but its diagnostic accuracy is not satisfactory due to TRUS's low resolution. As a result, a considerable number of patients are required to undergo an unnecessary repeated biopsy. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) can be used to provide microvascular network imaging using hemoglobin as an intrinsic, optical absorption molecule. We developed an original TRUS-type PAI probe consisting of a micro-convex array transducer with an optical illumination system to provide superimposed PAI and ultrasound images. TRUS-type PAI has the advantage of having much higher resolution and greater contrast than does Doppler TRUS. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of the transrectal PAI system. We performed a clinical trial to compare the image of the cancerous area obtained by transrectal PAI with that obtained by TRUS Doppler during prostate biopsy. The obtained prostate biopsy cores were stained with anti-CD34 antibodies to provide a microvascular distribution map. We also confirmed its consistency with PAI and pre-biopsy MRI findings. Our study demonstrated that transrectal identification of tumor angiogenesis under superimposed photoacoustic and ultrasound images was easier than that under TRUS alone. We recognized a consistent relationship between PAI and MRI findings in most cases. However, there were no correspondences in some cases.

  17. Oligometastatic prostate cancer: shaping the definition with molecular imaging and an improved understanding of tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Joice, Gregory A; Rowe, Steven P; Pienta, Kenneth J; Gorin, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss how novel imaging modalities and molecular markers are shaping the definition of oligometastatic prostate cancer. To effectively classify a patient as having oligometastatic prostate cancer, diagnostic tests must be sensitive enough to detect subtle sites of metastatic disease. Conventional imaging modalities can readily detect widespread polymetastatic disease but do not have the sensitivity necessary to reliably classify patients as oligometastatic. Molecular imaging using both metabolic- and molecularly-targeted radiotracers has demonstrated great promise in aiding in our ability to define the oligometastatic state. Perhaps the most promising data to date have been generated with radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen. In addition, early studies are beginning to define biologic markers in the oligometastatic state that may be indicative of disease with minimal metastatic potential. Recent developments in molecular imaging have allowed for improved detection of metastatic prostate cancer allowing for more accurate staging of patients with oligometastatic disease. Future development of biologic markers may assist in defining the oligometastatic state and determining prognosis.

  18. Multimodal imaging guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalmuk, James; Folaron, Margaret; Buchinger, Julian; Pili, Roberto; Seshadri, Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) underscores the need for improving therapeutic options for this patient population. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of vascular targeting in prostate cancer. Experimental studies were carried out in subcutaneous and orthotopic Myc-CaP prostate tumors implanted into male FVB mice to examine the efficacy of a novel microtubule targeted vascular disrupting agent (VDA), EPC2407 (Crolibulin™). A non-invasive multimodality imaging approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and ultrasound (US) was utilized to guide preclinical trial design and monitor tumor response to therapy. Imaging results were correlated with histopathologic assessment, tumor growth and survival analysis. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed potent antivascular activity of EPC2407 against subcutaneous and orthotopic Myc-CaP tumors. Longitudinal BLI of Myc-CaP tumors expressing luciferase under the androgen response element (Myc-CaP/ARE-luc) revealed changes in AR signaling and reduction in intratumoral delivery of luciferin substrate following castration suggestive of reduced blood flow. This reduction in blood flow was validated by US and MRI. Combination treatment resulted in sustained vascular suppression, inhibition of tumor regrowth and conferred a survival benefit in both models. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of vascular targeting in combination with androgen deprivation against prostate cancer. PMID:26203773

  19. Theranostics of prostate cancer: from molecular imaging to precision molecular radiotherapy targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Singh, Aviral; Langbein, Thomas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Mueller, Dirk; Zhang, Jingjing; Lehmann, Coline; Baum, Richard P

    2018-06-01

    Alterations at the molecular level are a hallmark of cancer. Prostate cancer is associated with the overexpression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in a majority of cases, predominantly in advanced tumors, increasing with the grade or Gleason's score. PSMA can be selectively targeted using radiolabeled PSMA ligands. These small molecules binding the PSMA can be radiolabeled with γ-emitters like 99m Tc and 111 In or positron emitters like 68 Ga and 18 F for diagnosis as well as with their theranostic pairs such as 177 Lu (β-emitter) or 225 Ac (α-emitter) for therapy. This review summarizes the theranostic role of PSMA ligands for molecular imaging and targeted molecular radiotherapy, moving towards precision oncology.

  20. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography May Improve the Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rhee, H; Thomas, P; Shepherd, B; Gustafson, S; Vela, I; Russell, P J; Nelson, C; Chung, E; Wood, G; Malone, G; Wood, S; Heathcote, P

    2016-10-01

    Positron emission tomography using ligands targeting prostate specific membrane antigen has recently been introduced. Positron emission tomography imaging with (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC has been shown to detect metastatic prostate cancer lesions at a high rate. In this study we compare multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography of the prostate with whole mount ex vivo prostate histopathology to determine the true sensitivity and specificity of these imaging modalities for detecting and locating tumor foci within the prostate. In a prospective clinical trial setting 20 patients with localized prostate cancer and a planned radical prostatectomy were recruited. All patients underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography before surgery, and whole mount histopathology slides were directly compared to the images. European Society of Urogenital Radiology guidelines for reporting magnetic resonance imaging were used as a template for regional units of analysis. The uropathologist and radiologists were blinded to individual components of the study, and the final correlation was performed by visual and deformable registration analysis. A total of 50 clinically significant lesions were identified from the whole mount histopathological analysis. Based on regional analysis the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging were 44%, 94%, 81% and 76%, respectively. With prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 49%, 95%, 85% and 88%, respectively. Prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography yielded a higher specificity and positive predictive value. A significant proportion of cancers are potentially missed and underestimated by both imaging modalities. Prostate

  1. Adjacent slice prostate cancer prediction to inform MALDI imaging biomarker analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Shao-Hui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Cazares, Lisa; Nyalwidhe, Julius; Troyer, Dean; Semmes, O. John; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2010-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men in US [1]. Traditionally, prostate cancer diagnosis is made by the analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and histopathological images of biopsy samples under microscopes. Proteomic biomarkers can improve upon these methods. MALDI molecular spectra imaging is used to visualize protein/peptide concentrations across biopsy samples to search for biomarker candidates. Unfortunately, traditional processing methods require histopathological examination on one slice of a biopsy sample while the adjacent slice is subjected to the tissue destroying desorption and ionization processes of MALDI. The highest confidence tumor regions gained from the histopathological analysis are then mapped to the MALDI spectra data to estimate the regions for biomarker identification from the MALDI imaging. This paper describes a process to provide a significantly better estimate of the cancer tumor to be mapped onto the MALDI imaging spectra coordinates using the high confidence region to predict the true area of the tumor on the adjacent MALDI imaged slice.

  2. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Brain and Prostate Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B; Nelson, Sarah J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Clinical applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) for the study of brain and prostate cancer have expanded significantly over the past 10 years. Proton MRSI studies of the brain and prostate have demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasively assessing human cancers based on metabolite levels before and after therapy in a clinically reasonable amount of time. MRSI provides a unique biochemical “window” to study cellular metabolism noninvasively. MRSI studies have demonstrated dramatic spectral differences between normal brain tissue (low choline and high N-acetyl aspartate, NAA) and prostate (low choline and high citrate) compared to brain (low NAA, high choline) and prostate (low citrate, high choline) tumors. The presence of edema and necrosis in both the prostate and brain was reflected by a reduction of the intensity of all resonances due to reduced cell density. MRSI was able to discriminate necrosis (absence of all metabolites, except lipids and lactate) from viable normal tissue and cancer following therapy. The results of current MRSI studies also provide evidence that the magnitude of metabolic changes in regions of cancer before therapy as well as the magnitude and time course of metabolic changes after therapy can improve our understanding of cancer aggressiveness and mechanisms of therapeutic response. Clinically, combined MRI/MRSI has already demonstrated the potential for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment planning of brain and prostate cancer. Additionally, studies are under way to determine the accuracy of anatomic and metabolic parameters in providing an objective quantitative basis for assessing disease progression and response to therapy. PMID:10933075

  3. Development of a c-scan photoacoutsic imaging probe for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluru, Keerthi S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Rao, Navalgund A.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in American men after lung cancer. The current screening procedures include Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test, along with Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS). All suffer from low sensitivity and specificity in detecting prostate cancer in early stages. There is a desperate need for a new imaging modality. We are developing a prototype transrectal photoacoustic imaging probe to detect prostate malignancies in vivo that promises high sensitivity and specificity. To generate photoacoustic (PA) signals, the probe utilizes a high energy 1064 nm laser that delivers light pulses onto the prostate at 10Hz with 10ns duration through a fiber optic cable. The designed system will generate focused C-scan planar images using acoustic lens technology. A 5 MHz custom fabricated ultrasound sensor array located in the image plane acquires the focused PA signals, eliminating the need for any synthetic aperture focusing. The lens and sensor array design was optimized towards this objective. For fast acquisition times, a custom built 16 channel simultaneous backend electronics PCB has been developed. It consists of a low-noise variable gain amplifier and a 16 channel ADC. Due to the unavailability of 2d ultrasound arrays, in the current implementation several B-scan (depth-resolved) data is first acquired by scanning a 1d array, which is then processed to reconstruct either 3d volumetric images or several C-scan planar images. Experimental results on excised tissue using a in-vitro prototype of this technology are presented to demonstrate the system capability in terms of resolution and sensitivity.

  4. Development of a combined ultrasound and electrical impedance imaging system for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuqing

    Approximately 240,890 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 33,720 men were expected to die from it in the year of 2011 in the United States. Unfortunately, the current clinical diagnostic methods (e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, ultrasound guided biopsy) used for detecting and staging prostate cancer are limited. It has been shown that cancerous prostate tissue has significantly different electrical properties when compared to benign tissues. Based on these electrical property findings, a transrectal electrical impedance tomography (TREIT) system is proposed as a novel prostate imaging modality. An ultrasound probe is incorporated with TREIT to achieve anatomic information of the prostate and guide electrical property reconstruction. Without the guidance of the ultrasound, the TREIT system can easily discern high contrast inclusions of 1 cm in diameter at distances centered at two times the radius of the TREIT probe away from the probe surface. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that our system is able to detect low contrast inclusions. With the guidance of the ultrasound, our system is capable of detecting a plastic inclusion embedded in a gelatin phantom, indicating the potential to detect cancer. In addition, the results of preliminary in vivo clinical trials using the imaging system are also presented in the thesis. After collecting data for a total 66 patients, we demonstrated that the in vivo conductivity of cancerous tissue is significantly greater than that of benign tissue (p=0.0015 at 400 Hz) and the conductivity of BPH tissue is significantly lower than that of normal tissue (p=0.0009 at 400 Hz). Additionally at 25.6 kHz, the dual-modal imaging system is able to differentiate cancerous tissue from benign tissue with sensitivity of 0.6012 and specificity of 0.5498, normal tissue from BPH tissue with sensitivity of 0.6085 and specificity of 0.5813 and differentiate cancerous tissue from BPH tissue with sensitivity of

  5. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Near Infrared Imaging for Prostate Cancer Detection: Receptor-targeted and Native Biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang

    Optical spectroscopy and imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light provides powerful tools for non-invasive detection of cancer in tissue. Optical techniques are capable of quantitative reconstructions maps of tissue absorption and scattering properties, thus can map in vivo the differences in the content of certain marker chromophores and/or fluorophores in normal and cancerous tissues (for example: water, tryptophan, collagen and NADH contents). Potential clinical applications of optical spectroscopy and imaging include functional tumor detection and photothermal therapeutics. Optical spectroscopy and imaging apply contrasts from intrinsic tissue chromophores such as water, collagen and NADH, and extrinsic optical contrast agents such as Indocyanine Green (ICG) to distinguish disease tissue from the normal one. Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging also gives high sensitivity and specificity for biomedical diagnosis. Recent developments on specific-targeting fluorophores such as small receptor-targeted dye-peptide conjugate contrast agent offer high contrast between normal and cancerous tissues hence provide promising future for early tumour detection. This thesis focus on a study to distinguish the cancerous prostate tissue from the normal prostate tissues with enhancement of specific receptor-targeted prostate cancer contrast agents using optical spectroscopy and imaging techniques. The scattering and absorption coefficients, and anisotropy factor of cancerous and normal prostate tissues were investigated first as the basis for the biomedical diagnostic and optical imaging. Understanding the receptors over-expressed prostate cancer cells and molecular target mechanism of ligand, two small ICG-derivative dye-peptides, namely Cypate-Bombesin Peptide Analogue Conjugate (Cybesin) and Cypate-Octreotate Peptide Conjugate (Cytate), were applied to study their clinical potential for human prostate cancer detection. In this work, the steady-state and time

  6. Perceptions of masculinity and body image in men with prostate cancer: the role of exercise.

    PubMed

    Langelier, David Michael; Cormie, Prue; Bridel, William; Grant, Christopher; Albinati, Natalia; Shank, Jena; Daun, Julia Teresa; Fung, Tak S; Davey, Colin; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2018-04-13

    The goal of this study was to explore the association between levels of exercise and patterns of masculinity, body image, and quality of life in men undergoing diverse treatment protocols for prostate cancer. Fifty men with prostate cancer (aged 42-86) completed self-report measures. Self-reported measures included the following: the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Masculine Self-esteem Scale (MSES), Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), Body Image Scale (BIS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P). Masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores were compared between men obtaining recommended levels of exercise (aerobic or resistance) and those not obtaining recommended level of exercise. Secondary outcomes included the association between masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores as they relate to exercise levels. There were significantly higher scores of masculinity (p < 0.01), physical well-being (p < 0.05), prostate cancer specific well-being (p < 0.05), and overall quality of life (p < 0.05) in those obtaining at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise. In the 48% of men who had never received androgen deprivation therapy, significantly higher levels of masculinity, body image, and quality of life were observed in those meeting aerobic guidelines. Whether treatment includes androgen deprivation or not, men who participate in higher levels of aerobic exercises report higher levels of masculinity, improved body image, and quality of life than those who are inactive. Future longitudinal research is required evaluating exercise level and its effect on masculinity and body image.

  7. In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Targeted Contrast Agent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    detection of early stage prostate cancer, development of near infrared dyes - labeled RNA aptamer that recognizes the prostate specific cell surface protein...the application of PAI for the detection of early stage prostate cancer, development of a NIR dye - labeled RNA aptamer that recognizes the prostate...proposed to enhance the application of PAI for the detection of early stage PrCa: 1. Use of a NIR dye labeled RNA aptamer that recognizes the prostate

  8. Using T2-Exchange from Ln3+DOTA-Based Chelates for Contrast-Enhanced Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    antigen ( PSMA ) of prostate cancer cells would then be synthesized and tested with both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Major Findings: We found that the...simplified chemistry. 15. SUBJECT TERMS MRI Contrast Agent, T2 contrast, Prostate Cancer, PSMA Targeted Agent, Early Detection and Diagnosis, Dysprosium... PSMA ), which is significantly over-expressed by prostate cancer cells, has proven to be an excellent target for imaging prostate cancer in mouse

  9. [The Diagnostic Value of Pre-Biopsy Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Detecting Prostate Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the value of pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting prostate cancer. We analyzed 267 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3-10 ng/ml who underwent systematic prostate needle biopsy. From April 2009 to March 2011, a total of 98 male patients underwent 16-core prostatic biopsies without pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (nonenforcement group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 169 men underwent pre-biopsy MRI [T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] (enforcement group). When MRI findings indicated cancer in the latter group, in addition to the systematic 16-core biopsy one or two targeted biopsies were performed. Patients without suspicious MRI findings underwent only systematic 16-core biopsy. Cancer detection rates in the nonenforcement and enforcement groups were 42.9% (48/92) and 46. 2% (78/169), respectively. The difference did not reach significance (p=0.612). Although the cancer detection rates were 39.4% (41/104) in the MRI-negative group and 56. 9% (37/65) in the MRI-positive group (p=0.039), the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection by MRI were relatively low: 47.4% and 69.2%, respectively. By receiver-operating curve analysis, the area under the curve for cancer detection by MRI was only 0.583. There were two study limitations. First, the patient sample size was small. Second, it is unclear whether an adequate sample of the suspicious lesion was obtained by biopsy. We thus demonstrated that it might be improper to base a diagnosis solely on pre-biopsy MRI (T2WI and DWI) findings in men with serum PSA levels of 3-10 ng/ml.

  10. Imaging-guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmuk, James

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in American men and is characterized by dependence on androgens (Testosterone/Dihydrotestosterone) for growth and survival. Although reduction of serum testosterone levels by surgical or chemical castration transiently inhibits neoplastic growth, tumor adaptation to castrate levels of androgens results in the generation of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Progression to CRPC following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with changes in vascular morphology and increased angiogenesis. Based on this knowledge, we hypothesized that targeting tumor vasculature in combination with ADT would result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy against prostate cancer. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we examined the therapeutic activity of a tumor-vascular disrupting agent (tumor-VDA), EPC2407 (Crolibulin(TM)), alone and in combination with ADT in a murine model of prostate cancer (Myc-CaP). A non-invasive multimodality imaging approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and ultrasound (US) was utilized to characterize tumor response to therapy and to guide preclinical trial design. Imaging results were correlated with histopathologic (H&E) and immunohistochemical (CD31) assessment as well as tumor growth inhibition and survival analyses. Results: Our imaging techniques were able to capture an acute reduction (within 24 hours) in tumor perfusion following castration and VDA monotherapy. BLI revealed onset of recurrent disease 5-7 days post castration prior to visible tumor regrowth suggestive of vascular recovery. Administration of VDA beginning 1 week post castration for 3 weeks resulted in sustained vascular suppression, inhibition of tumor regrowth, and conferred a more pronounced survival benefit compared to either monotherapy. Conclusion: The high mortality rate associated with CRPC underscores the need for investigating novel treatment

  11. MR-CT registration using a Ni-Ti prostate stent in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Korsager, Anne Sofie; Carl, Jesper; Østergaard, Lasse Riis

    2013-06-01

    In image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer defining the clinical target volume often relies on magnetic resonance (MR). The task of transferring the clinical target volume from MR to standard planning computed tomography (CT) is not trivial due to prostate mobility. In this paper, an automatic local registration approach is proposed based on a newly developed removable Ni-Ti prostate stent. The registration uses the voxel similarity measure mutual information in a two-step approach where the pelvic bones are used to establish an initial registration for the local registration. In a phantom study, the accuracy was measured to 0.97 mm and visual inspection showed accurate registration of all 30 data sets. The consistency of the registration was examined where translation and rotation displacements yield a rotation error of 0.41° ± 0.45° and a translation error of 1.67 ± 2.24 mm. This study demonstrated the feasibility for an automatic local MR-CT registration using the prostate stent.

  12. Disparities in staging prostate magnetic resonance imaging utilization for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Ayobami; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Vapiwala, Neha; Rosen, Mark; Chapman, Christina H; Both, Stefan; Shah, Meera; Wang, Xingmei; Agawu, Atu; Gabriel, Peter; Christodouleas, John; Tochner, Zelig; Deville, Curtiland

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting incorporating multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans into risk stratification, active surveillance, and treatment paradigms for prostate cancer. The purpose of our study was to determine whether demographic disparities exist in staging MRI utilization for prostate cancer patients. An institutional database of 705 nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy from 2005 through 2013 was used to identify patients undergoing versus not undergoing pretreatment diagnostic prostate mpMRI. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression evaluated the relationship of clinical and demographic characteristics with MRI utilization. All demographic variables assessed, except the other race category, were significantly associated with MRI utilization (all P < .05), including age (odds ratio [OR], 0.92), black race (OR, 0.51), poverty (OR, 0.53), closer distance to radiation facility (OR, 1.79), and nonprivate primary insurance (OR, 0.57) on univariable analysis, while clinical stage T3 (OR, 3.37) was the only clinical characteristic. On multivariable analysis stratified by D'Amico risk group, age remained significant across all risk groups, whereas the black versus white racial (OR, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.55) and nonprivate versus private insurance type (OR, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.86) disparities persisted in the low-risk group. Clinical stage T3 remained associated in the high-risk group. For race specifically, the percentages of whites, blacks, and others undergoing MRI in the overall cohort and by risk group were, respectively: overall, 80% (343/427), 68% (156/231), and 85% (40/47); low risk, 86%, 56%, and 63%; intermediate risk, 79%, 72%, and 95%; and high risk, 72%, 72%, and 100%. In this urban, academic center cohort, older patients across all risk groups and black or nonprivate insurance patients in the low risk group were less likely to undergo staging prostate MRI

  13. The gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor on prostate cells--a novel target for bifunctional prostate cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Sturzu, Alexander; Klose, Uwe; Sheikh, Sumbla; Echner, Hartmut; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Nägele, Thomas; Schwentner, Christian; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan

    2014-02-14

    The means of identifying prostate carcinoma and its metastases are limited. The contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging clinical diagnostics are not taken up into the tumor cells, but only accumulate in the interstitial space of the highly vasculated tumor. We examined the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor as a possible target for prostate-specific detection using the C-terminal seven amino acid sequence of the gastrin peptide hormone. The correct sequence and a scrambled control sequence were coupled to the fluorescent dye rhodamine and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium (Gd)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Expression analysis of the gastrin receptor mRNA was performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on PC3 prostate carcinoma cells, U373 glioma, U2OS osteosarcoma and Colo205 colon carcinoma cells. After having confirmed elevated expression of gastrin receptor in PC3 cells and very low expression of the receptor in Colo205 cells, these two cell lines were used to create tumor xenografts on nude mice for in vivo experiments. Confocal lasers scanning microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high specificity of the correct conjugate for the PC3 xenografts. Staining of the PC3 xenografts was much weaker with the scrambled conjugate while the Colo205 xenografts showed no marked staining with any of the conjugates. In vitro experiments comparing the correct and scrambled conjugates on PC3 cells by magnetic resonance relaxometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting confirmed markedly higher specificity of the correct conjugate. The investigations show that the gastrin receptor is a promising tumor cell surface target for future prostate-cancer-specific imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status

    PubMed Central

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S.; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A. M. W.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided. PMID:26681984

  15. A multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-based risk model to determine the risk of significant prostate cancer prior to biopsy.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Pim J; Hayen, Andrew; Thompson, James E; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Böhm, Maret; Abuodha, Magdaline; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Ting, Francis; Barentsz, Jelle; Roobol, Monique; Vass, Justin; Rasiah, Krishan; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D

    2017-12-01

    To develop and externally validate a predictive model for detection of significant prostate cancer. Development of the model was based on a prospective cohort including 393 men who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) before biopsy. External validity of the model was then examined retrospectively in 198 men from a separate institution whom underwent mpMRI followed by biopsy for abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level or digital rectal examination (DRE). A model was developed with age, PSA level, DRE, prostate volume, previous biopsy, and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) score, as predictors for significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 with >5% grade 4, ≥20% cores positive or ≥7 mm of cancer in any core). Probability was studied via logistic regression. Discriminatory performance was quantified by concordance statistics and internally validated with bootstrap resampling. In all, 393 men had complete data and 149 (37.9%) had significant prostate cancer. While the variable model had good accuracy in predicting significant prostate cancer, area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80, the advanced model (incorporating mpMRI) had a significantly higher AUC of 0.88 (P < 0.001). The model was well calibrated in internal and external validation. Decision analysis showed that use of the advanced model in practice would improve biopsy outcome predictions. Clinical application of the model would reduce 28% of biopsies, whilst missing 2.6% significant prostate cancer. Individualised risk assessment of significant prostate cancer using a predictive model that incorporates mpMRI PIRADS score and clinical data allows a considerable reduction in unnecessary biopsies and reduction of the risk of over-detection of insignificant prostate cancer at the cost of a very small increase in the number of significant cancers missed. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of threshold prostate specific antigen levels to optimize the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer by magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Nabeel A; George, Arvin K; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Rothwax, Jason T; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Stamatakis, Lambros; Su, Daniel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Simon, Richard; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Prostate specific antigen sensitivity increases with lower threshold values but with a corresponding decrease in specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy detects prostate cancer more efficiently and of higher grade than standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsy but the optimal population for its use is not well defined. We evaluated the performance of magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy vs 12-core biopsy across a prostate specific antigen continuum. We reviewed the records of all patients enrolled in a prospective trial who underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsies from August 2007 through February 2014. Patients were stratified by each of 4 prostate specific antigen cutoffs. The greatest Gleason score using either biopsy method was compared in and across groups as well as across the population prostate specific antigen range. Clinically significant prostate cancer was defined as Gleason 7 (4 + 3) or greater. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1,003 targeted and 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsies were performed, of which 564 diagnosed prostate cancer for a 56.2% detection rate. Targeted biopsy led to significantly more upgrading to clinically significant disease compared to 12-core biopsy. This trend increased more with increasing prostate specific antigen, specifically in patients with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 and greater than 10 ng/ml. Prostate specific antigen 5.2 ng/ml or greater captured 90% of upgrading by targeted biopsy, corresponding to 64% of patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent fusion biopsy. Conversely a greater proportion of clinically insignificant disease was detected by 12-core vs targeted biopsy overall. These differences persisted when controlling for potential confounders on multivariate analysis. Prostate cancer upgrading with targeted biopsy increases

  17. Detection of Prostate Cancer: Quantitative Multiparametric MR Imaging Models Developed Using Registered Correlative Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Gregory J; Kalavagunta, Chaitanya; Spilseth, Benjamin; Bolan, Patrick J; Li, Xiufeng; Hutter, Diane; Nam, Jung W; Johnson, Andrew D; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Moench, Laura; Konety, Badrinath; Warlick, Christopher A; Schmechel, Stephen C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To develop multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging models to generate a quantitative, user-independent, voxel-wise composite biomarker score (CBS) for detection of prostate cancer by using coregistered correlative histopathologic results, and to compare performance of CBS-based detection with that of single quantitative MR imaging parameters. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer underwent multiparametric MR imaging before surgery for treatment. All MR imaging voxels in the prostate were classified as cancer or noncancer on the basis of coregistered histopathologic data. Predictive models were developed by using more than one quantitative MR imaging parameter to generate CBS maps. Model development and evaluation of quantitative MR imaging parameters and CBS were performed separately for the peripheral zone and the whole gland. Model accuracy was evaluated by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and confidence intervals were calculated with the bootstrap procedure. The improvement in classification accuracy was evaluated by comparing the AUC for the multiparametric model and the single best-performing quantitative MR imaging parameter at the individual level and in aggregate. Results Quantitative T2, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume transfer constant (K(trans)), reflux rate constant (kep), and area under the gadolinium concentration curve at 90 seconds (AUGC90) were significantly different between cancer and noncancer voxels (P < .001), with ADC showing the best accuracy (peripheral zone AUC, 0.82; whole gland AUC, 0.74). Four-parameter models demonstrated the best performance in both the peripheral zone (AUC, 0.85; P = .010 vs ADC alone) and whole gland (AUC, 0.77; P = .043 vs ADC alone). Individual-level analysis showed statistically significant improvement in AUC in 82% (23 of 28) and 71% (24 of 34

  18. PSMA, EpCAM, VEGF and GRPR as imaging targets in locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rybalov, Maxim; Ananias, Hildo J K; Hoving, Hilde D; van der Poel, Henk G; Rosati, Stefano; de Jong, Igle J

    2014-04-10

    In this retrospective pilot study, the expression of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in locally recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was investigated, and their adequacy for targeted imaging was analyzed. Prostate cancer specimens were collected of 17 patients who underwent salvage prostatectomy because of locally recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy or EBRT. Immunohistochemistry was performed. A pathologist scored the immunoreactivity in prostate cancer and stroma. Staining for PSMA was seen in 100% (17/17), EpCAM in 82.3% (14/17), VEGF in 82.3% (14/17) and GRPR in 100% (17/17) of prostate cancer specimens. Staining for PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF was seen in 0% (0/17) and for GRPR in 100% (17/17) of the specimens' stromal compartments. In 11.8% (2/17) of cases, the GRPR staining intensity of prostate cancer was higher than stroma, while in 88.2% (15/17), the staining was equal. Based on the absence of stromal staining, PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF show high tumor distinctiveness. Therefore, PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF can be used as targets for the bioimaging of recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT to exclude metastatic disease and/or to plan local salvage therapy.

  19. Echo-Planar Imaging-Based, J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Imaging (EP-JRESI); Citrate, Choline, Creatine , Spermine, 3Tesla MRI scanner, Endo-rectal MR coil, WET Water Suppression, prostate cancer (PCa...spectroscopic imaging are due to the overlap of metabolite resonances, quantifying few metabolites only (citrate (Cit), choline (Ch), creatine (Cr...concentrations of citrate (Cit), creatine (Cr), choline (Ch) and polyamines that are used to detect and diagnose PCa (2). The challenging task in 1D MRS

  20. Multifunctional PSCA Antibody Fragments for PET and Optical Prostate Cancer Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Anna M. Wu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095-1406 REPORT DATE : October 2016 TYPE OF...control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015...minibodies and cys-diabodies) can be labeled with radioisotopes for non-invasive PET imaging for use at multiple points in the prostate cancer treatment

  1. Multifunctional PSCA antibody fragments for PET and optical prostate cancer imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Anna M. Wu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095-1406 REPORT DATE : October 2017 TYPE OF...cys- minibodies and cys-diabodies) can be labeled with radioisotopes for non-invasive PET imaging for use at multiple points in the prostate cancer...optimize and test multifunctional, F-18, and alternatively labeled fragments Major Task 3. New technologies: alternative site-specific labeling methods

  2. Recent developments in tissue-type imaging (TTI) for planning and monitoring treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Feleppa, Ernest J; Porter, Christopher R; Ketterling, Jeffrey; Lee, Paul; Dasgupta, Shreedevi; Urban, Stella; Kalisz, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    Because current methods of imaging prostate cancer are inadequate, biopsies cannot be effectively guided and treatment cannot be effectively planned and targeted. Therefore, our research is aimed at ultrasonically characterizing cancerous prostate tissue so that we can image it more effectively and thereby provide improved means of detecting, treating and monitoring prostate cancer. We base our characterization methods on spectrum analysis of radiofrequency (rf) echo signals combined with clinical variables such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Tissue typing using these parameters is performed by artificial neural networks. We employed and evaluated different approaches to data partitioning into training, validation, and test sets and different neural network configuration options. In this manner, we sought to determine what neural network configuration is optimal for these data and also to assess possible bias that might exist due to correlations among different data entries among the data for a given patient. The classification efficacy of each neural network configuration and data-partitioning method was measured using relative-operating-characteristic (ROC) methods. Neural network classification based on spectral parameters combined with clinical data generally produced ROC-curve areas of 0.80 compared to curve areas of 0.64 for conventional transrectal ultrasound imaging combined with clinical data. We then used the optimal neural network configuration to generate lookup tables that translate local spectral parameter values and global clinical-variable values into pixel values in tissue-type images (TTIs). TTIs continue to show cancerous regions successfully, and may prove to be particularly useful clinically in combination with other ultrasonic and nonultrasonic methods, e.g., magnetic-resonance spectroscopy.

  3. Screening prostate cancer using a portable near infrared scanning imaging unit with an optical fiber-based rectal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Tang, Guichen; Budansky, Yury; Sharonov, Mikhail; Xu, Min; Achilefu, Samuel; Eastham, James A.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A portable near infrared scanning polarization imaging unit with an optical fiber-based rectal probe, namely Photonic Finger, was designed and developed o locate the 3D position of abnormal prostate site inside normal prostate tissue. An inverse algorithm, Optical Tomography using Independent Component Analysis (OPTICA) was improved particularly to unmix the signal from targets (cancerous tissue) embedded in a turbid medium (normal tissue) in the backscattering imaging geometry. Photonic Finger combined with OPTICA was tested to characterize different target(s) inside different tissue medium, including cancerous prostate tissue embedded by large piece of normal tissue.

  4. Hierarchical clustering method for improved prostate cancer imaging in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavuri, Venkaiah C.; Liu, Hanli

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the feasibility of trans-rectal near infrared (NIR) based diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for early detection of prostate cancer using a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) compatible imaging probe. For this purpose, we designed a TRUS-compatible, NIR-based image system (780nm), in which the photo diodes were placed on the trans-rectal probe. DC signals were recorded and used for estimating the absorption coefficient. We validated the system using laboratory phantoms. For further improvement, we also developed a hierarchical clustering method (HCM) to improve the accuracy of image reconstruction with limited prior information. We demonstrated the method using computer simulations laboratory phantom experiments.

  5. Ultrasonic Nanobubbles Carrying Anti-PSMA Nanobody: Construction and Application in Prostate Cancer-Targeted Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaozhou; Wang, Luofu; Guo, Yanli; Tu, Zhui; Li, Lang; Tong, Haipeng; Xu, Yang; Li, Rui; Fang, Kejing

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate prostate cancer imaging using targeted molecules, we constructed ultrasonic nanobubbles coupled with specific anti-PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) nanobodies, and evaluated their in vitro binding capacity and in vivo imaging efficacy. The "targeted" nanobubbles, which were constructed via a biotin-streptavidin system, had an average diameter of 487.60 ± 33.55 nm and carried the anti-PSMA nanobody as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Microscopy revealed targeted binding of nanobubbles in vitro to PSMA-positive cells. Additionally, ultrasonography indicators of nanobubble imaging (including arrival time, peak time, peak intensity and enhanced duration) were evaluated for the ultrasound imaging in three kinds of animal xenografts (LNCaP, C4-2 and MKN45), and showed that these four indicators of targeted nanobubbles exhibited significant differences from blank nanobubbles. Therefore, this study not only presents a novel approach to target prostate cancer ultrasonography, but also provides the basis and methods for constructing small-sized and high-efficient targeted ultrasound nanobubbles.

  6. Ultrasonic Nanobubbles Carrying Anti-PSMA Nanobody: Construction and Application in Prostate Cancer-Targeted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanli; Tu, Zhui; Li, Lang; Tong, Haipeng; Xu, Yang; Li, Rui; Fang, Kejing

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate prostate cancer imaging using targeted molecules, we constructed ultrasonic nanobubbles coupled with specific anti-PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) nanobodies, and evaluated their in vitro binding capacity and in vivo imaging efficacy. The “targeted” nanobubbles, which were constructed via a biotin-streptavidin system, had an average diameter of 487.60 ± 33.55 nm and carried the anti-PSMA nanobody as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Microscopy revealed targeted binding of nanobubbles in vitro to PSMA-positive cells. Additionally, ultrasonography indicators of nanobubble imaging (including arrival time, peak time, peak intensity and enhanced duration) were evaluated for the ultrasound imaging in three kinds of animal xenografts (LNCaP, C4-2 and MKN45), and showed that these four indicators of targeted nanobubbles exhibited significant differences from blank nanobubbles. Therefore, this study not only presents a novel approach to target prostate cancer ultrasonography, but also provides the basis and methods for constructing small-sized and high-efficient targeted ultrasound nanobubbles. PMID:26111008

  7. Evaluation of Online/Offline Image Guidance/Adaptation Approaches for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, An; Sun, Ying; Liang, Jian

    Purpose: To evaluate online/offline image-guided/adaptive treatment techniques for prostate cancer radiation therapy with daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and positionmore » correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs. Results: Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for

  8. Evaluation of online/offline image guidance/adaptation approaches for prostate cancer radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Qin, An; Sun, Ying; Liang, Jian; Yan, Di

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate online/offline image-guided/adaptive treatment techniques for prostate cancer radiation therapy with daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and position correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs. Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for Hybrid Adaptation. Both Online Planning and Hybrid

  9. Synchronous Detection of Male Breast Cancer and Prostatic Cancer in a Patient With Suspected Prostatic Carcinoma on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajender; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Harmandeep; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2018-06-01

    The male breast cancer is very less common as compared with the female breast cancer. We report a case of 64-year-old man who presented with the history of lower urinary tract symptoms. The digital rectal examination revealed hard and nodular prostate, and serum prostate-specific antigen level was 23.4 ng/mL. Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT revealed prostate-specific membrane antigen-expressing lesions in the prostate, axillary tail of the right breast, and axillary lymph nodes. Histology from prostate revealed prostate carcinoma, whereas fine-needle aspiration from the breast revealed invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

  10. Predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging determined tumor contact length for extracapsular extension of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Baco, Eduard; Rud, Erik; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Svindland, Aud; Eggesbø, Heidi B; Hung, Andrew J; Matsugasumi, Toru; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Gill, Inderbir S; Ukimura, Osamu

    2015-02-01

    Tumor contact length is defined as the amount of prostate cancer in contact with the prostatic capsule. We evaluated the ability of magnetic resonance imaging determined tumor contact length to predict microscopic extracapsular extension compared to existing predictors of extracapsular extension. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 111 consecutive patients with magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion targeted, biopsy proven prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from January 2010 to July 2013. Median patient age was 64 years and median prostate specific antigen was 8.9 ng/ml. Clinical stage was cT1 in 93 cases (84%) and cT2 in 18 (16%). Postoperative pathological analysis confirmed pT2 in 71 patients (64%) and pT3 in 40 (36%). We evaluated 1) in the radical prostatectomy specimen the correlation of microscopic extracapsular extension with pathological cancer volume, pathological tumor contact length and Gleason score, 2) the correlation between microscopic extracapsular extension and magnetic resonance imaging tumor contact length, and 3) the ability of preoperative variables to predict microscopic extracapsular extension. Logistic regression analysis revealed that pathological tumor contact length correlated better with microscopic extracapsular extension than the predictive power of pathological cancer volume (0.821 vs 0.685). The Spearman correlation between pathological and magnetic resonance imaging tumor contact length was r = 0.839 (p <0.0001). ROC AUC analysis revealed that magnetic resonance imaging tumor contact length outperformed cancer core involvement on targeted biopsy and the Partin tables to predict microscopic extracapsular extension (0.88 vs 0.70 and 0.63, respectively). At a magnetic resonance imaging tumor contact length threshold of 20 mm the accuracy for diagnosing microscopic extracapsular extension was superior to that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging criteria (82% vs 67%, p = 0.015). We developed a

  11. Current application and future perspectives of PSMA PET imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2018-03-08

    As precision medicine evolves, the contribution of molecular imaging to the management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, especially for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, is gaining importance. Highly successful approaches to measure the expression of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced recently. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP-II), is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase that is overexpressed in 90-100% of PCa cells. Due to its selective over-expression, PSMA is a reliable tissue marker for prostate cancer and is considered an ideal target for tumor specific imaging and therapy. A variety of PET and SPECT probes targeting this peptide receptor have been introduced. These are undergoing extensive clinical evaluations. Initial results attest to a high accuracy for disease detection compared conventional radiology (CT or MRI) and other nuclear medicine procedure (choline PET or fluciclovine PET). However, prospective evaluation of the impact on patient management for PSMA-ligand PET and its impact on patient outcome is currently missing. Finally, PSMA inhibitors can be radio-labeled with diagnostic (68Ga-PSMA-11), or therapeutic nuclides (177Lu/225Ac PSMA-617) to be used as theranostic agent. Initial results showed that PSMA-targeted radioligand therapy (RLT) can potentially delay disease progression in metastatic castrate-resistant PCa. This review aims to explore the current application of PSMA based imaging in prostate cancer, reporting about main advantages and limitations of this new theranostic procedure. The future perspectives and potential the applications of this agent will be also discussed.

  12. Near infrared spectral polarization imaging of prostate cancer tissues using Cybesin: a receptor-targeted contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, W. B.; Tang, G. C.; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, S.; Alfano, R. R.

    2013-03-01

    Cybesin, a smart contrast agent to target cancer cells, was investigated using a near infrared (NIR) spectral polarization imaging technique for prostate cancer detection. The approach relies on applying a contrast agent that can target cancer cells. Cybesin, as a small ICG-derivative dye-peptide, emit fluorescence between 750 nm and 900 nm, which is in the "tissue optical window". Cybesin was reported targeting the over-expressed bombesin receptors in cancer cells in animal model and the human prostate cancers over-expressing bombesin receptors. The NIR spectral polarization imaging study reported here demonstrated that Cybesin can be used as a smart optical biomarker and as a prostate cancer receptor targeted contrast agent.

  13. Entropy of Ultrasound-Contrast-Agent Velocity Fields for Angiogenesis Imaging in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    van Sloun, Ruud J G; Demi, Libertario; Postema, Arnoud W; Jmch De La Rosette, Jean; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer care can benefit from accurate and cost-efficient imaging modalities that are able to reveal prognostic indicators for cancer. Angiogenesis is known to play a central role in the growth of tumors towards a metastatic or a lethal phenotype. With the aim of localizing angiogenic activity in a non-invasive manner, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (DCE-US) has been widely used. Usually, the passage of ultrasound contrast agents thought the organ of interest is analyzed for the assessment of tissue perfusion. However, the heterogeneous nature of blood flow in angiogenic vasculature hampers the diagnostic effectiveness of perfusion parameters. In this regard, quantification of the heterogeneity of flow may provide a relevant additional feature for localizing angiogenesis. Statistics based on flow magnitude as well as its orientation can be exploited for this purpose. In this paper, we estimate the microbubble velocity fields from a standard bolus injection and provide a first statistical characterization by performing a spatial entropy analysis. By testing the method on 24 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, we show that the proposed method can be applied effectively to clinically acquired DCE-US data. The method permits estimation of the in-plane flow vector fields and their local intricacy, and yields promising results (receiver-operating-characteristic curve area of 0.85) for the detection of prostate cancer.

  14. A curated collection of tissue microarray images and clinical outcome data of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qing; Guo, Tiannan; Rechsteiner, Markus; Rüschoff, Jan H.; Rupp, Niels; Fankhauser, Christian; Saba, Karim; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Poyet, Cédric; Hermanns, Thomas; Zhu, Yi; Moch, Holger; Aebersold, Ruedi; Wild, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Microscopy image data of human cancers provide detailed phenotypes of spatially and morphologically intact tissues at single-cell resolution, thus complementing large-scale molecular analyses, e.g., next generation sequencing or proteomic profiling. Here we describe a high-resolution tissue microarray (TMA) image dataset from a cohort of 71 prostate tissue samples, which was hybridized with bright-field dual colour chromogenic and silver in situ hybridization probes for the tumour suppressor gene PTEN. These tissue samples were digitized and supplemented with expert annotations, clinical information, statistical models of PTEN genetic status, and computer source codes. For validation, we constructed an additional TMA dataset for 424 prostate tissues, hybridized with FISH probes for PTEN, and performed survival analysis on a subset of 339 radical prostatectomy specimens with overall, disease-specific and recurrence-free survival (maximum 167 months). For application, we further produced 6,036 image patches derived from two whole slides. Our curated collection of prostate cancer data sets provides reuse potential for both biomedical and computational studies. PMID:28291248

  15. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of prostate cancer with a gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonist--from mice to men.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gesche; Mansi, Rosalba; Grosu, Anca L; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Dumont-Walter, Rebecca A; Meyer, Philipp T; Maecke, Helmut R; Reubi, Jean Claude; Weber, Wolfgang A

    2014-01-01

    Ex vivo studies have shown that the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is overexpressed on almost all primary prostate cancers, making it a promising target for prostate cancer imaging and targeted radiotherapy. Biodistribution, dosimetry and tumor uptake of the GRPr antagonist ⁶⁴Cu-CB-TE2A-AR06 [(⁶⁴Cu-4,11-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo(6.6.2)hexadecane)-PEG₄-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-LeuNH₂] were studied by PET/CT in four patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (T1c-T2b, Gleason 6-7). No adverse events were observed after injection of ⁶⁴Cu-CB-TE2A-AR06. Three of four tumors were visualized with high contrast [tumor-to-prostate ratio > 4 at 4 hours (h) post injection (p.i.)], one small tumor (T1c, < 5% tumor on biopsy specimens) showed moderate contrast (tumor-to-prostate ratio at 4 h: 1.9). Radioactivity was cleared by the kidneys and only the pancreas demonstrated significant accumulation of radioactivity, which rapidly decreased over time. ⁶⁴Cu-CB-TE2A-AR06 shows very favorable characteristics for imaging prostate cancer. Future studies evaluating ⁶⁴Cu-CB-TE2A-AR06 PET/CT for prostate cancer detection, staging, active surveillance, and radiation treatment planning are necessary.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer detection and management: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Monni, Fabio; Fontanella, Paolo; Grasso, Angelica; Wiklund, Peter; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Randazzo, Marco; Rocco, Bernardo; Montanari, Emanuele; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in detection and management of prostate cancer (PC); specifically investigating the efficacy of mpMRI-based biopsy techniques in terms of diagnostic yield of significant prostate neoplasm and the improved management of patients who choose conservative treatments or active surveillance. A systematic and critical analysis through Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases was carried out in March 2016, following the PRISMA ("Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses") statement. The search was conducted using the following key words: "MRI/TRUS-fusion biopsy," "PIRADS," "prostate cancer," "magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)," "multiparametric MRI (mpMRI)," "systematic prostate biopsy (SB)," "targeted prostate biopsy (TPB)." English language articles were reviewed for inclusion ability. Sixty-six studies were selected in order to evaluate the characteristics and limitations of traditional sample biopsy, the role of mpMRI in detection of PC, specifically the increased degree of diagnostic accuracy of targeted prostate biopsy compared to systematic biopsy (12 cores), and to transperineal saturation biopsies with trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) only. MpMRI can detect index lesions in approximately 90% of cases when compared to prostatectomy specimen. The diagnostic performance of biparametric MRI (T2w + DWI) is not inferior to mpMRI, offering valid options to diminish cost- and time-consumption. Since approximately 10% of significant lesions are still MRI-invisible, systematic cores biopsy seem to still be necessary. The analysis of the different techniques shows that in-bore MRI-guided biopsy and MRI/TRUS-fusion-guided biopsy are superior in detection of significant PC compared to visual estimation alone. MpMRI proved to be very effective in active surveillance, as it prevents underdetection of significant PC and it assesses low-risk disease

  17. Schedule for CT image guidance in treating prostate cancer with helical tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Beldjoudi, G; Yartsev, S; Bauman, G; Battista, J; Van Dyk, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reducing the number of image guidance sessions and patient-specific target margins on the dose distribution in the treatment of prostate cancer with helical tomotherapy. 20 patients with prostate cancer who were treated with helical tomotherapy using daily megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging before treatment served as the study population. The average geometric shifts applied for set-up corrections, as a result of co-registration of MVCT and planning kilovoltage CT studies over an increasing number of image guidance sessions, were determined. Simulation of the consequences of various imaging scenarios on the dose distribution was performed for two patients with different patterns of interfraction changes in anatomy. Our analysis of the daily set-up correction shifts for 20 prostate cancer patients suggests that the use of four fractions would result in a population average shift that was within 1 mm of the average obtained from the data accumulated over all daily MVCT sessions. Simulation of a scenario in which imaging sessions are performed at a reduced frequency and the planning target volume margin is adapted provided significantly better sparing of organs at risk, with acceptable reproducibility of dose delivery to the clinical target volume. Our results indicate that four MVCT sessions on helical tomotherapy are sufficient to provide information for the creation of personalised target margins and the establishment of the new reference position that accounts for the systematic error. This simplified approach reduces overall treatment session time and decreases the imaging dose to the patient. PMID:19505966

  18. Specific PET Imaging Probes for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    penetrating cell membranes. In one of our studies using such a peptide to deliver a therapeutic moiety to various prostate cancer cell lines, we...to exploit this group of peptides for the early detection of prostate tumor metastases. Promisingly, in our preliminary studies , th e peptide lab...cancer. Based on one of our studies using a polyarginine (NH2GR11) to deliver a therapeutic moiety to various prostate cancer cell lines, we hypothesize

  19. The Efficacy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy in Risk Classification for Patients with Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Recabal, Pedro; Assel, Melissa; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Lee, Daniel; Laudone, Vincent P; Touijer, Karim; Eastham, James A; Vargas, Hebert A; Coleman, Jonathan; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-08-01

    We determined whether multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies may replace systematic biopsies to detect higher grade prostate cancer (Gleason score 7 or greater) and whether biopsy may be avoided based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging among men with Gleason 3+3 prostate cancer on active surveillance. We identified men with previously diagnosed Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and a followup prostate biopsy. Suspicion for higher grade cancer was scored on a standardized 5-point scale. All patients underwent a systematic biopsy. Patients with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging regions of interest also underwent magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy. The detection rate of higher grade cancer was estimated for different multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scores with the 3 biopsy strategies of systematic, magnetic resonance imaging targeted and combined. Of 206 consecutive men on active surveillance 135 (66%) had a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging region of interest. Overall, higher grade cancer was detected in 72 (35%) men. A higher multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging score was associated with an increased probability of detecting higher grade cancer (Wilcoxon-type trend test p <0.0001). Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy detected higher grade cancer in 23% of men. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy alone missed higher grade cancers in 17%, 12% and 10% of patients with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scores of 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies increased the detection of higher grade cancer among men on active surveillance compared to systematic biopsy alone. However, a clinically relevant proportion of higher grade cancer was detected using only systematic biopsy. Despite the improved detection of disease progression using magnetic resonance imaging

  20. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-04-21

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  1. Prostate cancer localization with endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging: effect of clinical data on reader accuracy.

    PubMed

    Dhingsa, Rajpal; Qayyum, Aliya; Coakley, Fergus V; Lu, Ying; Jones, Kirk D; Swanson, Mark G; Carroll, Peter R; Hricak, Hedvig; Kurhanewicz, John

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effect of digital rectal examination findings, sextant biopsy results, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels on reader accuracy in the localization of prostate cancer with endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging. This was a retrospective study of 37 patients (mean age, 57 years) with biopsy-proved prostate cancer. Transverse T1-weighted, transverse high-spatial-resolution, and coronal T2-weighted MR images and MR spectroscopic images were obtained. Two independent readers, unaware of clinical data, recorded the size and location of suspicious peripheral zone tumor nodules on a standardized diagram of the prostate. Readers also recorded their degree of diagnostic confidence for each nodule on a five-point scale. Both readers repeated this interpretation with knowledge of rectal examination findings, sextant biopsy results, and PSA level. Step-section histopathologic findings were the reference standard. Logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was used to correlate tumor detection with clinical data, and alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) curve analysis was used to examine the overall effect of clinical data on all positive results. Fifty-one peripheral zone tumor nodules were identified at histopathologic evaluation. Logistic regression analysis showed awareness of clinical data significantly improved tumor detection rate (P <.02) from 15 to 19 nodules for reader 1 and from 13 to 19 nodules for reader 2 (27%-37% overall) by using both size and location criteria. AFROC analysis showed no significant change in overall reader performance because there was an associated increase in the number of false-positive findings with awareness of clinical data, from 11 to 21 for reader 1 and from 16 to 25 for reader 2. Awareness of clinical data significantly improves reader detection of prostate cancer nodules with endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging

  2. WE-EF-210-07: Development of a Minimally Invasive Photo Acoustic Imaging System for Early Prostate Cancer Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, M; Yousefi, S; Xing, L

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to design, implement and characterize a catheter-based ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging probe for early-diagnosis of prostate cancer and to aid in image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: The need to image across 6–10cm of tissue to image the whole prostate gland limits the resolution achievable with a transrectal ultrasound approach. In contrast, the urethra bisects the prostate gland, providing a minimally invasive pathway for deploying a high resolution ultrasound transducer. Utilizing a high-frequency (20MHz) ultrasound/photoacoustic probe, high-resolution structural and molecular imaging of the prostate tissue is possible. A custom 3D printed probe containing a high-frequency single-element ultrasoundmore » transducer is utilized. The diameter of the probe is designed to fit inside a Foley catheter and the probe is rotated around the central axis to achieve a circular B-scan. A custom ultrasound amplifier and receiver was set up to trigger the ultrasound pulse transmission and record the reflected signal. The reconstructed images were compared to images generated by traditional 5 MHz ultrasound transducers. Results: The preliminary results using the high-frequency ultrasound probe show that it is possible to resolve finely detailed information in a prostate tissue phantom that was not achievable with previous low-frequency ultrasound systems. Preliminary ultrasound imaging was performed on tissue mimicking phantom and sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the catheter was measured. Conclusion: In order to achieve non-invasive, high-resolution, structural and molecular imaging for early-diagnosis and image-guided radiation therapy of the prostate tissue, a transurethral catheter was designed. Structural/molecular imaging using ultrasound/photoacoustic of the prostate tissue will allow for localization of hyper vascularized areas for early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis.« less

  3. Lesion volume predicts prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness: validation of its value alone and matched with prostate imaging reporting and data system score.

    PubMed

    Martorana, Eugenio; Pirola, Giacomo Maria; Scialpi, Michele; Micali, Salvatore; Iseppi, Andrea; Bonetti, Luca Reggiani; Kaleci, Shaniko; Torricelli, Pietro; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2017-07-01

    To demonstrate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) estimated lesion volume (LV), prostate cancer detection and tumour clinical significance, evaluating this variable alone and matched with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) score. We retrospectively analysed 157 consecutive patients, with at least one prior negative systematic prostatic biopsy, who underwent transperineal prostate MRI/ultrasonography fusion-targeted biopsy between January 2014 and February 2016. Suspicious lesions were delineated using a 'region of interest' and the system calculated prostate volume and LV. Patients were divided in groups considering LV (≤0.5, 0.5-1, ≥1 mL) and PI-RADS score (1-5). We considered clinically significant prostate cancer as all cancers with a Gleason score of ≥3 + 4 as suggested by PI-RADS v2. A direct comparison between MRI estimated LV (MRI LV) and histological tumour volume (HTV) was done in 23 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy during the study period. Differences between MRI LV and HTV were assessed using the paired sample t-test. MRI LV and HTV concordance was verified using a Bland-Altman plot. The chi-squared test and logistic and ordinal regression models were used to evaluate difference in frequencies. The MRI LV and PI-RADS score were associated both with prostate cancer detection (both P < 0.001) and with significant prostate cancer detection (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). When the two variables were matched, increasing LV increased the risk within each PI-RADS group. Prostate cancer detection was 1.4-times higher for LVs of 0.5-1 mL and 1.8-times higher for LVs of ≥1 mL; significant prostate cancer detection was 2.6-times for LVs of 0.5-1 mL and 4-times for LVs of ≥1 mL. There was a positive correlation between MRI LV and HTV (r = 0.9876, P < 0.001). Finally, Bland-Altman analysis showed that MRI LV was underestimated by 4.2% compared to HTV. Study limitations include its

  4. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  5. Imaging Neurotensin Receptor in Prostate Cancer With 64Cu-Labeled Neurotensin Analogs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huaifu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, He; Wang, Mengzhe; Giglio, Ben; Ma, Xiaofen; Jiang, Guihua; Yuan, Hong; Wu, Zhanhong; Li, Zibo

    2017-01-01

    Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR-1) is expressed and activated in prostate cancer cells. In this study, we explore the NTR expression in normal mouse tissues and study the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of NTR in prostate cancer models. Three 64 Cu chelators (1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA], 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N″-triacetic acid [NOTA], or AmBaSar) were conjugated to an NT analog. Neurotensin receptor binding affinity was evaluated using cell binding assay. The imaging profile of radiolabeled probes was compared in well-established NTR + HT-29 tumor model. Stability of the probes was tested. The selected agents were further evaluated in human prostate cancer PC3 xenografts. All 3 NT conjugates retained the majority of NTR binding affinity. In HT-29 tumor, all agents demonstrated prominent tumor uptake. Although comparable stability was observed, 64 Cu-NOTA-NT and 64 Cu-AmBaSar-NT demonstrated improved tumor to background contrast compared with 64 Cu-DOTA-NT. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of the NTR expression in PC-3 xenografts showed high tumor uptake of the probes, correlating with the in vitro Western blot results. Blocking experiments further confirmed receptor specificity. Our results demonstrated that 64 Cu-labeled neurotensin analogs are promising imaging agents for NTR-positive tumors. These agents may help us identify NTR-positive lesions and predict which patients and individual tumors are likely to respond to novel interventions targeting NTR-1.

  6. Imaging of prostate cancer with PET/CT using 18F-Fluorocholine

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Reza; Loidl, Wolfgang; Pirich, Christian; Langesteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    While 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) has limited value in prostate cancer (PCa), it may be useful for specific subgroups of PCa patients with hormone-resistant poorly differentiated cell types. 18F-Fluorocholine (18F-FCH) PET/CT has been increasingly used in primary and recurrent PCa and has been shown to add valuable information. Although there is a correlation between the foci of activity and the areas of malignancy in the prostate gland, the clinical value of 18F-FCH is still controversial for detection of the malignant focus in the prostate. For the T-staging of PCa at diagnosis the value of 18F-FCH is limited. This is probably due to limited resolution of PET system and positive findings in benign prostate diseases. Conversely, 18F-FCH PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for the delineation of local and distant nodal recurrence and bone metastases and is poised to have an impact on therapy management. In this review, recent studies of 18F-FCH PET/CT in PCa are summarized. PMID:25973332

  7. 1.5-Tesla Multiparametric-Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    POPITA, CRISTIAN; POPITA, ANCA RALUCA; SITAR-TAUT, ADELA; PETRUT, BOGDAN; FETICA, BOGDAN; COMAN, IOAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) is the main imaging modality used for prostate cancer detection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI at 1.5-Tesla (1.5-T) for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Methods In this ethical board approved prospective study, 39 patients with suspected prostate cancer were included. Patients with a history of positive prostate biopsy and patients treated for prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were examined at 1.5-T MRI, before standard transrectal ultrasonography–guided biopsy. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for mp-MRI were 100%, 73.68%, 80% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed that 1.5 T mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and high negative predictive value in order to rule out significant disease. PMID:28246496

  8. Pathological Gleason prediction through gland ring morphometry in immunofluorescent prostate cancer images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The Gleason score is the most common architectural and morphological assessment of prostate cancer severity and prognosis. There have been numerous quantitative techniques developed to approximate and duplicate the Gleason scoring system. Most of these approaches have been developed in standard H and E brightfield microscopy. Immunofluorescence (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has recently been proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. In this work we leverage a new method of segmenting gland rings in IF images for predicting the pathological Gleason; both the clinical and the image specific grade, which may not necessarily be the same. We combine these measures with nuclear specific characteristics as assessed by the MST algorithm. Our individual features correlate well univariately with the Gleason grades, and in a multivariate setting have an accuracy of 85% in predicting the Gleason grade. Additionally, these features correlate strongly with clinical progression outcomes (CI of 0.89), significantly outperforming the clinical Gleason grades (CI of 0.78). This work presents the first assessment of morphological gland unit features from IF images for predicting the Gleason grade.

  9. Feasibility of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Transrectal Photo-acoustic Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    prostate. Transrectal ultrasound has been used as a guiding tool to direct tissue needle biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis; it cannot be utilized for...tool currently available for prostate cancer detection; needle biopsy is the current practice for diagnosis of the disease, aiming randomly in the...developing an integrated approach between ultrasound and optical tomography, namely, transrectal ultrasound - guided diffuse optical tomography (TRUS

  10. 18F-DCFBC Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted PET/CT Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer: Correlation With Multiparametric MRI and Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Turkbey, Baris; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Adler, Stephen; Bednarova, Sandra; Berman, Rose; Ton, Anita T; McKinney, Yolanda; Eclarinal, Philip; Hill, Craig; Afari, George; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Mease, Ronnie C; Merino, Maria J; Jacobs, Paula M; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Pomper, Martin G; Choyke, Peter L

    2017-10-01

    To assess the ability of (N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine) (F-DCFBC), a prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted PET agent, to detect localized prostate cancer lesions in correlation with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histopathology. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant, prospective, institutional review board-approved study included 13 evaluable patients with localized prostate cancer (median age, 62.8 years [range, 51-74 years]; median prostate-specific antigen, 37.5 ng/dL [range, 3.26-216 ng/dL]). Patients underwent mpMRI and F-DCFBC PET/CT within a 3 months' window. Lesions seen on mpMRI were biopsied under transrectal ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided biopsy, or a radical prostatectomy was performed. F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were evaluated blinded and separately for tumor detection on a lesion basis. For PET image analysis, MRI and F-DCFBC PET images were fused by using software registration; imaging findings were correlated with histology, and uptake of F-DCFBC in tumors was compared with uptake in benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules and normal peripheral zone tissue using the 80% threshold SUVmax. A total of 25 tumor foci (mean size, 1.8 cm; median size, 1.5 cm; range, 0.6-4.7 cm) were histopathologically identified in 13 patients. Sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 36% and 96%, respectively, for all tumors. For index lesions, the largest tumor with highest Gleason score, sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 61.5% and 92%, respectively. The average SUVmax for primary prostate cancer was higher (5.8 ± 4.4) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules (2.1 ± 0.3) or that of normal prostate tissue (2.1 ± 0.4) at 1 hour postinjection (P = 0.0033). The majority of index prostate cancers are detected with F-DCFBC PET/CT, and this may be a prognostic indicator based on uptake and staging. However, for detecting prostate cancer with high sensitivity, it

  11. Radiomics and radiogenomics of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clayton P; Czarniecki, Marcin; Mehralivand, Sherif; Stoyanova, Radka; Choyke, Peter L; Harmon, Stephanie; Turkbey, Baris

    2018-06-20

    Radiomics and radiogenomics are attractive research topics in prostate cancer. Radiomics mainly focuses on extraction of quantitative information from medical imaging, whereas radiogenomics aims to correlate these imaging features to genomic data. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview summarizing recent progress in the application of radiomics-based approaches in prostate cancer and to discuss the potential role of radiogenomics in prostate cancer.

  12. Observer assessment of multi-pinhole SPECT geometries for prostate cancer imaging: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Faraz; Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2014-03-01

    SPECT imaging using In-111 ProstaScint is an FDA-approved method for diagnosing prostate cancer metastases within the pelvis. However, conventional medium-energy parallel-hole (MEPAR) collimators produce poor image quality and we are investigating the use of multipinhole (MPH) imaging as an alternative. This paper presents a method for evaluating MPH designs that makes use of sampling-sensitive (SS) mathematical model observers for tumor detectionlocalization tasks. Key to our approach is the redefinition of a normal (or background) reference image that is used with scanning model observers. We used this approach to compare different MPH configurations for the task of small-tumor detection in the prostate and surrounding lymph nodes. Four configurations used 10, 20, 30, and 60 pinholes evenly spaced over a complete circular orbit. A fixed-count acquisition protocol was assumed. Spherical tumors were placed within a digital anthropomorphic phantom having a realistic Prostascint biodistribution. Imaging data sets were generated with an analytical projector and reconstructed volumes were obtained with the OSEM algorithm. The MPH configurations were compared in a localization ROC (LROC) study with 2D pelvic images and both human and model observers. Regular and SS versions of the scanning channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) and visual-search (VS) model observers were applied. The SS models demonstrated the highest correlations with the average human-observer results

  13. Searching for prostate cancer by fully automated magnetic resonance imaging classification: deep learning versus non-deep learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinggang; Yang, Wei; Weinreb, Jeffrey; Han, Juan; Li, Qiubai; Kong, Xiangchuang; Yan, Yongluan; Ke, Zan; Luo, Bo; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liang

    2017-11-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of death since ancient time documented in Egyptian Ptolemaic mummy imaging. PCa detection is critical to personalized medicine and varies considerably under an MRI scan. 172 patients with 2,602 morphologic images (axial 2D T2-weighted imaging) of the prostate were obtained. A deep learning with deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and a non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and bag-of-word (BoW), a representative method for image recognition and analysis, were used to distinguish pathologically confirmed PCa patients from prostate benign conditions (BCs) patients with prostatitis or prostate benign hyperplasia (BPH). In fully automated detection of PCa patients, deep learning had a statistically higher area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) than non-deep learning (P = 0.0007 < 0.001). The AUCs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.89) for deep learning method and 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.77) for non-deep learning method, respectively. Our results suggest that deep learning with DCNN is superior to non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and BoW model for fully automated PCa patients differentiation from prostate BCs patients. Our deep learning method is extensible to image modalities such as MR imaging, CT and PET of other organs.

  14. Multiple Time-Point 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT for Characterization of Primary Prostate Cancer: Value of Early Dynamic and Delayed Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, Sebastian; Mamach, Martin; Wilke, Florian; von Klot, Christoph A; Henkenberens, Christoph; Thackeray, James T; Sohns, Jan M; Geworski, Lilli; Ross, Tobias L; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Bengel, Frank M; Derlin, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to gain mechanistic insights into prostate cancer biology using dynamic imaging and to evaluate the usefulness of multiple time-point Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) I&T PET/CT for the assessment of primary prostate cancer before prostatectomy. Twenty patients with prostate cancer underwent Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT before prostatectomy. The PET protocol consisted of early dynamic pelvic imaging, followed by static scans at 60 and 180 minutes postinjection (p.i.). SUVs, time-activity curves, quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model, Patlak analysis, histopathology, and Gleason grading were compared between prostate cancer and benign prostate gland. Primary tumors were identified on both early dynamic and delayed imaging in 95% of patients. Tracer uptake was significantly higher in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate tissue at any time point (P ≤ 0.0003) and increased over time. Consequently, the tumor-to-nontumor ratio within the prostate gland improved over time (2.8 at 10 minutes vs 17.1 at 180 minutes p.i.). Tracer uptake at both 60 and 180 minutes p.i. was significantly higher in patients with higher Gleason scores (P < 0.01). The influx rate (Ki) was higher in prostate cancer than in reference prostate gland (0.055 [r = 0.998] vs 0.017 [r = 0.996]). Primary prostate cancer is readily identified on early dynamic and static delayed Ga-PSMA ligand PET images. The tumor-to-nontumor ratio in the prostate gland improves over time, supporting a role of delayed imaging for optimal visualization of prostate cancer.

  15. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... over and African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer, you need more than a good ... cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in America, affecting 1 in 9 men. In 2018, nearly ...

  16. Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Use, Outcomes, Imaging, and Diagnostic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Loeb, Stacy; Epstein, Jonathan I; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a standard management option for men with very low-risk and low-risk prostate cancer, and contemporary data indicate that use of AS is increasing in the United States and abroad. In the favorable-risk population, reports from multiple prospective cohorts indicate a less than 1% likelihood of metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality over intermediate-term follow-up (median 5 to 6 years). Higher-risk men participating in AS appear to be at increased risk of adverse outcomes, but these populations have not been adequately studied to this point. Although monitoring on AS largely relies on serial prostate biopsy, a procedure associated with significant morbidity, there is a need for improved diagnostic tools for patient selection and monitoring. Revisions from the 2014 International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus conference have yielded a more intuitive reporting system and detailed reporting of low-intermediate grade tumors, which should facilitate the practice of AS. Meanwhile, emerging modalities such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and tissue-based molecular testing have shown prognostic value in some populations. At this time, however, these instruments have not been sufficiently studied to consider their routine, standardized use in the AS setting. Future studies should seek to identify those platforms most informative in the AS population and propose a strategy by which promising diagnostic tools can be safely and efficiently incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:27249729

  17. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  18. Detection of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography image-fusion targeted biopsy in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Shin, Toshitaka; Smyth, Thomas B; Ukimura, Osamu; Ahmadi, Nariman; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Oishi, Masakatsu; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Gill, Inderbir S

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic yield of targeted prostate biopsy in African-American (A-A) men using image fusion of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with real-time transrectal ultrasonography (US). We retrospectively analysed 661 patients (117 A-A and 544 Caucasian) who had mpMRI before biopsy and then underwent MRI/US image-fusion targeted biopsy (FTB) between October 2012 and August 2015. The mpMRIs were reported on a 5-point Likert scale of suspicion. Clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC) was defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. After controlling for age, prostate-specific antigen level and prostate volume, there were no significant differences between A-A and Caucasian men in the detection rate of overall cancer (35.0% vs 34.2%, P = 0.9) and CSPC (18.8% vs 21.7%, P = 0.3) with MRI/US FTB. There were no significant differences between the races in the location of dominant lesions on mpMRI, and in the proportion of 5-point Likert scoring. In A-A men, MRI/US FTB from the grade 4-5 lesions outperformed random biopsy in the detection rate of overall cancer (70.6% vs 37.2%, P = 0.003) and CSPC (52.9% vs 12.4%, P < 0.001). MRI/US FTB outperformed random biopsy in cancer core length (5.0 vs 2.4 mm, P = 0.001), in cancer rate per core (24.9% vs 6.8%, P < 0.001), and in efficiency for detecting one patient with CSPC (mean number of cores needed 13.3 vs 81.9, P < 0.001), respectively. Our key finding confirms a lack of racial difference in the detection rate of overall prostate cancers and CSPC with MRI/US FTB between A-A and Caucasian men. MRI/US FTB detected more CSPC using fewer cores compared with random biopsy. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI†

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 ± 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 ± 0.1 × 10−22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM−1 s−1 and r2 of 37.9 mM−1 s−1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM−1 s−1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM−1 s−1 per Gd (188.0 mM−1 s−1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM−1 s−1 per Gd (37.2 mM−1 s−1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI. PMID:26961235

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... or routine screening test for prostate cancer. Screening tests for prostate cancer are under study, and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...

  1. VPAC1-targeted PET/CT scan: improved molecular imaging for the diagnosis of prostate cancer using a novel cell surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hong; Gomella, Leonard G; Thakur, Mathew L; Trabulsi, Edouard J

    2018-05-01

    Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed. English language guidelines on prostate cancer diagnosis and management, original articles, and review articles were selected based on their clinical relevance. VPAC1 receptors were overexpressed 1000 times more in prostate cancer than benign prostatic stromal tissue. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that Copper-64 labeled analogs of VPAC1 ligands can be synthesized with high radiochemical efficiency and purity. The radioactive probes had excellent VPAC1 receptor binding specificity and affinity. They had good biochemical stability in vitro and in mouse and human serum. They had minimal urinary excretion, which made them favorable for prostate cancer imaging. Initial feasibility study in men with prostate cancer showed that the probes were safe with no reported adverse reaction. 64 Cu-TP3805 PET/CT detected 98% of prostate cancer lesions and nodal metastasis as confirmed with whole mount histopathological evaluation. VPAC1 receptors are promising targets for biomolecular imaging of primary prostate cancer that can distinguish malignant from benign lesions non-invasively. Further investigations are warranted to validate initial findings and define the clinical utilities of VPAC1-targeted PET imaging for prostate cancer diagnosis and management.

  2. Diagnostic Challenges in Prostate Cancer and 68Ga-PSMA PET Imaging: A Game Changer?

    PubMed

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Sajid, Mahwsih; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Sidra

    2017-10-26

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequent solid tumor in men and the third most common cause of cancer mortality among men in developed countries. Current imaging modalities like ultrasound (US), computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and choline based positron emission (PET) tracing have disappointing sensitivity for detection of nodal metastasis and small tumor recurrence. This poses a diagnostic challenge in staging of intermediate to high risk PC and restaging of patients with biochemical recurrence (PSA >0.2 ng/ml). Gallium-68 labeled prostate specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) PET imaging has now emerged with a higher diagnostic yield. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MRI can be expected to offer a one-stop-shop for staging and restaging of PC. PSMA ligands labeled with alpha and beta emitters have also shown promising therapeutic efficacy for nodal, bone and visceral metastasis. Therefore a PSMA based theranostics approach for detection, staging, treatment, and follow-up of PC would appear to be highly valuable to achieve personalized PC treatment. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Metabolic Imaging of Patients with Prostate Cancer Using Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Sarah J.; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Harzstark, Andrea L.; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Chang, Jose W.; Bok, Robert; Park, Ilwoo; Reed, Galen; Carvajal, Lucas; Small, Eric J.; Munster, Pamela; Weinberg, Vivian K.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Chen, Albert P.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Odegardstuen, Liv-Ingrid; Robb, Fraser J.; Tropp, James; Murray, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-man imaging study evaluated the safety and feasibility of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate as an agent for noninvasively characterizing alterations in tumor metabolism for patients with prostate cancer. Imaging living systems with hyperpolarized agents can result in more than 10,000-fold enhancement in signal relative to conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. When combined with the rapid acquisition of in vivo 13C MR data, it is possible to evaluate the distribution of agents such as [1-13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate in a matter of seconds. Preclinical studies in cancer models have detected elevated levels of hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate in tumor, with the ratio of [1-13C]lactate/[1-13C]pyruvate being increased in high-grade tumors and decreased after successful treatment. Translation of this technology into humans was achieved by modifying the instrument that generates the hyperpolarized agent, constructing specialized radio frequency coils to detect 13C nuclei, and developing new pulse sequences to efficiently capture the signal. The study population comprised patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, with 31 subjects being injected with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The median time to deliver the agent was 66 s, and uptake was observed about 20 s after injection. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the highest dose (0.43 ml/kg of 230 mM agent) gave the best signal-to-noise ratio for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The results were extremely promising in not only confirming the safety of the agent but also showing elevated [1-13C]lactate/[1-13C]pyruvate in regions of biopsy-proven cancer. These findings will be valuable for noninvasive cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring in future clinical trials. PMID:23946197

  4. MR-perfusion (MRP) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in prostate cancer: quantitative and model-based gadobenate dimeglumine MRP parameters in detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Scherr, M K; Seitz, M; Müller-Lisse, U G; Ingrisch, M; Reiser, M F; Müller-Lisse, U L

    2010-12-01

    Various MR methods, including MR-spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been applied to improve test quality of standard MRI of the prostate. To determine if quantitative, model-based MR-perfusion (MRP) with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) discriminates between prostate cancer, benign tissue, and transitional zone (TZ) tissue. 27 patients (age, 65±4 years; PSA 11.0±6.1 ng/ml) with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent standard MRI, 3D MR-spectroscopy (MRS), and MRP with Gd-BOPTA. Based on results of combined MRI/MRS and subsequent guided prostate biopsy alone (17/27), biopsy and radical prostatectomy (9/27), or sufficient negative follow-up (7/27), maps of model-free, deconvolution-based mean transit time (dMTT) were generated for 29 benign regions (bROIs), 14 cancer regions (cROIs), and 18 regions of transitional zone (tzROIs). Applying a 2-compartment exchange model, quantitative perfusion analysis was performed including as parameters: plasma flow (PF), plasma volume (PV), plasma mean transit time (PMTT), extraction flow (EFL), extraction fraction (EFR), interstitial volume (IV) and interstitial mean transit time (IMTT). Two-sided T-tests (significance level p<0.05) discriminated bROIs vs. cROIs and cROIs vs. tzROIs, respectively. PMTT discriminated best between bROIs (11.8±3.0 s) and cROIs (24.3±9.6 s) (p<0.0001), while PF, PV, PS, EFR, IV, IMTT also differed significantly (p 0.00002-0.0136). Discrimination between cROIs and tzROIs was insignificant for all parameters except PV (14.3±2.5 ml vs. 17.6±2.6 ml, p<0.05). Besides MRI, MRS and DWI quantitative, 2-compartment MRP with Gd-BOPTA discriminates between prostate cancer and benign tissue with several parameters. However, distinction of prostate cancer and TZ does not appear to be reliable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gallium 68 PSMA-11 PET/MR Imaging in Patients with Intermediate- or High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sonya Youngju; Zacharias, Claudia; Harrison, Caitlyn; Fan, Richard E; Kunder, Christian; Hatami, Negin; Giesel, Frederik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Daniel, Bruce; Loening, Andreas M; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Iagaru, Andrei

    2018-05-16

    Purpose To report the results of dual-time-point gallium 68 ( 68 Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-11 positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging prior to prostatectomy in patients with intermediate- or high-risk cancer. Materials and Methods Thirty-three men who underwent conventional imaging as clinically indicated and who were scheduled for radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection were recruited for this study. A mean dose of 4.1 mCi ± 0.7 (151.7 MBq ± 25.9) of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 was administered. Whole-body images were acquired starting 41-61 minutes after injection by using a GE SIGNA PET/MR imaging unit, followed by an additional pelvic PET/MR imaging acquisition at 87-125 minutes after injection. PET/MR imaging findings were compared with findings at multiparametric MR imaging (including diffusion-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging) and were correlated with results of final whole-mount pathologic examination and pelvic nodal dissection to yield sensitivity and specificity. Dual-time-point metabolic parameters (eg, maximum standardized uptake value [SUV max ]) were compared by using a paired t test and were correlated with clinical and histopathologic variables including prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, and tumor volume. Results Prostate cancer was seen at 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET in all 33 patients, whereas multiparametric MR imaging depicted Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 4 or 5 lesions in 26 patients and PI-RADS 3 lesions in four patients. Focal uptake was seen in the pelvic lymph nodes in five patients. Pathologic examination confirmed prostate cancer in all patients, as well as nodal metastasis in three. All patients with normal pelvic nodes in PET/MR imaging had no metastases at pathologic examination. The accumulation of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 increased at later acquisition times, with higher mean SUV max (15.3 vs 12.3, P < .001). One

  6. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  7. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    scan duration ~ 21 min). PET imaging was performed on a Concorde Microsystems microPET Focus 220. Approximately 120 uCi of tracer was administered... PET tracer targeting translocator protein expression (TSPO), using 18F-VUIIS1008 (a probe developed in-house), and hypoxia, using 18F...manuscripts describing these efforts. First, we plan to submit a manuscript validating the use of the TSPO PET tracer developed in house in the Pten/p53

  8. Role of endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in two different Gleason scores in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Margolis, Daniel; McClure, Tim; Raman, Steve; Thomas, M Albert

    2011-01-01

    The major goal of the work was to record three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and to compare metabolite ratios between different Gleason scores (GS). MRSI localized by endorectal coil-acquired point-resolved spectroscopy was performed in 14 men with prostate cancer of GS 6 (n = 7) and 7 (n = 7) using a 1.5-tesla MRI scanner. The ratio of (choline + creatine)/citrate was increased with an increase of GS, i.e. 0.590 ± 0.171 in the target lesion and 0.321 ± 0.157 in the contralateral region of patients with a GS of 6 as opposed to 1.082 ± 0.432 in the target lesion and 0.360 ± 0.243 in the contralateral region of patients with a GS of 7. Our pilot results demonstrated that MRSI was an additional biochemical tool which is complementary to the current imaging modalities for early diagnosis and therapeutic management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ultrasound-contrast-agent dispersion and velocity imaging for prostate cancer localization.

    PubMed

    van Sloun, Ruud Jg; Demi, Libertario; Postema, Arnoud W; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer death in men; however, reliable tools for detection and localization are still lacking. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced UltraSound (DCE-US) is a diagnostic tool that is suitable for analysis of vascularization, by imaging an intravenously injected microbubble bolus. The localization of angiogenic vascularization associated with the development of tumors is of particular interest. Recently, methods for the analysis of the bolus convective dispersion process have shown promise to localize angiogenesis. However, independent estimation of dispersion was not possible due to the ambiguity between convection and dispersion. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method that considers the vascular network as a dynamic linear system, whose impulse response can be locally identified. To this end, model-based parameter estimation is employed, that permits extraction of the apparent dispersion coefficient (D), velocity (v), and Péclet number (Pe) of the system. Clinical evaluation using data recorded from 25 patients shows that the proposed method can be applied effectively to DCE-US, and is able to locally characterize the hemodynamics, yielding promising results (receiver-operating-characteristic curve area of 0.84) for prostate cancer localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Louise; Ahmed, Hashim U; Allen, Clare; Barentsz, Jelle O; Carey, Brendan; Futterer, Jurgen J; Heijmink, Stijn W; Hoskin, Peter J; Kirkham, Alex; Padhani, Anwar R; Persad, Raj; Puech, Philippe; Punwani, Shonit; Sohaib, Aslam S; Tombal, Bertrand; Villers, Arnauld; van der Meulen, Jan; Emberton, Mark

    2011-04-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may have a role in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer in men with raised serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Variations in technique and the interpretation of images have contributed to inconsistency in its reported performance characteristics. Our aim was to make recommendations on a standardised method for the conduct, interpretation, and reporting of prostate mpMRI for prostate cancer detection and localisation. A consensus meeting of 16 European prostate cancer experts was held that followed the UCLA-RAND Appropriateness Method and facilitated by an independent chair. Before the meeting, 520 items were scored for "appropriateness" by panel members, discussed face to face, and rescored. Agreement was reached in 67% of 260 items related to imaging sequence parameters. T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted MRI were the key sequences incorporated into the minimum requirements. Consensus was also reached on 54% of 260 items related to image interpretation and reporting, including features of malignancy on individual sequences. A 5-point scale was agreed on for communicating the probability of malignancy, with a minimum of 16 prostatic regions of interest, to include a pictorial representation of suspicious foci. Limitations relate to consensus methodology. Dominant personalities are known to affect the opinions of the group and were countered by a neutral chairperson. Consensus was reached on a number of areas related to the conduct, interpretation, and reporting of mpMRI for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer. Before optimal dissemination of this technology, these outcomes will require formal validation in prospective trials. Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic tests in urology: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Preston, Mark A; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Mucci, Lorelei; Witiuk, Kelsey; Breau, Rodney H

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The use of MRI for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging is increasing. Indications for prostate MRI are not defined and many clinicians are unsure of how best to use MRI to aid clinical decisions. This evidence-based medicine article addresses the clinical utility of prostate MRI for preoperative staging. Based on a common patient scenario, a guide to calculating the probability of extraprostatic extension is provided. © 2013 BJU International.

  12. 64Cu-Labeled Inhibitors of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-recognized target for identification and therapy of a variety of cancers. Here we report five 64Cu-labeled inhibitors of PSMA, [64Cu]3–7, which are based on the lysine–glutamate urea scaffold and utilize a variety of macrocyclic chelators, namely NOTA(3), PCTA(4), Oxo-DO3A(5), CB-TE2A(6), and DOTA(7), in an effort to determine which provides the most suitable pharmacokinetics for in vivo PET imaging. [64Cu]3–7 were prepared in high radiochemical yield (60–90%) and purity (>95%). Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of [64Cu]3–7 revealed specific accumulation in PSMA-expressing xenografts (PSMA+ PC3 PIP) relative to isogenic control tumor (PSMA– PC3 flu) and background tissue. The favorable kinetics and high image contrast provided by CB-TE2A chelated [64Cu]6 suggest it as the most promising among the candidates tested. That could be due to the higher stability of [64Cu]CB-TE2A as compared with [64Cu]NOTA, [64Cu]PCTA, [64Cu]Oxo-DO3A, and [64Cu]DOTA chelates in vivo. PMID:24533799

  13. Risk of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Associated With Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 3 (Equivocal) Lesions Identified on Multiparametric Prostate MRI.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Alison D; Nath, Sameer K; Syed, Jamil S; Aneja, Sanjay; Sprenkle, Preston C; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Spektor, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of clinically significant cancer (CSC) in Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) category 3 (equivocal) lesions prospectively identified on multiparametric prostate MRI and to identify risk factors (RFs) for CSC that may aid in decision making. Between January 2015 and July 2016, a total of 977 consecutively seen men underwent multiparametric prostate MRI, and 342 underwent MRI-ultrasound (US) fusion targeted biopsy. A total of 474 lesions were retrospectively reviewed, and 111 were scored as PI-RADS category 3 and were visualized using a 3-T MRI scanner. Multiparametric prostate MR images were prospectively interpreted by body subspecialty radiologists trained to use PI-RADS version 2. CSC was defined as a Gleason score of at least 7 on targeted biopsy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify the RFs associated with CSC. Of the 111 PI-RADS category 3 lesions, 81 (73.0%) were benign, 11 (9.9%) were clinically insignificant (Gleason score, 6), and 19 (17.1%) were clinically significant. On multivariate analysis, three RFs were identified as significant predictors of CSC: older patient age (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; p = 0.002), smaller prostate volume (OR, 0.94; p = 0.008), and abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings (OR, 3.92; p = 0.03). For PI-RADS category 3 lesions associated with zero, one, two, or three RFs, the risk of CSC was 4%, 16%, 62%, and 100%, respectively. PI-RADS category 3 lesions for which two or more RFs were noted (e.g., age ≥ 70 years, gland size ≤ 36 mL, or abnormal DRE findings) had a CSC detection rate of 67% with a sensitivity of 53%, a specificity of 95%, a positive predictive value of 67%, and a negative predictive value of 91%. Incorporating clinical parameters into risk stratification algorithms may improve the ability to detect clinically significant disease among PI-RADS category 3 lesions and may aid in the decision to

  14. Innovations in imaging modalities for recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Albisinni, Simone; Aoun, Fouad; Marcelis, Quentin; Jungels, Claude; Al Hajj Obeid, Walid; Zanaty, Marc; Tubaro, Andrea; Roumeguere, Thierry; DE Nunzio, Cosimo

    2018-01-31

    The last decade has witnessed tremendous changes in the management of advanced and metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the current systematic review, we analyze novel imaging techniques in the setting of recurrent and metastatic PCa, exploring available data and highlighting future exams which could enter clinical practice in the upcoming years. The National Library of Medicine Database was searched for relevant articles published between January 2012 and August 2017. A wide search was performed including the combination of following words: "Prostate" AND "Cancer" AND ("Metastatic" OR "Recurrent") AND "imaging" AND ("MRI" OR "PET"). The selection procedure followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) principles and is presented using a PRISMA flow chart. Novel imaging techniques, as multiparametric MRI, whole-body MRI and Choline and PSMA PET imaging techniques are currently revolutioning the treatment planning in patients with advanced and metastatic PCa, allowing a better characterization of the disease. Multiparametric MRI performs well in the detection of local recurrences, with sensitivity rates of 67-98% and overall diagnostic accuracy of 83-93%, depending on the type of magnetic field strength (1.5 vs 3T). Whole body MRI instead shows a high specificity (>95%) for bone metastases. PET imaging, and in particular PSMA PET/CT, showed promising results in the detection of both local and distant recurrences, even for low PSA values (<0.5ng/ml). Sensitivity varies from 77-98% depending on PSA value and PSA velocity. Whole body-MRI, NaF PET, Choline-PET/CT and PSMA PET/CT are flourishing techniques which find great application in the field of recurrent and metastatic PCa, in the effort to reduce treatment of "PSA only" and rather focus our therapies on clinical tumor entities. Standardization is urgently needed to allow adequate comparison of results and diffusion on a large scale.

  15. A novel canine model for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jill M; Schade, George R; Ives, Kimberly; Cheng, Xu; Rosol, Thomas J; Piert, Morand; Siddiqui, Javed; Roberts, William W; Keller, Evan T

    2013-06-01

    No existing animal model fully recapitulates all features of human prostate cancer. The dog is the only large mammal, besides humans, that commonly develops spontaneous prostate cancer. Canine prostate cancer features many similarities with its human counterpart. We sought to develop a canine model of prostate cancer that would more fully represent the features of human prostate cancer than existing models. The Ace-1 canine prostate cancer cell line was injected transabdominally under transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance into the prostates of immunosuppressed, intact, adult male dogs. Tumor progression was monitored by TRUS imaging. Some dogs were subjected to positron emission tomography (PET) for tumor detection. Time of euthanasia was determined based on tumor size, impingement on urethra, and general well-being. Euthanasia was followed by necropsy and histopathology. Ace-1 tumor cells grew robustly in every dog injected. Tumors grew in subcapsular and parenchymal regions of the prostate. Tumor tissue could be identified using PET. Histological findings were similar to those observed in human prostate cancer. Metastases to lungs and lymph nodes were detected, predominantly in dogs with intraprostatic tumors. We have established a minimally invasive dog model of prostate cancer. This model may be valuable for studying prostate cancer progression and distant metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually painless. Treatment is done in a radiation oncology center that is usually connected to a hospital. ... Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): prostate cancer. Version 2.2017. www. ...

  17. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from making testosterone. However, estrogens are seldom used today in the treatment of prostate cancer because of ... or better than the standard treatment . Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier ...

  18. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  19. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Cheng

    2007-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer other than skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Its exact causes are unknown. Several risk factors have been associated with prostate cancer including age, race, family history and diet. Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications are important means of gene regulation and play essential roles in diverse biological and disease processes. Recently, frequent epigenetic aberrations such as DNA hypo- and hypermethylation and altered histone acetylation and methylation have been observed in prostate cancer affecting the expression and function of a large array of genes, leading to tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. In this chapter, we examined the current literature regarding epigenetic changes in prostate cancer and discuss the clinical potential of cancer epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  20. Iterative normalization method for improved prostate cancer localization with multispectral magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Samil Yetik, Imam

    2012-04-01

    Use of multispectral magnetic resonance imaging has received a great interest for prostate cancer localization in research and clinical studies. Manual extraction of prostate tumors from multispectral magnetic resonance imaging is inefficient and subjective, while automated segmentation is objective and reproducible. For supervised, automated segmentation approaches, learning is essential to obtain the information from training dataset. However, in this procedure, all patients are assumed to have similar properties for the tumor and normal tissues, and the segmentation performance suffers since the variations across patients are ignored. To conquer this difficulty, we propose a new iterative normalization method based on relative intensity values of tumor and normal tissues to normalize multispectral magnetic resonance images and improve segmentation performance. The idea of relative intensity mimics the manual segmentation performed by human readers, who compare the contrast between regions without knowing the actual intensity values. We compare the segmentation performance of the proposed method with that of z-score normalization followed by support vector machine, local active contours, and fuzzy Markov random field. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the three other state-of-the-art algorithms, and was found to have specificity of 0.73, sensitivity of 0.69, and accuracy of 0.79, significantly better than alternative methods.

  1. Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tan H.; Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Melamed, Jonathan; Do, Minh N.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We present an approach for automatic diagnosis of tissue biopsies. Our methodology consists of a quantitative phase imaging tissue scanner and machine learning algorithms to process these data. We illustrate the performance by automatic Gleason grading of prostate specimens. The imaging system operates on the principle of interferometry and, as a result, reports on the nanoscale architecture of the unlabeled specimen. We use these data to train a random forest classifier to learn textural behaviors of prostate samples and classify each pixel in the image into different classes. Automatic diagnosis results were computed from the segmented regions. By combining morphological features with quantitative information from the glands and stroma, logistic regression was used to discriminate regions with Gleason grade 3 versus grade 4 cancer in prostatectomy tissue. The overall accuracy of this classification derived from a receiver operating curve was 82%, which is in the range of human error when interobserver variability is considered. We anticipate that our approach will provide a clinically objective and quantitative metric for Gleason grading, allowing us to corroborate results across instruments and laboratories and feed the computer algorithms for improved accuracy.

  2. A new set of wavelet- and fractals-based features for Gleason grading of prostate cancer histopathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera Lopez, Clara; Agaian, Sos

    2013-02-01

    Prostate cancer detection and staging is an important step towards patient treatment selection. Advancements in digital pathology allow the application of new quantitative image analysis algorithms for computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) on digitized histopathology images. In this paper, we introduce a new set of features to automatically grade pathological images using the well-known Gleason grading system. The goal of this study is to classify biopsy images belonging to Gleason patterns 3, 4, and 5 by using a combination of wavelet and fractal features. For image classification we use pairwise coupling Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. The accuracy of the system, which is close to 97%, is estimated through three different cross-validation schemes. The proposed system offers the potential for automating classification of histological images and supporting prostate cancer diagnosis.

  3. Prostate Cancer Epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J.; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome. PMID:25421658

  4. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    PubMed

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  5. Clinical implications of a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging based nomogram applied to prostate cancer active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Truong, Hong; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Stamatakis, Lambros; Logan, Jennifer; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Simon, Richard M; Pinto, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging may be beneficial in the search for rational ways to decrease prostate cancer intervention in patients on active surveillance. We applied a previously generated nomogram based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to predict active surveillance eligibility based on repeat biopsy outcomes. We reviewed the records of 85 patients who met active surveillance criteria at study entry based on initial biopsy and who then underwent 3.0 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging with subsequent magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion guided prostate biopsy between 2007 and 2012. We assessed the accuracy of a previously published nomogram in patients on active surveillance before confirmatory biopsy. For each cutoff we determined the number of biopsies avoided (ie reliance on magnetic resonance imaging alone without rebiopsy) over the full range of nomogram cutoffs. We assessed the performance of the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging active surveillance nomogram based on a decision to perform biopsy at various nomogram generated probabilities. Based on cutoff probabilities of 19% to 32% on the nomogram the number of patients who could be spared repeat biopsy was 27% to 68% of the active surveillance cohort. The sensitivity of the test in this interval was 97% to 71% and negative predictive value was 91% to 81%. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging based nomograms may reasonably decrease the number of repeat biopsies in patients on active surveillance by as much as 68%. Analysis over the full range of nomogram generated probabilities allows patient and caregiver preference based decision making on the risk assumed for the benefit of fewer repeat biopsies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The economic effect of using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance ultrasound fusion biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ryan C; Costa, Daniel N; Lotan, Yair

    2016-07-01

    Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a maturing imaging modality that has been used to improve detection and staging of prostate cancer. The goal of this review is to evaluate the economic effect of the use of MRI and MRI fusion in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. A literature review was used to identify articles regarding efficacy and cost of MRI and MRI-guided biopsies. There are currently a limited number of studies evaluating cost of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. These studies are primarily models projecting cost estimates based on meta-analyses of the literature. There is considerable variance in the effectiveness of MRI-guided biopsies, both cognitive and fusion, based on user experience, type of MRI (3T vs. 1.5T), use of endorectal coil and type of scoring system for abnormalities such that there is still potential for improvement in accuracy. There is also variability in assumed costs of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. The addition of MRI to the diagnostic algorithm for prostate cancer has caused a shift in how we understand the disease and in what tumors are found on initial and repeat biopsies. Further risk stratification may allow more men to pursue noncurative therapy, which in and of itself is cost-effective in properly selected men. As prostate cancer care comes under increasing scrutiny on a national level, there is pressure on providers to be more accurate in their diagnoses. This in turn can lead to additional testing including Multiparametric MRI, which adds upfront cost. Whether the additional cost of prostate MRI is warranted in detection of prostate cancer is an area of intense research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Piezoelectric Composite Micromachined Multifrequency Transducers for High-Resolution, High-Contrast Ultrasound Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    and in (b) a standard animal model of prostate cancer. In the preliminary in-vitro study , imaging resolution, contrast to tissue ratio, and lesion...detectability will be assessed relative to a Siemens EV- 8C4 transrectal ultrasound probe. In the in-vivo study , molecular imaging and microvascular...lesions will be imaged at several axial depths using our prototype array and the Siemens EV-8C4 clinical TRUS probe. A blinded reader study will be

  8. 3D surface-based registration of ultrasound and histology in prostate cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Stefan G; Postema, Arnoud; Saidov, Tamerlan A; Demi, Libertario; Smeenge, Martijn; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Several transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-based techniques aiming at accurate localization of prostate cancer are emerging to improve diagnostics or to assist with focal therapy. However, precise validation prior to introduction into clinical practice is required. Histopathology after radical prostatectomy provides an excellent ground truth, but needs accurate registration with imaging. In this work, a 3D, surface-based, elastic registration method was developed to fuse TRUS images with histopathologic results. To maximize the applicability in clinical practice, no auxiliary sensors or dedicated hardware were used for the registration. The mean registration errors, measured in vitro and in vivo, were 1.5±0.2 and 2.1±0.5mm, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT: the rising star of nuclear medicine in prostate cancer imaging?

    PubMed

    Uprimny, Christian

    2017-06-02

    Ever since the introduction of 68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen 11 positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ( 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT) a few years ago, it has rapidly achieved great success in the field of prostate cancer imaging. A large number of studies have been published to date, indicating a high potential of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the work-up of prostate cancer patients, including primary diagnosis, staging and biochemical recurrence. The aim of this review is to present the most important data on this novel, highly promising imaging technique, and to formulate recommendations for possible applications of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in clinical routine.

  10. A novel imaging approach for prostate cancer is tested in new clinical trial | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer patients who have failed standard radiation therapy have the options of surgery, radioactive seed implantation or cryoablation. Deborah Citrin, M.D., of the Radiation Oncology Branch is leading a study of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to treat prostate cancer that has recurred locally after standard radiation therapy. The goal of this study is to

  11. Comparison of fluorescence probes for intracellular sodium imaging in prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Iamshanova, Oksana; Mariot, Pascal; Lehen'kyi, V'yacheslav; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2016-10-01

    Sodium (Na + ) ions are known to regulate many signaling pathways involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, alterations in intracellular concentrations of Na + and corresponding changes in membrane potential are known to be major actors of cancer progression to metastatic phenotype. Though the functionality of Na + channels and the corresponding Na + currents can be investigated using the patch-clamp technique, the latter is rather invasive and a technically difficult method to study intracellular Na + transients compared to Na + fluorescence imaging. Despite the fact that Na + signaling is considered an important controller of cancer progression, only few data using Na + imaging approaches are available so far, suggesting the persisting challenge within the scientific community. In this study, we describe in detail the approach for application of Na + imaging technique to measure intracellular Na + variations in human prostate cancer cells. Accordingly, we used three Na + -specific fluorescent dyes-Na + -binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI), CoroNa™ Green (Corona) and Asante NaTRIUM Green-2 (ANG-2). These dyes have been assessed for optimal loading conditions, dissociation constant and working range after different calibration methods, and intracellular Na + sensitivity, in order to determine which probe can be considered as the most reliable to visualize Na + fluctuations in vitro.

  12. In Vivo Imaging of Branched Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    model more closely mimicking human metabolism by assessing four prostate cancer cell lines: PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP and LAPC-4. The PC-3 cells had...Although the xenograph BCAT activity was 2.5 fold higher than cells alone (approaching human levels), the tumors grew very poorly (volumes ≤ 0.2 cc...assessment of prostate cancer (see Appendix 1: Revised Statement of Work). Specifically, as part of these cell - culture and xenograph experiments we

  13. In vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Targeted Contrast Agent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    has over 15 years of experience investigating signaling in the prostate, and is well versed in both cell culture and animal models for prostate cancer...as Hb generate relatively weak photoacoustic signals (due to a small absorptivity factor or extinction coefficient) and lack cancer specificity...oxyhemoglobin (dHb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) have two limitations: i) their small absorptivity factor ( extinction coefficient) leads to weak PA signals

  14. Imaging prostate cancer (PCa) with [99m Tc(CO)3 ]finasteride dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Gul-E-Raana; Uddin, Ghias

    2018-06-15

    This investigation aimed to modify finasteride (1) to finasteride dithiocarbamate (2) for subsequent synthesis of the rhenium analogue (3) and [ 99m Tc]tricarbonyl complexes (4), to assess its prostate cancer (PCa) targeting potential in a rat model. To validate the identity of (4), reference (3) has been synthesized by using fac-[Net 4 ] 2 [ReBr 3 (CO) 3 ] precursor and characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The analogue (4) was synthesized by using fac-[ 99m Tc(H 2 O) 3 (CO) 3 ] + precursor, and its structure was confirmed by comparative HPLC by using (3) as a reference. Further, the suitability of (4) as a PCa imaging agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. At room temperature, (4) had ≥99% radiochemical purity and remained ≥84% stable in serum. In preclinical studies, biodistribution of (4) in histopathologically established rat model showed adequately high in vivo uptake in the prostate attracting the possibility of using it for noninvasive imaging of PCa. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted imaging and therapy of prostate cancer using a PSMA inhibitor as a homing ligand.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Sumith A; Wang, Kevin; Santhapuram, Hari-Krishna R; Low, Philip S

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western society today. Current methods for detecting PCa are limited, leaving most early malignancies undiagnosed and sites of metastasis in advanced disease undetected. Major deficiencies also exist in the treatment of PCa, especially metastatic disease. In an effort to improve both detection and therapy of PCa, we have developed a PSMA-targeted ligand that delivers attached imaging and therapeutic agents selectively to PCa cells without targeting normal cells. The PSMA-targeted radioimaging agent (DUPA-(99m)Tc) was found to bind PSMA-positive human PCa cells (LNCaP cell line) with nanomolar affinity (K(D) = 14 nM). Imaging and biodistribution studies revealed that DUPA-(99m)Tc localizes primarily to LNCaP cell tumor xenografts in nu/nu mice (% injected dose/gram = 11.3 at 4 h postinjection; tumor-to-muscle ratio = 75:1). Two PSMA-targeted optical imaging agents (DUPA-FITC and DUPA-rhodamine B) were also shown to efficiently label PCa cells and to internalize and traffic to intracellular endosomes. A PSMA-targeted chemotherapeutic agent (DUPA-TubH) was demonstrated to kill PSMA-positive LNCaP cells in culture (IC(50) = 3 nM) and to eliminate established tumor xenografts in nu/nu mice with no detectable weight loss. Blockade of tumor targeting upon administration of excess PSMA inhibitor (PMPA) and the absence of targeting to PSMA-negative tumors confirmed the specificity of each of the above targeted reagents for PSMA. Tandem use of the imaging and therapeutic agents targeted to the same receptor could allow detection, staging, monitoring, and treatment of PCa with improved accuracy and efficacy.

  16. Cost minimisation analysis: kilovoltage imaging with automated repositioning versus electronic portal imaging in image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gill, S; Younie, S; Rolfo, A; Thomas, J; Siva, S; Fox, C; Kron, T; Phillips, D; Tai, K H; Foroudi, F

    2012-10-01

    To compare the treatment time and cost of prostate cancer fiducial marker image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using orthogonal kilovoltage imaging (KVI) and automated couch shifts and orthogonal electronic portal imaging (EPI) and manual couch shifts. IGRT treatment delivery times were recorded automatically on either unit. Costing was calculated from real costs derived from the implementation of a new radiotherapy centre. To derive cost per minute for EPI and KVI units the total annual setting up and running costs were divided by the total annual working time. The cost per IGRT fraction was calculated by multiplying the cost per minute by the duration of treatment. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of our analysis. Treatment times without couch shift were compared. Time data were analysed for 8648 fractions, 6057 from KVI treatment and 2591 from EPI treatment from a total of 294 patients. The median time for KVI treatment was 6.0 min (interquartile range 5.1-7.4 min) and for EPI treatment it was 10.0 min (interquartile range 8.3-11.8 min) (P value < 0.0001). The cost per fraction for KVI was A$258.79 and for EPI was A$345.50. The cost saving per fraction for KVI varied between A$66.09 and A$101.64 by sensitivity analysis. In patients where no couch shift was made, the median treatment delivery time for EPI was 8.8 min and for KVI was 5.1 min. Treatment time is less on KVI units compared with EPI units. This is probably due to automation of couch shift and faster evaluation of imaging on KVI units. Annual running costs greatly outweigh initial setting up costs and therefore the cost per fraction was less with KVI, despite higher initial costs. The selection of appropriate IGRT equipment can make IGRT practical within radiotherapy departments. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a Tumor Histologic-Specific, Nano-Encapsulated Contrast for Enhancing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Nano-Encapsulated Contrast for Enhancing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joel W. Slaton, M.D...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of a Tumor Histologic-Specific, Nano-Encapsulated Contrast for Enhancing Magnetic...carry a contrast agent to human CaP cells growing in mice to enhance MR detection of cancer. Our work in the first year has focused on in vitro

  18. MR elastography and diffusion-weighted imaging of ex vivo prostate cancer: quantitative comparison to histopathology.

    PubMed

    Sahebjavaher, Ramin S; Nir, Guy; Gagnon, Louis O; Ischia, Joseph; Jones, Edward C; Chang, Silvia D; Yung, Andrew; Honarvar, Mohammad; Fazli, Ladan; Goldenberg, S Larry; Rohling, Robert; Sinkus, Ralph; Kozlowski, Piotr; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was (1) to develop a magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) system for imaging of the ex vivo human prostate and (2) to assess the diagnostic power of mono-frequency and multi-frequency MRE and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) alone and combined as correlated with histopathology in a patient study. An electromagnetic driver was designed specifically for MRE studies in small-bore MR scanners. Ex vivo prostate specimens (post-fixation) of 14 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were imaged with MRE at 7 T (nine cases had DWI). In six patients, the MRE examination was performed at three frequencies (600, 800, 1000 Hz) to extract the power-law exponent Gamma. The images were registered to wholemount pathology slides marked with the Gleason score. The areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. The methods were validated in a phantom study and it was demonstrated that (i) the driver does not interfere with the acquisition process and (ii) the driver can generate amplitudes greater than 100 µm for frequencies less than 1 kHz. In the quantitative study, cancerous tissue with Gleason score at least 3 + 3 was distinguished from normal tissue in the peripheral zone (PZ) with an average AUC of 0.75 (Gd ), 0.75 (Gl ), 0.70 (Gamma-Gd ), 0.68 (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC), and 0.82 (Gd  + Gl  + ADC). The differentiation between PZ and central gland was modest for Gd (p < 0.07), Gl (p < 0.06) but not significant for Gamma (p < 0.2). A correlation of 0.4 kPa/h was found between the fixation time of the prostate specimen and the stiffness of the tissue, which could affect the diagnostic power results. DWI and MRE may provide complementary information; in fact MRE performed better than ADC in distinguishing normal from cancerous tissue in some cases. Multi-frequency (Gamma) analysis did not appear to improve the results. However, in light of the effect of tissue fixation, the

  19. Using radioactive drugs could lead to better imaging of prostate cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Medical imaging (x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, CT, PET scan) is a noninvasive way to view the internal structures of the body. However, these tools are not ideal for detecting cancer that has spread, or metastasized, because the precise location of these cancer cells is unknown. Researchers are now testing an experimental radiotracer called 18F-DCFPyL to help find sites of cancer in

  20. Using radioactive drugs could lead to better imaging of prostate cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Medical imaging (x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, CT, PET scan) is a noninvasive way to view the internal structures of the body. However, these tools are not ideal for detecting cancer that has spread, or metastasized, because the precise location of these cancer cells is unknown. Researchers are now testing an experimental radiotracer called 18F-DCFPyL to help find sites of cancer in the body.  Learn more...

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of Gd(3+)-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer-Monoclonal Antibody: Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Prostate Cancer Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mehdi; Mehravi, Bita; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Pourghasem, Peyman

    2015-12-01

    Early stage prostate cancer diagnosis is of high global interest. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive modality for early cancer diagnosis, in particular for prostate cancer detection. The research aim is to synthesize a nanodendrimer and its conjugate with C595 monoclonal antibody (mAb C595), against prostate cancer, followed by its chelating with Gd(3+). Anti-MUC-1 mAb C595 was conjugated to an anionic linear globular dendrimer (ALGDG2). The polyethylene glycol core and citric acid shell were synthesized followed by loading with Gd(3+) to make novel contrast agents for functional MRI. The in vitro behavior and MRI parameters of the nanoconjugate were investigated performing several studies such as cell toxicity and TNF-alpha evaluations. The investigation of magnetic resonance imaging parameters indicated how well nanoconjugate performs in (1)H-NMR and (17)O-NMR in vitro. Results showed a potential specific MRI activity by improving the swelling responses cell binding. The MTT (2-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-3,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay demonstrated that this contrast agent had significant cytotoxicity on prostate cancer cells. These results showed that Gd(3+)-ALGDG2-C595 is a potential prostate molecular imaging agent and could be considered as an ideal functional nanoprobe. Additionally, further investigations by clinical trials are in the pipeline.

  2. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Angiogenesis Imaging by Mutual Information Analysis for Prostate Cancer Localization.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Stefan G; Demi, Libertario; Bouhouch, Nabil; Kuenen, Maarten P J; Postema, Arnoud W; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel; Tjalkens, Tjalling J; Mischi, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The role of angiogenesis in cancer growth has stimulated research aimed at noninvasive cancer detection by blood perfusion imaging. Recently, contrast ultrasound dispersion imaging was proposed as an alternative method for angiogenesis imaging. After the intravenous injection of an ultrasound-contrast-agent bolus, dispersion can be indirectly estimated from the local similarity between neighboring time-intensity curves (TICs) measured by ultrasound imaging. Up until now, only linear similarity measures have been investigated. Motivated by the promising results of this approach in prostate cancer (PCa), we developed a novel dispersion estimation method based on mutual information, thus including nonlinear similarity, to further improve its ability to localize PCa. First, a simulation study was performed to establish the theoretical link between dispersion and mutual information. Next, the method's ability to localize PCa was validated in vivo in 23 patients (58 datasets) referred for radical prostatectomy by comparison with histology. A monotonic relationship between dispersion and mutual information was demonstrated. The in vivo study resulted in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area equal to 0.77, which was superior (p = 0.21-0.24) to that obtained by linear similarity measures (0.74-0.75) and (p <; 0.05) to that by conventional perfusion parameters (≤0.70). Mutual information between neighboring time-intensity curves can be used to indirectly estimate contrast dispersion and can lead to more accurate PCa localization. An improved PCa localization method can possibly lead to better grading and staging of tumors, and support focal-treatment guidance. Moreover, future employment of the method in other types of angiogenic cancer can be considered.

  3. Method for data analysis in different institutions: example of image guidance of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, T; Rodrigues, G; Bajon, T; Yartsev, S

    2014-03-01

    Multi-institutional collaborations allow for more information to be analyzed but the data from different sources may vary in the subgroup sizes and/or conditions of measuring. Rigorous statistical analysis is required for pooling the data in a larger set. Careful comparison of all the components of the data acquisition is indispensable: identical conditions allow for enlargement of the database with improved statistical analysis, clearly defined differences provide opportunity for establishing a better practice. The optimal sequence of required normality, asymptotic normality, and independence tests is proposed. An example of analysis of six subgroups of position corrections in three directions obtained during image guidance procedures for 216 prostate cancer patients from two institutions is presented. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    PubMed Central

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  5. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"183","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage

  6. Piezoelectric Composite Micromachined Multifrequency Transducers for High-Resolution, High-Contrast Ultrasound Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    prostate cancer. In the preliminary in-vitro study , imaging resolution, contrast to tissue ratio, and lesion detectability will be assessed relative to...a Siemens EV- 8C4 transrectal ultrasound probe. In the in-vivo study , molecular imaging and microvascular mapping will both be performed to assess...single element tests, years 2 and 3 have included progress towards the design of the final a dual frequency linear array. These studies included the

  7. The Utility of [18F]DASA-23 for Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Beinat, Corinne; Haywood, Tom; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Patel, Chirag B; Alam, Israt S; Murty, Surya; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2018-05-07

    There is a strong, unmet need for superior positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents that are able to measure biochemical processes specific to prostate cancer. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) catalyzes the concluding step in glycolysis and is a key regulator of tumor growth and metabolism. Elevation of PKM2 expression was detected in Gleason 8-10 tumors compared to Gleason 6-7 carcinomas, indicating that PKM2 may potentially be a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. We have recently reported the development of a PKM2-specific radiopharmaceutical [ 18 F]DASA-23 and herein describe its evaluation in cell culture and preclinical models of prostate cancer. The cellular uptake of [ 18 F]DASA-23 was evaluated in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines and compared to that of [ 18 F]FDG. The specificity of [ 18 F]DASA-23 to measure PKM2 levels in cell culture was additionally confirmed through the use of PKM2-specific siRNA. PET imaging studies were then completed utilizing subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts using either PC3 or DU145 cells in mice. [ 18 F]DASA-23 uptake values over 60-min incubation period in PC3, LnCAP, and DU145 respectively were 23.4 ± 4.5, 18.0 ± 2.1, and 53.1 ± 4.6 % tracer/mg protein. Transient reduction in PKM2 protein expression with siRNA resulted in a 50.1 % reduction in radiotracer uptake in DU145 cells. Small animal PET imaging revealed 0.86 ± 0.13 and 1.6 ± 0.2 % ID/g at 30 min post injection of radioactivity in DU145 and PC3 subcutaneous tumor bearing mice respectively. Herein, we evaluated a F-18-labeled PKM2-specific radiotracer, [ 18 F]DASA-23, for the molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET. [ 18 F]DASA-23 revealed rapid and extensive uptake levels in cellular uptake studies of prostate cancer cells; however, there was only modest tumor uptake when evaluated in mouse subcutaneous tumor models.

  8. [Treatment of localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Vallancien, Guy; Cathelineau, Xavier; Rozet, François; Barret, Eric

    2008-05-01

    Treatments for localized prostate cancer include radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, conformal external beam irradiation, and focused ultrasound. This paper describes the oncologic and functional results of each approach. The treatment choice depends on the patient's general status and on the results of biopsy and imaging studies. Watchful waiting and hormone therapy are other options for elderly patients.

  9. Non-invasive imaging of prostate cancer progression in nude mice using iRFP gene reporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Wu, Grace; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2013-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in US men. Metastasis is the final step of tumor progression and remains the primary cause of PCa death. Hence preclinical, orthotopic models of PCa metastasis are necessary to develop new therapeutics against metastatic disease. Yet unlike irrelevant subcutaneous tumor models, the deployment of orthotopic models of cancer metastasis in drug research and development is limited by the inability to longitudinally monitor cancer progression/regression in response to administration of experimental pharmaceuticals. Recently, a nearinfrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) was created for deeper imaging [1]. Imaging prostate tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in nude mice therefore becomes possible using this new fluorescent gene reporter. In this study, we first developed an intensified CCD (ICCD)-based iRFP fluorescence imaging device. Then human PCa PC3 cell lines expressing iRFP gene reporter were orthotopically implanted in male Nu/Nu mice at 8-10 weeks old. After 6-10 weeks, in vivo, in situ and ex vivo fluorescence imaging was performed. In vivo iRFP fluorescence imaging showed that the detected fluorescence concentrated at the prostate and became stronger over time, indicating the growth of implanted PCa. Fluorescence was non-invasively detected at locations of prostate-draining lymph nodes as early as 5 weeks post implantation, indicating the metastasis to lymph nodes. In situ and ex vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrated that the detected signals from PCa and lymph nodes were correlated with cancer positive status of tissues as assessed through standard pathology.

  10. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-10-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s-1 mM-1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s-1 mM-1) and 3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T 2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer.

  11. Prebiopsy Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in Biopsy-naive Men with Suspected Prostate Cancer Based on Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Values: Results from a Randomized Prospective Blinded Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tonttila, Panu P; Lantto, Juha; Pääkkö, Eija; Piippo, Ulla; Kauppila, Saila; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Ohtonen, Pasi; Vaarala, Markku H

    2016-03-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) may improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). To compare MP-MRI transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fusion targeted biopsy with routine TRUS-guided random biopsy for overall and clinically significant PCa detection among patients with suspected PCa based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. This institutional review board-approved, single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial (April 2011 to December 2014) included 130 biopsy-naive patients referred for prostate biopsy based on PSA values (PSA <20 ng/ml or free-to-total PSA ratio ≤0.15 and PSA <10 ng/ml). Patients were randomized 1:1 to the MP-MRI or control group. Patients in the MP-MRI group underwent prebiopsy MP-MRI followed by 10- to 12-core TRUS-guided random biopsy and cognitive MRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy. The control group underwent TRUS-guided random biopsy alone. MP-MRI 3-T phased-array surface coil. The primary outcome was the number of patients with biopsy-proven PCa in the MP-MRI and control groups. Secondary outcome measures included the number of positive prostate biopsies and the proportion of clinically significant PCa in the MP-MRI and control groups. Between-group analyses were performed. Overall, 53 and 60 patients were evaluable in the MP-MRI and control groups, respectively. The overall PCa detection rate and the clinically significant cancer detection rate were similar between the MP-MRI and control groups, respectively (64% [34 of 53] vs 57% [34 of 60]; 7.5% difference [95% confidence interval (CI), -10 to 25], p=0.5, and 55% [29 of 53] vs 45% [27 of 60]; 9.7% difference [95% CI, -8.5 to 27], p=0.8). The PCa detection rate was higher than assumed during the planning of this single-center trial. MP-MRI/TRUS-fusion targeted biopsy did not improve PCa detection rate compared with TRUS-guided biopsy alone in patients with suspected PCa based on PSA values. In this randomized clinical trial

  12. Imaging technique predicts efficacy of targeting prostate tumor metabolism in mice | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Disrupting glycolysis, a metabolic process tumors often rely on to feed their growth by partially breaking down sugars and not requiring oxygen, has emerged as a promising approach to treating metastatic prostate cancer in a study by Center for Cancer Research investigators. 

  13. Cholesterol and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations. PMID:22824430

  14. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn about these types of treatments. This article is for men with metastatic and castrate-resistant ... Related Resources Urology 101 Fact Sheet UrologyHealth extra® Articles What is Advanced Prostate Cancer? Keeping Your Bones ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us The Story of PCF A Legacy of Leadership About the Prostate Cancer Foundation CEO Message Why ... PCF? Support our Partners Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members Curing Together Patient Stories ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us The Story of PCF A Legacy of Leadership About the Prostate Cancer Foundation CEO Message Why ... PCF? Support our Partners Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members Curing Together Patient Stories ...

  17. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S.; Aparicio, Ana M.; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases. PMID:22191037

  18. Epigenetics in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  19. Development and testing of an optoacoustic imaging system for monitoring and guiding prostate cancer therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirou, Gloria M.; Vitkin, I. Alex; Wilson, B. C.; Whelan, William M.; Henrichs, Paul M.; Mehta, Ketan; Miller, Tom; Yee, Andrew; Meador, James; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2004-07-01

    Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System (LOIS) combines high tissue contrast based on the optical properties of tissue and high spatial resolution based on ultrawide-band ultrasonic detection. Patients undergoing thermal or photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer may benefit from capability of LOIS to detect and monitor treatment-induced changes in tissue optical properties and blood flow. The performance of a prototype LOIS was evaluated via 2D optoacoustic images of dye-colored objects of various shapes, small tubes with blood simulating veins and arteries, and thermally coagulated portions of chicken breasts imbedded tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms. The optoacoustic image contrast was proportional to the ratio of the absorption coefficient between the embedded objects and the surrounding gel. The contrast of the venous blood relative to the background exceeded 250%, and the contrast of the thermally coagulated portions of flesh relative to the untreated tissue ranged between -100% to +200%, dependent on the optical wavelength. We used a 32-element optoacoustic transducer array and a novel design of low-noise preamplifiers and wide-band amplifiers to perform these studies. The system was optimized for imaging at a depth of ~50 mm. The system spatial resolution was better than 1-mm. The advantages and limitations of various signal-processing methods were investigated. LOIS demonstrates clinical potential for non- or minimally-invasive monitoring of treatment-induced tissue changes.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging with an acoustic lens detects prostate cancer cells labeled with PSMA-targeting near-infrared dye-conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogra, Vikram; Chinni, Bhargava; Singh, Shalini; Schmitthenner, Hans; Rao, Navalgund; Krolewski, John J.; Nastiuk, Kent L.

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need for sensitive and specific tools to accurately image early stage, organ-confined human prostate cancers to facilitate active surveillance and reduce unnecessary treatment. Recently, we developed an acoustic lens that enhances the sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging. Here, we report the use of this device in conjunction with two molecular imaging agents that specifically target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expressed on the tumor cell surface of most prostate cancers. We demonstrate successful imaging of phantoms containing cancer cells labeled with either of two different PSMA-targeting agents, the ribonucleic acid aptamer A10-3.2 and a urea-based peptidomimetic inhibitor, each linked to the near-infrared dye IRDye800CW. By specifically targeting cells with these agents linked to a dye chosen for optimal signal, we are able to discriminate prostate cancer cells that express PSMA.

  1. National implementation of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer detection - recommendations from a UK consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Brizmohun Appayya, Mrishta; Adshead, Jim; Ahmed, Hashim U; Allen, Clare; Bainbridge, Alan; Barrett, Tristan; Giganti, Francesco; Graham, John; Haslam, Phil; Johnston, Edward W; Kastner, Christof; Kirkham, Alexander P S; Lipton, Alexandra; McNeill, Alan; Moniz, Larissa; Moore, Caroline M; Nabi, Ghulam; Padhani, Anwar R; Parker, Chris; Patel, Amit; Pursey, Jacqueline; Richenberg, Jonathan; Staffurth, John; van der Meulen, Jan; Walls, Darren; Punwani, Shonit

    2018-07-01

    To identify areas of agreement and disagreement in the implementation of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate in the diagnostic pathway. Fifteen UK experts in prostate mpMRI and/or prostate cancer management across the UK (involving nine NHS centres to provide for geographical spread) participated in a consensus meeting following the Research and Development Corporation and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA-RAND) Appropriateness Method, and were moderated by an independent chair. The experts considered 354 items pertaining to who can request an mpMRI, prostate mpMRI protocol, reporting guidelines, training, quality assurance (QA) and patient management based on mpMRI levels of suspicion for cancer. Each item was rated for agreement on a 9-point scale. A panel median score of ≥7 constituted 'agreement' for an item; for an item to reach 'consensus', a panel majority scoring was required. Consensus was reached on 59% of items (208/354); these were used to provide recommendations for the implementation of prostate mpMRI in the UK. Key findings include prostate mpMRI requests should be made in consultation with the urological team; mpMRI scanners should undergo QA checks to guarantee consistently high diagnostic quality scans; scans should only be reported by trained and experienced radiologists to ensure that men with unsuspicious prostate mpMRI might consider avoiding an immediate biopsy. Our consensus statements demonstrate a set of criteria that are required for the practical dissemination of consistently high-quality prostate mpMRI as a diagnostic test before biopsy in men at risk. © 2018 The Authors BJU International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJU International.

  2. Tocotrienols and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    W81XWH-04-1-0035 TITLE: Tocotrienols and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William L. Stone, Ph.D...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 2005 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Mar 04 – 31 AUG 05 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tocotrienols ...tocopherols and tocotrienols , have variable growth inhibitory effects on both types of prostate cancer cell line models. The gamma isoforms are more

  3. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  4. Quantitative comparison and reproducibility of pathologist scoring and digital image analysis of estrogen receptor β2 immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rizzardi, Anthony E; Zhang, Xiaotun; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Kolb, Suzanne; Geybels, Milan S; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Kwak, Julianna; Stanford, Janet L; Schmechel, Stephen C

    2016-07-11

    Digital image analysis offers advantages over traditional pathologist visual scoring of immunohistochemistry, although few studies examining the correlation and reproducibility of these methods have been performed in prostate cancer. We evaluated the correlation between digital image analysis (continuous variable data) and pathologist visual scoring (quasi-continuous variable data), reproducibility of each method, and association of digital image analysis methods with outcomes using prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) stained for estrogen receptor-β2 (ERβ2). Prostate cancer TMAs were digitized and evaluated by pathologist visual scoring versus digital image analysis for ERβ2 staining within tumor epithelium. Two independent analysis runs were performed to evaluate reproducibility. Image analysis data were evaluated for associations with recurrence-free survival and disease specific survival following radical prostatectomy. We observed weak/moderate Spearman correlation between digital image analysis and pathologist visual scores of tumor nuclei (Analysis Run A: 0.42, Analysis Run B: 0.41), and moderate/strong correlation between digital image analysis and pathologist visual scores of tumor cytoplasm (Analysis Run A: 0.70, Analysis Run B: 0.69). For the reproducibility analysis, there was high Spearman correlation between pathologist visual scores generated for individual TMA spots across Analysis Runs A and B (Nuclei: 0.84, Cytoplasm: 0.83), and very high correlation between digital image analysis for individual TMA spots across Analysis Runs A and B (Nuclei: 0.99, Cytoplasm: 0.99). Further, ERβ2 staining was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) when quantified by cytoplasmic digital image analysis (HR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.02-4.57, p = 0.045), nuclear image analysis (HR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.20-5.96, p = 0.016), and total malignant epithelial area analysis (HR 5.10, 95 % CI 1.70-15.34, p = 0

  5. Should I Get Screened for Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Before making a decision, men should ... Task Force Prostate Cancer Screening Final Recommendation Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health ... Cancer Institute) What Is Screening? ...

  6. SU-E-I-82: PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Prostate Cancer Imaging: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, F; Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, Bahia; Silva, D da

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to review new and clinical practice PET radiopharmaceuticals for prostate cancer imaging. Methods: PET radiopharmaceuticals were reviewed on the main databases. Availability, dosimetry, accuracy and limitations were considered. Results: The following radioisotopes with respective physical half-life and mean positron energy were found: {sup 18}F (109,7 min, 249,8 keV), {sup 89}Zr (78,4 hs, 395,5 keV), {sup 11}C (20,4 min, 385,7 keV) and {sup 68}Ga (67,8 min, 836 keV). {sup 68}Ga was the only one not produced by cyclotron. Radiopharmaceuticals uptake by glucose metabolism ({sup 18}F-FDG), lipogenesis ({sup 11}C-Choline and {sup 11}C-Acetate), amino acid transportmore » (Anti-{sup 18}F-FACBC), bone matrix ({sup 18}F-NaF), prostatespecific membrane antigen ({sup 68}Ga-PSMA and {sup 89}Zr-J591), CXCR receptors ({sup 89}Ga-Pentixafor), adrenal receptors ({sup 18}F-FDHT) and gastrin release peptide receptor (bombesin analogue). Most of radiopharmaceuticals are urinary excretion, so bladder is the critical organ. 11C-choline (pancreas), Anti-{sup 18}FFACBC (liver) and {sup 18}F-FBDC (stomach wall) are the exception. Higher effective dose was seen {sup 18}F-NaF (27 μSv/MBq) while the lowest was {sup 11}CAcetate (3,5 μSv/MBq). Conclusion: Even though {sup 18}F-FDG has a large availability its high urinary excretion and poor uptake to slow growing disease offers weak results for prostate cancer. Better accuracy is obtained when {sup 18}F-NaF is used for bone metastatic investigation although physicians tend to choose bone scintigraphy probably due to its cost and practice. Many guidelines in oncology consider {sup 11}C or {sup 18}F labeled with Choline the gold standard for biochemical relapse after radical treatment. Local, lymph node and distant metastatic relapse can be evaluated at same time with this radiopharmaceutical. There is no consensus over bigger urinary excretion for {sup 18}F labeling. Anti-{sup 18}F-FACBC, {sup 68}Ga

  7. Implementation of a 5-Minute Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Protocol for Prostate Cancer in Men With Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen Before Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jakob; Martirosian, Petros; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Kaufmann, Sascha; Othman, Ahmed E; Grosse, Ulrich; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Gatidis, Sergios

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a 5-minute magnetic resonance (MR) screening protocol for prostate cancer in men before biopsy and to evaluate effects on Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) V2 scoring in comparison to a conventional, fully diagnostic multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) approach. Fifty-two patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels and without prior biopsy were prospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study. In all patients, an mpMRI protocol according to the PI-RADS recommendations was acquired on a 3 T MRI system. In addition, an accelerated diffusion-weighted imaging sequence was acquired using simultaneous multislice technique (DW-EPISMS). Two readers independently evaluated the images for the presence/absence of prostate cancer according to the PI-RADS criteria and for additional findings. In a first reading session, only the screening protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and DW-EPISMS images was made available. In a subsequent reading session, the mpMRI protocol was assessed blinded to the results of the first reading, serving as reference standard. Both readers successfully established a final diagnosis according to the PI-RADS criteria in the screening and mpMRI protocol. Mean lesion size was 1.2 cm in the screening and 1.4 cm in the mpMRI protocol (P = 0.4) with 35% (18/52) of PI-RADS IV/V lesions. Diagnostic performance of the screening protocol was excellent with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for both readers with no significant differences in comparison to the mpMRI standard (P = 1.0). In 3 patients, suspicious lymph nodes were reported as additional finding, which were equally detectable in the screening and mpMRI protocol. A 5-minute MR screening protocol for prostate cancer in men with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels before biopsy is applicable for clinical routine with similar diagnostic performance as the full diagnostic mpMRI approach.

  8. VPAC1 targeted 64Cu-TP3805 PET imaging of prostate cancer: preliminary evaluation in man

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Sushil; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Gomella, Leonard; Kim, Sung; McCue, Peter; Intenzo, Charles; Birbe, Ruth; Gandhe, Ashish; Kumar, Pardeep; Thakur, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate 64Cu-TP3805 as a novel biomolecule, to PET image prostate cancer (PC), at the onset of which VPAC1, the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors, is expressed in high density on PC cells, but not on normal cells. Methods 25 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were PET/CT imaged preoperatively with 64Cu-TP3805. Standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were determined, malignant lesions (SUV > 1.0) counted, and compared with histologic findings. Whole mount pathology slides from 6 VPAC1 PET imaged patients, 3 BPH patients, one malignant and one benign lymph node underwent digital autoradiography (DAR) after 64Cu-TP3805 incubation and compared to H&E stained slides. Results In 25 patient PET imaging, 212 prostate gland lesions had SUVmax > 1.0 vs.127 lesions identified by histology of biopsy tissues. The status of the additional 85 PET identified prostate lesions remains to be determined. In 68 histological slides from 6 PET imaged patients, DAR identified 105/107 PC foci, 19/19 HGPIN, and ejaculatory ducts and verumontanum involved with cancer. Additionally, DAR found 9 PC lesions not previously identified histologically. The positive and negative lymph nodes were correctly identified and in 3/3 BPH patients and 5/5 cysts, DAR was negative. Conclusion This feasibility study demonstrated that 64Cu-TP3805 delineates PC in vivo and ex vivo, provided normal images for benign masses, and is worthy of further studies. PMID:26519886

  9. METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer: Practical Guidelines for Acquisition, Interpretation, and Reporting of Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based Evaluations of Multiorgan Involvement in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Padhani, Anwar R; Lecouvet, Frederic E; Tunariu, Nina; Koh, Dow-Mu; De Keyzer, Frederik; Collins, David J; Sala, Evis; Schlemmer, Heinz Peter; Petralia, Giuseppe; Vargas, H Alberto; Fanti, Stefano; Tombal, H Bertrand; de Bono, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Comparative reviews of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT; with different radiotracers) have shown that metastasis detection in advanced cancers is more accurate than with currently used CT and bone scans. However, the ability of WB-MRI and positron emission tomography/CT to assess therapeutic benefits has not been comprehensively evaluated. There is also considerable variability in the availability and quality of WB-MRI, which is an impediment to clinical development. Expert recommendations for standardising WB-MRI scans are needed, in order to assess its performance in advanced prostate cancer (APC) clinical trials. To design recommendations that promote standardisation and diminish variations in the acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of WB-MRI scans for use in APC. An international expert panel of oncologic imagers and oncologists with clinical and research interests in APC management assessed biomarker requirements for clinical care and clinical trials. Key requirements for a workable WB-MRI protocol, achievable quality standards, and interpretation criteria were identified and synthesised in a white paper. The METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer guidelines were formulated for use in all oncologic manifestations of APC. Uniformity in imaging data acquisition, quality, and interpretation of WB-MRI are essential for assessing the test performance of WB-MRI. The METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer standard requires validation in clinical trials of treatment approaches in APC. METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer represents the consensus recommendations on the performance, quality standards, and reporting of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, for use in all oncologic manifestations of advanced prostate cancer. These new criteria require validation in clinical trials of established and new treatment approaches in advanced

  10. In-Bore 3-T MR-guided Transrectal Targeted Prostate Biopsy: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2–based Diagnostic Performance for Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Nelly; Lin, Wei-Chan; Khoshnoodi, Pooria; Asvadi, Nazanin H.; Yoshida, Jeffrey; Margolis, Daniel J. A.; Lu, David S. K.; Wu, Holden; Lu, David Y.; Huang, Jaioti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the diagnostic yield of in-bore 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided prostate biopsy and stratify performance according to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) versions 1 and 2. Materials and Methods This study was HIPAA compliant and institution review board approved. In-bore 3-T MR-guided prostate biopsy was performed in 134 targets in 106 men who (a) had not previously undergone prostate biopsy, (b) had prior negative biopsy findings with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, or (c) had a prior history of prostate cancer with increasing PSA level. Clinical, diagnostic 3-T MR imaging was performed with in-bore guided prostate biopsy, and pathology data were collected. The diagnostic yields of MR-guided biopsy per patient and target were analyzed, and differences between biopsy targets with negative and positive findings were determined. Results of logistic regression and areas under the curve were compared between PI-RADS versions 1 and 2. Results Prostate cancer was detected in 63 of 106 patients (59.4%) and in 72 of 134 targets (53.7%) with 3-T MR imaging. Forty-nine of 72 targets (68.0%) had clinically significant cancer (Gleason score ≥ 7). One complication occurred (urosepsis, 0.9%). Patients who had positive target findings had lower apparent diffusion coefficient values (875 × 10−6 mm2/sec vs 1111 × 10−6 mm2/sec, respectively; P < .01), smaller prostate volume (47.2 cm3 vs 75.4 cm3, respectively; P < .01), higher PSA density (0.16 vs 0.10, respectively; P < .01), and higher proportion of PI-RADS version 2 category 3–5 scores when compared with patients with negative target findings. MR targets with PI-RADS version 2 category 2, 3, 4, and 5 scores had a positive diagnostic yield of three of 23 (13.0%), six of 31 (19.4%), 39 of 50 (78.0%), and 24 of 29 (82.8%) targets, respectively. No differences were detected in areas under the curve for PI-RADS version 2 versus 1. Conclusion In-bore 3-T MR

  11. Image Guided Hypofractionated Postprostatectomy Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Stephen L.; Patel, Pretesh; Song, Haijun

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) has promising long-term biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) with comparable toxicity for definitive treatment of prostate cancer. However, data reporting outcomes after adjuvant and salvage postprostatectomy hypofractionated RT are sparse. Therefore, we report the toxicity and clinical outcomes after postprostatectomy hypofractionated RT. Methods and Materials: From a prospectively maintained database, men receiving image guided hypofractionated intensity modulated RT (HIMRT) with 2.5-Gy fractions constituted our study population. Androgen deprivation therapy was used at the discretion of the radiation oncologist. Acute toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Late toxicities weremore » scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale. Biochemical recurrence was defined as an increase of 0.1 in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from posttreatment nadir or an increase in PSA despite treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the time-to-event outcomes. Results: Between April 2008 and April 2012, 56 men received postoperative HIMRT. The median follow-up time was 48 months (range, 21-67 months). Thirty percent had pre-RT PSA <0.1; the median pre-RT detectable PSA was 0.32 ng/mL. The median RT dose was 65 Gy (range, 57.5-65 Gy). Ten patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent hormone therapy. Posttreatment acute urinary toxicity was limited. There was no acute grade 3 toxicity. Late genitourinary (GU) toxicity of any grade was noted in 52% of patients, 40% of whom had pre-RT urinary incontinence. The 4-year actuarial rate of late grade 3 GU toxicity (exclusively gross hematuria) was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-41%). Most grade 3 GU toxicity resolved; only 7% had persistent grade ≥3 toxicity at the last follow-up visit. Fourteen patients experienced biochemical

  12. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  13. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  14. Convolutional neural network based deep-learning architecture for prostate cancer detection on multiparametric magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsehay, Yohannes K.; Lay, Nathan S.; Roth, Holger R.; Wang, Xiaosong; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris I.; Pinto, Peter A.; Wood, Brad J.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in men. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is the most accurate imaging method for PCa detection; however, it requires the expertise of experienced radiologists leading to inconsistency across readers of varying experience. To increase inter-reader agreement and sensitivity, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that can automatically detect lesions on mpMRI that readers can use as a reference. We investigated a convolutional neural network based deep-learing (DCNN) architecture to find an improved solution for PCa detection on mpMRI. We adopted a network architecture from a state-of-the-art edge detector that takes an image as an input and produces an image probability map. Two-fold cross validation along with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and free-response ROC (FROC) were used to determine our deep-learning based prostate-CAD's (CADDL) performance. The efficacy was compared to an existing prostate CAD system that is based on hand-crafted features, which was evaluated on the same test-set. CADDL had an 86% detection rate at 20% false-positive rate while the top-down learning CAD had 80% detection rate at the same false-positive rate, which translated to 94% and 85% detection rate at 10 false-positives per patient on the FROC. A CNN based CAD is able to detect cancerous lesions on mpMRI of the prostate with results comparable to an existing prostate-CAD showing potential for further development.

  15. Echo-Planar Imaging-Based, J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED 30Sep2011 - 29Sep2016 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0248 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer Table of Contents Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body... 4 Key Research Accomplishments………………………………………….…….. 10 Reportable Outcomes………………………………………………………………10 Conclusion

  16. [Prostate biopsy under magnetic resonance imaging guidance].

    PubMed

    Kuplevatskiy, V I; CherkashiN, M A; Roshchin, D A; Berezina, N A; Vorob'ev, N A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most important problems in modern oncology. According to statistical data, PC ranks second in the cancer morbidity structure in the Russian Federation and developed countries and its prevalence has been progressively increasing over the past decade. A need for early diagnosis and maximally accurate morphological verification of the diagnosis in difficult clinical cases (inconvenient tumor location for standard transrectal biopsy; gland scarring changes concurrent with prostatitis and hemorrhage; threshold values of prostate-specific antigen with unclear changes in its doubling per unit time; suspicion of biochemical recurrence or clinical tumor progression after special treatment) leads to revised diagnostic algorithms and clinically introduced new high-tech invasive diagnostic methods. This paper gives the first analysis of literature data on Russian practice using one of the new methods to verify prostate cancer (transrectal prostate cancer under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance). The have sought the 1995-2015 data in the MEDLINE and Pubmed.

  17. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  18. Feasibility of Dual Optics/Ultrasound Imaging and Contrast Media for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    acousto - optic effect will be used to only modulate light (at the ultrasound frequency) which propagates through a small ultrasound focal zone. This...DOD Idea Development Award is concerned with the development of a novel acousto - optic detection idea based on quadrature measurements with a gain...perform acousto - optic molecular imaging of prostate cancer with incoherent photons using endogenous contrast, e.g. hypoxia, and with fluorescent probes and microbubbles for increased specificity and signal enhancement.

  19. Repeatability of dose painting by numbers treatment planning in prostate cancer radiotherapy based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schie, Marcel A.; Steenbergen, Peter; Viet Dinh, Cuong; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; van Houdt, Petra J.; Pos, Floris J.; Heijmink, Stijn W. T. J. P.; van der Poel, Henk G.; Renisch, Steffen; Vik, Torbjørn; van der Heide, Uulke A.

    2017-07-01

    Dose painting by numbers (DPBN) refers to a voxel-wise prescription of radiation dose modelled from functional image characteristics, in contrast to dose painting by contours which requires delineations to define the target for dose escalation. The direct relation between functional imaging characteristics and DPBN implies that random variations in images may propagate into the dose distribution. The stability of MR-only prostate cancer treatment planning based on DPBN with respect to these variations is as yet unknown. We conducted a test-retest study to investigate the stability of DPBN for prostate cancer in a semi-automated MR-only treatment planning workflow. Twelve patients received a multiparametric MRI on two separate days prior to prostatectomy. The tumor probability (TP) within the prostate was derived from image features with a logistic regression model. Dose mapping functions were applied to acquire a DPBN prescription map that served to generate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan. Dose calculations were done on a pseudo-CT derived from the MRI. The TP and DPBN map and the IMRT dose distribution were compared between both MRI sessions, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to quantify repeatability of the planning pipeline. The quality of each treatment plan was measured with a quality factor (QF). Median ICC values for the TP and DPBN map and the IMRT dose distribution were 0.82, 0.82 and 0.88, respectively, for linear dose mapping and 0.82, 0.84 and 0.94 for square root dose mapping. A median QF of 3.4% was found among all treatment plans. We demonstrated the stability of DPBN radiotherapy treatment planning in prostate cancer, with excellent overall repeatability and acceptable treatment plan quality. Using validated tumor probability modelling and simple dose mapping techniques it was shown that despite day-to-day variations in imaging data still consistent treatment plans were obtained.

  20. Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Prostate Cancer Screening: A Pilot Study Within the Göteborg Randomised Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bergdahl, Anna Grenabo; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Aus, Gunnar; Carlsson, Sigrid; Damber, Jan-Erik; Frånlund, Maria; Geterud, Kjell; Khatami, Ali; Socratous, Andreas; Stranne, Johan; Hellström, Mikael; Hugosson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and targeted biopsies (TB) have shown potential to more accurately detect significant prostate cancer (PC) compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and systematic biopsies (SB). Objective To compare sequential screening (PSA + MRI) with conventional PSA screening. Design, Setting and Participants Of 384 attendees in the 10th screening round of the Göteborg randomised screening trial, 124 men, median age 69.5, had a PSA of ≥1.8 ng/ml and underwent a prebiopsy MRI. Men with suspicious lesions on MRI and/or PSA ≥3.0 ng/ml were referred for biopsy. SB was performed blinded to MRI results and TB was performed in men with tumour-suspicious findings on MRI. Three screening strategies were compared (PSA≥3.0+SB; PSA≥3.0+MRI+TB and PSA≥1.8+MRI+TB). Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Cancer detection rates, sensitivity and specificity were calculated per screening strategy and compared using McNemar´s test. Results and Limitations In total, 28 PC were detected, of which 20 were diagnosed in biopsy-naïve men. Both PSA≥3.0+MRI and PSA≥1.8+MRI significantly increased specificity compared with PSA≥3.0+SB (0.92 and 0.79 vs. 0.52; p<0.002 for both), while sensitivity was significantly higher for PSA≥1.8+MRI compared with PSA>=3.0+MRI (0.73 vs. 0.46, p=0.008). The detection rate of significant cancer was higher with PSA≥1.8+MRI compared to PSA≥3.0+SB (5.9 vs. 4.0%), while the detection rate of insignificant cancer was lowered by PSA≥3.0+MRI (0.3 vs. 1.2%). The primary limitation of this study is the small sample of men. Conclusion A screening strategy with a lowered PSA cut-off followed by TB in MRI-positive men seems to increase the detection of significant cancers while improving specificity. If replicated, these results may contribute to a paradigm shift in future screening. Patient Summary Major concerns in prostate-specific antigen screening are overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. We evaluated

  1. Development of Targeted Nanobubbles for Ultrasound Imaging and Ablation of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0284 TITLE: Development of Targeted Nanobubbles for...matrix, optically transparent fibrin-based gel phantom embedded with a layer of PC-3 and C4-2B of human prostate cancer, and MDA-MB-231 of breast

  2. Specific PET Imaging Probes for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    protamin sulfate and pentosan sulfate are more potent than heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfates to inhibit FITC-R11 uptake. 2. In vitro and in...GAGs) on the uptake of FITC-R9, FITC- R11 and FITC-R13 have been evaluated in four prostate cancer cell lines. The results show that dextran sulfate

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Ablation of Prostate Tissue in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Phase 1 Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chin, Joseph L; Billia, Michele; Relle, James; Roethke, Matthias C; Popeneciu, Ionel V; Kuru, Timur H; Hatiboglu, Gencay; Mueller-Wolf, Maya B; Motsch, Johann; Romagnoli, Cesare; Kassam, Zahra; Harle, Christopher C; Hafron, Jason; Nandalur, Kiran R; Chronik, Blaine A; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Pahernik, Sascha

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided transurethral ultrasound ablation (MRI-TULSA) is a novel minimally invasive technology for ablating prostate tissue, potentially offering good disease control of localized cancer and low morbidity. To determine the clinical safety and feasibility of MRI-TULSA for whole-gland prostate ablation in a primary treatment setting of localized prostate cancer (PCa). A single-arm prospective phase 1 study was performed at three tertiary referral centers in Canada, Germany, and the United States. Thirty patients (median age: 69 yr; interquartile range [IQR]: 67-71 yr) with biopsy-proven low-risk (80%) and intermediate-risk (20%) PCa were treated and followed for 12 mo. MRI-TULSA treatment was delivered with the therapeutic intent of conservative whole-gland ablation including 3-mm safety margins and 10% residual viable prostate expected around the capsule. Primary end points were safety (adverse events) and feasibility (technical accuracy and precision of conformal thermal ablation). Exploratory outcomes included quality of life, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and biopsy at 12 mo. Median treatment time was 36min (IQR: 26-44) and prostate volume was 44ml (IQR: 38-48). Spatial control of thermal ablation was ±1.3mm on MRI thermometry. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events included hematuria (43% grade [G] 1; 6.7% G2), urinary tract infections (33% G2), acute urinary retention (10% G1; 17% G2), and epididymitis (3.3% G3). There were no rectal injuries. Median pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Score 8 (IQR: 5-13) returned to 6 (IQR: 4-10) at 3 mo (mean change: -2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4 to 1). Median pretreatment International Index of Erectile Function 13 (IQR: 6-28) recovered to 13 (IQR: 5-25) at 12 mo (mean change: -1; 95% CI, -5 to 3). Median PSA decreased 87% at 1 mo and was stable at 0.8 ng/ml (IQR: 0.6-1.1) to 12 mo. Positive biopsies showed 61% reduction in total cancer length, clinically significant

  4. Photo-Acoustic Ultrasound Imaging to Distinguish Benign from Malignant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    from the inside out. Ultrasound imaging provides a basic view of the structure of the prostate while photoacoustic contrast is predicted to enhance...University Page 2 of 13 1. INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves at frequencies above the human hearing range to image organs within the body...An ultrasound transducer delivers a pulse of acoustic energy into the area of interest and listens for the echoes which return as the sound waves

  5. Recent Developments in Tissue-type Imaging(TTI) for Planning and Monitoring Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feleppa, Ernest J.; Porter, Christopher R.; Ketterling, Jeffrey; Lee, Paul; Dasgupta, Shreedevi; Urban, Stella; Kalisz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Because current methods of imaging prostate cancer are inadequate, biopsies cannot be effectively guided and treatment cannot be effectively planned and targeted. Therefore, our research is aimed at ultrasonically characterizing cancerous prostate tissue so that we can image it more effectively and thereby provide improved means of detecting, treating and monitoring prostate cancer. We base our characterization methods on spectrum analysis of radio frequency (rf) echo signals combined with clinical variables such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Tissue typing using these parameters is performed by artificial neural networks. We employedand evaluated different approaches to data partitioning into training, validation, and test sets and different neural network configuration options. In this manner, we sought to determine what neural network configuration is optimal for these data and also to assess possible bias that might exist due to correlations among different data entries among the data for a given patient. The classification efficacy of each neural network configuration and data-partitioning method was measured using relative-operating-characteristic (ROC) methods. Neural network classification based on spectral parameters combined with clinical data generally produced ROC-curve areas of 0.80 compared to curve areas of 0.64 for conventional transrectal ultrasound imaging combined with clinical data. We then used the optimal neural network configuration to generate lookup tables that translate local spectral parameter values and global clinical-variable values into pixel values in tissue-type images (TTIs). TTIs continue to show can cerous regions successfully, and may prove to be particularly useful clinically in combination with other ultrasonic and nonultrasonic methods, e.g., magnetic-resonance spectroscopy. PMID:15754797

  6. 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT in the Detection of Prostate Cancer at 60 and 120 Minutes: Detection Rate, Image Quality, Activity Kinetics, and Biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Wondergem, Maurits; van der Zant, Friso M; Knol, Remco J J; Lazarenko, Sergiy V; Pruim, Jan; de Jong, Igle J

    2017-11-01

    There is increasing interest in PET/CT with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) tracers for imaging of prostate cancer because of the higher detection rates of prostate cancer lesions than with PET/CT with choline. For 68 Ga-PSMA-11 tracers, late imaging at 180 min after injection instead of imaging at 45-60 min after injection improves the detection of prostate cancer lesions. For 18 F-DCFPyL, improved detection rates have recently been reported in a small pilot study. In this study, we report the effects of PET/CT imaging at 120 min after injection of 18 F-DCFPyL in comparison to images acquired at 60 min after injection in a larger clinical cohort of 66 consecutive patients with histopathologically proven prostate cancer. Methods: Images were acquired 60 and 120 min after injection of 18 F-DCFPyL. We report the positive lesions specified for anatomic locations (prostate, seminal vesicles, local lymph nodes, distant lymph nodes, bone, and others) at both time points by visual analysis, the image quality at both time points, and a semiquantitative analysis of the tracer activity in both prostate cancer lesions as well as normal tissues at both time points. Results: Our data showed a significantly increasing uptake of 18 F-DCFPyL between 60 and 120 min after injection in 203 lesions characteristic for prostate cancer (median, 10.78 vs. 12.86, P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). By visual analysis, 38.5% of all patients showed more lesions using images at 120 min after injection than using images at 60 min after injection, and in 9.2% a change in TNM staging was found. All lesions seen on images 60 min after injection were also visible on images 120 min after injection. A significantly better mean signal-to-noise ratio of 11.93 was found for images acquired 120 min after injection ( P < 0.001, paired t test; signal-to-noise ratio at 60 min after injection, 11.15). Conclusion: 18 F-DCFPyL PET/CT images at 120 min after injection yield a higher detection rate

  7. Hypofractionation for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Mark; Forman, Jeffrey; Kupelian, Patrick; Lawton, Colleen; Petereit, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Hypofractionation for prostate cancer was originally carried out in the pursuit of efficiency and convenience, but has now attracted greatly renewed interest based upon a hypothesis that prostate cancers have a higher sensitivity to fraction size, reflected in a low α/β ratio, then do late responding organs at risk such as the rectum or bladder. Tumor control and acceptable toxicity outcomes from several hypofractionation or brachytherapy analyses do in fact support an α/β ratio for prostate cancer that is low, perhaps even lower that that for the normal organs that ordinarily constrain the delivery of radiation therapy. However, many of these studies lack sufficient patient numbers and follow-up, are clouded by dose inhomogeneity issues in the case of brachytherapy, or delivered effective doses that were too low by contemporary standards. Thus, the clinical efficacy of the approach has yet to be fully validated. However, a number of newer prospective trials, some randomized, are underway or have reached accrual await sufficient follow-up for analysis. These studies, which cover a wide range of doses per fraction, should ultimately be capable of validating the utility of prostate hypofractionation and the models that predict its effects. With hypofractionation’s significant potential for therapeutic gain, cost savings and improved patient convenience, the future management of localized prostate cancer could be profoundly altered in the process. PMID:19197165

  8. Prostate cancer: cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Katsuto

    2003-11-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has more than doubled in the last 10 years, and 220,900 new cases will be detected in 2003. This increase is due in large part to increased use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening, transrectal ultrasonography, and random biopsy of the prostate. The treatment of prostate cancer, however, remains controversial, and no consensus has been established as to what constitutes appropriate treatment for any stage of disease, especially for localized cancers. Radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or watchful waiting all have their advocates, and the risks and benefits of these approaches are discussed frequently. Skepticism about conventional treatments has stimulated patients and physicians to search for alternatives that are effective and associated with limited morbidity. Technologic developments have rekindled interest in cryotherapy as a viable alternative to other, more conventional localized therapies. Given the relative paucity of alternatives for patients who experience biochemical progression after radiotherapy, cryosurgery also may prove to be a good alternative for those patients whose tumors appear to remain localized despite progression. In addition, it appears that cryosurgery will play an increased role in the future management of prostate cancer.

  9. Application of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADS v2): Interobserver Agreement and Positive Predictive Value for Localization of Intermediate- and High-Grade Prostate Cancers on Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frank; Cen, Steven; Palmer, Suzanne

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate interobserver agreement with the use of and the positive predictive value (PPV) of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) for the localization of intermediate- and high-grade prostate cancers on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 131 consecutive patients who had mpMRI followed by transrectal ultrasound-MR imaging fusion-guided biopsy of the prostate were included. Two readers who were blinded to initial mpMRI reports, clinical data, and pathologic outcomes reviewed the MR images, identified all prostate lesions, and scored each lesion based on the PI-RADS v2. Interobserver agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and PPV was calculated for each PI-RADS category. PI-RADS v2 was found to have a moderate level of interobserver agreement between two readers of varying experience, with ICC of 0.74, 0.72, and 0.67 for all lesions, peripheral zone lesions, and transitional zone lesions, respectively. Despite only moderate interobserver agreement, the calculated PPV in the detection of intermediate- and high-grade prostate cancers for each PI-RADS category was very similar between the two readers, with approximate PPV of 0%, 12%, 64%, and 87% for PI-RADS categories 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. In our study, PI-RADS v2 has only moderate interobserver agreement, a similar finding in studies of the original PI-RADS and in initial studies of PI-RADS v2. Despite this, PI-RADS v2 appears to be a useful system to predict significant prostate cancer, with PI-RADS scores correlating well with the likelihood of intermediate- and high-grade cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of a Structured Reporting Template on Adherence to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 and on the Diagnostic Performance of Prostate MRI for Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaish, Hiram; Feltus, Whitney; Steinman, Jonathan; Hecht, Elizabeth; Wenske, Sven; Ahmed, Firas

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a structured reporting template on adherence to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 lexicon and on the diagnostic performance of prostate MRI to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa). An imaging database was searched for consecutive patients who underwent prostate MRI followed by MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy from October 2015 through October 2017. The initial MRI reporting template used included only subheadings. In July 2016, the template was changed to a standardized PI-RADS-compliant structured template incorporating dropdown menus. Lesion, patient characteristics, pathology, and adherence to the PI-RADS lexicon were extracted from MRI reports and patient charts. Diagnostic performance of prostate MRI to detect CS-PCa using combined ultrasound-MRI fusion and systematic biopsy as a reference standard was assessed. Three hundred twenty-four lesions in 202 patients (average age, 67 years; average prostate-specific antigen level, 5.9 ng/mL) were analyzed, including 217 MRI peripheral zone (PZ) lesions, 84 MRI non-PZ lesions, and 23 additional PZ lesions found on systematic biopsy but missed on MRI. Thirty-three percent (106 of 324) were CS-PCa. Adherence to the PI-RADS lexicon improved from 32.9% (50 of 152) to 88.4% (152 of 172) (P < .0001) after introduction of the structured template. The sensitivity of prostate MRI for CS-PCa in the PZ increased from 53% to 70% (P = .011). There was no significant change in specificity (60% versus 55%, P = .458). A structured template with dropdown menus incorporating the PI-RADS lexicon and classification rules improves adherence to PI-RADS and may increase the diagnostic performance of prostate MRI for CS-PCa. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pilot Study of the Use of Hybrid Multidimensional T2-Weighted Imaging-DWI for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Evaluation of Gleason Score.

    PubMed

    Sadinski, Meredith; Karczmar, Gregory; Peng, Yahui; Wang, Shiyang; Jiang, Yulei; Medved, Milica; Yousuf, Ambereen; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of a hybrid T2-weighted imaging-DWI sequence for prostate cancer diagnosis and differentiation of aggressive prostate cancer from nonaggressive prostate cancer. Twenty-one patients with prostate cancer who underwent preoperative 3-T MRI and prostatectomy were included in this study. Patients underwent a hybrid T2-weighted imaging-DWI examination consisting of DW images acquired with TEs of 47, 75, and 100 ms and b values of 0 and 750 s/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 were calculated for cancer and normal prostate ROIs at each TE and b value. Changes in ADC and T2 as a function of increasing the TE and b value, respectively, were analyzed. A new metric termed "PQ4" was defined as the percentage of voxels within an ROI that has increasing T2 with increasing b value and has decreasing ADC with increasing TE. ADC values were significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at all TEs (p < 0.0001). With increasing TE, the mean ADC increased 3% in cancer ROIs and increased 12% in normal ROIs. T2 was significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at both b values (p ≤ 0.0002). The mean T2 decreased with increasing b value in cancer ROIs (ΔT2 = -17 ms) and normal ROIs (ΔT2 = -52 ms). PQ4 clearly differentiated normal ROIs from prostate cancer ROIs (p = 0.0004) and showed significant correlation with Gleason score (ρ = 0.508, p < 0.0001). Hybrid MRI measures the response of ADC and T2 to changing TEs and b values, respectively. This approach shows promise for detecting prostate cancer and determining its aggressiveness noninvasively.

  12. OCT image segmentation of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-08-01

    The cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate and are responsible for erectile function. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, 2-D OCT images of the rat prostate were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The features were segmented using a nearestneighbor classifier. N-ary morphological post-processing was used to remove small voids. The cavernous nerves were differentiated from the prostate gland with a segmentation error rate of only 0.058 +/- 0.019.

  13. The correlation between biological activity and diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC value in cases with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sokmen, Bedriye Koyuncu; Sokmen, Dogukan; Ucar, Nese; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip

    2017-12-31

    Firstly, we aimed to investigate the correlation among dynamic contrasted magnetic resonance (MR) images, diffusion-weighted MR images, and apparent diffusion coefficent (ADC) values in patients with prostate cancer. Secondly, we aimed to investigate the roles of these variables on clinical risk classification and the biological behavior of the prostate cancer. A total of sixty with prostatic adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed between January 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively included in the study. Risk classification of patients were evaluated as low-risk (Group 1) (n = 20) (Stage T1c-T2a, PSA < 10 ng/ml, Gleason Score < 7), moderate-risk (Group 2) (n = 18) (Stage T1b-T2c, PSA = 10-20 ng/ml, Gleason Score = 7) and high-risk (Group 3) (n = 22) (Stage > T3a, PSA > 20 ng/ml, Gleason Score > 7). Diffusion-weighted MR images, dynamic contrasted MR images, and ADC values of the prostates were correlated. ADC values of the cases in Group 3 were lower than those of the other groups (p < 0.001). ADC values of the areas without malignancy did not differ significantly between groups (p > 0.05). Biological activity of the tumor tissue was determined by GS, while a negative correlation was observed between GSs and ADC values of the patients, (p < 0.001). In tumors with higher Gleason scores, lower ADC values were obtained. These measured values can play a role in the noninvasive determination of the cellularity of the tumoral mass.

  14. What Is the Negative Predictive Value of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Excluding Prostate Cancer at Biopsy? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis from the European Association of Urology Prostate Cancer Guidelines Panel.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Paul C; Van den Broeck, Thomas; Sylvester, Richard; Marconi, Lorenzo; Bellmunt, Joaquim; van den Bergh, Roderick C N; Bolla, Michel; Briers, Erik; Cumberbatch, Marcus G; Fossati, Nicola; Gross, Tobias; Henry, Ann M; Joniau, Steven; van der Kwast, Theo H; Matveev, Vsevolod B; van der Poel, Henk G; De Santis, Maria; Schoots, Ivo G; Wiegel, Thomas; Yuan, Cathy Yuhong; Cornford, Philip; Mottet, Nicolas; Lam, Thomas B; Rouvière, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    It remains unclear whether patients with a suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) and negative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) can safely obviate prostate biopsy. To systematically review the literature assessing the negative predictive value (NPV) of mpMRI in patients with a suspicion of PCa. The Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases were searched up to February 2016. Studies reporting prebiopsy mpMRI results using transrectal or transperineal biopsy as a reference standard were included. We further selected for meta-analysis studies with at least 10-core biopsies as the reference standard, mpMRI comprising at least T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, positive mpMRI defined as a Prostate Imaging Reporting Data System/Likert score of ≥3/5 or ≥4/5, and results reported at patient level for the detection of overall PCa or clinically significant PCa (csPCa) defined as Gleason ≥7 cancer. A total of 48 studies (9613 patients) were eligible for inclusion. At patient level, the median prevalence was 50.4% (interquartile range [IQR], 36.4-57.7%) for overall cancer and 32.9% (IQR, 28.1-37.2%) for csPCa. The median mpMRI NPV was 82.4% (IQR, 69.0-92.4%) for overall cancer and 88.1% (IQR, 85.7-92.3) for csPCa. NPV significantly decreased when cancer prevalence increased, for overall cancer (r=-0.64, p<0.0001) and csPCa (r=-0.75, p=0.032). Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Seven reported results for overall PCa. When the overall PCa prevalence increased from 30% to 60%, the combined NPV estimates decreased from 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 77-99%) to 67% (95% CI, 56-79%) for a cut-off score of 3/5. Only one study selected for meta-analysis reported results for Gleason ≥7 cancers, with a positive biopsy rate of 29.3%. The corresponding NPV for a cut-off score of ≥3/5 was 87.9%. The NPV of mpMRI varied greatly depending on study design, cancer prevalence, and definitions of positive mpMRI and csPCa. As

  15. A Single Center Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging against Transperineal Prostate Mapping Biopsy: An Analysis of Men with Benign Histology and Insignificant Cancer following Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Raj P; Ahmad, Ros; Trecartan, Shaun; Voss, James; Ahmed, Shaista; Bazo, Alvaro; Lloyd, Jon; Walton, Thomas J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to detect prostate cancer against transperineal prostate mapping biopsy as the reference test. Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transperineal prostate mapping biopsy were performed in 426 patients between April 2012 and January 2016. Patients initially underwent systematic 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy followed 3 months later by 1.5 Tesla, high resolution T2, diffusion-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Two specialist uroradiologists blinded to the results of transperineal prostate mapping biopsy allocated a PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System) score to each multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging study. Transperineal prostate mapping biopsy with 5 mm interval sampling, which was performed within 6 months of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, served as the reference test. Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy identified 247 of 426 patients with prostate cancer and 179 of 426 with benign histology. Transperineal prostate mapping biopsy detected prostate cancer in 321 of 426 patients. On transperineal prostate mapping biopsy 94 of 179 patients with benign transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy had prostate cancer and 95 of 247 with prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy were identified with cancer of higher grade. Using a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging PI-RADS score of 3 or greater to detect significant prostate cancer, defined as any core containing Gleason 4 + 3 or greater prostate cancer on transperineal prostate mapping biopsy, the ROC AUC was 0.754 (95% CI 0.677-0.819) with 87.0% sensitivity (95% CI 77.3-97.0), 55.3% specificity (95% CI 50.2-60.4) and 97.1% negative predictive value (95% CI 94.8-99.4). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is a more

  16. A Multireader Exploratory Evaluation of Individual Pulse Sequence Cancer Detection on Prostate Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sonia; Harmon, Stephanie; Gupta, Rajan T; Margolis, Daniel J; Lay, Nathan; Mehralivand, Sherif; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Shih, Joanna H; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2018-04-25

    To determine independent contribution of each prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) sequence to cancer detection when read in isolation. Prostate mpMRI at 3-Tesla with endorectal coil from 45 patients (n = 30 prostatectomy cases, n = 15 controls with negative magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or biopsy) were retrospectively interpreted. Sequences (T2-weighted [T2W] MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], and dynamic contrast-enhanced [DCE] MRI; N = 135) were separately distributed to three radiologists at different institutions. Readers evaluated each sequence blinded to other mpMRI sequences. Findings were correlated to whole-mount pathology. Cancer detection sensitivity, positive predictive value for whole prostate (WP), transition zone, and peripheral zone were evaluated per sequence by reader, with reader concordance measured by index of specific agreement. Cancer detection rates (CDRs) were calculated for combinations of independently read sequences. 44 patients were evaluable (cases median prostate-specific antigen 6.83 [ range 1.95-51.13] ng/mL, age 62 [45-71] years; controls prostate-specific antigen 6.85 [2.4-10.87] ng/mL, age 65.5 [47-71] years). Readers had highest sensitivity on DWI (59%) vs T2W MRI (48%) and DCE (23%) in WP. DWI-only positivity (DWI+/T2W-/DCE-) achieved highest CDR in WP (38%), compared to T2W-only (CDR 24%) and DCE-only (CDR 8%). DWI+/T2W+/DCE- achieved CDR 80%, an added benefit of 56.4% from T2W-only and of 42% from DWI-only (P < .0001). All three sequences interpreted independently positive gave highest CDR of 90%. Reader agreement was moderate (index of specific agreement: T2W = 54%, DWI = 58%, DCE = 33%). When prostate mpMRI sequences are interpreted independently by multiple observers, DWI achieves highest sensitivity and CDR in transition zone and peripheral zone. T2W and DCE MRI both add value to detection; mpMRI achieves highest detection sensitivity when all three mp

  17. Five-Year Outcomes from 3 Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Nichols, Romaine C.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To report 5-year clinical outcomes of 3 prospective trials of image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 211 prostate cancer patients (89 low-risk, 82 intermediate-risk, and 40 high-risk) were treated in institutional review board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel therapy followed by androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk disease. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Results: Five-year rates of biochemical and clinicalmore » freedom from disease progression were 99%, 99%, and 76% in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year rates of late CTCAE, version 3.0 (or version 4.0) grade 3 gastrointestinal and urologic toxicity were 1.0% (0.5%) and 5.4% (1.0%), respectively. Median pretreatment scores and International Prostate Symptom Scores at >4 years posttreatment were 8 and 7, 6 and 6, and 9 and 8, respectively, among the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. There were no significant changes between median pretreatment summary scores and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite scores at >4 years for bowel, urinary irritative and/or obstructive, and urinary continence. Conclusions: Five-year clinical outcomes with image-guided proton therapy included extremely high efficacy, minimal physician-assessed toxicity, and excellent patient-reported outcomes. Further follow-up and a larger patient experience are necessary to confirm these favorable outcomes.« less

  18. Novel Bispecific PSMA/GRPr Targeting Radioligands with Optimized Pharmacokinetics for Improved PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liolios, C; Schäfer, M; Haberkorn, U; Eder, M; Kopka, K

    2016-03-16

    A new series of bispecific radioligands (BRLs) targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr), both expressed on prostate cancer cells, was developed. Their design was based on the bombesin (BN) analogue, H2N-PEG2-[D-Tyr(6),β-Ala(11),Thi(13),Nle(14)]BN(6-14), which binds to GRPr with high affinity and specificity, and the peptidomimetic urea-based pseudoirreversible inhibitor of PSMA, Glu-ureido-Lys. The two pharmacophores were coupled through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition to the bis(tetrafluorophenyl) ester of the chelating agent HBED-CC via amino acid linkers made of positively charged His (H) and negatively charged Glu (E): -(HE)n- (n = 0-3). The BRLs were labeled with (68)Ga, and their preliminary pharmacological properties were evaluated in vitro (competitive and time kinetic binding assays) on prostate cancer (PC-3, LNCaP) and rat pancreatic (AR42J) cell lines and in vivo by biodistribution and small animal PET imaging studies in both normal and tumor-bearing mice. The IC50/Ki values determined for all BRLs essentially matched those of the respective monomers. The maximal cellular uptake of the BLRs was observed between 20 and 30 min. The BRLs showed a synergistic ability in vivo by targeting both PSMA (LNCaP) and GRPr (PC-3) positive tumors, whereas the charged -(HE)n- (n = 1-3) linkers significantly reduced the kidney and spleen uptake. The bispecific (PSMA and GRPr) targeting ability and optimized pharmacokinetics of the compounds developed in this study could lead to their future application in clinical practice as more sensitive radiotracers for noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) by PET/CT and PET/MRI.

  19. Multifunctional PSCA Antibody Fragments for PET and Optical Prostate Cancer Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Robert E. Reiter, MD, MBA CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095-1406 REPORT DATE ...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED...expressed in prostate cancer. These engineered antibody fragments (cys-minibodies and cys-diabodies) can be labeled with radioisotopes for non- invasive

  20. Texture features on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: new potential biomarkers for prostate cancer aggressiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignati, A.; Mazzetti, S.; Giannini, V.; Russo, F.; Bollito, E.; Porpiglia, F.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D.

    2015-04-01

    To explore contrast (C) and homogeneity (H) gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture features on T2-weighted (T2w) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness, and to compare them with traditional ADC metrics for differentiating low- from intermediate/high-grade PCas. The local Ethics Committee approved this prospective study of 93 patients (median age, 65 years), who underwent 1.5 T multiparametric endorectal MR imaging before prostatectomy. Clinically significant (volume ≥0.5 ml) peripheral tumours were outlined on histological sections, contoured on T2w and ADC images, and their pathological Gleason Score (pGS) was recorded. C, H, and traditional ADC metrics (mean, median, 10th and 25th percentile) were calculated on the largest lesion slice, and correlated with the pGS through the Spearman correlation coefficient. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed how parameters differentiate pGS = 6 from pGS ≥ 7. The dataset included 49 clinically significant PCas with a balanced distribution of pGS. The Spearman ρ and AUC values on ADC were: -0.489, 0.823 (mean) -0.522, 0.821 (median) -0.569, 0.854 (10th percentile) -0.556, 0.854 (25th percentile) -0.386, 0.871 (C); 0.533, 0.923 (H); while on T2w they were: -0.654, 0.945 (C); 0.645, 0.962 (H). AUC of H on ADC and T2w, and C on T2w were significantly higher than that of the mean ADC (p = 0.05). H and C calculated on T2w images outperform ADC parameters in correlating with pGS and differentiating low- from intermediate/high-risk PCas, supporting the role of T2w MR imaging in assessing PCa biological aggressiveness.

  1. Evaluation of a novel GRPR antagonist for prostate cancer PET imaging: [64Cu]-DOTHA2-PEG-RM26.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nematallah; Paquette, Michel; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Guérin, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    Gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are significantly over-expressed on a large proportion of prostate cancers making them prime candidates for receptor-mediated nuclear imaging by PET. Recently, we synthesized a novel bifunctional chelator (BFC) bearing hydroxamic acid arms (DOTHA 2 ). Here we investigated the potential of a novel DOTHA 2 -conjugated, 64 Cu-radiolabeled GRPR peptide antagonist, [D-Phe 6 -Sta 13 -Leu 14 -NH 2 ]bombesin(6-14) (DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26) to visualize prostate tumors by PET imaging. DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 was conveniently and efficiently assembled on solid support. The compound was radiolabeled with 64 Cu and its affinity, stability, cellular uptake on PC3 prostate cancer cells were evaluated. The in vitro and in vivo behavior of [ 64 Cu]DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 was examined by PET imaging using human PC3 prostate cancer xenografts and its behavior was compared to that of the analogous [ 64 Cu]NOTA-PEG-RM26. The inhibition constant of nat Cu-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 was in the low nanomolar range (0.68±0.19 nM). The [ 64 Cu]DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 conjugate was prepared with a labeling yield >95% and molar activity of 56±3 GBq/μmol after a 5-min room temperature labeling. [ 64 Cu]-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood and renal clearance as well as a high tumor uptake. Small animal PET images confirmed high and specific uptake in PC3 tumor. Both [ 64 Cu]-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 and [ 64 Cu]-NOTA-PEG-RM26 displayed similar tumor and normal tissue uptakes at early time point post injection. [ 64 Cu]-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 allows visualization of prostate tumors by PET imaging. DOTHA 2 enables fast 64 Cu chelation under mild condition, and as such could be used advantageously for the development of other 64 Cu-labeled peptide-derived PET tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-targeting androgen receptor and DNA for imaging and molecular radiotherapy of prostate cancer: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang; Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P; Enke, Thomas; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2014-12-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) axis, the key growth and survival pathway in prostate cancer, remains a prime target for drug development. 5-Radioiodo-3'-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2'-deoxyuridin-5'-yl phosphate (RISAD-P) is the AR-seeking reagent developed for noninvasive assessment of AR and proliferative status, and for molecular radiotherapy of prostate cancer with Auger electron-emitting radionuclides. RISAD-P radiolabeled with 123I, 124I, and 125I were synthesized using a common stannylated precursor. The cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and radiotoxicity of 123I-, 124I-, and (125) IRISAD-P were measured in LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cell lines expressing various levels of AR. The uptake of RISAD-P by prostate cancer cells is proportional to AR levels and independent of the radionuclide. The intracellular accumulation of radioactivity is directly proportional to the extracellular concentration of RISAD-P and the duration of exposure. Initially, RISAD-P is trapped in the cytoplasm. Within 24 hr, radioactivity is associated exclusively with DNA. The RISAD-P radiotoxicity is determined by the radionuclide; however, the cellular responses are directly proportional to the AR expression levels. LNCaP cells expressing high levels of AR are killed at the rate of up to 60% per day after a brief 1 hr RISAD-P treatment. For the first time, the AR expression in PC-3 and DU 145 cells, generally reported as AR-negative, was quantitated by the ultra sensitive RISAD-P-based method. RISAD-P is a theranostic drug, which targets AR. Its subcellular metabolite participates in DNA synthesis. RISAD-P is a promising candidate for imaging of the AR expression and tumor proliferation as well as molecular radiotherapy of prostate cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Using the prostate imaging reporting and data system version 2 (PI-RIDS v2) to detect prostate cancer can prevent unnecessary biopsies and invasive treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Shi-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Xian; Yu, Kai; Feng, Chun-Xiang; Ke, Zan; Wang, Liang; Zeng, Xiao-Yong

    2018-04-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers among men globally. The authors aimed to evaluate the ability of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) to classify men with PCa, clinically significant PCa (CSPCa), or no PCa, especially among those with serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels in the "gray zone" (4-10 ng ml -1 ). A total of 308 patients (355 lesions) were enrolled in this study. Diagnostic efficiency was determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and decision curve analysis were performed to determine and compare the predictors of PCa and CSPCa. The results suggested that PI-RADS v2, tPSA, and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) were independent predictors of PCa and CSPCa. A PI-RADS v2 score ≥4 provided high negative predictive values (91.39% for PCa and 95.69% for CSPCa). A model of PI-RADS combined with PSA and PSAD helped to define a high-risk group (PI-RADS score = 5 and PSAD ≥0.15 ng ml -1 cm -3 , with tPSA in the gray zone, or PI-RADS score ≥4 with high tPSA level) with a detection rate of 96.1% for PCa and 93.0% for CSPCa while a low-risk group with a detection rate of 6.1% for PCa and 2.2% for CSPCa. It was concluded that the PI-RADS v2 could be used as a reliable and independent predictor of PCa and CSPCa. The combination of PI-RADS v2 score with PSA and PSAD could be helpful in the prediction and diagnosis of PCa and CSPCa and, thus, may help in preventing unnecessary invasive procedures.

  4. Comparison of stretched-Exponential and monoexponential model diffusion-Weighted imaging in prostate cancer and normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohang; Zhou, Liangping; Peng, Weijun; Wang, He; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    To compare stretched-exponential and monoexponential model diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in prostate cancer and normal tissues. Twenty-seven patients with prostate cancer underwent DWI exam using b-values of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) . The distributed diffusion coefficients (DDC) and α values of prostate cancer and normal tissues were obtained with stretched-exponential model and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values using monoexponential model. The ADC, DDC (both in 10(-3) mm(2)/s), and α values (range, 0-1) were compared among different prostate tissues. The ADC and DDC were also compared and correlated in each tissue, and the standardized differences between DDC and ADC were compared among different tissues. Data were obtained for 31 cancers, 36 normal peripheral zone (PZ) and 26 normal central gland (CG) tissues. The ADC (0.71 ± 0.12), DDC (0.60 ± 0.18), and α value (0.64 ± 0.05) of tumor were all significantly lower than those of the normal PZ (1.41 ± 0.22, 1.47 ± 0.20, and 0.85 ± 0.09) and CG (1.25 ± 0.14, 1.32 ± 0.13, and 0.82 ± 0.06) (all P < 0.05). ADC was significantly higher than DDC in cancer, but lower than DDC in the PZ and CG (all P < 0.05). The ADC and DDC were strongly correlated (R(2)  = 0.99, 0.98, 0.99, respectively, all P < 0.05) in all the tissue, and standardized difference between ADC and DDC of cancer was slight but significantly higher than that in normal tissue. The stretched-exponential model DWI provides more parameters for distinguishing prostate cancer and normal tissue and reveals slight differences between DDC and ADC values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Cancer.gov

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  6. Optimization of automated large-scale production of [(18)F]fluoroethylcholine for PET prostate cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Pascali, Giancarlo; D'Antonio, Luca; Bovone, Paola; Gerundini, Paolo; August, Thorsten

    2009-07-01

    PET tumor imaging is gaining importance in current clinical practice. FDG-PET is the most utilized approach but suffers from inflammation influences and is not utilizable in prostate cancer detection. Recently, (11)C-choline analogues have been employed successfully in this field of imaging, leading to a growing interest in the utilization of (18)F-labeled analogues: [(18)F]fluoroethylcholine (FEC) has been demonstrated to be promising, especially in prostate cancer imaging. In this work we report an automatic radiosynthesis of this tracer with high yields, short synthesis time and ease of performance, potentially utilizable in routine production sites. We used a Modular Lab system to automatically perform the two-step/one-pot synthesis. In the first step, we labeled ethyleneglycolditosylate obtaining [(18)F]fluoroethyltosylate; in the second step, we performed the coupling of the latter intermediate with neat dimethylethanolamine. The final mixture was purified by means of solid phase extraction; in particular, the product was trapped into a cation-exchange resin and eluted with isotonic saline. The optimized procedure resulted in a non decay corrected yield of 36% and produced a range of 30-45 GBq of product already in injectable form. The product was analyzed for quality control and resulted as pure and sterile; in addition, residual solvents were under the required threshold. In this work, we present an automatic FEC radiosynthesis that has been optimized for routine production. This findings should foster the interest for a wider utilization of this radiomolecule for imaging of prostate cancer with PET, a field for which no gold-standard tracer has yet been validated.

  7. Molecular Imaging with Quantum Dots Probing EMT and Prostate Cancer Metastasis in Live Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Grignon DJ, Cher ML. Severe combined immunodeficient-humodel of humanprostate cancer metastasis to human bone. Cancer Res 1999;59(8): 1987 – 1993. 14... Eisler , H. J., and Bawendi, M. (2003) Type-II quantum dots: CdTe/CdSe(core/shell) and CdSe/ZinTe(core/shell) heterostructures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125...S1044. 39. Cunha GR, Donjacour AA, Cooke PS, et al. The endocrinology and developmen- tal biology of the prostate. Endocr Rev 1987 ; 8:338-362. 40

  8. Novel 64Cu Labeled RGD2-BBN Heterotrimers for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lucente, Ermelinda; Liu, Hongguang; Liu, Yang; Hu, Xiang; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Cheng, Zhen

    2018-05-16

    Bombesin receptor 2 (BB 2 ) and integrin α v β 3 receptor are privileged targets for molecular imaging of cancer because of their overexpression in a number of tumor tissues. The most recent developments in heterodimer-based radiopharmaceuticals concern BB 2 - and integrin α v β 3 -targeting compounds, consisting of bombesin (BBN) and cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptides (RGD), connected through short length linkers. Molecular imaging probes based on RGD-BBN heterodimer design exhibit improved tumor targeting efficacy compared to the single-receptor targeting peptide monomers. However, their application in clinical study is restricted because of inefficient synthesis or unfavorable in vivo properties, which could depend on the short linker nature. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a RGD 2 -BBN heterotrimer, composed of (7-14)BBN-NH 2 peptide (BBN) linked to the E[ c(RGDyK)] 2 dimer peptide (RGD 2 ), bearing the new linker type [Pro-Gly] 12 . The heterodimer E[c(RGDyK)] 2 -PEG 3 -Glu-(Pro-Gly) 12 -BBN(7-14)-NH 2 (RGD 2 -PG 12 -BBN) was prepared through conventional solid phase synthesis, then conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-diacetic acid (NODA-GA). In 64 Cu labeling, the NODA-GA chelator showed superior radiochemical characteristics compared to DOTA (70% vs 40% yield, respectively). Both conjugates displayed dual targeting ability, showing good α v β 3 affinities and high BB 2 receptor affinities which, in the case of the NODA-GA conjugate, were in the same range as the best RGD-BBN heterodimer ligands reported to date ( K i = 24 nM). 64 Cu-DOTA and 64 Cu-NODA-GA probes were also found to be stable after 1 h incubation in mouse serum (>90%). In a microPET study in prostate cancer PC-3 xenograft mice, both probes showed low tumor uptake, probably due to poor pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Overall, our study demonstrates that novel RGD

  9. [Focusing on MRI-suspected lesions in targeted transrectal prostate biopsy guided by MRI-TRUS fusion imaging for the diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Qu, Hua-Wei; Liu, Hui; Cui, Zi-Lian; Jin, Xun-Bo; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Mu-Wen; Song, Wei; Zhang, Xin-Juan

    2016-09-01

    To improve the accuracy of prostate cancer (PCa) detection by focusing biopsy on the suspected lesion manifested by MRI with the total number of biopsy cores relatively unchanged. A prospective randomized analysis was performed on 262 cases of suspected PCa detected by multi-parametric MRI (mp-MRI), each with a single suspected lesion with 10 μg/L≤ PSA <20 μg/L. All the patients underwent targeted transrectal prostate biopsy guided by fusion imaging of MRI with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), using the 6X+6 strategy (6 cores in the suspected region and another 6 in the systematic prostate) for 134 cases and the traditional 12+2X method (12 cores in the systematic prostate and 2 in the suspected region) for the other 128. Comparisons were made between the two methods in the PCa detection rate in the cases of suspected lesion, total PCa detection rate, incidence of post-biopsy complications, and Gleason scores. Analyses were performed on the prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score, location, transverse section, and diameter of the suspected lesion. Both the total PCa detection rate and that in the cases of suspected lesion were significantly higher in the 6X+6 (44.8% and 37.3%) than in the 12+2X group (37.5% and 27.3%) (P<0.05). MRI showed that the suspected lesions were mostly (45%) located in the middle part of the prostate, the mean area of the transverse section was (0.48±0.11) cm2, and the mean diameter of the tumor was (8.51±2.21) mm. The results of biopsy showed that low-grade tumors (Gleason 3+3=6) accounted for 68% in the 6X+6 group and 71% in the 12+2X group. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the incidence rate of post-biopsy complications. Compared with the traditional 12+2X method, for the suspected lesion manifested by mp-MRI, focusing biopsy on the suspected region with the 6X+6 strategy can achieve a higher PCa detection rate without increasing the incidence of complications.

  10. Configurations of a two-tiered amplified gene expression system in adenoviral vectors designed to improve the specificity of in vivo prostate cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sato, M; Figueiredo, ML; Burton, JB; Johnson, M; Chen, M; Powell, R; Gambhir, SS; Carey, M; Wu, L

    2009-01-01

    Effective treatment for recurrent, disseminated prostate cancer is notably limited. We have developed adenoviral vectors with a prostate-specific two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system that would express therapeutic genes at a robust level to target metastatic disease. The TSTA system employs the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter/enhancer to drive a potent synthetic activator, which in turn activates the expression of the therapeutic gene. In this study, we explored different configurations of this bipartite system and discovered that physical separation of the two TSTA components into E1 and E3 regions of adenovirus was able to enhance androgen regulation and cell-discriminatory expression. The TSTA vectors that express imaging reporter genes were assessed by noninvasive imaging technologies in animal models. The improved selectivity of the E1E3 configured vector was reflected in silenced ectopic expression in the lung. Significantly, the enhanced specificity of the E1E3 vector enabled the detection of lung metastasis of prostate cancer. An E1E3 TSTA vector that expresses the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene can effectively direct positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the tumor. The prostate-targeted gene delivery vectors with robust and cell-specific expression capability will advance the development of safe and effective imaging guided therapy for recurrent metastatic stages of prostate cancer. PMID:18305574

  11. Magnetic Resonance-Based Electrical Property Tomography (MR- EPT) for Prostate Cancer Grade Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    TV 2D 5 10 15 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 i 5 10 15 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 10. Prostate-like gelatin phantom with one inclusion (5mm, play dough ...magnitude image (TSE) and reconstructions. 11 c) Multiple Inclusions Two 5 mm diameter inclusions ( play dough to provide significant conductivity...reconstruction, 2D inverse reconstruction with Total Variation, 3D inverse reconstruction 10 b) Single inclusion A single 5 mm diameter inclusion ( play

  12. Proton therapy for prostate cancer treatment employing online image guidance and an action level threshold.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Carlos; Falchook, Aaron; Indelicato, Daniel; Yeung, Anamaria; Henderson, Randall; Olivier, Kenneth; Keole, Sameer; Williams, Christopher; Li, Zuofeng; Palta, Jatinder

    2009-04-01

    The ability to determine the accuracy of the final prostate position within a determined action level threshold for image-guided proton therapy is unclear. Three thousand one hundred ten images for 20 consecutive patients treated in 1 of our 3 proton prostate protocols from February to May of 2007 were analyzed. Daily kV images and patient repositioning were performed employing an action-level threshold (ALT) of > or = 2.5 mm for each beam. Isocentric orthogonal x-rays were obtained, and prostate position was defined via 3 gold markers for each patient in the 3 axes. To achieve and confirm our action level threshold, an average of 2 x-rays sets (median 2; range, 0-4) was taken daily for each patient. Based on our ALT, we made no corrections in 8.7% (range, 0%-54%), 1 correction in 82% (41%-98%), and 2 to 3 corrections in 9% (0-27%). No patient needed 4 or more corrections. All patients were treated with a confirmed error of < 2.5 mm for every beam delivered. After all corrections, the mean and standard deviations were: anterior-posterior (z): 0.003 +/- 0.094 cm; superior-inferior (y): 0.028 +/- 0.073 cm; and right-left (x) -0.013 +/- 0.08 cm. It is feasible to limit all final prostate positions to less than 2.5 mm employing an action level image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) process. The residual errors after corrections were very small.

  13. High Resolution PET Imaging Probe for the Detection, Molecular Characterization and Treatment Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Jitter results from electronic noise and from the fact that the shape of the detector signal used for timing can vary considerably depending on the...photomultiplier technology, several “probe” detectors were developed. It was predicted, and subsequently shown, that probes having good position...high spatial resolution for prostate imaging. Practical proof-of-concept detectors with good depth-of-interactions resolution have been developed and

  14. Diagnostic Performance of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Targeted Biopsy to Detect Significant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Manuela A; Taymoorian, Kasra; Ruf, Christian; Gerhards, Arnd; Leyendecker, Karlheinz; Stein, Thomas; Jakobs, Frank M; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging combined with ultrasound-fusion-targeted biopsy of the prostate intends to increase diagnostic precision, which has to be clarified. We performed multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging followed by ultrasound-fusion-guided perineal biopsy in 99 male patients with elevated prostate-specific-antigen and previous negative standard biopsy-procedures. In 33/99 patients (33%) no malignancy could be confirmed by histopathology. Low-grade carcinomas (Gleason-Score 6+7a) were found in 42/66 (64%) and high-grade carcinomas (Gleason-Score ≥7b) in 24/66 (36%) men. A high-grade carcinoma corresponded to PI-RADS 4 or 5 (suspected malignancy) in 21/24 cases, which accounted for a sensitivity of 88% and negative-predictive-value of 85% (p=0.002). Differentiation between high-/low-grade carcinomas (Gleason-Score ≤7a vs. ≥7b) by means of PI-RADS related to a sensitivity of 88% and a negative-predictive-value of 70% (p=0.74). The results support the view that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound-fusion-guided biopsy promotes considerably higher detection rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies than do conventional diagnostic procedures. With regard to differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas, no significant difference was demonstrated. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Cabazitaxel Plus Prednisone With Octreotide For Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Previously Treated With Docetaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-21

    Diarrhea; Hormone-resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  16. Pathogenesis of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Girling, J. S.; Whitaker, H. C.; Mills, I. G.; Neal, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy in males and the leading cause of cancer death. Prostate cancer is initially androgen dependent and relies upon the androgen receptor (AR) to mediate the effects of androgens. The AR is also the target for therapy using antiandrogens and LHRH analogues. However, all cancers eventually become androgen independent, often referred to as hormone refractory prostate cancer. The processes involved in this transformation are yet to be fully understood but research in this area has discovered numerous potential mechanisms including AR amplification, over-expression or mutation and alterations in the AR signaling pathway. This review of the recent literature examines the current knowledge and developments in the understanding of the molecular biology of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer, summarizing the well characterized pathways involved as well as introducing new concepts that may offer future solutions to this difficult problem. PMID:19675761

  17. SU-C-17A-03: Evaluation of Deformable Image Registration Methods Between MRI and CT for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, N; Glide-Hurst, C; Zhong, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the performance of two commercially available and one open source B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms between T2-weighted MRI and treatment planning CT using the DICE indices. Methods: CT simulation (CT-SIM) and MR simulation (MR-SIM) for four prostate cancer patients were conducted on the same day using the same setup and immobilization devices. CT images (120 kVp, 500 mAs, voxel size = 1.1x1.1x3.0 mm3) were acquired using an open-bore CT scanner. T2-weighted Turbo Spine Echo (T2W-TSE) images (TE/TR/α = 80/4560 ms/90°, voxel size = 0.7×0.7×2.5 mm3) were scanned on a 1.0T high field open MR-SIM. Prostates, seminalmore » vesicles, rectum and bladders were delineated on both T2W-TSE and CT images by the attending physician. T2W-TSE images were registered to CT images using three DIR algorithms, SmartAdapt (Varian), Velocity AI (Velocity) and Elastix (Klein et al 2010) and contours were propagated. DIR results were evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively by image comparison and calculating organ DICE indices. Results: Significant differences in the contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were observed between MR and CT. On average, volume changes of the propagated contours were 5%, 2%, 160% and 8% for the prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder and rectum respectively. Corresponding mean DICE indices were 0.7, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.7. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.9 among three algorithms for the Dice indices. Conclusion: Three DIR algorithms for CT/MR registration yielded similar results for organ propagation. Due to the different soft tissue contrasts between MRI and CT, organ delineation of prostate and SVs varied significantly, thus efforts to develop other DIR evaluation metrics are warranted. Conflict of interest: Submitting institution has research agreements with Varian Medical System and Philips Healthcare.« less

  18. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should helpmore » provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.« less

  19. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... or routine screening test for prostate cancer. Screening tests for prostate cancer are under study, and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...

  20. Automated detection of prostate cancer in digitized whole-slide images of H and E-stained biopsy specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, G.; Ehteshami Bejnordi, B.; Timofeeva, N.; Swadi, G.; Kovacs, I.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.; van der Laak, J.

    2015-03-01

    Automated detection of prostate cancer in digitized H and E whole-slide images is an important first step for computer-driven grading. Most automated grading algorithms work on preselected image patches as they are too computationally expensive to calculate on the multi-gigapixel whole-slide images. An automated multi-resolution cancer detection system could reduce the computational workload for subsequent grading and quantification in two ways: by excluding areas of definitely normal tissue within a single specimen or by excluding entire specimens which do not contain any cancer. In this work we present a multi-resolution cancer detection algorithm geared towards the latter. The algorithm methodology is as follows: at a coarse resolution the system uses superpixels, color histograms and local binary patterns in combination with a random forest classifier to assess the likelihood of cancer. The five most suspicious superpixels are identified and at a higher resolution more computationally expensive graph and gland features are added to refine classification for these superpixels. Our methods were evaluated in a data set of 204 digitized whole-slide H and E stained images of MR-guided biopsy specimens from 163 patients. A pathologist exhaustively annotated the specimens for areas containing cancer. The performance of our system was evaluated using ten-fold cross-validation, stratified according to patient. Image-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was subsequently performed where a specimen containing cancer was considered positive and specimens without cancer negative. We obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.96 and a 0.4 specificity at a 1.0 sensitivity.

  1. Comparison between two time-resolved approaches for prostate cancer diagnosis: high rate imager vs. photon counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, J.; Debourdeau, M.; Laidevant, A.; Hervé, L.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2010-02-01

    Finding a way to combine ultrasound and fluorescence optical imaging on an endorectal probe may improve early detection of prostate cancer. A trans-rectal probe adapted to fluorescence diffuse optical tomography measurements was developed by our team. This probe is based on a pulsed NIR laser source, an optical fiber network and a time-resolved detection system. A reconstruction algorithm was used to help locate and quantify fluorescent prostate tumors. In this study, two different kinds of time-resolved detectors are compared: High Rate Imaging system (HRI) and a photon counting system. The HRI is based on an intensified multichannel plate and a CCD Camera. The temporal resolution is obtained through a gating of the HRI. Despite a low temporal resolution (300ps), this system allows a simultaneous acquisition of the signal from a large number of detection fibers. In the photon counting setup, 4 photomultipliers are connected to a Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) board, providing a better temporal resolution (0.1 ps) at the expense of a limited number of detection fibers (4). At last, we show that the limited number of detection fibers of the photon counting setup is enough for a good localization and dramatically improves the overall acquisition time. The photon counting approach is then validated through the localization of fluorescent inclusions in a prostate-mimicking phantom.

  2. Endorectal MR imaging of prostate cancer: Evaluation of tumor capsular contact length as a sign of extracapsular extension.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Gustavo; Foster, Bryan R; Li, Xin; Shannon, Jackilen; Garzotto, Mark; Amling, Christopher L; Coakley, Fergus V

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the length of contact between dominant tumor foci and the prostatic capsule as a sign of extracapsular extension at endorectal multiparametric MR imaging. We retrospectively identified 101 patients over a three-year interval who underwent endorectal multiparametric prostate MR imaging prior to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Two readers identified the presence of dominant tumor focus (largest lesion with PI-RADS version 2 score of 4 or 5), and measured the length of tumor capsular contact and likelihood of extracapsular extension by standard criteria (1-5 Likert scale). Results were analyzed using histopathological review as reference standard. Extracapsular extension was found at histopathological review in 27 patients. Reader 1 (2) identified dominant tumor in 79 (73) patients, with mean tumor capsular contact length of 18.2 (14.0) mm. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for identification of extracapsular extension by tumor capsular contact length was 0.76 for reader 1 and 0.77 for reader 2, with optimal discrimination at values of 18 mm and 21 mm, respectively. In the subset of patients without obvious extracapsular extension by standard criteria (Likert scores 1-3), corresponding values were 0.74 and 0.66 with optimal thresholds of 24 and 21 mm. Length of contact between the dominant tumor focus and the capsule is a moderately useful sign of extracapsular extension at endorectal multiparametric prostate MR imaging, including the subset of patients without obvious extracapsular extension by standard criteria, with optimal discrimination at threshold values of 18 to 24 mm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 18F-Positron Emitting/Trimethine Cyanine-Fluorescent Contrast for Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Management.

    PubMed

    Kommidi, Harikrishna; Guo, Hua; Nurili, Fuad; Vedvyas, Yogindra; Jin, Moonsoo M; McClure, Timothy D; Ehdaie, Behfar; Sayman, Haluk B; Akin, Oguz; Aras, Omer; Ting, Richard

    2018-05-10

    [ 18/19 F]-4, an anionic GCPII/PSMA inhibitor for image-guided intervention in prostate cancer, is described. [ 19 F]-4 is radiolabeled with a radiochemical yield that is ≥27% and a molar activity of 190 ± 50 mCi/μmol in a <1 h, one-step, aqueous isotopic exchange reaction. [ 19 F]-4 allows PSMA expression to be imaged by fluorescence (FL) and [ 18 F]-PET. PC3-PIP (PSMA-positive, EC 50 = 6.74 ± 1.33 nM) cancers are specifically delineated in mice that bear 3 million (18 mg) PC3-PIP and PC3 (control, PSMA-negative) cells. Colocalization of [ 18/19 F]-4 PET, fluorescence, scintillated biodistribution, and PSMA expression are observed.

  4. A new fiducial marker for Image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer: clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Højkjaer Larsen, Erik; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V

    2008-01-01

    A new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on a removable prostate stent made of Ni Ti has been developed during two previous clinical feasibility studies. The marker is currently being evaluated for IGRT treatment in a third clinical study. The new marker is used to co-register MR and planning CT scans with high accuracy in the region around the prostate. The co-registered MR-CT volumes are used for delineation of GTV before planning. In each treatment session the IGRT system is used to position the patient before treatment. The IGRT system use a stereo pair of kV images matched to corresponding Digital Reconstructed Radiograms (DRR) from the planning CT scan. The match is done using mutual gray scale information. The pair of DRR's for positioning is created in the IGRT system with a threshold in the Look Up Table (LUT). The resulting match provides the necessary shift in couch coordinates to position the stent with an accuracy of 1-2 mm within the planned position. At the present time 39 patients have received the new marker. Of the 39 one has migrated to the bladder. Deviations of more than 5 mm between CTV outlined on CT and MR are seen in several cases and in anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions. Intra-fraction translation movements up to +/- 3 mm are seen as well. As the stent is also clearly visible on images taken with high voltage x-rays using electronic portal images devices (EPID), the positioning has been verified independently of the IGRT system. The preliminary result of an on going clinical study of a Ni Ti prostate stent, potentially a new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy, looks promising. The risk of migration appears to be much lower compared to previous designs.

  5. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  6. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2014-07-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ≥2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (≤18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (≤0.8 and ≤4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ≤1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness

  7. Measurement of serum isoform [-2]proPSA derivatives shows superior accuracy to magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with a total prostate-specific antigen level of 2-10 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kazuhiro; Kawahara, Takashi; Narahara, Masaki; Tokita, Takashi; Fukui, Sachi; Imano, Masashi; Mitome, Taku; Ito, Yusuke; Izumi, Koji; Osaka, Kimito; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Hayashi, Narihiko; Hasumi, Hisashi; Nawata, Shintaro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji

    2017-08-01

    More accurate diagnostic procedures for prostate cancer are needed to avoid unnecessary biopsy due to the low specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Recent studies showed that the percentage of serum isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) to free PSA (%p2PSA), the Prostate Health Index (PHI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were more accurate than PSA. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of %p2PSA, PHI and MRI in discriminating patients with and without prostate cancer. The subjects were 50 consecutive men with a PSA level of 2.0-10.0 ng/ml, who underwent prostate biopsy from October 2012 to July 2014. These patients underwent multiparametric MRI before biopsy, and their serum samples were measured for PSA, free PSA and p2PSA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PHI, %p2PSA and MRI were compared with PSA in the diagnosis of biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer. In a univariate analysis, %p2PSA [area under the curve (AUC): 0.811] and PHI (AUC 0.795) were more accurate than MRI (AUC: 0.583) and PSA (AUC: 0.554) for prostate cancer detection. At 60% sensitivity, the specificity of PHI (76.5%) was higher than that of MRI (52.9%). For significant cancer detection, %p2PSA (AUC: 0.745), PHI (AUC: 0.791) and MRI (AUC: 0.739) were marginally more accurate than PSA (AUC: 0.696). At 85% sensitivity, the specificity of MRI (62.1%) was higher than that of PHI (34.5%). PHI and %p2PSA can be used for screening the general population and MRI can be used for detection of significant cancer in patients suspected, from screening tests, of having prostate cancer.

  8. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient value on diffusion-weighted MR imaging and Gleason score in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Reinikainen, P; Vanhanen, A; Kapanen, M; Vierikko, T; Ryymin, P; Hyödynmaa, S; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P-L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates with prostate cancer aggressiveness and further to compare the diagnostic performance of ADC and normalized ADC (nADC: normalized to non-tumor tissue). Thirty pre-treatment patients (mean age, 69years; range: 59-78years) with prostate cancer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, including DWI with three b values: 50, 400, and 800s/mm 2 . Both ADC and nADC were correlated with the Gleason score obtained through transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The tumor minimum ADC (ADC min : the lowest ADC value within tumor) had an inverse correlation with the Gleason score (r=-0.43, P<0.05), and it was lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than in those with Gleason score 3+3 (0.54±0.11×10 3 mm 2 /s vs. 0.64±0.12×10 -3 mm 2 /s, P<0.05). Both the nADC min and nADC mean correlated with the Gleason score (r=-0.52 and r=-0.55, P<0.01; respectively), and they were lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than those with Gleason score 3+3 (P<0.01; respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.765, 0.818, or 0.833 for the ADC min , nADC min , or nADC mean ; respectively, in differentiating between Gleason score 3+4 and 3+3 tumors. Tumor ADC min , nADC min , and nADC mean are useful markers to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Note: evaluation of the uncertainties in (choline + creatine)/citrate ratios measured by proton MR spectroscopic imaging in patients suspicious for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zbýň, Š; Krššák, M; Memarsadeghi, M; Gholami, B; Haitel, A; Weber, M; Helbich, T H; Trattnig, S; Moser, E; Gruber, S

    2014-07-01

    The presented evaluation of the relative uncertainty (δ'CCC) of the (choline + creatine)/citrate (CC/C) ratios can provide objective information about the quality and diagnostic value of prostate MR spectroscopic imaging data. This information can be combined with the numeric values of CC/C ratios and provides metabolic-quality maps enabling accurate cancer detection and user-independent data evaluation. In addition, the prostate areas suffering most from the low precision of CC/C ratios (e. g., prostate base) were identified. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high- quality , well-annotated biospecimens obtained...patients and stores them to maintain high quality biospecimens. Additionally, clinical data including pathology and outcome data are annotated with the...that can provide to the wider research community. The major goal of the PCBN is to develop a biorepository with high- quality , well-annotated

  11. Phase I/II prospective trial of cancer-specific imaging using ultrasound spectrum analysis tissue-type imaging to guide dose-painting prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Ronald D; Quinn, S Aidan; Trichter, Frieda; Ryemon, Shannon; Jain, Anudh; Saigal, Kunal; Chandrashekhar, Sarayu; Romas, Nicholas A; Feleppa, Ernest J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the technical feasibility, toxicity, dosimetry, and preliminary efficacy of dose-painting brachytherapy guided by ultrasound spectrum analysis tissue-type imaging (TTI) in low-risk, localized prostate cancer. Fourteen men with prostate cancer who were candidates for brachytherapy as sole treatment were prospectively enrolled. Treatment planning goal was to escalate the tumor dose to 200% with a modest de-escalation of dose to remaining prostate compared with our standard. Primary end points included technical feasibility of TTI-guided brachytherapy and equivalent or better toxicity compared with standard brachytherapy. Secondary end points included dose escalation to tumor regions and de-escalated dose to nontumor regions on the preimplant plan, negative prostate biopsy at 2 years, and freedom from biochemical failure. Thirteen of fourteen men successfully completed the TTI-guided brachytherapy procedure for a feasibility rate of 93%. A software malfunction resulted in switching one patient from TTI-guided to standard brachytherapy. An average of 2.7 foci per patient was demonstrated and treated with an escalated dose. Dosimetric goals on preplan were achieved. One patient expired from unrelated causes 65 days after brachytherapy. Toxicity was at least as low as standard brachytherapy. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from six men; five (83%) were definitively negative, one showed evidence of disease with treatment effect, and none were positive. No patients experienced biochemical recurrence after a median followup of 31.5 (24-52) months. We have demonstrated that TTI-guided dose-painting prostate brachytherapy is technically feasible and results in clinical outcomes that are encouraging in terms of low toxicity and successful biochemical disease control. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with MRI image fusion for monitoring focal therapy of prostate cancer with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)1.

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, M; Clevert, D-A; Ricke, J; Stief, C; Schlenker, B

    2018-01-01

    Reduced acceptance of radical prostatectomy in patients with low risk or intermediate risk prostate cancer has significantly changed treatment strategies in prostate cancer (PCa) during the last years. Focal therapy of the prostate with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an organ-preserving treatment for prostate cancer with less impairment of health-related quality of life. Follow-up after HIFU therapy by imaging modalities remains a major problem as eg. MRI performs poorly. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) allows to monitor the vascular architecture of organs non-invasively. However, only limited data are available using CEUS to define successful and complete HIFU treatment of the prostate. In this study, we aimed to evaluate short-term image findings using CEUS and image fusion before and after HIFU treatment. Prospective single arm study in patients with uni- or bilateral, low or intermediate risk prostate cancer or recurrent cancer after radiotherapy treated with HIFU at our institution between October 2016 and November 2017. HIFU hemiablation or whole gland treatment was performed using the Focal One® device. PCa was diagnosed either by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) followed by MRI fusion based targeted biopsy combined with 12 core transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy or 12 core random biopsy only. Monitoring of the target region before, immediately and 24 hours after the ablation was done by CEUS in combination with image fusion using an axial T2-weighted MRI sequence. 6 consecutive patients with Gleason score (GS) 6, 5 patients with GS 7a prostate cancer and one patient with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy were included in the study. Three patients underwent whole gland treatment due to histological proven bilateral PCa or recurrent PCa after radiotherapy. Hemiablation was performed in 9 patients with unilateral tumor and no PIRADS 4 or 5 lesion in the contralateral lobe. Median patient age was 69.8 years

  13. [MRI and prostate cancer: a paradigm shift].

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, L; Rouvière, O; Penna-Renard, R; Villers, A; Puech, P

    2008-09-01

    A shift in the use of prostate MR for diagnosis, staging, and pre-treatment planning over the last several years has modified the MR protocols. Classically used to detect extra-prostatic tumor, MR now plays a role for diagnosis (pre-biopsy evaluation in a patient with elevated PSA and suspected cancer in an unusual site), treatment planning (prostate mapping), and follow-up after treatment (evaluation for local recurrence or follow-up after HIFU, radiation therapy, or focal treatment...). Imaging protocols at 1.5T and 3.0T combine morphological T2W imaging with functional sequences (perfusion imaging, diffusion imaging, spectroscopy) using high-resolution phased array pelvic coils or "combined" coils (added endorectal coil). To promote acceptance by clinicians and increased access to patients, the indications for prostate MR must be better defined (and provide useful data to urologists), the cost must be reduced, and results must be more reproducible and standardized.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy Improves Selection of Patients Considered for Active Surveillance for Clinically Low Risk Prostate Cancer Based on Systematic Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ouzzane, Adil; Renard-Penna, Raphaele; Marliere, François; Mozer, Pierre; Olivier, Jonathan; Barkatz, Johann; Puech, Philippe; Villers, Arnauld

    2015-08-01

    Current selection criteria for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy underestimate prostate cancer volume and grade. We investigated the role of additional magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy in reclassifying patients eligible for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy. We performed a study at 2 institutions in a total of 281 men with increased prostate specific antigen. All men met certain criteria, including 1) prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging, 12-core transrectal systematic biopsy and 2 additional magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies of lesions suspicious for cancer during the same sequence as systematic biopsy, and 2) eligibility for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy results. Criteria for active surveillance were prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml, no Gleason grade 4/5, 5 mm or less involvement of any biopsy core and 2 or fewer positive systematic biopsy cores. Patient characteristics were compared between reclassified and nonreclassified groups based on magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy results. On magnetic resonance imaging 58% of the 281 patients had suspicious lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy was positive for cancer in 81 of 163 patients (50%). Of 281 patients 28 (10%) were reclassified by magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy as ineligible for active surveillance based on Gleason score in 8, cancer length in 20 and Gleason score plus cancer length in 9. Suspicious areas on magnetic resonance imaging were in the anterior part of the prostate in 15 of the 28 men (54%). Reclassified patients had a smaller prostate volume (37 vs 52 cc) and were older (66.5 vs 63 years) than those who were not reclassified (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy reclassified 10% of patients who were eligible for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy. Its incorporation into the active surveillance eligibility criteria may decrease the risk of reclassification to

  15. Positioning accuracy and daily dose assessment for prostate cancer treatment using in-room CT image guidance at a proton therapy facility.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yoshitaka; Minami, Hiroki; Yasukawa, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Shibata, Satoshi; Bou, Sayuri; Sasaki, Makoto; Tameshige, Yuji; Kume, Kyo; Ooto, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Shigeru; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Saga, Yusuke; Omoya, Akira; Saitou, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of CT image-guided proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer by analyzing the positioning uncertainty and assessing daily dose change due to anatomical variations. Patients with prostate cancer were treated by opposed lateral proton beams based on a passive scattering method using an in-room CT image-guided system. The system employs a single couch for both CT scanning and beam delivery. The patient was positioned by matching the boundary between the prostate and the rectum's anterior region identified in the CT images to the corresponding boundary in the simulator images after bone matching. We acquired orthogonal kV x-ray images after couch movement and confirmed the body position by referring to the bony structure prior to treatment. In offline analyses, we contoured the targeted anatomical structures on 375 sets of daily in-room CT images for 10 patients. The uncertainty of the image-matching procedure was evaluated using the prostate contours and actual couch corrections. We also performed dose calculations using the same set of CT images, and evaluated daily change of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) to compare the effectiveness of the treatment using prostate matching to the bone-matching procedure. The isocenter shifts by prostate matching after bone matching were 0.5 ± 1.8 and -0.8 ± 2.6 mm along the superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively. The body movement errors (σ) after couch movement were 0.7, 0.5, and 0.3 mm along the lateral, SI and AP direction, respectively, for 30 patients. The estimated errors (σ) in the prostate matching were 1.0 and 1.3 mm, and, in conjunction with the movement errors, the total positioning uncertainty was estimated to be 1.0 and 1.4 mm along the SI and AP directions, respectively. Daily DVH analyses showed that in the prostate matching, 98.7% and 86.1% of the total 375 irradiations maintained a dose condition of V 95%  > 95% for the prostate and a

  16. Impact of the use of an endorectal coil for 3 T prostate MRI on image quality and cancer detection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlitza, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Thörmer, Gregor; Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Horn, Lars-Christian; Minh, Do Hoang; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to assess the impact of an additional endorectal coil on image quality and cancer detection rate within the same patients. At a single academic medical center, this transversal study included 41 men who underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T using surface coils only or in combination with an endorectal coil in the same session. Two blinded readers (A and B) randomly evaluated all image data in separate sessions. Image quality with respect to localization and staging was rated on a five-point scale. Lesions were classified according to their prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) score version 1. Standard of reference was provided by whole-mount step-section analysis. Mean image quality scores averaged over all localization-related items were significantly higher with additional endorectal coil for both readers (p < 0.001), corresponding staging-related items were only higher for reader B (p < 0.001). With an endorectal coil, the rate of correctly detecting cancer per patient was significantly higher for reader B (p < 0.001) but not for reader A (p = 0.219). The numbers of histologically confirmed tumor lesions were rather similar for both settings. The subjectively rated 3-T image quality was improved with an endorectal coil. In terms of diagnostic performance, the use of an additional endorectal coil was not superior.

  17. Impact of the use of an endorectal coil for 3 T prostate MRI on image quality and cancer detection rate

    PubMed Central

    Gawlitza, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Thörmer, Gregor; Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Horn, Lars-Christian; Minh, Do Hoang; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impact of an additional endorectal coil on image quality and cancer detection rate within the same patients. At a single academic medical center, this transversal study included 41 men who underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T using surface coils only or in combination with an endorectal coil in the same session. Two blinded readers (A and B) randomly evaluated all image data in separate sessions. Image quality with respect to localization and staging was rated on a five-point scale. Lesions were classified according to their prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) score version 1. Standard of reference was provided by whole-mount step-section analysis. Mean image quality scores averaged over all localization-related items were significantly higher with additional endorectal coil for both readers (p < 0.001), corresponding staging-related items were only higher for reader B (p < 0.001). With an endorectal coil, the rate of correctly detecting cancer per patient was significantly higher for reader B (p < 0.001) but not for reader A (p = 0.219). The numbers of histologically confirmed tumor lesions were rather similar for both settings. The subjectively rated 3-T image quality was improved with an endorectal coil. In terms of diagnostic performance, the use of an additional endorectal coil was not superior. PMID:28145525

  18. Impact of the use of an endorectal coil for 3 T prostate MRI on image quality and cancer detection rate.

    PubMed

    Gawlitza, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Thörmer, Gregor; Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Horn, Lars-Christian; Minh, Do Hoang; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to assess the impact of an additional endorectal coil on image quality and cancer detection rate within the same patients. At a single academic medical center, this transversal study included 41 men who underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T using surface coils only or in combination with an endorectal coil in the same session. Two blinded readers (A and B) randomly evaluated all image data in separate sessions. Image quality with respect to localization and staging was rated on a five-point scale. Lesions were classified according to their prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) score version 1. Standard of reference was provided by whole-mount step-section analysis. Mean image quality scores averaged over all localization-related items were significantly higher with additional endorectal coil for both readers (p < 0.001), corresponding staging-related items were only higher for reader B (p < 0.001). With an endorectal coil, the rate of correctly detecting cancer per patient was significantly higher for reader B (p < 0.001) but not for reader A (p = 0.219). The numbers of histologically confirmed tumor lesions were rather similar for both settings. The subjectively rated 3-T image quality was improved with an endorectal coil. In terms of diagnostic performance, the use of an additional endorectal coil was not superior.

  19. SU-F-J-34: Automatic Target-Based Patient Positioning Framework for Image-Guided Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sasahara, M; Arimura, H; Hirose, T

    Purpose: Current image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) procedure is bonebased patient positioning, followed by subjective manual correction using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). This procedure might cause the misalignment of the patient positioning. Automatic target-based patient positioning systems achieve the better reproducibility of patient setup. Our aim of this study was to develop an automatic target-based patient positioning framework for IGRT with CBCT images in prostate cancer treatment. Methods: Seventy-three CBCT images of 10 patients and 24 planning CT images with digital imaging and communications in medicine for radiotherapy (DICOM-RT) structures were used for this study. Our proposed framework started from themore » generation of probabilistic atlases of bone and prostate from 24 planning CT images and prostate contours, which were made in the treatment planning. Next, the gray-scale histograms of CBCT values within CTV regions in the planning CT images were obtained as the occurrence probability of the CBCT values. Then, CBCT images were registered to the atlases using a rigid registration with mutual information. Finally, prostate regions were estimated by applying the Bayesian inference to CBCT images with the probabilistic atlases and CBCT value occurrence probability. The proposed framework was evaluated by calculating the Euclidean distance of errors between two centroids of prostate regions determined by our method and ground truths of manual delineations by a radiation oncologist and a medical physicist on CBCT images for 10 patients. Results: The average Euclidean distance between the centroids of extracted prostate regions determined by our proposed method and ground truths was 4.4 mm. The average errors for each direction were 1.8 mm in anteroposterior direction, 0.6 mm in lateral direction and 2.1 mm in craniocaudal direction. Conclusion: Our proposed framework based on probabilistic atlases and Bayesian inference might be feasible to

  20. PSMA-Based [(18)F]DCFPyL PET/CT Is Superior to Conventional Imaging for Lesion Detection in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Steven P; Macura, Katarzyna J; Mena, Esther; Blackford, Amanda L; Nadal, Rosa; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Eisenberger, Mario; Carducci, Michael; Fan, Hong; Dannals, Robert F; Chen, Ying; Mease, Ronnie C; Szabo, Zsolt; Pomper, Martin G; Cho, Steve Y

    2016-06-01

    Current standard of care conventional imaging modalities (CIM) such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) and bone scan can be limited for detection of metastatic prostate cancer and therefore improved imaging methods are an unmet clinical need. We evaluated the utility of a novel second-generation low molecular weight radiofluorinated prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [(18)F]DCFPyL, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Nine patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence, eight with CIM evidence of metastatic prostate cancer and one with biochemical recurrence, were imaged with [(18)F]DCFPyL PET/CT. Eight of the patients had contemporaneous CIM for comparison. A lesion-by-lesion comparison of the detection of suspected sites of metastatic prostate cancer was carried out between PET and CIM. Statistical analysis for estimated proportions of inter-modality agreement for detection of metastatic disease was calculated accounting for intra-patient correlation using general estimating equation (GEE) intercept-only regression models. One hundred thirty-nine sites of PET positive [(18)F]DCFPyL uptake (138 definite, 1 equivocal) for metastatic disease were detected in the eight patients with available comparison CIM. By contrast, only 45 lesions were identified on CIM (30 definite, 15 equivocal). When lesions were negative or equivocal on CIM, it was estimated that a large portion of these lesions or 0.72 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.84) would be positive on [(18)F]DCFPyL PET. Conversely, of those lesions negative or equivocal on [(18)F]DCFPyL PET, it was estimated that only a very small proportion or 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.07) would be positive on CIM. Delayed 2-h-post-injection time point PET yielded higher tumor radiotracer uptake and higher tumor-to-background ratios than an earlier 1-h-post-injection time point. A novel PSMA-targeted PET radiotracer, [(18)F]DCFPyL, was able to a large

  1. PET imaging of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma (intact/cleaved forms)-provides independent additional clinical information to that contributed by PSA, Gleason score, and other relevant pathological and clinical parameters. In this respect, non-invasive molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) offers a very attractive technology platform, which can provide the required quantitative information on the uPAR expression profile, without the need for invasive procedures and the risk of missing the target due to tumor heterogeneity. These observations support non-invasive PET imaging of uPAR in PC as a clinically relevant diagnostic and prognostic imaging method. In this review, we will focus on the recent development of uPAR PET and the relevance within prostate cancer imaging. Novel antibody and small-molecule radiotracers-targeting uPAR, including a series of uPAR-targeting PET ligands, based on the high affinity peptide ligand AE105, have been synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo in preclinical murine xenograft models and, recently, in a first-ever clinical uPAR PET study in cancer patients, including patients with PC. In this phase I study, a high and specific uptake of the tracer 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105 was found in both primary tumors and lymph node metastases. The results are encouraging and support large-scale clinical trials to determine the utility of uPAR PET in the management of patients with PC with the goal of improving outcome.

  2. New treatments for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marberger, Michael; Carroll, Peter R; Zelefsky, Michael J; Coleman, Jonathan A; Hricak, Hedvig; Scardino, Peter T; Abenhaim, Lucien L

    2008-12-01

    Interest in focal therapy for prostate cancer has recently been renewed owing to downward stage migration, improved biopsy and imaging techniques, and the prevalence of either unifocal cancer or a dominant cancer with secondary tumors of minimal malignant potential. Several techniques have potential for focal ablation of prostate cancer. Cryotherapy has been used for some time as primary therapy for complete ablation of the prostate or local recurrence after radiotherapy. Enthusiasm for cryotherapy as the primary therapy has been tempered by the uncertainty about complete ablation of the cancer, the frequent persistence of measurable prostate-specific antigen levels after the procedure, and a high rate of erectile dysfunction. Studies have reported "focal ablation" of prostate cancer with cryotherapy, targeting 1 side of the gland to eliminate a cancer confined to that side with less risk of urinary or sexual complications. Whether cryotherapy has sufficient power to eradicate focal cancer and can be targeted with sufficient accuracy to avoid damage to surrounding structures remains to be demonstrated in prospective clinical trials. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used widely in Europe for complete ablation of the prostate, especially in elderly men who are unwilling or unable to undergo radical therapy. For low- or intermediate-risk cancer, the short- and intermediate-term oncologic results have been acceptable but need confirmation in prospective multicenter trials presently underway. Whole gland therapy with transrectal ultrasound guidance has been associated with a high risk of acute urinary symptoms, often requiring transurethral resection before or after HIFU. Adverse effects on erectile function seem likely after a therapy that depends on heat to eradicate the cancer, but erectile function after HIFU has not been adequately documented with patient-reported questionnaires. HIFU holds promise for focal ablation of prostate cancer. As with

  3. The microbiome in prostate inflammation and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Porter, Corey M; Shrestha, Eva; Peiffer, Lauren B; Sfanos, Karen S

    2018-05-23

    The human microbiome may influence prostate cancer initiation and/or progression through both direct and indirect interactions. To date, the majority of studies have focused on direct interactions including the influence of prostate infections on prostate cancer risk and, more recently, on the composition of the urinary microbiome in relation to prostate cancer. Less well understood are indirect interactions of the microbiome with prostate cancer, such as the influence of the gastrointestinal or oral microbiota on pro- or anti-carcinogenic xenobiotic metabolism, and treatment response. We review the literature to date on direct and indirect interactions of the microbiome with prostate inflammation and prostate cancer. Emerging studies indicate that the microbiome can influence prostate inflammation in relation to benign prostate conditions such as prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as in prostate cancer. We provide evidence that the human microbiome present at multiple anatomic sites (urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, etc.) may play an important role in prostate health and disease. In health, the microbiome encourages homeostasis and helps educate the immune system. In dysbiosis, a systemic inflammatory state may be induced, predisposing remote anatomical sites to disease, including cancer. The microbiome's ability to affect systemic hormone levels may also be important, particularly in a disease such as prostate cancer that is dually affected by estrogen and androgen levels. Due to the complexity of the potential interconnectedness between prostate cancer and the microbiome, it is vital to further explore and understand the relationships that are involved.

  4. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... from making testosterone. However, estrogens are seldom used today in the treatment of prostate cancer because of ... or better than the standard treatment . Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier ...

  6. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... be used: Before radiation or surgery to help shrink tumors Along with radiation therapy for cancer that ... of most androgens in the body. This also shrinks or stops prostate cancer from growing. While effective, ...

  7. Molecular radiotheragnostics in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Dizdarevic, Sabina

    2017-10-01

    Two different molecular radio-theragnostic principles are applied in prostate cancer, providing a personalised management for those patients. Firstly, radiopharmaceuticals with the same or similar mechanism of action but different energy (gamma-γ, eg 99m Tc-diphosphonates or positron-β+, eg 18F-NaF emitting isotopes) can be used to identify patients with osteoblastic metastases for a treatment with bone seeking beta (β-) or alpha (α-) emitting radionuclides to deliver targeted molecular radiotherapy. A number of such β- emitting molecules have been used for bone palliation. More recently, an alpha emitting 223 Ra-dicholoride demonstrated not only symptomatic relief but also significantly improved overall survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer with predominant bone metastases. The second principle involves utilisation of the same prostatic specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or similar compound (eg PSMA-11, PSMA-617), but different label with either β+ ( 68 Ga) or γ ( 99m Tc) emitting radioisotope for imaging and subsequently β- ( 177 Lu) or α ( 225 Ac) emitting radionuclide for treatment. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  8. Dosimetric evaluation of planning target volume margin reduction for prostate cancer via image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively estimate the dosimetric benefits of the image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system for the prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. The cases of eleven patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer without a prostatectomy at our institution between October 2012 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient, clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins were uniformly used: 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm. For each margin size, the IMRT plans were independently optimized by one medical physicist using Pinnalce3 (ver. 8.0.d, Philips Medical System, Madison, WI) in order to maintain the plan quality. The maximum geometrical margin (MGM) for every CT image set, defined as the smallest margin encompassing the rectum at least at one slice, was between 13 mm and 26 mm. The percentage rectum overlapping PTV (%V ROV ), the rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and the mean rectal dose (%RD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. However the bladder NTCP remained around zero to some extent regardless of the increase of PTV margin while the percentage bladder overlapping PTV (%V BOV ) and the mean bladder dose (%BD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. Without relatively large rectum or small bladder, the increase observed for rectal NTCP, %RDmean and %BD mean per 1-mm PTV margin size were 1.84%, 2.44% and 2.90%, respectively. Unlike the behavior of the rectum or the bladder, the maximum dose on each femoral head had little effect on PTV margin. This quantitative study of the PTV margin reduction supported that IG-IMRT has enhanced the clinical effects over prostate cancer with the reduction of normal organ complications under the similar level of PTV control.

  9. Image analysis of androgen receptor immunostaining in metastatic prostate cancer. Heterogeneity as a predictor of response to hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Sadi, M V; Barrack, E R

    1993-04-15

    Reliable predictors of the response of prostate cancer to androgen ablation therapy are lacking. The goals of this study were to determine whether nuclear androgen receptor (AR) concentrations in metastatic prostate cancer varied within and between specimens and to correlate this information with the response to therapy. AR concentration was evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis of immunohistochemical staining intensity in 200 malignant epithelial nuclei of each of 17 specimens of Stage D2 prostate cancer obtained before hormonal therapy. The data were correlated with the time to tumor progression (relapse) after hormonal therapy. AR staining intensity varied within specimens, and the variance of staining intensity was significantly greater (P = 0.03) in the poor responders (n = 8; time to progression, < 20 months) than in the good responders (n = 9; time to progression, > or = 20 months). The kurtosis was significantly lower in poor responders (P = 0.04). However, the mean AR staining intensity was not significantly different among patients. The frequency distribution plots of good responders were generally uniform and unimodal, but those of poor responders were flattened (more platykurtic), dispersed, and highly variable. Thus, the AR concentration per cell was significantly more heterogeneous in poor responders. Variance was a significant predictor of response. Five of 6 patients with a high variance (defined as variance greater than the mean) were poor responders, whereas 8 of 11 patients with a low variance were good responders (an overall classification accuracy of 13 of 17, 76%). The greater AR heterogeneity in poor responders may reflect a greater genetic instability in tumors that have progressed further toward androgen independence and may be a valuable predictor of progression.

  10. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:26768791

  11. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  12. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  13. Detection of prostate cancer index lesions with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) using whole-mount histological sections as the reference standard.

    PubMed

    Russo, Filippo; Regge, Daniele; Armando, Enrico; Giannini, Valentina; Vignati, Anna; Mazzetti, Simone; Manfredi, Matteo; Bollito, Enrico; Correale, Loredana; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) for detecting prostate cancer foci, including the largest (index) lesions. In all, 115 patients with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer underwent mp-MRI before radical prostatectomy. A single expert radiologist recorded all prostate cancer foci including the index lesion 'blinded' to the pathologist's biopsy report. Stained whole-mount histological sections were used as the reference standard. All lesions were contoured by an experienced uropathologist who assessed their volume and pathological Gleason score. All lesions with a volume of >0.5 mL and/or pathological Gleason score of >6 were defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain the characteristics of lesions identified by MRI. In all, 104 of 115 index lesions were correctly diagnosed by mp-MRI (sensitivity 90.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 83.5-95.1%), including 98/105 clinically significant index lesions (93.3%; 95% CI 86.8-97.3%), among which three of three lesions had a volume of <0.5 mL and Gleason score of >6. Overall, mp-MRI detected 131/206 lesions including 13 of 68 'insignificant' prostate cancers. The multivariate logistic regression modelling showed that pathological Gleason score (odds ratio [OR] 11.7, 95% CI 2.3-59.8; P = 0.003) and lesion volume (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.3-14.7; P = 0.022) were independently associated with the detection of index lesions at MRI. This study shows that mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer index lesions, while having disappointing results for the detection of small-volume, low Gleason score prostate cancer foci. Thus, mp-MRI could be used to stratify patients according to risk, allowing better treatment selection. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. MO-AB-BRA-05: [18F]NaF PET/CT Imaging Biomarkers in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S; Perk, T; Lin, C

    Purpose: Clinical use of {sup 18}F-Sodium Fluoride (NaF) PET/CT in metastatic settings often lacks technology to quantitatively measure full disease dynamics due to high tumor burden. This study assesses radiomics-based extraction of NaF PET/CT measures, including global metrics of overall burden and local metrics of disease heterogeneity, in metastatic prostate cancer for correlation to clinical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-six metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC) patients had NaF PET/CT scans performed at baseline and three cycles into chemotherapy (N=16) or androgen-receptor (AR) inhibitors (N=39). A novel technology, Quantitative Total Bone Imaging (QTBI), was used for analysis. Employing hybrid PET/CT segmentation and articulatedmore » skeletal-registration, QTBI allows for response assessment of individual lesions. Various SUV metrics were extracted from each lesion (iSUV). Global metrics were extracted from composite lesion-level statistics for each patient (pSUV). Proportion of detected lesions and those with significant response (%-increase or %-decrease) was calculated for each patient based on test-retest limits for iSUV metrics. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were conducted between imaging metrics and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Functional burden (pSUV{sub total}) assessed mid-treatment was the strongest univariate predictor of PFS (HR=2.03; p<0.0001). Various global metrics outperformed baseline clinical markers, including fraction of skeletal burden, mean uptake (pSUV{sub mean}), and heterogeneity of average lesion uptake (pSUV{sub hetero}). Of 43 patients with paired baseline/mid-treatment imaging, 40 showed heterogeneity in lesion-level response, containing populations of lesions with both increasing/decreasing metrics. Proportion of lesions with significantly increasing iSUV{sub mean} was highly predictive of clinical PFS (HR=2.0; p=0.0002). Patients exhibiting higher proportion of lesions with decreasing i

  15. Integration of co-localized glandular morphometry and protein biomarker expression in immunofluorescent images for prostate cancer prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Immunofluorescent (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. However, while biomarker and glandular morphometric features have been combined as separate predictors in multivariate models, there is a lack of integrative features for biomarkers co-localized within specific morphological sub-types; for example the evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression within Gleason 3 glands only. In this work we propose a novel framework employing multiple techniques to generate integrated metrics of morphology and biomarker expression. We demonstrate the utility of the approaches in predicting clinical disease progression in images from 326 prostate biopsies and 373 prostatectomies. Our proposed integrative approaches yield significant improvements over existing IF image feature metrics. This work presents some of the first algorithms for generating innovative characteristics in tissue diagnostics that integrate co-localized morphometry and protein biomarker expression.

  16. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    objective is to develop dendrimer -based theranostic agent with prostate cancer specificity and positron emission tomography imaging capability that...The goal of this project is to construct dendrimer nanoconjuate containing a prostate specific cell permeation peptide, peptide therapeutic(s) and...bifunctional chelator for PET imaging. Dr. Simanek’s laboratory will make dendrimers that bear functional handles for conjugation with imaging

  17. 1-11C-acetate as a PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vāvere, Amy L; Kridel, Steven J; Wheeler, Frances B; Lewis, Jason S

    2008-02-01

    Although it is accepted that the metabolic fate of 1-(11)C-acetate is different in tumors than in myocardial tissue because of different clearance patterns, the exact pathway has not been fully elucidated. For decades, fatty acid synthesis has been quantified in vitro by the incubation of cells with (14)C-acetate. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been found to be overexpressed in prostate carcinomas, as well as other cancers, and it is possible that imaging with 1-(11)C-acetate could be a marker for its expression. In vitro and in vivo uptake experiments in prostate tumor models with 1-(11)C-acetate were performed both with and without blocking of fatty acid synthesis with either C75, an inhibitor of FAS, or 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). FAS levels were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques for comparison. In vitro studies in 3 different prostate tumor models (PC-3, LNCaP, and 22Rv1) demonstrated blocking of 1-(11)C-acetate accumulation after treatment with both C75 and TOFA. This was further shown in vivo in PC-3 and LNCaP tumor-bearing mice after a single treatment with C75. A positive correlation between 1-(11)C-acetate uptake into the solid tumors and FAS expression levels was found. Extensive involvement of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in 1-(11)C-acetate uptake in prostate tumors was confirmed, leading to a possible marker for FAS expression in vivo by noninvasive PET.

  18. Development of Prior Image-based, High-Quality, Low-Dose Kilovoltage Cone Beam CT for Use in Adaptive Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    employs kilovoltage (KV) cone- beam CT (CBCT) for guiding treatment. High quality CBCT images are important in achieving improved treatment effect...necessary for achieving successful adaptive RT. Kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) has shown its capability of yielding such images to guide the prostate cancer...study of low-dose intra-operative cone-beam CT for image- guided surgery,” Proc. SPIE, 7961, 79615P, 2011 10. X. Han, E. Pearson, J. Bian, S. Cho, E. Y

  19. A feature alignment score for online cone-beam CT-based image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Catriona; Deegan, Timothy; Poulsen, Michael; Bednarz, Tomasz; Harden, Fiona; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2018-05-17

    To develop a method for scoring online cone-beam CT (CBCT)-to-planning CT image feature alignment to inform prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) decision-making. The feasibility of incorporating volume variation metric thresholds predictive of delivering planned dose into weighted functions, was investigated. Radiation therapists and radiation oncologists participated in workshops where they reviewed prostate CBCT-IGRT case examples and completed a paper-based survey of image feature matching practices. For 36 prostate cancer patients, one daily CBCT was retrospectively contoured then registered with their plan to simulate delivered dose if (a) no online setup corrections and (b) online image alignment and setup corrections, were performed. Survey results were used to select variables for inclusion in classification and regression tree (CART) and boosted regression trees (BRT) modeling of volume variation metric thresholds predictive of delivering planned dose to the prostate, proximal seminal vesicles (PSV), bladder, and rectum. Weighted functions incorporating the CART and BRT results were used to calculate a score of individual tumor and organ at risk image feature alignment (FAS TV _ OAR ). Scaled and weighted FAS TV _ OAR were then used to calculate a score of overall treatment compliance (FAS global ) for a given CBCT-planning CT registration. The FAS TV _ OAR were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power. FAS global thresholds indicative of high, medium, or low overall treatment plan compliance were determined using coefficients from multiple linear regression analysis. Thirty-two participants completed the prostate CBCT-IGRT survey. While responses demonstrated consensus of practice for preferential ranking of planning CT and CBCT match features in the presence of deformation and rotation, variation existed in the specified thresholds for observed volume differences requiring patient repositioning or repeat bladder and bowel

  20. Paclitaxel-loaded and A10-3.2 aptamer-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) nanobubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yiru; Zhang, Mingbo; Luo, Yukun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Hao, Lan; Wang, Zhibiao

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we synthesized prostate cancer-targeting poly(lactide- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanobubbles (NBs) modified using A10-3.2 aptamers targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and encapsulated paclitaxel (PTX). We also investigated their impact on ultrasound (US) imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs were developed using water-in-oil-in-water (water/oil/water) double emulsion and carbodiimide chemistry approaches. Fluorescence imaging together with flow cytometry verified that the PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs were successfully fabricated and could specifically bond to PSMA-positive LNCaP cells. We speculated that, in vivo, the PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs would travel for a long time, efficiently aim at prostate cancer cells, and sustainably release the loaded PTX due to the improved permeability together with the retention impact and US-triggered drug delivery. The results demonstrated that the combination of PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs with low-frequency US achieved high drug release, a low 50% inhibition concentration, and significant cell apoptosis in vitro. For mouse prostate tumor xenografts, the use of PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs along with low-frequency US achieved the highest tumor inhibition rate, prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing nude mice without obvious systemic toxicity. Moreover, LNCaP xenografts in mice were utilized to observe modifications in the parameters of PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA and PTX-PLGA NBs in the contrast mode and the allocation of fluorescence-labeled PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA and PTX-PLGA NBs in live small animals and laser confocal scanning microscopy fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrated that PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs showed high gray-scale intensity and aggregation ability and showed a notable signal intensity in contrast mode as well as aggregation ability in fluorescence imaging. In conclusion, we successfully developed an A10-3.2 aptamer and loaded PTX-PLGA multifunctional theranostic agent for the purpose

  1. Paclitaxel-loaded and A10-3.2 aptamer-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) nanobubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yiru; Zhang, Mingbo; Luo, Yukun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Hao, Lan; Wang, Zhibiao

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we synthesized prostate cancer-targeting poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanobubbles (NBs) modified using A10-3.2 aptamers targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and encapsulated paclitaxel (PTX). We also investigated their impact on ultrasound (US) imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs were developed using water-in-oil-in-water (water/oil/water) double emulsion and carbodiimide chemistry approaches. Fluorescence imaging together with flow cytometry verified that the PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs were successfully fabricated and could specifically bond to PSMA-positive LNCaP cells. We speculated that, in vivo, the PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs would travel for a long time, efficiently aim at prostate cancer cells, and sustainably release the loaded PTX due to the improved permeability together with the retention impact and US-triggered drug delivery. The results demonstrated that the combination of PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs with low-frequency US achieved high drug release, a low 50% inhibition concentration, and significant cell apoptosis in vitro. For mouse prostate tumor xenografts, the use of PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs along with low-frequency US achieved the highest tumor inhibition rate, prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing nude mice without obvious systemic toxicity. Moreover, LNCaP xenografts in mice were utilized to observe modifications in the parameters of PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA and PTX-PLGA NBs in the contrast mode and the allocation of fluorescence-labeled PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA and PTX-PLGA NBs in live small animals and laser confocal scanning microscopy fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrated that PTX-A10-3.2-PLGA NBs showed high gray-scale intensity and aggregation ability and showed a notable signal intensity in contrast mode as well as aggregation ability in fluorescence imaging. In conclusion, we successfully developed an A10-3.2 aptamer and loaded PTX-PLGA multifunctional theranostic agent for the purpose of

  2. Hyperspectral-stimulated Raman scattering imaging of cholesteryl ester accumulation: new avenue to diagnosis of human prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Wang, Ping; Yue, Shuhua

    2016-10-01

    Most prostate cancers (PCa) are slowly growing, and only the aggressive ones require early diagnosis and effective treatment. The current standard for PCa diagnosis remains histopathology. Nonetheless, for the differentiation between Gleason score 6 (low-risk PCa), which can be left without treatment, and Gleason score 7 (high-risk PCa), which requires active treatment, the inter-observer discordance can be up to 40%. Our previous study reveals that cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation induced by PI3K/AKT activation underlies human PCa aggressiveness. However, Raman spectromicroscopy used in this study could only provide compositional information of certain lipid droplets (LDs) selected by the observer, which overlooked cell-to-cell variation and hindered translation to accurate automated diagnosis. Here, we demonstrated quantitative mapping of CE level in human prostate tissues using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy that renders compositional information for every pixel in the image. Specifically, hundreds of SRS images at Raman shift between 1620-1800 cm-1 were taken, and multivariate curve resolution algorism was used to retrieve concentration images of acyl C=C bond, sterol C=C bond, and ester C=O bond. Given that the ratio between images of sterol C=C and ester C=O (sterol C=C/C=O) is nonlinearly proportional to CE percentage out of total lipid, we were able to quantitatively map CE level. Our data showed that CE level was significantly greater in high Gleason grade compared to low Gleason grade, and could be a factor that significantly contributed to cancer recurrence. Our study provides an opportunity towards more accurate PCa diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness.

  3. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  4. Prostate cancer: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Howe, R J

    1994-11-01

    During the last few years a tremendous amount of media attention has been focused on prostate cancer. This increased visibility has been the direct result of the prostate specific antigen test, which has led to a doubling of the number of new cases detected in just 4 years. With this visibility has come controversy about which treatment is the most effective or whether this disease should be treated aggressively at all. The formation and rapid expansion of the prostate cancer support group movement are reviewed, and the positive and negative impacts of media coverage on present and future patients are assessed. My personal case is reviewed briefly to make a specific point about the hazards of watchful waiting. Other issues, such as mass screening, Prostate Cancer Awareness Week and expenditures for prostate cancer research, are examined in some detail.

  5. Thermoacoustic imaging of fresh prostates up to 6-cm diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Hanson, E.; Thomas, M.; Kelly, H.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.

    2013-03-01

    Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging provides a novel contrast mechanism that may enable visualization of cancerous lesions which are not robustly detected by current imaging modalities. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most notorious example. Imaging entire prostate glands requires 6 cm depth penetration. We therefore excite TA signal using submicrosecond VHF pulses (100 MHz). We will present reconstructions of fresh prostates imaged in a well-controlled benchtop TA imaging system. Chilled glycine solution is used as acoustic couplant. The urethra is routinely visualized as signal dropout; surgical staples formed from 100-micron wide wire bent to 3 mm length generate strong positive signal.

  6. Evaluating stability of histomorphometric features across scanner and staining variations: predicting biochemical recurrence from prostate cancer whole slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Patrick; Lee, George; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) is the process of computerized extraction of features from digitized tissue slide images. Typically these features are used in machine learning classifiers to predict disease presence, behavior and outcome. Successful robust classifiers require features that both discriminate between classes of interest and are stable across data from multiple sites. Feature stability may be compromised by variation in slide staining and scanning procedures. These laboratory specific variables include dye batch, slice thickness and the whole slide scanner used to digitize the slide. The key therefore is to be able to identify features that are not only discriminating between the classes of interest (e.g. cancer and non-cancer or biochemical recurrence and non- recurrence) but also features that will not wildly fluctuate on slides representing the same tissue class but from across multiple different labs and sites. While there has been some recent efforts at understanding feature stability in the context of radiomics applications (i.e. feature analysis of radiographic images), relatively few attempts have been made at studying the trade-off between feature stability and discriminability for histomorphometric and digital pathology applications. In this paper we present two new measures, preparation-induced instability score (PI) and latent instability score (LI), to quantify feature instability across and within datasets. Dividing PI by LI yields a ratio for how often a feature for a specific tissue class (e.g. low grade prostate cancer) is different between datasets from different sites versus what would be expected from random chance alone. Using this ratio we seek to quantify feature vulnerability to variations in slide preparation and digitization. Since our goal is to identify stable QH features we evaluate these features for their stability and thus inclusion in machine learning based classifiers in a use case involving prostate cancer

  7. Prostate cancer and social media.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Stacy; Katz, Matthew S; Langford, Aisha; Byrne, Nataliya; Ciprut, Shannon

    2018-04-11

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain - particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

  8. Image Guided Focal Therapy for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visible Prostate Cancer: Defining a 3-Dimensional Treatment Margin Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Histology Co-Registration Analysis.

    PubMed

    Le Nobin, Julien; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Villers, Arnauld; Orczyk, Clément; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Taneja, Samir S

    2015-08-01

    We compared prostate tumor boundaries on magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy histological assessment using detailed software assisted co-registration to define an optimal treatment margin for achieving complete tumor destruction during image guided focal ablation. Included in study were 33 patients who underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy. A radiologist traced lesion borders on magnetic resonance imaging and assigned a suspicion score of 2 to 5. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from high resolution digitalized slides of radical prostatectomy specimens and co-registered to imaging using advanced software. Tumors were compared between histology and imaging by the Hausdorff distance and stratified by the magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score, Gleason score and lesion diameter. Cylindrical volume estimates of treatment effects were used to define the optimal treatment margin. Three-dimensional software based registration with magnetic resonance imaging was done in 46 histologically confirmed cancers. Imaging underestimated tumor size with a maximal discrepancy between imaging and histological boundaries for a given tumor of an average ± SD of 1.99 ± 3.1 mm, representing 18.5% of the diameter on imaging. Boundary underestimation was larger for lesions with an imaging suspicion score 4 or greater (mean 3.49 ± 2.1 mm, p <0.001) and a Gleason score of 7 or greater (mean 2.48 ± 2.8 mm, p = 0.035). A simulated cylindrical treatment volume based on the imaging boundary missed an average 14.8% of tumor volume compared to that based on the histological boundary. A simulated treatment volume based on a 9 mm treatment margin achieved complete histological tumor destruction in 100% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging underestimates histologically determined tumor boundaries, especially for lesions with a high imaging suspicion score and a high Gleason score. A 9 mm treatment margin around a lesion

  9. Biparametric 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging for prostatic cancer detection in a biopsy-naïve patient population: a further improvement of PI-RADS v2?

    PubMed

    Stanzione, Arnaldo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Cocozza, Sirio; Fusco, Ferdinando; Rusconi, Giovanni; Nappi, Carmela; Mirone, Vincenzo; Mangiapia, Francesco; Brunetti, Arturo; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Longo, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of a biparametric 3T magnetic resonance imaging protocol (BP-MRI) for prostatic cancer detection, compared to a multiparametric MRI protocol (MP-MRI), in a biopsy naïve patient population. Eighty-two untreated patients (mean age 65±7.6years) with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer and/or altered prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels underwent a MP-MRI, including T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (with the correspondent apparent diffusion coefficient maps) and dynamic contrast enhanced sequence, followed by prostate biopsy. Two radiologists reviewed both the BP-MRI and the MP-MRI protocols to establish a radiological diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristics curves were obtained to determine the diagnostic performance of the two protocols. The mean PSA level was 8.8±8.1ng/ml. A total of 34 prostatic tumors were identified, with a Gleason score that ranged from 3+3 to 5+4. Of these 34 tumors, 29 were located within the peripheral zone and 5 in the transitional zone. BP-MRI and MP-MRI showed a similar performance in terms of overall diagnostic accuracy, with an area under the curve of 0.91 and 0.93, respectively (p=n.s.). BP-MRI prostate protocol is feasible for prostatic cancer detection compared to a standard MP-MRI protocol, requiring a shorter acquisition and interpretation time, with comparable diagnostic accuracy to the conventional protocol, without the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The current and future role of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer detection and management

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Jan Philipp; Teber, Dogu; Hohenfellner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PC) and correct risk attribution are essential to individually counsel men with PC. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) facilitates correct localization of index lesions within the prostate and MRI-targeted prostate biopsy (TPB) helps to avoid the shortcomings of conventional biopsy such as false-negative results or underdiagnosis of aggressive PC. In this review we summarize the different sequences of mpMRI, characterize the possibilities of incorporating MRI in the biopsy workflow and outline the performance of targeted and systematic cores in significant cancer detection. Furthermore, we outline the potential of MRI in patients undergoing active surveillance (AS) and in the pre-operative setting. Materials and methods An electronic MEDLINE/PubMed search up to February 2015 was performed. English language articles were reviewed for inclusion ability and data were extracted, analyzed and summarized. Results Targeted biopsies significantly outperform conventional systematic biopsies in the detection of significant PC and are not inferior when compared to transperineal saturation biopsies. MpMRI can detect index lesions in app. 90% of cases as compared to prostatectomy specimen. The diagnostic performance of biparametric MRI (T2w + DWI) is not inferior to mpMRI, offering options to diminish cost- and time-consumption. Since app 10% of significant lesions are still MRI-invisible, systematic cores seem to be necessary. In-bore biopsy and MRI/TRUS-fusion-guided biopsy tend to be superior techniques compared to cognitive fusion. In AS, mpMRI avoids underdetection of significant PC and confirms low-risk disease accurately. In higher-risk disease, pre-surgical MRI can change the clinically-based surgical plan in up to a third of cases. Conclusions mpMRI and targeted biopsies are able to detect significant PC accurately and mitigate insignificant PC detection. As long as the negative predictive value (NPV) is

  11. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0183 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Colm Morrissey CONTRACTING...1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 09/30/2016 - 09/29/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Biorepository...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Genitourinary Cancer

  12. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  13. Comparison of [¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]CHO) and S(+)-β-methyl-[¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]SMC) as imaging probes for prostate cancer in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenböck, Sarah Marie; Gertz, Jana; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Kurth, Jens; Sachs, David; Nawroth, Roman; Treiber, Uwe; Schuster, Tibor; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle Ilse; Henriksen, Gjermund; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled choline derivatives have been introduced as promising tracers for prostate cancer imaging. However, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, there is a need for new tracers with higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing prostate cancer to improve tracer uptake and enhance imaging contrast. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of [(11)C]choline ([(11)C]CHO) with S(+)-β-methyl-[(11)C]choline ([(11)C]SMC) as tracer for prostate cancer imaging in a human prostate tumor mouse xenograft model by small-animal positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT). We carried out a dual-tracer small-animal PET/CT study comparing [(11)C]CHO and [(11)C]SMC. The androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line PC3 was implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) (nu/nu) mice (n = 11). Mice-6 weeks post-xenograft implantation-were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]CHO via the tail vein. On a separate day, the mice were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]SMC. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 min with the Inveon animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions) on two separate days (randomizing the sequence of the tracers). The dynamic PET images were acquired in list mode. Regions of interest (5 × 5 × 5 mm) were placed in transaxial slices in tumor, muscle (thigh), liver, kidney, and blood. Image analysis was performed calculating tumor to muscle (T/M) ratios based on summed images as well as dynamic data. For [(11)C]SMC, the mean T/M ratio was 2.24 ± 0.56 while the corresponding mean [(11)C]CHO T/M ratio was 1.35 ± 0.28. The T/M ratio for [(11)C]SMC was significant higher compared to [(11)C]CHO (p < 0.001). The time course of T/M ratio (T/Mdyn ratio) of [(11)C]SMC was higher compared to [(11)C]CHO with a statistically significant difference between the magnitudes of the T/M ratios and a significant different change of the T/M ratios over time

  14. Imaging yield from 133 consecutive patients with prostate cancer and low trigger PSA from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Shinagare, A B; Keraliya, A; Somarouthu, B; Tirumani, S H; Ramaiya, N H; Kantoff, P W

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the yield of imaging in patients with relapsed prostate cancer (PC) with a low trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA). This institutional review board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study included all 133 patients (mean age 68 years; range 45-88; median 69 months since original diagnosis; interquartile range [IQR]: 32-139) with hormone-sensitive PC (HSPC, n=28) or castration-resistant PC (CRPC, n=105) and trigger PSA <4 ng/ml, who underwent same-day bone scintigraphy and computed tomography (CT; total 224 time points) at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from January to December 2013. Clinical and pathological data were obtained by manual review of the electronic medical records. All the included bone scintigraphs and CT images were reviewed by a fellowship-trained oncoradiologist to record the metastatic pattern and any clinically significant non-metastatic findings. Ninety-four of the 133 (71%) patients had metastatic disease (18/28 [64%] with HSPC, 76/105 [72%] with CRPC). Forty-one of the 133 (31%) patients developed new metastatic disease and 23/133 (17%) developed new clinically significant non-metastatic findings. The incidence of osseous, nodal, and visceral metastases, and clinically significant non-metastatic findings was similar across the HSPC and CRPC groups (p>0.05 for all). Fifty-seven of the 133 (43%) patients had findings seen only at CT, of which 37 had new extra-osseous findings. Only 2/133 (2%) had findings at bone scintigraphy not seen at CT, both in areas not covered on CT. Imaging frequently demonstrated new metastatic and non-metastatic findings in patients with a low trigger PSA. CT is valuable in these patients because extra-osseous findings not visible at bone scintigraphy are frequently seen. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    actively dividing cancer cells causing primary tumor shrinkage, but leave behind quiescent cancer cells which may seed new, more aggressive and chemo...resistant cancers at a later date . During this first year of funding, we have successfully developed prostate cancer cell lines carrying fluorescent cell

  16. A novel approach for establishing benchmark CBCT/CT deformable image registrations in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkoo; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Hualiang; Pradhan, Deepak; Shah, Mira; Cattaneo, Richard; Yechieli, Raphael; Robbins, Jared R.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Deformable image registration (DIR) is an integral component for adaptive radiation therapy. However, accurate registration between daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and treatment planning CT is challenging, due to significant daily variations in rectal and bladder fillings as well as the increased noise levels in CBCT images. Another significant challenge is the lack of “ground-truth” registrations in the clinical setting, which is necessary for quantitative evaluation of various registration algorithms. The aim of this study is to establish benchmark registrations of clinical patient data. Materials/Methods Three pairs of CT/CBCT datasets were chosen for this IRB-approved retrospective study. On each image, in order to reduce the contouring uncertainty, ten independent sets of organs were manually delineated by five physicians. The mean contour set for each image was derived from the ten contours. A set of distinctive points (round natural calcifications and 3 implanted prostate fiducial markers) were also manually identified. The mean contours and point features were then incorporated as constraints into a B-spline based DIR algorithm. Further, a rigidity penalty was imposed on the femurs and pelvic bones to preserve their rigidity. A piecewise-rigid registration approach was adapted to account for the differences in femur pose and the sliding motion between bones. For each registration, the magnitude of the spatial Jacobian (|JAC|) was calculated to quantify the tissue compression and expansion. Deformation grids and finite-element-model-based unbalanced energy maps were also reviewed visually to evaluate the physical soundness of the resultant deformations. Organ DICE indices (indicating the degree of overlap between registered organs) and residual misalignments of the fiducial landmarks were quantified. Results Manual organ delineation on CBCT images varied significantly among physicians with overall mean DICE index of only 0.7 among

  17. MR Elastography and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of ex-vivo Prostate Cancer: quantitative comparison to histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Guy; Gagnon, Louis O.; Ischia, Joseph; Jones, Edward C.; Chang, Silvia; Yung, Andrew; Honarvar, Mohammad; Fazli, Ladan; Goldenberg, Larry; Rohling, Robert; Sinkus, Ralph; Kozlowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Purpose 1) to develop a Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) system for imaging of the ex-vivo human prostate, 2) to assess the diagnostic power of mono-frequency and multi-frequency MRE and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) alone and combined as correlated with histopathology in a patient study. Materials and Methods An electromagnetic driver was designed specifically for MRE studies in small-bore MR scanners. Ex-vivo prostate specimens (post-fixation) of fourteen patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were imaged with MRE at 7 T (nine cases had DWI). In six patients, the MRE examination was performed at three frequencies (600, 800, 1000 Hz) to extract the power-law exponent Gamma. The images were registered to wholemount pathology slides marked with the Gleason score. The areas under the Receiver-Operator-Characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Results The methods were validated in a phantom study and demonstrated that (i) the driver does not interfere with the acquisition process, (ii) the driver can generate amplitudes greater than 100 μm for frequencies <1kHz. In the quantitative study, cancerous tissue with Gleason score at least 3+3 was distinguished from normal tissue in the peripheral zone with an average AUC of 0.75 (Gd), 0.75 (Gl), 0.70 (Gamma-Gd), 0.68 (ADC), and 0.82 (Gd+Gl+ADC). The differentiation between PZ and CG was modest for Gd (p<0.07), Gl (p<0.06) but not significant for Gamma (p<0.2). A correlation of 0.4 kPa/h was found between fixation time of the prostate specimen to the stiffness of the tissue which could affect the diagnostic power results. Conclusion DWI and MRE may provide complementary information; in fact MRE performed better than ADC in distinguishing normal from cancerous tissue in some cases. Multi-frequency (Gamma) analysis did not appear to improve the results. However, in light of effect of tissue fixation, the clinical implication of our results may be inconclusive and more experiments are needed. PMID:25382459

  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy-guided transperineal prostate biopsy and brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Agnieszka Szot; Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; So, Minna; D'Amico, Anthony V; Tempany, Clare M

    2005-12-01

    Brachytherapy targeted to the peripheral zone with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is a prostate cancer treatment option with potentially fewer complications than other treatments. Follow-up MRI when failure is suspected is, however, difficult because of radiation-induced changes. Furthermore, MR spectroscopy (MRS) is compromised by susceptibility artifacts from radioactive seeds in the peripheral zone. We report a case in which combined MRI/MRS was useful for the detection of prostate cancer in the transitional zone in patients previously treated with MR-guided brachytherapy. We propose that MRI/MRS can help detect recurrent prostate cancer, guide prostate biopsy, and help manage salvage treatment decisions.

  19. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Cancer.gov

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  20. [18F]fluoroethylcholine-PET/CT imaging for radiation treatment planning of recurrent and primary prostate cancer with dose escalation to PET/CT-positive lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Würschmidt, Florian; Petersen, Cordula; Wahl, Andreas; Dahle, Jörg; Kretschmer, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    At present there is no consensus on irradiation treatment volumes for intermediate to high-risk primary cancers or recurrent disease. Conventional imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI and transrectal ultrasound, are considered suboptimal for treatment decisions. Choline-PET/CT might be considered as the imaging modality in radiooncology to select and delineate clinical target volumes extending the prostate gland or prostate fossa. In conjunction with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and imaged guided radiotherapy (IGRT), it might offer the opportunity of dose escalation to selected sites while avoiding unnecessary irradiation of healthy tissues. Twenty-six patients with primary (n = 7) or recurrent (n = 19) prostate cancer received Choline-PET/CT planned 3D conformal or intensity modulated radiotherapy. The median age of the patients was 65 yrs (range 45 to 78 yrs). PET/CT-scans with F18-fluoroethylcholine (FEC) were performed on a combined PET/CT-scanner equipped for radiation therapy planning. The majority of patients had intermediate to high risk prostate cancer. All patients received 3D conformal or intensity modulated and imaged guided radiotherapy with megavoltage cone beam CT. The median dose to primary tumours was 75.6 Gy and to FEC-positive recurrent lymph nodal sites 66,6 Gy. The median follow-up time was 28.8 months. The mean SUV(max) in primary cancer was 5,97 in the prostate gland and 3,2 in pelvic lymph nodes. Patients with recurrent cancer had a mean SUV(max) of 4,38. Two patients had negative PET/CT scans. At 28 months the overall survival rate is 94%. Biochemical relapse free survival is 83% for primary cancer and 49% for recurrent tumours. Distant disease free survival is 100% and 75% for primary and recurrent cancer, respectively. Acute normal tissue toxicity was mild in 85% and moderate (grade 2) in 15%. No or mild late side effects were observed in the majority of patients (84%). One patient had a severe bladder shrinkage (grade 4) after

  1. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    management and grant writing skills. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cancer genetics , tumor evolution, tumor heterogeneity, prostate cancer, exome sequencing 16...aggressive disease, it is unclear if the genetic alterations more common in late disease are present early on, but at low frequency, or if they only...from localized to metastatic prostate cancer. 2. KEYWORDS: Cancer genetics , tumor evolution, tumor heterogeneity, prostate cancer, exome sequencing

  2. A novel approach for establishing benchmark CBCT/CT deformable image registrations in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinkoo; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Hualiang; Pradhan, Deepak; Shah, Mira; Cattaneo, Richard; Yechieli, Raphael; Robbins, Jared R.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2013-11-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is an integral component for adaptive radiation therapy. However, accurate registration between daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and treatment planning CT is challenging, due to significant daily variations in rectal and bladder fillings as well as the increased noise levels in CBCT images. Another significant challenge is the lack of ‘ground-truth’ registrations in the clinical setting, which is necessary for quantitative evaluation of various registration algorithms. The aim of this study is to establish benchmark registrations of clinical patient data. Three pairs of CT/CBCT datasets were chosen for this institutional review board approved retrospective study. On each image, in order to reduce the contouring uncertainty, ten independent sets of organs were manually delineated by five physicians. The mean contour set for each image was derived from the ten contours. A set of distinctive points (round natural calcifications and three implanted prostate fiducial markers) were also manually identified. The mean contours and point features were then incorporated as constraints into a B-spline based DIR algorithm. Further, a rigidity penalty was imposed on the femurs and pelvic bones to preserve their rigidity. A piecewise-rigid registration approach was adapted to account for the differences in femur pose and the sliding motion between bones. For each registration, the magnitude of the spatial Jacobian (|JAC|) was calculated to quantify the tissue compression and expansion. Deformation grids and finite-element-model-based unbalanced energy maps were also reviewed visually to evaluate the physical soundness of the resultant deformations. Organ DICE indices (indicating the degree of overlap between registered organs) and residual misalignments of the fiducial landmarks were quantified. Manual organ delineation on CBCT images varied significantly among physicians with overall mean DICE index of only 0.7 among redundant

  3. Vitamins, Metabolomics and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2016-01-01

    Purpose How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms by which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Methods Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomics profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Results Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomics profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with risk of aggressive disease. Conclusions Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study. PMID:27339624

  4. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  5. Technique development of 3D dynamic CS-EPSI for hyperpolarized 13 C pyruvate MR molecular imaging of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Larson, Peder E Z; Gordon, Jeremy W; Bok, Robert A; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Carvajal, Lucas; Cao, Peng; Pauly, John M; Kerr, Adam B; Park, Ilwoo; Slater, James B; Nelson, Sarah J; Munster, Pamela N; Aggarwal, Rahul; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2018-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new 3D dynamic carbon-13 compressed sensing echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) MR sequence and test it in phantoms, animal models, and then in prostate cancer patients to image the metabolic conversion of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate with whole gland coverage at high spatial and temporal resolution. A 3D dynamic compressed sensing (CS)-EPSI sequence with spectral-spatial excitation was designed to meet the required spatial coverage, time and spatial resolution, and RF limitations of the 3T MR scanner for its clinical translation for prostate cancer patient imaging. After phantom testing, animal studies were performed in rats and transgenic mice with prostate cancers. For patient studies, a GE SPINlab polarizer (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) was used to produce hyperpolarized sterile GMP [1- 13 C]pyruvate. 3D dynamic 13 C CS-EPSI data were acquired starting 5 s after injection throughout the gland with a spatial resolution of 0.5 cm 3 , 18 time frames, 2-s temporal resolution, and 36 s total acquisition time. Through preclinical testing, the 3D CS-EPSI sequence developed in this project was shown to provide the desired spectral, temporal, and spatial 5D HP 13 C MR data. In human studies, the 3D dynamic HP CS-EPSI approach provided first-ever simultaneously volumetric and dynamic images of the LDH-catalyzed conversion of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate in a biopsy-proven prostate cancer patient with full gland coverage. The results demonstrate the feasibility to characterize prostate cancer metabolism in animals, and now patients using this new 3D dynamic HP MR technique to measure k PL , the kinetic rate constant of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate conversion. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Development of Personalized Cancer Therapy for Men with AdvancedProstate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    propose to study the mechanism of pharmacologic inhibition of the MLL complex in prostate cancer cells 3) we will assess the in vivo efficacy of the...Project Goals: 1) Enroll patients with known or suspicious for prostate cancer in the NIH MRI /metabolic imaging program, 2) Whole exome and...Henderson 02/11/2014-01/31/2017 Project Goals: 1) Enroll patients with known or suspicious for prostate cancer in the NIH MRI /metabolic imaging program

  7. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-01-01

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can be further reduced by 1–2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk (OARs). A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography (HCT) scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass (COM) shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative dose and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0 mm to 1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRP and 3–4 for IRP in a hypofractionation protocol. A new

  8. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-08-07

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  9. Polyphenols and Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    The polyphenols, catechin, (-)- epigallocatechin -3- gallate ( EGCG ), genistein and resveratrol, are associated with reduced incidences of prostate and...protective effect without adverse effects with possible elevated exposure. The specific aims are 1) to investigate the potential of genistein, EGCG and...genistein, EGCG and resveratrol to regulate sex steroid- and specific growth factor-receptor and ligand expression as mechanism of prostate cancer

  10. Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has broad clinical potential to enhance prostate cancer detection and treatment, yet it is challenged by the lack of minimally invasive, deeply penetrating light delivery methods that provide sufficient visualization of targets (e.g., tumors, contrast agents, brachytherapy seeds). We constructed a side-firing fiber prototype for transurethral photoacoustic imaging of prostates with a dual-array (linear and curvilinear) transrectal ultrasound probe. A method to calculate the surface area and, thereby, estimate the laser fluence at this fiber tip was derived, validated, applied to various design parameters, and used as an input to three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. Brachytherapy seeds implanted in phantom, ex vivo, and in vivo canine prostates at radial distances of 5 to 30 mm from the urethra were imaged with the fiber prototype transmitting 1064 nm wavelength light with 2 to 8 mJ pulse energy. Prebeamformed images were displayed in real time at a rate of 3 to 5 frames per second to guide fiber placement and beamformed offline. A conventional delay-and-sum beamformer provided decreasing seed contrast (23 to 9 dB) with increasing urethra-to-target distance, while the short-lag spatial coherence beamformer provided improved and relatively constant seed contrast (28 to 32 dB) regardless of distance, thus improving multitarget visualization in single and combined curvilinear images acquired with the fiber rotating and the probe fixed. The proposed light delivery and beamforming methods promise to improve key prostate cancer detection and treatment strategies.

  11. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us The Story of PCF A Legacy of Leadership About the Prostate Cancer Foundation CEO Message Why ... PCF? Support our Partners Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members Curing Together Patient Stories ...

  12. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... idea to talk with your provider before taking dietary supplements. Some studies have shown that certain supplements may increase the risk for prostate cancer, although this is unproven: Selenium ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well-annotated urine , blood...with no coordinating center and each site will be responsible for maintaining/storing their own data/ samples . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer...Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well-annotated urine , blood, and tissue specimens as part of a multi-institutional Department of

  14. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0549 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Research Training Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David M. Lubaroff, PhD CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 REPORT DATE: September 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research ...Prostate Cancer Research Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0549 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    adenovirus/PSA (Ad/PSA) vaccine for the treatment of prostate cancer. Two protocols have been used in the trial: #1 - Phase II study of Adenovirus/PSA...this award is to conduct a Phase II clinical trial (Study) of an adenovirus/PSA (Ad/PSA) vaccine for the treatment of prostate cancer. Two protocols...suddenly prior to study treatment . And one patient previously reported as a screen failure became eligible and was treated. This subject was not

  16. Automated high-grade prostate cancer detection and ranking on whole slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Hui; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Recently, digital pathology (DP) has been largely improved due to the development of computer vision and machine learning. Automated detection of high-grade prostate carcinoma (HG-PCa) is an impactful medical use-case showing the paradigm of collaboration between DP and computer science: given a field of view (FOV) from a whole slide image (WSI), the computer-aided system is able to determine the grade by classifying the FOV. Various approaches have been reported based on this approach. However, there are two reasons supporting us to conduct this work: first, there is still room for improvement in terms of detection accuracy of HG-PCa; second, a clinical practice is more complex than the operation of simple image classification. FOV ranking is also an essential step. E.g., in clinical practice, a pathologist usually evaluates a case based on a few FOVs from the given WSI. Then, makes decision based on the most severe FOV. This important ranking scenario is not yet being well discussed. In this work, we introduce an automated detection and ranking system for PCa based on Gleason pattern discrimination. Our experiments suggested that the proposed system is able to perform high-accuracy detection ( 95:57% +/- 2:1%) and excellent performance of ranking. Hence, the proposed system has a great potential to support the daily tasks in the medical routine of clinical pathology.

  17. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Murtola, Teemu J.; Gurel, Bora; Umbehr, Martin; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Kristal, Alan R.; Parnes, Howard L.; Lippman, Scott M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Barber, John R.; Drake, Charles G.; Nelson, William G.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous analysis of the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) reported 82% overall prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation and identified a link between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer and serum PSA. Here we studied these associations in the PCPT finasteride arm. Methods Prostate cancer cases (N=197) detected either on a clinically indicated biopsy or on protocol-directed end-of-study biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N=248) with no cancer on an end-of-study biopsy were sampled from the finasteride arm. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue was visually assessed using digital images of H&E stained sections. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results In the finasteride arm, 91.6% of prostate cancer cases and 92.4% of controls had at least one biopsy core with inflammation in benign areas; p < 0.001 for difference compared to placebo arm. Overall, the odds of prostate cancer did not differ by prevalence (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.44-1.84) or extent (P-trend=0.68) of inflammation. Inflammation was not associated with higher-grade disease (prevalence: OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.43-2.69). Furthermore, mean PSA concentration did not differ by the prevalence or extent of inflammationin either cases or controls. Conclusion The prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation was higher in the finasteride than placebo arm of the PCPT, with no association with higher-grade prostate cancer. Impact Finasteride may attenuate the association between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, the missing link between intraprostatic inflammation and PSA suggests that finasteride may reduce inflammation-associated PSA elevation. PMID:26715424

  18. A high-affinity [ 18F]-labeled phosphoramidate peptidomimetic PSMA-targeted inhibitor for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Ganguly, Tanushree; Dannoon, Shorouk; Hopkins, Mark R.; ...

    2015-06-09

    Here in this study, a structurally modified phosphoramidate scaffold, with improved prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) avidity, stability and in vivo characteristics, as a PET imaging agent for prostate cancer (PCa), was prepared and evaluated. p-Fluorobenzoyl-aminohexanoate and 2-(3-hydroxypropyl)glycine were introduced into the PSMA-targeting scaffold yielding phosphoramidate 5. X-ray crystallography was performed on the PSMA/5 complex. [ 18F]5 was synthesized, and cell uptake and internalization studies were conducted in PSMA(+) LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 cells and PSMA(-) PC-3 cells. In vivo PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed at 1 and 4 h post injection in mice bearing CWR22Rv1 tumor, with or withoutmore » blocking agent. The crystallographic data showed interaction of the p-fluorobenzoyl group with an arene-binding cleft on the PSMA surface. In vitro studies revealed elevated uptake of [ 18F]5 in PSMA(+) cells (2.2% in CWR22Rv1 and 12.1% in LNCaP) compared to PSMA(-) cells (0.08%) at 4 h. In vivo tumor uptake of 2.33% ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 265:1 was observed at 4 h. In conclusion, we have successfully synthesized, radiolabeled and evaluated a new PSMA-targeted PET agent. The crystal structure of the PSMA/5 complex highlighted the interactions within the arene-binding cleft contributing to the overall complex stability. The high target uptake and rapid non-target clearance exhibited by [ 18F]5 in PSMA(+) xenografts substantiates its potential use for PET imaging of PCa.« less

  19. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Treating Participants With Intermediate and High-risk Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-13

    Stage I Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage II Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIC Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIB Prostate Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIC Prostate Cancer AJCC v8

  20. Preclinical evaluation of a bispecific low-molecular heterodimer targeting both PSMA and GRPR for improved PET imaging and therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Eder, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Bauder-Wüst, Ulrike; Haberkorn, Uwe; Eisenhut, Michael; Kopka, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been reported that metastases of prostate cancer usually show highly heterogeneous or partly lost prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression. In order to image and treat both PSMA positive and negative tissues PSMA targeting probes need to be extended by a further specificity. Since prostate cancer cells usually express both PSMA and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) a bispecific low-molecular heterodimeric molecule, addressing both targets at the same time, may significantly improve prostate cancer imaging and therapy. The nonapeptide BZH3 representing the GRPR binding part was combined with the urea-based PSMA inhibitor Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC. The syntheses of the compounds were performed according to standard Fmoc-solid phase peptide synthesis. The binding properties were analyzed by competitive cell binding and internalization experiments. The in vivo targeting properties were investigated by means of biodistribution studies. Cell binding experiments revealed high binding affinities to both GRPR and PSMA expressing cell lines. The heterodimer bound with IC50 -values essentially matching the IC50 values of the respective monomers (25.0 ± 5.4 nM for PSMA and 9.0 ± 1.8 nM for GRPR, respectively). In vivo, the heterodimer showed dual targeting of PSMA (5.4%ID/g for PSMA-positive tumors) and GRPR receptors (3.3% ID/g for GRPR-positive tumors) while exhibiting fast pharmacokinetic properties. The clearance from background was comparable to the monomeric PSMA-targeting reference. The heterodimeric molecule is a promising agent for PET imaging of primary and recurrent prostate cancer covering two receptor entities which might lead to an improved diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficiency. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 68Ga-PSMA-11 Dynamic PET/CT Imaging in Primary Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Kopka, Klaus; Eder, Matthias; Hadaschik, Boris A; Freitag, Martin T; Pan, Leyun; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Ga-PSMA-11 in patients suffering from primary prostate cancer (PC) by means of dynamic and whole-body PET/CT. Twenty-four patients with primary, previously untreated PC were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent dynamic PET/CT (dPET/CT) scanning of the pelvis and whole-body PET/CT studies with Ga-PSMA-11. The evaluation of dPET/CT studies was based on qualitative evaluation, SUV calculation, and quantitative analysis based on two-tissue compartment modeling and a noncompartmental approach leading to the extraction of fractal dimension (FD). A total of 23/24 patients (95.8%) were Ga-PSMA-11 positive. In 9/24 patients (37.5%), metastatic lesions were detected. PC-associated lesions demonstrated the following mean values: SUVaverage = 14.3, SUVmax = 23.4, K1 = 0.24 (1/min), k3 = 0.34 (1/min), influx = 0.15 (1/min), and FD = 1.27. The parameters SUVaverage, SUVmax, k3, influx, and FD derived from PC-associated lesions were significantly higher than respective values derived from reference prostate tissue. Time-activity curves derived from PC-associated lesions revealed an increasing Ga-PSMA-11 accumulation during dynamic PET acquisition. Correlation analysis revealed a moderate but significant correlation between PSA levels and SUVaverage (r = 0.60) and SUVmax (r = 0.57), and a weak but significant correlation between Gleason score and SUVaverage (r = 0.33) and SUVmax (r = 0.28). Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT confirmed its capacity in detecting primary PC with a detection rate of 95.8%. Dynamic PET/CT studies of the pelvis revealed an increase in tracer uptake in PC-associated lesions during the 60 minutes of dynamic PET acquisition, a finding with potential applications in anti-PSMA approaches.

  2. Evaluation of theranostic nanocarriers for near-infrared imaging and photodynamic therapy on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Fernanda Z; Martins, Júlia; Fontes, Aparecida M; Tedesco, Antonio C

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates how effectively chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) entrapped in colloidal nanocarriers, such as nanocapsule (NC) and nanoemulsion (NE), induces photodamage in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) during photodynamic therapy (PDT). The MTT cell viability assay showed that both ClAlPc-NC and ClAlPc-NE induced phototoxicity and efficiently killed LNCaP cells at low ClAlPc-NC and ClAlPc-NE concentrations (0.3μgmL -1 ) as well as under low light doses of 4Jcm -2 and 7Jcm -2 , respectively, upon PDT with a 670-nm diode laser line. Confocal imaging studies indicated that ClAlPc-NC and ClAlPc-NE were preferentially localized in the perinuclear region of LNCaP cells both in the dark and upon irradiation with laser light. After PDT treatment, ClAlPc-NC-treated LNCaP cells exhibited a higher green fluorescence signal, possibly due to the larger shrinkage of the actin cytoskeleton, compared to ClAlPc-NE-treated LNCaP cells. Additionally, ClAlPc-NC or ClAlPc-NE and mitochondria showed a relatively high co-localization level. The cellular morphology did not change in the dark, but confocal micrographs recorded after PDT revealed that LNCaP cells treated with ClAlPc-NC or ClAlPc-NE underwent morphological alterations. Our preliminary in vitro studies reinforced the hypothesis that biocompatible theranostic ClAlPc-loaded nanocarriers could act as an attractive photosensitizer system in PDT and could serve as an interesting molecular probe for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer and other carcinomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and would improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.

  4. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M; Kelly, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and would improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.

  5. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment1. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression2. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand3,4,5 and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells6. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection. PMID:22983492

  6. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  7. 99mTc-labeled PSMA inhibitor: Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry in healthy subjects and imaging of prostate cancer tumors in patients.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Davanzo, Jenny; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; García-Pérez, Francisco O; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Ignacio-Alvarez, Eleazar; Gómez-Argumosa, Edgar; Pedraza-López, Martha

    2017-09-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in epithelial cells of the prostate and highly overexpressed in 95% of advanced prostate cancers. The aims of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA ( 99m Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor) in eight healthy subjects and evaluate its usefulness as a tumor-imaging agent in eight prostate cancer patients. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities >98%, determined by reversed-phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Whole-body images from eight healthy subjects were acquired at 20min, and at 2, 6 and 24h after 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the source organs on each time frame. Each ROI was corrected by background, attenuation, scattered radiation and physical decay. The image sequence was used to extrapolate the 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA time-activity curves of each organ to adjust the biokinetic model and calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation doses. In eight prostate cancer patients with histologically confirmed cancer, whole-body SPECT/CT images were obtained at 3h. The blood activity showed a half-life value of 4.98min for the fast component (T 1/2 α=ln2/8.34), 2.49h for the first slow component (T 1/2 β=ln2/0.278), and 9.24h for the second slow component (T 1/2 γ=ln2/0.076). Images from patients showed an average tumor/background ratio of 8.99±3.27 at 3h. The average equivalent doses calculated for a study using 740MBq were 3.80, 7.06, 9.69, 10.70, and 28.80mSv for the breast, spleen, salivary glands, liver, and kidneys respectively, with an effective dose of 3.42±0.78mSv. All the absorbed doses were comparable to those known for most of the 99m Tc studies. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA obtained from kit formulations showed high tumor uptake in

  8. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    mediator of prostate cancer tumor growth. Specifically, phagocytic macrophages and efferocytosis were found to be upregulated in the blood of...patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Moreover, inhibiting phagocytic macrophages with the chemotherapeutic trabectedin reduced efferocytosis and

  9. PRECISION MANAGEMENT OF LOCALIZED PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, David J.; Turkbey, Baris; Sowalsky, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The vast majority of men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer die of other causes, highlighting the importance of determining which patient has a risk of death from prostate cancer. Precision management of prostate cancer patients includes distinguishing which men have potentially lethal disease and employing strategies for determining which treatment modality appropriately balances the desire to achieve a durable response while preventing unnecessary overtreatment. Areas covered In this review, we highlight precision approaches to risk assessment and a context for the precision-guided application of definitive therapy. We focus on three dilemmas relevant to the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer: screening, the decision to treat, and postoperative management. Expert commentary In the last five years, numerous precision tools have emerged with potential benefit to the patient. However, to achieve optimal outcome, the decision to employ one or more of these tests must be considered in the context of prevailing conventional factors. Moreover, performance and interpretation of a molecular or imaging precision test remains practitioner-dependent. The next five years will witness increased marriage of molecular and imaging biomarkers for improved multi-modal diagnosis and discrimination of disease that is aggressive versus truly indolent. PMID:28133630

  10. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men over 50 years of age. Ultrasound - guided prostate biopsy is...currently the most common method for diagnosing and localizing cancer in the prostate. However, even when standard 6 or 12 needle biopsy templates... needles employed (1, 2). While progress has been made in the detection of primary prostate cancer using imaging techniques such as ultrasound and

  11. Echo-Planar Imaging-Based, J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    cancer is through imaging techniques including ultrasound , computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without the help...performed at least 8 weeks after transrectal ultrasound -guided sextant biopsy. The entire protocol was ap- proved by the Institutional Review Board...volume of interest (VOI) was localized using three slice-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses (90°–180°–180°) (Fig. 1). The total time for the

  12. PTV margin definition in hypofractionated IGRT of localized prostate cancer using cone beam CT and orthogonal image pairs with fiducial markers.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Christoph; Lang, Stephanie; Dimmerling, Peter; Bolesch, Christian; Kloeck, Stephan; Tini, Alessandra; Glanzmann, Christoph; Najafi, Yousef; Studer, Gabriela; Zwahlen, Daniel R

    2014-11-11

    To evaluate PTV margins for hypofractionated IGRT of prostate comparing kV/kV imaging or CBCT. Between 2009 and 2012, 20 patients with low- (LR), intermediate- (IR) and high-risk (HR) prostate cancer were treated with VMAT in supine position with fiducial markers (FM), endorectal balloon (ERB) and full bladder. CBCT's and kV/kV imaging were performed before and additional CBCT's after treatment assessing intra-fraction motion. CTVP for 5 patients with LR and CTVPSV for 5 patients with IR/HR prostate cancer were contoured independently by 3 radiation oncologists using MRI. The van Hark formula (PTV margin =2.5Σ +0.7σ) was applied to calculate PTV margins of prostate/seminal vesicles (P/PSV) using CBCT or FM. 172 and 52 CBCTs before and after RT and 507 kV/kV images before RT were analysed. Differences between FM in CBCT or in planar kV image pairs were below 1 mm. Accounting for both random and systematic uncertainties anisotropic PTV margins were 5-8 mm for P (LR) and 6-11 mm for PSV (IR/HR). Random uncertainties like intra-fraction and inter-fraction (setup) uncertainties were of similar magnitude (0.9-1.4 mm). Largest uncertainty was introduced by CTV delineation (LR: 1-2 mm, IR/HR: 1.6-3.5 mm). Patient positioning using bone matching or ERB-matching resulted in larger PTV margins. For IGRT CBCT or kV/kV-image pairs with FM are interchangeable in respect of accuracy. Especially for hypofractionated RT, PTV margins can be kept in the range of 5 mm or below if stringent daily IGRT, ideally including prostate tracking, is applied. MR-based CTV delineation optimization is recommended.

  13. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  14. A Novel ¹¹¹In-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Nanobody for Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Veldhoven-Zweistra, Joke; Bolkestein, Michiel; Hoeben, Sander; Koning, Gerben A; Boerman, Otto C; de Jong, Marion; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2015-07-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target specificity and rapid background clearance. We developed a novel anti-PSMA Nanobody (JVZ-007) for targeted imaging and therapy of PCa. Here, we report on the application of the (111)In-radiolabeled Nanobody for SPECT/CT imaging of PCa. A Nanobody library was generated by immunization of a llama with 4 human PCa cell lines. Anti-PSMA Nanobodies were captured by biopanning on PSMA-overexpressing cells. JVZ-007 was selected for evaluation as an imaging probe. JVZ-007 was initially produced with a c-myc-hexahistidine (his) tag allowing purification and detection. The c-myc-his tag was subsequently replaced by a single cysteine at the C terminus, allowing site-specific conjugation of chelates for radiolabeling. JVZ-007-c-myc-his was conjugated to 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-DTPA) via the lysines, whereas JVZ-007-cys was conjugated to maleimide-DTPA via the C-terminal cysteine. PSMA targeting was analyzed in vitro by cell-binding experiments using flow cytometry, autoradiography, and internalization assays with various PCa cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). The targeting properties of radiolabeled Nanobodies were evaluated in vivo in biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging experiments, using nude mice bearing PSMA-positive PC-310 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumors. JVZ-007 was successfully conjugated to DTPA for radiolabeling with (111)In at room temperature. (111)In-JVZ007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ007-cys internalized in LNCaP cells and bound to PSMA-expressing PDXs and, importantly, not to PSMA-negative PDXs and human kidneys. Good tumor targeting and fast blood clearance were observed for (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his and (111)In

  15. Estrogen action and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nelles, Jason L; Hu, Wen-Yang; Prins, Gail S

    2011-01-01

    Early work on the hormonal basis of prostate cancer focused on the role of androgens, but more recently estrogens have been implicated as potential agents in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this article, we review the epidemiological, laboratory and clinical evidence that estrogen may play a causative role in human prostate cancer, as well as rodent and grafted in vivo models. We then review recent literature highlighting potential mechanisms by which estrogen may contribute to prostate cancer, including estrogenic imprinting and epigenetic modifications, direct genotoxicity, hyperprolactinemia, inflammation and immunologic changes, and receptor-mediated actions. We discuss the work performed so far separating the actions of the different known estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, as well as G-protein-coupled receptor 30 and their specific roles in prostate disease. Finally, we predict that future work in this field will involve more investigations into epigenetic changes, experiments using new models of hormonal dysregulation in developing human prostate tissue, and continued delineation of the roles of the different ER subtypes, as well as their downstream signaling pathways that may serve as therapeutic targets. PMID:21765856

  16. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Powell. (2012). Dioxin exposure enhances nuclear localization of androgen receptor. The 8th Annual National Symposium on Prostate Cancer by CCRTD...cholesterol. Mol . Cellu. Endo. 295:115-120. 2. Siegel, R., Naishadham, D., and Jemal, A. (2012). Cancer Statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 62: 10-29...Ul DIOXIN J!1XPOSURE EN CES NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR\\~f..aTayia Aaron, nd Joann Powell, Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic

  17. Reporting Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: The PRECISE Recommendations-A Report of a European School of Oncology Task Force.

    PubMed

    Moore, Caroline M; Giganti, Francesco; Albertsen, Peter; Allen, Clare; Bangma, Chris; Briganti, Alberto; Carroll, Peter; Haider, Masoom; Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Kirkham, Alex; Klotz, Laurence; Ouzzane, Adil; Padhani, Anwar R; Panebianco, Valeria; Pinto, Peter; Puech, Philippe; Rannikko, Antti; Renard-Penna, Raphaele; Touijer, Karim; Turkbey, Baris; van Poppel, Heinrik; Valdagni, Riccardo; Walz, Jochen; Schoots, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    Published data on prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during follow-up of men on active surveillance are lacking. Current guidelines for prostate MRI reporting concentrate on prostate cancer (PCa) detection and staging. A standardised approach to prostate MRI reporting for active surveillance will facilitate the robust collection of evidence in this newly developing area. To develop preliminary recommendations for reporting of individual MRI studies in men on active surveillance and for researchers reporting the outcomes of cohorts of men having MRI on active surveillance. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Experts in urology, radiology, and radiation oncology developed a set of 394 statements relevant to prostate MRI reporting in men on active surveillance for PCa. Each statement was scored for agreement on a 9-point scale by each panellist prior to a panel meeting. Each statement was discussed and rescored at the meeting. Measures of agreement and consensus were calculated for each statement. The most important statements, derived from both group discussion and scores of agreement and consensus, were used to create the Prostate Cancer Radiological Estimation of Change in Sequential Evaluation (PRECISE) checklist and case report form. Key recommendations include reporting the index lesion size using absolute values at baseline and at each subsequent MRI. Radiologists should assess the likelihood of true change over time (ie, change in size or change in lesion characteristics on one or more sequences) on a 1-5 scale. A checklist of items for reporting a cohort of men on active surveillance was developed. These items were developed based on expert consensus in many areas in which data are lacking, and they are expected to develop and change as evidence is accrued. The PRECISE recommendations are designed to facilitate the development of a robust evidence database for documenting changes in prostate MRI findings over time of men on active

  18. Contemporary results of focal therapy for prostate cancer using cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, V; Williams, A K; Chin, J

    2010-09-01

    With the increasing diagnosis of prostate cancer, there have been concerns expressed regarding the potential over-treatment that may ensue following the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Minimally invasive treatments such as cryotherapy have been used successfully to treat the entire gland, however complications such as incontinence and erectile dysfunction can still occur. Focal cryotherapy is a modification of the standard cryotherapy technique, aiming to only treat the portion of the prostate gland which has the cancer of clinical significance. The potential advantage of this is the minimization of complications; however the remainder of the prostate is still viable and so can develop cancer subsequently. There have been several published studies demonstrating promising efficacy with a low morbidity rate using focal cryotherapy to treat prostate cancer, however further follow up is required before definitive conclusions can be reached. The appropriate selection of patients and subsequent follow up are areas needing further research and the development of improved imaging modalities.

  19. High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26

    PubMed Central

    Thisgaard, Helge; Rosenström, Ulrika; Dam, Johan Hygum; Larhed, Mats

    2017-01-01

    High gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression is associated with numerous cancers including prostate and breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to develop a 55Co-labeled PET agent based on GRPR antagonist RM26 for visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. Labeling with 57Co and 55Co, stability, binding specificity, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics of 57Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 were studied. NOTA-PEG2-RM26 was successfully radiolabeled with 57Co and 55Co with high yields and demonstrated high stability. The radiopeptide showed retained binding specificity to GRPR in vitro and in vivo. 57Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 biodistribution in mice was characterized by rapid clearance of radioactivity from blood and normal non-GRPR-expressing organs and low hepatic uptake. The clearance was predominantly renal with a low degree of radioactivity reabsorption. Tumor-to-blood ratios were approximately 200 (3 h pi) and 1000 (24 h pi). The favorable biodistribution of cobalt-labeled NOTA-PEG2-RM26 translated into high contrast preclinical PET/CT (using 55Co) and SPECT/CT (using 57Co) images of PC-3 xenografts. The initial biological results suggest that 55Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 is a promising tracer for PET visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. PMID:29097932

  20. Diagnostic imaging to detect and evaluate response to therapy in bone metastases from prostate cancer: current modalities and new horizons.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Laura; Bertoldo, Francesco; Boccardo, Francesco; Conti, Giario; Menchi, Ilario; Mungai, Francesco; Ricardi, Umberto; Bombardieri, Emilio

    2016-07-01

    Different therapeutic options for the management of prostate cancer (PC) have been developed, and some are successful in providing crucial improvement in both survival and quality of life, especially in patients with metastatic castration-resistant PC. In this scenario, diverse combinations of radiopharmaceuticals (for targeting bone, cancer cells and receptors) and nuclear medicine modalities (e.g. bone scan, SPECT, SPECT/CT, PET and PET/CT) are now available for imaging bone metastases. Some radiopharmaceuticals are approved, currently available and used in the routine clinical setting, while others are not registered and are still under evaluation, and should therefore be considered experimental. On the other hand, radiologists have other tools, in addition to CT, that can better visualize bone localization and medullary involvement, such as multimodal MRI. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current management of advanced PC and discuss the choice of diagnostic modality for the detection of metastatic skeletal lesions in different phases of the disease. In addition to detection of bone metastases, the evaluation of response to therapy is another critical issue, since it remains one of the most important open questions that a multidisciplinary team faces when optimizing the management of PC. The authors emphasize the role of nuclear modalities that can presently be used in clinical practice, and also look at future perspectives based on relevant clinical data with novel radiopharmaceuticals.

  1. Wnt Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Ace-1-Dkk-1, a canine prostate cancer overexpressing Dkk-1 is used in this study to investigate how...Dkk-1 expression in prostate cancer could change the metastatic phenotype and tumor growth in vivo. Ace-1-Dkk-1, a canine prostate cancer

  2. Counseling the Client with Prostate Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell C.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is prevalent in the United States and has a far-reaching effect on men and their relationships. Being diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer often causes men to experience side effects that induce physical, emotional, and social change. Counselors need to be aware of prostate cancer's impact on men and their families.…

  3. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    prostate cancer bone metastasis through the phagocytosis of apoptotic tumor cells (efferocytosis). Specific Aims: 1. To identify the phagocytic ...2: To identify the phagocytic /efferocytic macrophage population in the tumor microenvironment of prostate bone metastases and determine its ability...preparation for Cancer Research. We obtained an array of prostate cancer tissue including bone metastasis (N=72) and stained the tissue for the phagocytic

  4. Pretreatment Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Predict Biochemical Tumor Control in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Combination Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Nadeem; Afaq, Asim; Akin, Oguz

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of endorectal coil magenetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in predicting biochemical relapse in prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2008, 279 men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer underwent eMRI of their prostate before receiving brachytherapy and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Endorectal coil MRI was performed before treatment and retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists experienced in genitourinary MRI. Image-based variables, including tumor diameter, location, number of sextants involved, and the presence of extracapsular extension (ECE), were incorporated with other established clinical variables to predict biochemical control outcomes.more » The median follow-up was 49 months (range, 1-13 years). Results: The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival for the cohort was 92%. Clinical findings predicting recurrence on univariate analysis included Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, p = 0.001), PSA (HR 1.04, p = 0.005), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (HR 4.1, p = 0.002). Clinical T stage and the use of androgen deprivation therapy were not correlated with biochemical failure. Imaging findings on univariate analysis associated with relapse included ECE on MRI (HR 3.79, p = 0.003), tumor size (HR 2.58, p = 0.04), and T stage (HR 1.71, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis incorporating both clinical and imaging findings, only ECE on MRI and Gleason score were independent predictors of recurrence. Conclusions: Pretreatment eMRI findings predict for biochemical recurrence in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Gleason score and the presence of ECE on MRI were the only significant predictors of biochemical relapse in this group of patients.« less

  5. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J; Benjamin, Linus C; Wu, Bosco; de Campos Silva, Thomaz; McLachlan, Craig S; McKay, Michael J; Last, Andrew J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dose-escalated (DE) radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) and ADT. Methods and materials Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Results Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. No grade 3 or 4 late toxicities were reported. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen (P=0.001) and Gleason score (P=0.03) were significant in predicting biochemical failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusion There is a high probability of tumor control with DE IG-IMRT combined with androgen deprivation, and this is a technique with a low probability of significant late toxicity. Our long term results corroborate the safety and efficacy of treating with IG-IMRT to high doses

  7. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J; Benjamin, Linus C; Wu, Bosco; de Campos Silva, Thomaz; McLachlan, Craig S; McKay, Michael J; Last, Andrew J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Dose-escalated (DE) radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) and ADT. Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. No grade 3 or 4 late toxicities were reported. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen (P=0.001) and Gleason score (P=0.03) were significant in predicting biochemical failure on multivariate analysis. There is a high probability of tumor control with DE IG-IMRT combined with androgen deprivation, and this is a technique with a low probability of significant late toxicity. Our long term results corroborate the safety and efficacy of treating with IG-IMRT to high doses and compares favorably with published series for

  8. Polyphenois and Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the potential of resveratrol genistein and (-) epigallocatechin -3- gallate ( EGCG ), alone in combination...to protect against prostate cancer in a transgenic rat model (TRAMP). The specific aims are 1) to investigate the potential of genistein, EGCG and...we have demonstrated that pure resveratrol in the diet, but not EGCG in the water, suppressed spontaneously developing prostate tumors in TRAMPs

  9. GPRC6A regulates prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Min; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND GPRC6A is a nutrient sensing GPCR that is activated in vitro by a variety of ligands, including amino acids, calcium, zinc, osteocalcin (OC) and testosterone. The association between nutritional factors and risk of prostate cancer, the finding of increased expression of OC in prostate cancer cells and the association between GPRC6A and risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men implicates a role of GPRC6A in prostate cancer. METHODS We examined if GPRC6A is expressed in human prostate cancer cell lines and used siRNA-mediated knockdown GPRC6A expression in prostate cancer cells to explore the function of GPRC6A in vitro. To assess the role GPRC6A in prostate cancer progression in vivo we intercrossed Gprc6a−/− mice onto the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model. RESULTS GPRC6A transcripts were markedly increased in prostate cancer cell lines 22Rv1, PC-3 and LNCaP, compared to the normal prostate RWPE-1 cell line. In addition, a panel of GPRC6A ligands, including calcium, OC, and arginine, exhibited in prostate cancer cell lines a dose-dependent stimulation of ERK activity, cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and prostate specific antigen and Runx 2 gene expression. These responses were inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of GPRC6A. Finally, transfer of Gprc6a deficiency onto a TRAMP mouse model of prostate cancer significantly retarded prostate cancer progression and improved survival of compound Gprc6a−/−/TRAMP mice. CONCLUSIONS GPRC6A is a novel molecular target for regulating prostate growth and cancer progression. Increments in GPRC6A may augment the ability of prostate cancer cells to proliferate in response to dietary and bone derived ligands. PMID:21681779

  10. The 24th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation scientific retreat report.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Soule, Howard R

    2018-05-15

    The 24th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 5-7, 2017, at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, DC. The PCF Scientific Retreat is a scientific conference that specifically focuses on cutting edge research deemed to have significant promise for accelerating advances in prostate cancer biology and treatment. Themes highlighted at this year's meeting included: (i) new understandings in prostate cancer biology and disease progression; (ii) new mechanisms and treatment targets in advanced prostate cancer; (iii) advances in precision medicine genomics, germline genetics, and selection of targeted therapies; (iv) PSMA-targeted agents for PET imaging and radionuclide therapy; (v) approaches for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in prostate cancer; (vi) applications of 3D Genomics in prostate cancer research; and (vii) potential applications of artificial intelligence in prostate cancer. This article reviews the research presented at the PCF Scientific Retreat, in order to improve understanding of the current state of prostate cancer research, encourage discourse and exchange of novel ideas, and stimulate new basic, translational, and clinical research that will ultimately improve the lives of patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. SU-E-QI-19: Evaluation of a Clinical 1.5T MRI for Prostate Cancer MRS Imaging Using a In Vivo Tumor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X; Chen, L; Hensley, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) imaging may provide important bio-markers to distinguish normal/cancerous prostate tissue. While MRS imaging requires a high uniform magnetic field, the ability of a clinical 1.5T MRI to achieve a comparable MRS signal is of interest for radiation treatment planning/assessment. This study is to evaluate the MRS imaging of a 1.5T clinical MRI for prostate cancers by comparing with a small animal 7T MRS scanner. Methods: A tumor model was developed by implanting LNCaP tumor cells in nude mice prostates. Tumor was monitored 3 weeks after implantation using MRI, and MRS imaging was performed on themore » tumor area when the tumor reached around 1cm in diameter. The 1.5T GE clinical MR scanner and the 7T Bruker small animal MR scanner were used for each mouse. MR spectrums acquired with these scanners were analyzed and compared. The signals of Choline and Citrate were considered. Results: The prostate tumor MR spectrum under the 1.5T clinical MRI showed a similar spectrum pattern to that acquired using the 7T animal MRI. The Choline signal (3.2ppm) is clear and there is no clear peak for Citrate (2.6ppm). However, the signal magnitude for Choline is not dominant compared to the background signal under 1.5T MRI. Typical cancerous prostate tissue MR spectrum with an increased Choline signal and a reduced Citrate signal was observed. In addition, signal variation is noticeable between repeated spectrum scans. The average of these scans showed a comparable and consistent spectrum to those under 7T MRI. Conclusion: The clinical 1.5T MRI is able to acquire a MR spectrum for prostate cancer comparable to those acquired using a dedicated 7T MRS scanner. However, to achieve a consistent and reliable spectrum, multiple repeated scans were necessary to get a statistical result and reduce the noise-induced artifact. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute Grant R21 CA131979 and R01CA172638.« less

  12. Beyond Seed and Soil: Understanding and Targeting Metastatic Prostate Cancer; Report From the 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Goswami, Sangeeta; Ippolito, Joseph E; Priceman, Saul J; Pritchard, Colin C; Sfanos, Karen S; Subudhi, Sumit K; Simons, Jonathan W; Pienta, Kenneth J; Soule, Howard R

    2017-02-01

    The 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy (CHPCA) Meeting, "Beyond Seed and Soil: Understanding and Targeting Metastatic Prostate Cancer," was held from June 23 to June 26, 2016, in Coronado, California. For the 4th year in a row, the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) hosted the CHPCA Meeting, a think tank-structured scientific conference, which focuses on a specific topic of critical unmet need on the biology and treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The 2016 CHPCA Meeting was attended by 71 investigators from prostate cancer and other fields, who discussed the biology, study methodologies, treatment strategies, and critical unmet needs concerning metastatic prostate cancer, with the ultimate goal of advancing strategies to treat and eliminate this disease. The major topics of discussion included: the molecular landscape and molecular heterogeneity of metastatic prostate cancer, the role of the metastatic microenvironment, optimizing immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer, learning from exceptional responders and non-responders, targeting DNA repair deficiency in advanced prostate cancer, developing and applying novel biomarkers and imaging techniques, and potential roles for the microbiome in prostate cancer. This article reviews the topics presented and discussions held at the CHPCA Meeting, with a focus on the unknowns and next steps needed to advance our understanding of the biology and most effective treatment strategies for metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate 77:123-144, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of Prospectively Assigned Likert Scores for Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Transrectal Ultrasound Fusion Biopsies in Patients with Suspected Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel N; Lotan, Yair; Rofsky, Neil M; Roehrborn, Claus; Liu, Alexander; Hornberger, Brad; Xi, Yin; Francis, Franto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We assess the performance of prospectively assigned magnetic resonance imaging based Likert scale scores for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, and analyze the pre-biopsy imaging variables associated with increased cancer detection using targeted magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy. In this retrospective review of prospectively generated data including men with abnormal multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (at least 1 Likert score 3 or greater lesion) who underwent subsequent targeted magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy, we determined the association between different imaging variables (Likert score, lesion size, lesion location, prostate volume, radiologist experience) and targeted biopsy positivity rate. We also compared the detection of clinically significant cancer according to Likert scale scores. Tumors with high volume (50% or more of any core) Gleason score 3+4 or any tumor with greater Gleason score were considered clinically significant. Each lesion served as the elementary unit for analysis. We used logistic regression for univariate and multivariate (stepwise selection) analysis to assess for an association between targeted biopsy positivity rate and each tested variable. The relationship between Likert scale and Gleason score was evaluated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. A total of 161 men with 244 lesions met the study eligibility criteria. Targeted biopsies diagnosed cancer in 41% (66 of 161) of the men and 41% (99 of 244) of the lesions. The Likert score was the strongest predictor of targeted biopsy positivity (OR 3.7, p <0.0001). Other imaging findings associated with a higher targeted biopsy positivity rate included smaller prostate volume (OR 0.7, p <0.01), larger lesion size (OR 2.2, p <0.001) and anterior location (OR 2.0, p=0.01). On multiple logistic regression analysis Likert score, lesion size and prostate volume were significant

  14. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases occur frequently in advanced cancer and this is matter of particular attention, due to the great impact on patient's management and considering that a lot of new emerging therapeutic options have been recently introduced. Imaging bone metastases is essential to localize lesions, to establish their size and number, to study characteristics and changes during therapy. Besides radiological imaging, nuclear medicine modalities can image their features and offer additional information about their metabolic behaviour. They can be classified according to physical characteristics, type of detection, mechanism of uptake, availability for daily use. The physiopathology of metastases formation and the mechanisms of tracer uptake are essential to understand the interpretation of nuclear medicine images. Therefore, radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases can be classified in agents targeting bone (99mTc-phosphonates, 18F-fluoride) and those targeting prostatic cancer cells (18F-fluoromethylcholine, 11C-choline, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose). The modalities using the first group of tracers are planar bone scan, SPECT or SPECT/CT with 99mTc-diphosphonates, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT, while the modalities using the second group include 18F/11C-choline derivatives PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/CT scans with several other radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature, such as 18F/11C-acetate derivatives, 18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 18F-anti-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), 18F-2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU) and 68Ga-labeled-prostate specific membrane antigen (PMSA) PET/TC. However, since data on clinical validation for these last novel modalities are not conclusive and/or are not still sufficient in number, at present they can be still considered as promising tools under evaluation. The present paper considers the nuclear modalities today available for the clinical routine. This overview wants

  15. Comparison of prostate contours between conventional stepping transverse imaging and Twister-based sagittal imaging in permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Shogo; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Tsumura, Hideyasu; Sekiguchi, Akane; Takenaka, Kouji; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2017-08-01

    To compare prostate contours on conventional stepping transverse image acquisitions with those on twister-based sagittal image acquisitions. Twenty prostate cancer patients who were planned to have permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy were prospectively accrued. A transrectal ultrasonography probe was inserted, with the patient in lithotomy position. Transverse images were obtained with stepping movement of the transverse transducer. In the same patient, sagittal images were also obtained through rotation of the sagittal transducer using the "Twister" mode. The differences of prostate size among the two types of image acquisitions were compared. The relationships among the difference of the two types of image acquisitions, dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters on the post-implant computed tomography (CT) analysis, as well as other factors were analyzed. The sagittal image acquisitions showed a larger prostate size compared to the transverse image acquisitions especially in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction ( p < 0.05). Interestingly, relative size of prostate apex in AP direction in sagittal image acquisitions compared to that in transverse image acquisitions was correlated to DVH parameters such as D 90 ( R = 0.518, p = 0.019), and V 100 ( R = 0.598, p = 0.005). There were small but significant differences in the prostate contours between the transverse and the sagittal planning image acquisitions. Furthermore, our study suggested that the differences between the two types of image acquisitions might correlated to dosimetric results on CT analysis.

  16. Impact of the integration of proton magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy to PI-RADS 2 for prediction of high grade and high stage prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Leapman, Michael S; Wang, Zhen J; Behr, Spencer C; Kurhanewicz, John; Zagoria, Ronald J; Carroll, Peter R; Westphalen, Antonio C

    2017-01-01

    To compare the predictions of dominant Gleason pattern ≥ 4 or non-organ confined disease with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) with or without proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H-MRSI). Thirty-nine men underwent 3-tesla endorectal multiparametric MRI including 1 H-MRSI and prostatectomy. Two radiologists assigned PI-RADS v2 and 1 H-MRSI scores to index lesions. Statistical analyses used logistic regressions, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and 2x2 tables for diagnostic accuracies. The sensitivity and specificity of 1 H-MRSI and PI-RADS v2 for high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) were 85.7% (57.1%) and 92.9% (100%), and 56% (68.0%) and 24.0% (24.0%). The sensitivity and specificity of 1 H-MRSI and PI-RADS v2 for extra-prostatic extension (EPE) were 64.0% (40%) and 20.0% (48%), and 50.0% (57.1%) and 71.4% (64.3%). The area under the ROC curves (AUC) for prediction of high-grade prostate cancer were 0.65 and 0.61 for PI-RADS v2 and 0.72 and 0.70 when combined with 1 H-MRSI (readers 1 and 2, p = 0.04 and 0.21). For prediction of EPE the AUC were 0.54 and 0.60 for PI-RADS v2 and 0.55 and 0.61 when combined with 1 H-MRSI ( p > 0.05). 1 H-MRSI might improve the discrimination of high-grade prostate cancer when combined to PI-RADS v2, particularly for PI-RADS v2 score 4 lesions, but it does not affect the prediction of EPE.

  17. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  18. Image guided radiation therapy applications for head and neck, prostate, and breast cancers using 3D ultrasound imaging and Monte Carlo dose calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Danielle

    In radiation therapy an uncertainty in the delivered dose always exists because anatomic changes are unpredictable and patient specific. Image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) relies on imaging in the treatment room to monitor the tumour and surrounding tissue to ensure their prescribed position in the radiation beam. The goal of this thesis was to determine the dosimetric impact on the misaligned radiation therapy target for three cancer sites due to common setup errors; organ motion, tumour tissue deformation, changes in body habitus, and treatment planning errors. For this purpose, a novel 3D ultrasound system (Restitu, Resonant Medical, Inc.) was used to acquire a reference image of the target in the computed tomography simulation room at the time of treatment planning, to acquire daily images in the treatment room at the time of treatment delivery, and to compare the daily images to the reference image. The measured differences in position and volume between daily and reference geometries were incorporated into Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. The EGSnrc (National Research Council, Canada) family of codes was used to model Varian linear accelerators and patient specific beam parameters, as well as to estimate the dose to the target and organs at risk under several different scenarios. After validating the necessity of MC dose calculations in the pelvic region, the impact of interfraction prostate motion, and subsequent patient realignment under the treatment beams, on the delivered dose was investigated. For 32 patients it is demonstrated that using 3D conformal radiation therapy techniques and a 7 mm margin, the prescribed dose to the prostate, rectum, and bladder is recovered within 0.5% of that planned when patient setup is corrected for prostate motion, despite the beams interacting with a new external surface and internal tissue boundaries. In collaboration with the manufacturer, the ultrasound system was adapted from transabdominal imaging to neck

  19. Molecular Characterization of Indolent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    prostate - specific antigen (PSA) test, and treated aggressively following diagnosis, leading to the contemporary problem of prostate cancer over-diagnosis... specific purpose of comparing low- risk and high-risk prostate cancer. Figure 3 shows the mapping rates for exon, intron, and inter-genic sequences. The...FFPE specimens, for the specific comparison of low-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. 5. Identified sufficient number of biopsy cases and sections

  20. A novel SPECT camera for molecular imaging of the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebula, Alan; Gilland, David; Su, Li-Ming; Wagenaar, Douglas; Bahadori, Amir

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an improved SPECT camera for dedicated prostate imaging. Complementing the recent advancements in agents for molecular prostate imaging, this device has the potential to assist in distinguishing benign from aggressive cancers, to improve site-specific localization of cancer, to improve accuracy of needle-guided prostate biopsy of cancer sites, and to aid in focal therapy procedures such as cryotherapy and radiation. Theoretical calculations show that the spatial resolution/detection sensitivity of the proposed SPECT camera can rival or exceed 3D PET and further signal-to-noise advantage is attained with the better energy resolution of the CZT modules. Based on photon transport simulation studies, the system has a reconstructed spatial resolution of 4.8 mm with a sensitivity of 0.0001. Reconstruction of a simulated prostate distribution demonstrates the focal imaging capability of the system.

  1. Paclitaxel-loaded iron platinum stealth immunomicelles are potent MRI imaging agents that prevent prostate cancer growth in a PSMA-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert M; Sillerud, Laurel O

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods: Problems with the clinical management of prostate cancer include the lack of both specific detection and efficient therapeutic intervention. We report the encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and paclitaxel in a mixture of polyethyleneglycolated, fluorescent, and biotin-functionalized phospholipids to create multifunctional SIPP-PTX micelles (SPMs) that were conjugated to an antibody against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for the specific targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and treatment of human prostate cancer xenografts in mice. Results: SPMs were 45.4 ± 24.9 nm in diameter and composed of 160.7 ± 22.9 μg/mL iron, 247.0 ± 33.4 μg/mL platinum, and 702.6 ± 206.0 μg/mL paclitaxel. Drug release measurements showed that, at 37°C, half of the paclitaxel was released in 30.2 hours in serum and two times faster in saline. Binding assays suggested that PSMA-targeted SPMs specifically bound to C4-2 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and released paclitaxel into the cells. In vitro, paclitaxel was 2.2 and 1.6 times more cytotoxic than SPMs to C4-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of incubation, respectively. After 72 hours of incubation, paclitaxel and SPMs were equally cytotoxic. SPMs had MRI transverse relaxivities of 389 ± 15.5 Hz/mM iron, and SIPP micelles with and without drug caused MRI contrast enhancement in vivo. Conclusion: Only PSMA-targeted SPMs and paclitaxel significantly prevented growth of C4-2 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, mice injected with PSMA-targeted SPMs showed significantly more paclitaxel and platinum in tumors, compared with nontargeted SPM-injected and paclitaxel-injected mice. PMID:22915856

  2. A study of T2-weighted MR image texture features and diffusion-weighted MR image features for computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Antic, Tatjana; Giger, Maryellen L.; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to study T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image texture features and diffusionweighted (DW) MR image features in distinguishing prostate cancer (PCa) from normal tissue. We collected two image datasets: 23 PCa patients (25 PCa and 23 normal tissue regions of interest [ROIs]) imaged with Philips MR scanners, and 30 PCa patients (41 PCa and 26 normal tissue ROIs) imaged with GE MR scanners. A radiologist drew ROIs manually via consensus histology-MR correlation conference with a pathologist. A number of T2-weighted texture features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features were investigated, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to combine select strong image features. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to characterize feature effectiveness in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue ROIs. Of the features studied, ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average yielded AUC values (+/-standard error) of 0.95+/-0.03, 0.94+/-0.03, and 0.85+/-0.05 on the Phillips images, and 0.91+/-0.04, 0.89+/-0.04, and 0.70+/-0.06 on the GE images, respectively. The three-feature combination yielded AUC values of 0.94+/-0.03 and 0.89+/-0.04 on the Phillips and GE images, respectively. ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average, are effective in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue, and appear robust in images acquired from Phillips and GE MR scanners.

  3. Five-Year Biochemical Results, Toxicity, and Patient-Reported Quality of Life After Delivery of Dose-Escalated Image Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Curtis, E-mail: cbryant@floridaproton.org; Smith, Tamara L.; Henderson, Randal H.

    Purpose: To report clinical outcomes in patients treated with image guided proton therapy (PT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 1327 men were reviewed. Each man was enrolled on an outcomes tracking study. Dual enrollment on a prospective clinical trial was allowed. Each patient was treated for localized prostate cancer with PT at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Ninety-eight percent of patients received 78 Gy (radiobiological equivalent [RBE]) or higher; 18% received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The 5-year freedom from biochemical progression (FFBP), distant metastasis-free survival, and cause-specific survival rates are reported for each risk group. Datamore » on patient-reported quality of life and high-grade toxicities were prospectively collected and reported. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify clinical predictors of biochemical failure and urologic toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.5 years. The 5-year FFBP rates were 99%, 94%, and 74% in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients, respectively. The actuarial 5-year rates of late grade 3+ Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were 0.6% and 2.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between grade 3+ GU toxicity and pretreatment prostate reductive procedures (P<.0001), prostate volume (P=.0085), pretreatment α-blockers (P=.0067), diabetes (P=.0195), and dose–volume histogram parameters (P=.0208). The median International Prostate Symptom Scores pretreatment scores and scores at 5 years after treatment were 7 and 7, respectively. The mean Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) scores significantly declined for sexual summary for patients not receiving ADT (from 67 to 53) between baseline and 5 years. Conclusions: Image guided PT provided excellent biochemical control rates for patients

  4. Monitoring tumor response of prostate cancer to radiation therapy by multi-parametric 1H and hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Vickie Yi

    Radiation therapy is one of the most common curative therapies for patients with localized prostate cancer, but despite excellent success rates, a significant number of patients suffer post- treatment cancer recurrence. The accurate characterization of early tumor response remains a major challenge for the clinical management of these patients. Multi-parametric MRI/1H MR spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) has been shown to increase the diagnostic performance in evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy. 1H MRSI can detect altered metabolic profiles in cancerous tissue. In this project, the concentrations of prostate metabolites from snap-frozen biopsies of recurrent cancer after failed radiation therapy were correlated with histopathological findings to identify quantitative biomarkers that predict for residual aggressive versus indolent cancer. The total choline to creatine ratio was significantly higher in recurrent aggressive versus indolent cancer, suggesting that use of a higher threshold tCho/Cr ratio in future in vivo 1H MRSI studies could improve the selection and therapeutic planning for patients after failed radiation therapy. Varying radiation doses may cause a diverse effect on prostate cancer micro-environment and metabolism, which could hold the key to improving treatment protocols for individual patients. The recent development and clinical translation of hyperpolarized 13C MRI have provided the ability to monitor both changes in the tumor micro-environment and its metabolism using a multi-probe approach, [1-13C]pyruvate and 13C urea, combined with 1H Multi-parametric MRI. In this thesis, hyperpolarized 13C MRI, 1H dynamic contrast enhancement, and diffusion weighted imaging were used to identify early radiation dose response in a transgenic prostate cancer model. Hyperpolarized pyruvate to lactate metabolism significantly decreased in a dose dependent fashion by 1 day after radiation therapy, prior to any changes observed using 1H DCE and diffusion

  5. Ability of preoperative 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to predict the absence of side-specific extracapsular extension of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Tohru; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Kawahara, Takashi; Manabe, Tomoko; Miyake, Mototaka; Arai, Eri; Kanai, Yae; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have shown an improvement in prostate cancer diagnosis with the use of 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. We retrospectively assessed the ability of this imaging technique to predict side-specific extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. From October 2007 to August 2011, prostatectomy was carried out in 396 patients after preoperative 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among these, 132 (primary sample) and 134 patients (validation sample) underwent 12-core prostate biopsy at the National Cancer Center Hospital of Tokyo, Japan, and at other institutions, respectively. In the primary dataset, univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to predict side-specific extracapsular extension using variables determined preoperatively, including 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging findings (T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging). A prediction model was then constructed and applied to the validation study sample. Multivariate analysis identified four significant independent predictors (P < 0.05), including a biopsy Gleason score of ≥8, positive 3.0-Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings, ≥2 positive biopsy cores on each side and a maximum percentage of positive cores ≥31% on each side. The negative predictive value was 93.9% in the combination model with these four predictors, meanwhile the positive predictive value was 33.8%. Good reproducibility of these four significant predictors and the combination model was observed in the validation study sample. The side-specific extracapsular extension prediction by the biopsy Gleason score and factors associated with tumor location, including a positive 3.0-Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging finding, have a high negative predictive value, but a low positive predictive value. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  7. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  8. (68)Ga-PSMA-11 dynamic PET/CT imaging in biochemical relapse of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sachpekidis, C; Eder, M; Kopka, K; Mier, W; Hadaschik, B A; Haberkorn, U; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A

    2016-07-01

    We aim to investigate the pharmacokinetics and distribution of the recently clinically introduced radioligand (68)Ga-PSMA-11 in men with recurrent prostate cancer (PC) by means of dynamic and whole-body PET/CT. The correlation between PSA levels and (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET parameters is also investigated. 31 patients with biochemical failure after primary PC treatment with curative intent (median age 71.0 years) were enrolled in the analysis. The median PSA value was 2.0 ng/mL (range = 0.1 - 130.0 ng/mL) and the median Gleason score was 7 (range = 5 - 9). 8/31 (25.8 %) of the included patients had a PSA value < 0.5 ng/ml. All patients underwent dynamic PET/CT (dPET/CT) scanning (60 min) of the pelvis and lower abdomen as well as whole-body PET/CT with (68)Ga-PSMA-11. dPET/CT assessment was based on qualitative evaluation, SUV calculation, and quantitative analysis based on a two-tissue compartment model and a non-compartmental approach leading to the extraction of fractal dimension (FD). 22/31 patients (71.0 %) were (68)Ga-PSMA-11-positive, while 9/31 (29.0 %) patients were (68)Ga-PSMA-11-negative. The median PSA value in the (68)Ga-PSMA-11-positive group was significantly higher (median = 2.35 ng/mL; range = 0.19 - 130.0 ng/mL) than in the (68)Ga-PSMA-11-negative group (median value: 0.34 ng/mL; range = 0.10 - 4.20 ng/mL). A total of 76 lesions were semi-quantitatively evaluated. PC recurrence-associated lesions demonstrated a mean SUVaverage = 12.4 (median = 9.0; range = 2.2 - 84.5) and mean SUVmax = 18.8 (median = 14.1; range = 3.1 - 120.3). Dynamic PET/CT studies of the pelvis revealed the following mean values for the PC recurrence-suspicious lesions: K1 = 0.26, k3 = 0.30, influx = 0.14 and FD = 1.24. Time-activity curves derived from PC-recurrence indicative lesions revealed an increasing (68)Ga-PSMA-11 accumulation during dynamic PET acquisition. Correlation analysis revealed a moderate, but

  9. Prostate cancer region prediction using MALDI mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamudi, Ayyappa; Chuang, Shao-Hui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Cazares, Lisa; Nyalwidhe, Julius; Troyer, Dean; Semmes, O. John; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2010-03-01

    For the early detection of prostate cancer, the analysis of the Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum is currently the most popular approach. However, previous studies show that 15% of men have prostate cancer even their PSA concentrations are low. MALDI Mass Spectrometry (MS) proves to be a better technology to discover molecular tools for early cancer detection. The molecular tools or peptides are termed as biomarkers. Using MALDI MS data from prostate tissue samples, prostate cancer biomarkers can be identified by searching for molecular or molecular combination that can differentiate cancer tissue regions from normal ones. Cancer tissue regions are usually identified by pathologists after examining H&E stained histological microscopy images. Unfortunately, histopathological examination is currently done on an adjacent slice because the H&E staining process will change tissue's protein structure and it will derogate MALDI analysis if the same tissue is used, while the MALDI imaging process will destroy the tissue slice so that it is no longer available for histopathological exam. For this reason, only the most confident cancer region resulting from the histopathological examination on an adjacent slice will be used to guide the biomarker identification. It is obvious that a better cancer boundary delimitation on the MALDI imaging slice would be beneficial. In this paper, we proposed methods to predict the true cancer boundary, using the MALDI MS data, from the most confident cancer region given by pathologists on an adjacent slice.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of DOTA-conjugated Bombesin/RGD-antagonists for prostate cancer tumor imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Stott Reynolds, Tamila J; Schehr, Rebecca; Liu, Dijie; Xu, Jingli; Miao, Yubin; Hoffman, Timothy J; Rold, Tammy L; Lewis, Michael R; Smith, Charles J

    2015-02-01

    Here we present the metallation, characterization, in vivo and in vitro evaluations of dual-targeting, peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals with utility for imaging and potentially treating prostate tumors by virtue of their ability to target the αVβ3 integrin or the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). [RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] (RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; Glu: glutamic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2)) was conjugated to a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) bifunctional chelator (BFCA) purified via reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and radiolabeled with (111)In or (177)Lu. Natural-metallated compounds were assessed for binding affinity for the αVβ3 integrin or GRPr in human glioblastoma U87-MG and prostate PC-3 cell lines and stability prior to in vivo evaluation in normal CF-1 mice and SCID mice xenografted with PC-3 cells. Competitive displacement binding assays with PC-3 and U87-MG cells revealed high to moderate binding affinity for the GRPr or the αVβ3 integrin (IC50 range of 5.39±1.37 nM to 9.26±0.00 nM in PC-3 cells, and a range of 255±47 nM to 321±85 nM in U87-MG cells). Biodistribution studies indicated high tumor uptake in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice (average of 7.40±0.53% ID/g at 1h post-intravenous injection) and prolonged retention of tracer (mean of 4.41±0.91% ID/g at 24h post-intravenous injection). Blocking assays corroborated the specificity of radioconjugates for each target. Micro-single photon emission computed tomography (microSPECT) confirmed favorable radiouptake profiles in xenografted mice at 20h post-injection. [RGD-Glu-[(111)In-DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] and [RGD-Glu-[(177)Lu- DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] show favorable pharmacokinetic and radiouptake profiles, meriting continued evaluation for molecular imaging in murine U87-MG/PC-3 xenograft models and radiotherapy studies with (177

  11. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  12. False-positive diagnosis of disease progression by magnetic resonance imaging for response assessment in prostate cancer with bone metastases: A case report and review of the pitfalls of images in the literature

    PubMed Central

    YU, YI-SHAN; LI, WAN-HU; LI, MING-HUAN; MENG, XUE; KONG, LI; YU, JIN-MING

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in prostate cancer. However, differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic alterations of bone on images is challenging. In the present report, a rare case of bone marrow reconversion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment, which may lead to a false-positive diagnosis of disease progression of bone metastases in hormone-resistant prostate cancer, is presented. Furthermore, a review of the literature regarding the pitfalls of images for response assessment, including the ‘flare’ phenomenon on bone scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT and marrow reconversion on MRI is also provided. These inaccuracies, which may lead to a premature termination of an efficacious treatment, should be carefully considered by the radiologists and oncologists involved in clinical trials. The case reported in the present study showed how to assess the early therapeutic response and select the appropriate treatment for the patient when these pitfalls are encountered on clinical images. PMID:26788174

  13. Decision Aids in Improving Knowledge in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-08

    Stage II Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; PSA Level Five to Ten; PSA Level Less Than Five; PSA Level Ten to Fifty

  14. Evaluation of the impact of computed high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging on prostate cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sadhna; Sarkar, Saradwata; Young, Jason; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Yang, Xu; Bhavsar, Anil; Patil, Nilesh; Donovan, James; Gaitonde, Krishnanath

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high b-value (b = 2000 s/mm(2)) acquired diffusion-weighted imaging (aDWI) with computed DWI (cDWI) obtained using four diffusion models-mono-exponential (ME), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM), stretched exponential (SE), and diffusional kurtosis (DK)-with respect to lesion visibility, conspicuity, contrast, and ability to predict significant prostate cancer (PCa). Ninety four patients underwent 3 T MRI including acquisition of b = 2000 s/mm(2) aDWI and low b-value DWI. High b = 2000 s/mm(2) cDWI was obtained using ME, IVIM, SE, and DK models. All images were scored on quality independently by three radiologists. Lesions were identified on all images and graded for lesion conspicuity. For a subset of lesions for which pathological truth was established, lesion-to-background contrast ratios (LBCRs) were computed and binomial generalized linear mixed model analysis was conducted to compare clinically significant PCa predictive capabilities of all DWI. For all readers and all models, cDWI demonstrated higher ratings for image quality and lesion conspicuity than aDWI except DK (p < 0.001). The LBCRs of ME, IVIM, and SE were significantly higher than LBCR of aDWI (p < 0.001). Receiver Operating Characteristic curves obtained from binomial generalized linear mixed model analysis demonstrated higher Area Under the Curves for ME, SE, IVIM, and aDWI compared to DK or PSAD alone in predicting significant PCa. High b-value cDWI using ME, IVIM, and SE diffusion models provide better image quality, lesion conspicuity, and increased LBCR than high b-value aDWI. Using cDWI can potentially provide comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting significant PCa as high b-value aDWI without increased scan times and image degradation artifacts.

  15. Transurethral prostate magnetic resonance elastography: prospective imaging requirements.

    PubMed

    Arani, Arvin; Plewes, Donald; Chopra, Rajiv

    2011-02-01

    Tissue stiffness is known to undergo alterations when affected by prostate cancer and may serve as an indicator of the disease. Stiffness measurements can be made with magnetic resonance elastography performed using a transurethral actuator to generate shear waves in the prostate gland. The goal of this study was to help determine the imaging requirements of transurethral magnetic resonance elastography and to evaluate whether the spatial and stiffness resolution of this technique overlapped with the requirements for prostate cancer detection. Through the use of prostate-mimicking gelatin phantoms, frequencies of at least 400 Hz were necessary to obtain accurate stiffness measurements of 10 mm diameter inclusions, but the detection of inclusions with diameters as small as 4.75 mm was possible at 200 Hz. The shear wave attenuation coefficient was measured in vivo in the canine prostate gland, and was used to predict the detectable penetration depth of shear waves in prostate tissue. These results suggested that frequencies below 200 Hz could propagate to the prostate boundary with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 60 and an actuator capable of producing 60 μm displacements. These requirements are achievable with current imaging and actuator technologies, and motivate further investigation of magnetic resonance elastography for the targeting of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  17. Echo-Planar Imaging Based J-Resolved Spectroscopic Imaging for Improved Metabolite Detection in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    parameters using the phantom (Months 6-12). Accomplished during September 29, 2011-October 28 2012: The sequence was tested using a prostate phantom...mI, Glu, Gln, sI, phosphoethanolamine and lactate using a GAMMA C++ library. Prostate metabolite quantitation has been tested using the ProFit...using phantom solutions containing metabolites and corn oil, the protocol has been successfully tested in healthy males, and malignant and BPH

  18. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Mark S; Tan, Hung-Jui

    2017-06-27

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis made in men with more than 160 000 new cases each year in the United States. Although it often has an indolent course, prostate cancer remains the third-leading cause of cancer death in men. When prostate cancer is suspected, tissue biopsy remains the standard of care for diagnosis. However, the identification and characterization of the disease have become increasingly precise through improved risk stratification and advances in magnetic resonance and functional imaging, as well as from the emergence of biomarkers. Multiple management options now exist for men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Active surveillance (the serial monitoring for disease progression with the intent to cure) appears to be safe and has become the preferred approach for men with less-aggressive prostate cancer, particularly those with a prostate-specific antigen level of less than 10 ng/mL and Gleason score 3 + 3 tumors. Surgery and radiation continue to be curative treatments for localized disease but have adverse effects such as urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction that can negatively affect quality of life. For metastatic disease, chemotherapy as initial treatment now appears to extend survival compared with androgen deprivation therapy alone. New vaccines, hormonal therapeutics, and bone-targeting agents have demonstrated efficacy in men with metastatic prostate cancer resistant to traditional hormonal therapy. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer have improved the ability to stratify patients by risk and allowed clinicians to recommend therapy based on cancer prognosis and patient preference. Initial treatment with chemotherapy can improve survival compared with androgen deprivation therapy. Abiraterone, enzalutamide, and other agents can improve outcomes in men with metastatic prostate cancer resistant to traditional hormonal therapy.

  19. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    American Uro logic Association (AUA). (4) Talks to prostate cancer survivor support groups in at the University of Iowa, Mercy Medical Center in Cedar... lo cation at 6 A M, going fr om his ster num to his abdomen". He was pr omptly evaluated by the research team and had an EKG and troponin which

  20. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Toiletries (soap, shampoo , deodorant, etc.) Shower shoes- flip flops Shower caddy Robe/ pajamas/ lounge wear Notebook paper, pens, pencils...Research Scholars Program Evaluation Survey ‐ A Summary 1. How satisfied are you with the Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Scholars Program (NPCRSP

  2. A supervoxel-based segmentation method for prostate MR images.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lizhi; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Xue, Jianru; Fei, Baowei

    2017-02-01

    Segmentation of the prostate on MR images has many applications in prostate cancer management. In this work, we propose a supervoxel-based segmentation method for prostate MR images. A supervoxel is a set of pixels that have similar intensities, locations, and textures in a 3D image volume. The prostate segmentation problem is considered as assigning a binary label to each supervoxel, which is either the prostate or background. A supervoxel-based energy function with data and smoothness terms is used to model the label. The data term estimates the likelihood of a supervoxel belonging to the prostate by using a supervoxel-based shape feature. The geometric relationship between two neighboring supervoxels is used to build the smoothness term. The 3D graph cut is used to minimize the energy function to get the labels of the supervoxels, which yields the prostate segmentation. A 3D active contour model is then used to get a smooth surface by using the output of the graph cut as an initialization. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on 30 in-house MR image data and PROMISE12 dataset. The mean Dice similarity coefficients are 87.2 ± 2.3% and 88.2 ± 2.8% for our 30 in-house MR volumes and the PROMISE12 dataset, respectively. The proposed segmentation method yields a satisfactory result for prostate MR images. The proposed supervoxel-based method can accurately segment prostate MR images and can have a variety of application in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen PET: Clinical Utility in Prostate Cancer, Normal Patterns, Pearls, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J; Maurer, Tobias; Eiber, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast. Currently, gallium 68 ( 68 Ga)-PSMA-11 (or HBED-PSMA) is the most widely used radiotracer for PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PSMA PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Evolving evidence demonstrates superior sensitivity and specificity of PSMA PET compared to conventional imaging, with frequent identification of subcentimeter prostate cancer lesions. PSMA PET is effective for imaging disease in the prostate, lymph nodes, soft tissue, and bone in a "one-stop-shop" examination. There is emerging evidence for its clinical value in staging of high-risk primary prostate cancer and localization of disease in biochemical recurrence. The high sensitivity provided by PSMA PET, with frequent identification of small-volume disease, is redefining patterns of disease spread compared with those seen at conventional imaging. In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, PSMA PET is frequently used for theranostic selection (eg, lutetium 177-PSMA radionuclide therapy), but its potential use for therapy monitoring is still under debate. However, evidence on its proper use to improve patient-related outcomes, particularly in the setting of early biochemical recurrence and targeted treatment of oligometastatic disease, is still missing. Despite the term prostate specific, PSMA functions as a folate hydrolase and is expressed in a range of normal tissues and in other benign and malignant processes. Knowledge of its physiologic distribution and other causes of uptake is essential to minimize false-positive imaging findings. © RSNA, 2018.

  4. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    García Garzón, J R; de Arcocha Torres, M; Delgado-Bolton, R; Ceci, F; Alvarez Ruiz, S; Orcajo Rincón, J; Caresia Aróztegui, A P; García Velloso, M J; García Vicente, A M

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 68 Ga-PSMA is a non-invasive diagnostic technique to image prostate cancer with increased prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression. PSMA is a transmembrane protein present in all prostatic tissues. Increased PSMA expression is seen in several malignancies, although prostate cancer is the tumour where it presents higher concentrations. Almost all prostate adenocarcinomas show PSMA expression in most of lesions, primary and metastatic. Immunohistochemistry has demonstrated that the expression of PSMA increases in patients with de-differentiated, metastatic or hormone-refractory tumours. Moreover, the expression level of PSMA has a prognostic value for disease outcome. PET measures the three-dimensional distribution of 68 Ga-PSMA, producing semi-quantitative images that allow for non-invasive assessment of PSMA expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Management Options for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent. In selected cases, high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy may be considered in patients that meet very narrow criteria as defined by non-randomized trials. If salvage options are not practical or unsuccessful, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard option for disease control. While some patients prefer ADT to manage the disease immediately, others defer treatment because of the associated toxicity. In the absence of definitive randomized data, patients may be followed using PSA doubling time as a trigger to initiate ADT. Based on retrospective data, a PSA doubling time of less than 3-6 months has been associated with near-term development of metastasis and thus could be used signal to initiate ADT. Once treatment is begun, patients and their providers can choose between an intermittent and continuous ADT strategy. The intermittent approach may limit side effects but in patients with metastatic disease studies could not exclude a 20% greater risk of death. In men with biochemical recurrence, large studies have shown that intermittent therapy is non-inferior to continuous therapy, thus making this a reasonable option. Since biochemically recurrent prostate cancer is defined by technological limitations of radiographic detection, as new imaging (i.e., PSMA) strategies are developed, it may alter how the disease is

  6. Imaging of bioluminescent LNCaP-luc-M6 tumors: a new animal model for the study of metastatic human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Caroline D; Hepner, Mischa A; Oei, Yoko A; Dusich, Joan M; Yu, Shang-Fan; Purchio, Tony; Contag, Pamela R; Jenkins, Darlene E

    2004-05-15

    Animal experiments examining hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer using the human LNCaP cell line have been limited to endpoint analyses. To permit longitudinal studies, we generated a luciferase-expressing cell line and used bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to non-invasively monitor the in vivo growth of primary LNCaP tumors and metastasis. LNCaP.FGC cells were transfected to constitutively express firefly luciferase. LNCaP-luc-M6 cells were tested for bioluminescent signal intensity and hormone responsiveness in vitro. The cells were implanted in subcutaneous and orthotopic sites in SCID-bg mice and imaged over time. The LNCaP-luc-M6 cells formed subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors in SCID-bg mice, and nearly all tumor-bearing animals developed pulmonary metastases. Early detection and temporal growth of primary tumors and metastatic lesions was successfully monitored by BLI. The LNCaP-luc-M6 cell line is a bioluminescent, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line applicable for BLI studies to non-invasively monitor subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Optimized color decomposition of localized whole slide images and convolutional neural network for intermediate prostate cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Naiyun; Gao, Yi

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a fully automatic approach to grade intermediate prostate malignancy with hematoxylin and eosin-stained whole slide images. Deep learning architectures such as convolutional neural networks have been utilized in the domain of histopathology for automated carcinoma detection and classification. However, few work show its power in discriminating intermediate Gleason patterns, due to sporadic distribution of prostate glands on stained surgical section samples. We propose optimized hematoxylin decomposition on localized images, followed by convolutional neural network to classify Gleason patterns 3+4 and 4+3 without handcrafted features or gland segmentation. Crucial glands morphology and structural relationship of nuclei are extracted twice in different color space by the multi-scale strategy to mimic pathologists' visual examination. Our novel classification scheme evaluated on 169 whole slide images yielded a 70.41% accuracy and corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.7247.

  8. 68Ga Bombesin PET/MRI in Patients with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer and Noncontributory Conventional Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702...AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR...prostate cancer (PCa). Methods : We enrolled 15 men with biochemically recurrent PCa from May to Sep 2017, 63-79 year-old (mean±standard deviation (SD

  9. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    to develop dendrimer -based theranostic agent with prostate cancer specificity and positron emission tomography imaging capability that can prevent...laboratories to develop a new molecular medicine. The goal of this project is to construct dendrimer nanoconjuate containing a prostate specific...cell permeation peptide, peptide therapeutic(s) and bifunctional chelator for PET imaging. Dr. Simanek’s laboratory will make dendrimers that bear

  10. Roswell Park Cancer Institute / Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH