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Sample records for protect rhesus monkeys

  1. Protective Efficacy of Adenovirus/Protein Vaccines Against SIV Challenges in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit; Broge, Thomas; Linde, Caitlyn; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Brown, Eric P.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Smith, Kaitlin M.; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Liu, Jinyan; Shields, Jennifer; Parenteau, Lily; Whitney, James B.; Abbink, Peter; Ng’ang’a, David M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Lavine, Christy L.; Perry, James R.; Li, Wenjun; Colantonio, Arnaud D.; Lewis, Mark G.; Chen, Bing; Wenschuh, Holger; Reimer, Ulf; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Handley, Scott A.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Lorin, Clarisse; Voss, Gerald; Weijtens, Mo; Pau, Maria G.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies of viral vector-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against stringent virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by boosting with a purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Rhesus monkeys primed with Ad26 vectors expressing SIVsmE543 Env/Gag/Pol antigens and boosted with AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H Env gp140 demonstrated complete protection in 50% of vaccinated animals against a series of repetitive, heterologous, intrarectal SIVmac251 challenges that infected all controls. Protective efficacy correlated with the functionality of Env-specific antibody responses. Comparable protection was also observed with a similar Ad/Env vaccine against repetitive, heterologous, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. These data demonstrate robust protection by Ad/Env vaccines against acquisition of stringent virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. PMID:26138104

  2. Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Abbink, Peter; Larocca, Rafael A; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Bricault, Christine A; Moseley, Edward T; Boyd, Michael; Kirilova, Marinela; Li, Zhenfeng; Ng'ang'a, David; Nanayakkara, Ovini; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Borducchi, Erica N; Agarwal, Arshi; Brinkman, Amanda L; Cabral, Crystal; Chandrashekar, Abishek; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Jimenez, Jessica; Lee, Benjamin C; Mojta, Shanell; Molloy, Katherine; Shetty, Mayuri; Neubauer, George H; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Misamore, Johnathan; Finneyfrock, Brad; Lewis, Mark G; Alter, Galit; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major ongoing epidemic in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly. The development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is therefore an urgent global health priority. Here we demonstrate that three different vaccine platforms protect against ZIKV challenge in rhesus monkeys. A purified inactivated virus vaccine induced ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV strains from both Brazil and Puerto Rico. Purified immunoglobulin from vaccinated monkeys also conferred passive protection in adoptive transfer studies. A plasmid DNA vaccine and a single-shot recombinant rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 vector vaccine, both expressing ZIKV premembrane and envelope, also elicited neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV challenge. These data support the rapid clinical development of ZIKV vaccines for humans. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Semenov, Leonid F.; Suvorov, Nikolai N.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Ushakov, Igor B.; Ilyin, Leonid A.; Lapin, Boris A.

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2–3-years-old and weighing 2.1–3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40–120 mg kg–1) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg–1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3–94.3) mg kg–1, and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg–1. Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. PMID:25012697

  4. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Vasin, Mikhail V; Semenov, Leonid F; Suvorov, Nikolai N; Antipov, Vsevolod V; Ushakov, Igor B; Ilyin, Leonid A; Lapin, Boris A

    2014-11-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from (60)Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg(-1) protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg(-1), and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg(-1). Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Partial protection of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys against superinfection with a heterologous SIV isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence that individuals already infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be infected with a heterologous strain of the virus, the extent of protection against superinfection conferred by the first infection and the biologic consequences of superinfection are not well understood. We explored these questions in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus monkey model of HIV-1/AIDS. We infected cohorts of rhesus monkeys with either SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 and then exposed animals to the reciprocal virus through intrarectal inoculations. Employing a quantitative real-time PCR assay, we determined the replication kinetics of the two strains of virus for 20 weeks. We found that primary infection with a replication-competent virus did not protect against acquisition of infection by a heterologous virus but did confer relative control of the superinfecting virus. In animals that became superinfected, there was a reduction in peak replication and rapid control of the second virus. The relative susceptibility to superinfection was not correlated with CD4(+) T-cell count, CD4(+) memory T-cell subsets, cytokine production by virus-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) cells, or neutralizing antibodies at the time of exposure to the second virus. Although there were transient increases in viral loads of the primary virus and a modest decline in CD4(+) T-cell counts after superinfection, there was no evidence of disease acceleration. These findings indicate that an immunodeficiency virus infection confers partial protection against a second immunodeficiency virus infection, but this protection may be mediated by mechanisms other than classical adaptive immune responses.

  6. Partial protection of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys against superinfection with a heterologous SIV isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence that individuals already infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be infected with a heterologous strain of the virus, the extent of protection against superinfection conferred by the first infection and the biologic consequences of superinfection are not well understood. We explored these questions in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus monkey model of HIV-1/AIDS. We infected cohorts of rhesus monkeys with either SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 and then exposed animals to the reciprocal virus through intrarectal inoculations. Employing a quantitative real-time PCR assay, we determined the replication kinetics of the two strains of virusmore » for 20 weeks. We found that primary infection with a replication-competent virus did not protect against acquisition of infection by a heterologous virus but did confer relative control of the superinfecting virus. In animals that became superinfected, there was a reduction in peak replication and rapid control of the second virus. The relative susceptibility to superinfection was not correlated with CD4(+) T-cell count, CD4(+) memory T-cell subsets, cytokine production by virus-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) cells, or neutralizing antibodies at the time of exposure to the second virus. Although there were transient increases in viral loads of the primary virus and a modest decline in CD4(+) T-cell counts after superinfection, there was no evidence of disease acceleration. These findings indicate that an immunodeficiency virus infection confers partial protection against a second immunodeficiency virus infection, but this protection may be mediated by mechanisms other than classical adaptive immune responses.« less

  7. A single phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer targeting VP24 protects rhesus monkeys against lethal Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Warren, Travis K; Whitehouse, Chris A; Wells, Jay; Welch, Lisa; Heald, Alison E; Charleston, Jay S; Sazani, Pete; Reid, St Patrick; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

    2015-02-10

    Ebola viruses (EBOV) cause severe disease in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates and continue to emerge in new geographic locations, including several countries in West Africa, the site of a large ongoing outbreak. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are synthetic antisense molecules that are able to target mRNAs in a sequence-specific fashion and suppress translation through steric hindrance. We previously showed that the use of PMOs targeting a combination of VP35 and VP24 protected rhesus monkeys from lethal EBOV infection. Surprisingly, the present study revealed that a PMOplus compound targeting VP24 alone was sufficient to confer protection from lethal EBOV infection but that a PMOplus targeting VP35 alone resulted in no protection. This study further substantiates recent data demonstrating that VP24 may be a key virulence factor encoded by EBOV and suggests that VP24 is a promising target for the development of effective anti-EBOV countermeasures. Several West African countries are currently being ravaged by an outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) that has become a major epidemic affecting not only these African countries but also Europe and the United States. A better understanding of the mechanism of virulence of EBOV is important for the development of effective treatments, as no licensed treatments or vaccines for EBOV disease are currently available. This study of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) targeting the mRNAs of two different EBOV proteins, alone and in combination, demonstrated that targeting a single protein was effective at conferring a significant survival benefit in an EBOV lethal primate model. Future development of PMOs with efficacy against EBOV will be simplified if only one PMO is required instead of a combination, particularly in terms of regulatory approval. Copyright © 2015 Warren et al.

  8. Protection of Rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration ofmore » FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman. Acetylcholinesterase; protection; non-human primates; soman; pretreatment.« less

  9. Protection of Rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman. Acetylcholinesterase; protection; non-human primates; soman; pretreatment.

  10. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration ofmore » FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.« less

  11. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.

  12. Protection from radiation-induced damage of spermatogenesis in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) by follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; de Rooij, D.G.

    1989-02-01

    In adult rhesus monkeys a two- to threefold increase in the number of spermatogonia was found at Day 75 after 1 Gy of X-irradiation when the animals were pretreated with two intramuscular injections of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) each day. Also the percentage of cross-sections of seminiferous tubules showing spermatogonia (repopulation index) was much higher when FSH was given before irradiation. At 75 days postirradiation the repopulation index was 39 +/- 10% after irradiation alone and 81 +/- 11% when FSH pretreatment was applied. The pretreatment with two injections of FSH each day during 16 days caused an increase in the number of proliferating A spermatogonia. In view of earlier results in the mouse, where proliferating spermatogonial stem cells appeared more radioresistant than quiescent ones, it is suggested that the protective effects of FSH treatment are caused by the increase in the proliferative activity of the A spermatogonia and consequently of the spermatogonial stem cells. The results indicate that in the rhesus monkey the maximal protective effect of FSH is reached after a period of treatment between 7 and 16 days.

  13. Protection from radiation-induced damage of spermatogenesis in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) by follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; de Rooij, D.G.

    1989-02-01

    In adult rhesus monkeys a two- to threefold increase in the number of spermatogonia was found at Day 75 after 1 Gy of X-irradiation when the animals were pretreated with two intramuscular injections of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) each day. Also the percentage of cross-sections of seminiferous tubules showing spermatogonia (repopulation index) was much higher when FSH was given before irradiation. At 75 days postirradiation the repopulation index was 39 +/- 10% after irradiation alone and 81 +/- 11% when FSH pretreatment was applied. The pretreatment with two injections of FSH each day during 16 days caused an increase in themore » number of proliferating A spermatogonia. In view of earlier results in the mouse, where proliferating spermatogonial stem cells appeared more radioresistant than quiescent ones, it is suggested that the protective effects of FSH treatment are caused by the increase in the proliferative activity of the A spermatogonia and consequently of the spermatogonial stem cells. The results indicate that in the rhesus monkey the maximal protective effect of FSH is reached after a period of treatment between 7 and 16 days.« less

  14. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  15. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Spontaneous metacognition in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2017-01-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about one’s own thoughts. Although monitoring and controlling one’s knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. The largest nonhuman sample to date (n=120 monkeys) experienced one of four conditions in which they observed a human hiding a food reward in an array of tubes. Monkeys searched the correct location when they observed the baiting event, but engaged in information–seeking—by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots—if their view was occluded. Monkeys rarely approached the center when information-seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses without any prior experience. PMID:27388917

  17. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  18. Use of cholinesterases as pretreatment drugs for the protection of rhesus monkeys against soman toxicity. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.D.; Blick, D.W.; Murphy, M.R.

    1992-12-31

    Purified fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase (FBS AChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were successfully used as single pretreatment drugs for the prevention of pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman) toxicity in nonhuman primates. Eight rhesus monkeys, trained to perform Primate Equilibrium Platform (PEP) tasks, were pretreated with FBS AChE or BChE and challenged with a cumulative level of five median lethal doses (LD 50) of soman. All ChE-pretreated monkeys survived the soman challenge and showed no symptoms of soman toxicity. A quantitative linear relation was observed between the soman dose and the neutralization of blood ChE. None of the four AChE-pretreated animals showedmore » PEP task decrements, even though administration of soman irreversibly inhibited nearly all of the exogenously administered AChE. In two of four BChE pretreated animals, a small transient PEP performance decrement occurred when the cumulative soman dose exceeded 4 LD 50. Performance decrements observed under BCh E protection mete modest by the usual standards of organophosphorus compound toxicity. No residual or delayed performance decrements or other untoward effects were observed during 6 weeks of postexposure testing with either ChE.... Cholinesterases, Pretreatment, Soman, AChE, BChE, Toxicity.« less

  19. Use of cholinesterases as pretreatment drugs for the protection of rhesus monkeys against soman toxicity. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.D.; Blick, D.W.; Murphy, M.R.; Miller, S.A.; Gentry, M.K.

    1992-12-31

    Purified fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase (FBS AChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were successfully used as single pretreatment drugs for the prevention of pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman) toxicity in nonhuman primates. Eight rhesus monkeys, trained to perform Primate Equilibrium Platform (PEP) tasks, were pretreated with FBS AChE or BChE and challenged with a cumulative level of five median lethal doses (LD 50) of soman. All ChE-pretreated monkeys survived the soman challenge and showed no symptoms of soman toxicity. A quantitative linear relation was observed between the soman dose and the neutralization of blood ChE. None of the four AChE-pretreated animals showed PEP task decrements, even though administration of soman irreversibly inhibited nearly all of the exogenously administered AChE. In two of four BChE pretreated animals, a small transient PEP performance decrement occurred when the cumulative soman dose exceeded 4 LD 50. Performance decrements observed under BCh E protection mete modest by the usual standards of organophosphorus compound toxicity. No residual or delayed performance decrements or other untoward effects were observed during 6 weeks of postexposure testing with either ChE.... Cholinesterases, Pretreatment, Soman, AChE, BChE, Toxicity.

  20. Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2011-01-01

    Summary Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the 4-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible. PMID:22225614

  1. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  2. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  3. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  4. Spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M; Mansfield, K G

    1999-06-01

    Spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates are of great importance. A spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma was observed in an 18-year-old female rhesus monkey. Grossly, the visceral pericardium was multifocally irregular and thickened with tan discoloration and was soft in consistency. Histologically, the pericardium contained highly in-folded branching fronds lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells. Tumor invaded into approximately half of the thickness of the atrial and ventricular muscles. Tumor penetration was not observed into the atrial or ventricular cavity. Within the myocardium, neoplastic cells formed glandular structures which were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells. Neoplastic cells were weakly positive with PAS and strongly positive for colloid iron and alcian blue. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for both vimentin and cytokeratin and negative with CEA and Leu-M1, indicating mesothelial origin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey.

  5. Sequential planning in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Danly, Erin; Morgan, Gin; Colombo, Michael; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the planning abilities of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by training them on a five-item list composed of coloured photographs and then testing them on switch and mask trials. In contrast to previous studies where monkeys made responses using a joystick, in the current study, monkeys made responses directly to a touch screen. On switch trials, after a response to the first list item, the on-screen positions of two list items were exchanged. Performance on trials in which the second and third list items were exchanged was poorer compared to normal (non-switch) trials for all subjects. When the third and fourth items were exchanged, however, only one subject continued to show performance deficits. On mask trials, following a response to the first item, the remaining items were covered by opaque white squares. When two items were masked, all four subjects responded to each masked item at a level significantly above chance. When three items were masked, however, only one subjected was able to respond to all three masked items at a level significantly above chance. The results of the present study indicate that three of our four monkeys planned one response ahead while a single monkey planned two responses ahead. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous studies on planning in chimpanzees and monkeys. PMID:21184125

  6. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  7. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  8. Collection and quality of rhesus monkey semen.

    PubMed

    Lanzendorf, S E; Gliessman, P M; Archibong, A E; Alexander, M; Wolf, D P

    1990-01-01

    Electroejaculation is an accepted method of semen collection from nonhuman primates. Although both penile and rectal probe stimulation techniques have been used, there has been a general lack of consistency and detail regarding their application. This report describes the collection, processing, and evaluation of rhesus monkey semen contrasting two methods of penile electroejaculation: 1) a constant-voltage method where stimulus current is a variable and 2) a constant-current method where stimulus current is operator-controlled. The constant-current method was the more efficient procedure, requiring a lower stimulus current for successful electroejaculation. The influence on semen quality of potentially toxic agents used in the procedure, surgical glove powder and electrolyte cream, was tested; both were detrimental as measured by motility loss. No correlation was found between coagula volume and sperm numbers. The intra- and interanimal variability in semen samples from six monkeys was also evaluated. Penile electroejaculation, combined with control of stimulus current, provides a consistent, successful, and humane method for the collection of semen in the rhesus monkey.

  9. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Stephens, L.C.; Price, R.E.

    1994-04-30

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determinemore » parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D[sub 50] = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  10. Competitive control of cognition in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kowaguchi, Mayuka; Patel, Nirali P; Bunnell, Megan E; Kralik, Jerald D

    2016-12-01

    The brain has evolved different approaches to solve problems, but the mechanisms that determine which approach to take remain unclear. One possibility is that control progresses from simpler processes, such as associative learning, to more complex ones, such as relational reasoning, when the simpler ones prove inadequate. Alternatively, control could be based on competition between the processes. To test between these possibilities, we posed the support problem to rhesus monkeys using a tool-use paradigm, in which subjects could pull an object (the tool) toward themselves to obtain an otherwise out-of-reach goal item. We initially provided one problem exemplar as a choice: for the correct option, a food item placed on the support tool; for the incorrect option, the food item placed off the tool. Perceptual cues were also correlated with outcome: e.g., red, triangular tool correct, blue, rectangular tool incorrect. Although the monkeys simply needed to touch the tool to register a response, they immediately pulled it, reflecting a relational reasoning process between themselves and another object (R self-other ), rather than an associative one between the arbitrary touch response and reward (A resp-reward ). Probe testing then showed that all four monkeys used a conjunction of perceptual features to select the correct option, reflecting an associative process between stimuli and reward (A stim-reward ). We then added a second problem exemplar and subsequent testing revealed that the monkeys switched to using the on/off relationship, reflecting a relational reasoning process between two objects (R other-other ). Because behavior appeared to reflect R self-other rather than A resp-reward , and A stim-reward prior to R other-other , our results suggest that cognitive processes are selected via competitive control dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys confers protection and elicits sporozoite-specific memory T cells in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Michele D.; Yongvanitchit, Kosol; Kum-Arb, Utaiwan; Limsalakpetch, Amporn; Im-Erbsin, Rawiwan; Ubalee, Ratawan; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Remarque, Edmond J.; Angov, Evelina; Smith, Philip L.; Saunders, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Whole malaria sporozoite vaccine regimens are promising new strategies, and some candidates have demonstrated high rates of durable clinical protection associated with memory T cell responses. Little is known about the anatomical distribution of memory T cells following whole sporozoite vaccines, and immunization of nonhuman primates can be used as a relevant model for humans. We conducted a chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite (CPS) immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys and challenged via mosquito bites. Half of CPS immunized animals developed complete protection, with a marked delay in parasitemia demonstrated in the other half. Antibody responses to whole sporozoites, CSP, and AMA1, but not CelTOS were detected. Peripheral blood T cell responses to whole sporozoites, but not CSP and AMA1 peptides were observed. Unlike peripheral blood, there was a high frequency of sporozoite-specific memory T cells observed in the liver and bone marrow. Interestingly, sporozoite-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells in the liver highly expressed chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR6, both of which are known for liver sinusoid homing. The majority of liver sporozoite-specific memory T cells expressed CD69, a phenotypic marker of tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells, which are well positioned to rapidly control liver-stage infection. Vaccine strategies that aim to elicit large number of liver TRM cells may efficiently increase the efficacy and durability of response against pre-erythrocytic parasites. PMID:28182750

  12. Automatic brain segmentation in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Joshi, Sarang; Coe, Christopher; Short, Sarah J.; Gilmore, John

    2007-03-01

    Many neuroimaging studies are applied to primates as pathologies and environmental exposures can be studied in well-controlled settings and environment. In this work, we present a framework for both the semi-automatic creation of a rhesus monkey atlas and a fully automatic segmentation of brain tissue and lobar parcellation. We determine the atlas from training images by iterative, joint deformable registration into an unbiased average image. On this atlas, probabilistic tissue maps and a lobar parcellation. The atlas is then applied via affine, followed by deformable registration. The affinely transformed atlas is employed for a joint T1/T2 based tissue classification. The deformed atlas parcellation masks the tissue segmentations to define the parcellation. Other regional definitions on the atlas can also straightforwardly be used as segmentation. We successfully built average atlas images for the T1 and T2 datasets using a developmental training datasets of 18 cases aged 16-34 months. The atlas clearly exhibits an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio compared to the original images. The results further show that the cortical folding variability in our data is highly limited. Our segmentation and parcellation procedure was successfully re-applied to all training images, as well as applied to over 100 additional images. The deformable registration was able to identify corresponding cortical sulcal borders accurately. Even though the individual methods used in this segmentation framework have been applied before on human data, their combination is novel, as is their adaptation and application to rhesus monkey MRI data. The reduced variability present in the primate data results in a segmentation pipeline that exhibits high stability and anatomical accuracy.

  13. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  14. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei

    1992-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  15. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Ferraro, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.; Klimovitsky, V.; Magedov, V.; Alpatov, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer.

  16. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  17. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  18. Rhesus monkey aqueous humor composition and a primate ocular perfusate.

    PubMed

    Gaasterland, D E; Pederson, J E; MacLellan, H M; Reddy, V N

    1979-11-01

    The composition of rhesus monkey aqueous humor has been studied in large-volume, pooled samples. Replicate determinations of the concentrations of a number of constituents have been carried out for both aqueous humor and serum from large veins by means of automatic analyzing equipment. Since aqueous humor has been obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis, it is a mixture of anterior and posterior chamber aqueous. When compared to serum, the pooled aqueous contains an excess of chloride, bicarbonate, ascorbate, lactate, uric acid, and several neutral amino acids. Rhesus monkey aqueous humor is deficient in calcium, urea nitrogen, phosphates, glucose, protein, creatinine, iron, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, a number of serum enzymes, acidic and basic amino acids, and several neutral amino acids. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, and two neutral amino acids (cysteine and valine) are of equal concentration in aqueous humor and serum. Glutathione concentration is very low in both aqueous humor and serum. Pooled rhesus monkey aqueous humor and serum are isosmolar, with measured osmolality being about 303 mOsm. Based upon the chemical analysis, a new solution has been formulated to substitute for primate aqueous humor during anterior ocular perfusion. This new solution causes very little change in the physiologic integrity of the outflow pathways during prolonged, repeated perfusion. In this respect, its effects are very similar to those of pooled rhesus monkey aqueous humor during perfusion of rhesus monkey eyes. In contrast, perfusion of rhesus monkey eyes with glutathione-bicarbonate-Ringer's solution has been shown to cause progressive increase of the total facility. To minimize physiologic alterations during operative procedures, a solution similar to this new one could be formulated for irrigation of the inside of the human eye.

  19. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  20. RHESUS MONKEY - SAM - POSTFLIGHT - LITTLE JOE II (LJ-2) SPACECRAFT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-10-23

    S63-19199 (4 Dec. 1959) --- Sam, the Rhesus monkey, and his handler after his ride in the Little Joe 2 (LJ-2) spacecraft. He is still encased in his contour couch. A U.S. Navy destroyer safely recovered Sam after he experienced three minutes of weightlessness during the flight. Photo credit: NASA

  1. The Effects of Ketamine on Rhesus Monkey Skeletal Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Urine creatinine and calcium , and serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium levels were determined. Vertebral centrum compression tests were conducted...serum, urine calcium creatimine Rhesus monkey ~ 19 cant. ketamine as stress and age difference were other influencing factors. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...analysis was conducted following a 28 day exposure with eight ketamine injections. Biochemical analysis included urine and serum calcium , urine creatinine

  2. Use of a Recombinant Gamma-2 Herpesvirus Vaccine Vector against Dengue Virus in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Georg F; Magnani, Diogo M; Ricciardi, Michael; Shin, Young C; Domingues, Aline; Bailey, Varian K; Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas; Rakasz, Eva G; Watkins, David I; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2017-08-15

    Research on vaccine approaches that can provide long-term protection against dengue virus infection is needed. Here we describe the construction, immunogenicity, and preliminary information on the protective capacity of recombinant, replication-competent rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a persisting herpesvirus. One RRV construct expressed nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), while a second recombinant expressed a soluble variant of the E protein (E85) of dengue virus 2 (DENV2). Four rhesus macaques received a single vaccination with a mixture of both recombinant RRVs and were subsequently challenged 19 weeks later with 1 × 10 5 PFU of DENV2. During the vaccine phase, plasma of all vaccinated monkeys showed neutralizing activity against DENV2. Cellular immune responses against NS5 were also elicited, as evidenced by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) tetramer staining in the one vaccinated monkey that was Mamu-A*01 positive. Unlike two of two unvaccinated controls, two of the four vaccinated monkeys showed no detectable viral RNA sequences in plasma after challenge. One of these two monkeys also showed no anamnestic increases in antibody levels following challenge and thus appeared to be protected against the acquisition of DENV2 following high-dose challenge. Continued study will be needed to evaluate the performance of herpesviral and other persisting vectors for achieving long-term protection against dengue virus infection. IMPORTANCE Continuing studies of vaccine approaches against dengue virus (DENV) infection are warranted, particularly ones that may provide long-term immunity against all four serotypes. Here we investigated whether recombinant rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) could be used as a vaccine against DENV2 infection in rhesus monkeys. Upon vaccination, all animals generated antibodies capable of neutralizing DENV2. Two of four vaccinated monkeys showed no detectable viral RNA after subsequent high-dose DENV2 challenge at 19 weeks

  3. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Schroeder, Gabriel R.; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals “succeed” in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory. PMID:25365530

  4. Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wright, A A; Rivera, J J; Hulse, S H; Shyan, M; Neiworth, J J

    2000-09-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were tested for octave generalization in 8 experiments by transposing 6- and 7-note musical passages by an octave and requiring same or different judgments. The monkeys showed no octave generalization to random-synthetic melodies, atonal melodies, or individual notes. They did show complete octave generalization to childhood songs (e.g., "Happy Birthday") and tonal melodies (from a tonality algorithm). Octave generalization was equally strong for 2-octave transpositions but not for 0.5- or 1.5-octave transpositions of childhood songs. These results combine to show that tonal melodies form musical gestalts for monkeys, as they do for humans, and retain their identity when transposed with whole octaves so that chroma (key) is preserved. This conclusion implicates similar transduction, storage, processing, and relational memory of musical passages in monkeys and humans and has implications for nature-nurture origins of music perception.

  5. Eye movements of rhesus monkeys directed towards imaginary targets.

    PubMed

    Ilg, U J; Thier, P

    1999-06-01

    Is the presence of foveal stimulation a necessary prerequisite for rhesus monkeys to perform visually guided eye movements? To answer this question, we trained two rhesus monkeys to direct their eyes towards imaginary targets defined by extrafoveal cues. Independent of the type of target, real or imaginary, the trajectory of target movement determined the type of eye movement produced: steps in target position resulted in saccades and ramps in target position resulted in smooth pursuit eye movements. There was a tendency for the latency of saccades as well as pursuit onset latency to be delayed in the case of an imaginary target in comparison to the real target. The initial eye acceleration during smooth pursuit initiation elicited by an imaginary target decreased in comparison to the acceleration elicited by a real target. The steady-state pursuit gain was quite similar during pursuit of an imaginary or a real target. Our results strengthen the notion that pursuit is not exclusively a foveal function.

  6. Spontaneous Epithelioid Hemangiosarcoma in a Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Gray, Tasha L; Gatto, Nicholas T; Forest, Thomas; Machotka, Sam V; Troth, Sean P; Prahalada, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangiosarcoma is a rare malignant endothelial neoplasia with a unique, predominantly epithelioid morphology. A 4-y-old rhesus monkey from our laboratory had multiple neoplastic nodules in a digit, limb skin, hindlimb muscle, and visceral organs including lung, heart, and brain. The nodules were composed of pleomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid, neoplastic cells that were arranged in sheets, nests, and cords and supported by variably dense fibrovascular connective tissue. The morphologic features of this tumor were predominantly epithelioid. However, some regions contained cystic spaces, clefts, and channel-like structures, all of which were lined with morphologically distinct neoplastic endothelial cells. These neoplastic cells, with or without epithelioid morphology, were positive immunohistochemically for CD31, factor VIII-related antigen, and vimentin. The presence of multiple metastatic nodules, high mitotic rate, and extensive Ki67-positive staining were consistent with malignancy. This report is the first description of epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey. PMID:25296017

  7. Spontaneous epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Gray, Tasha L; Gatto, Nicholas T; Forest, Thomas; Machotka, Sam V; Troth, Sean P; Prahalada, Srinivasa

    2014-08-01

    Epithelioid hemangiosarcoma is a rare malignant endothelial neoplasia with a unique, predominantly epithelioid morphology. A 4-y-old rhesus monkey from our laboratory had multiple neoplastic nodules in a digit, limb skin, hindlimb muscle, and visceral organs including lung, heart, and brain. The nodules were composed of pleomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid, neoplastic cells that were arranged in sheets, nests, and cords and supported by variably dense fibrovascular connective tissue. The morphologic features of this tumor were predominantly epithelioid. However, some regions contained cystic spaces, clefts, and channel-like structures, all of which were lined with morphologically distinct neoplastic endothelial cells. These neoplastic cells, with or without epithelioid morphology, were positive immunohistochemically for CD31, factor VIII-related antigen, and vimentin. The presence of multiple metastatic nodules, high mitotic rate, and extensive Ki67-positive staining were consistent with malignancy. This report is the first description of epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey.

  8. Biological Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This program examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2229 were exposed to 11 2/3 days of microgravity. The circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity were monitored constantly. This experiment has extended previous observations from COSMOS 1514 and 2044, as well as provided insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

  9. Thermoregulation by rhesus monkeys at different absolute humidities.

    PubMed

    Walters, Thomas J; Ryan, Kathy L; Constable, Stefan H

    2004-08-01

    The effect of relative humidity on thermoregulation has been well examined. Because the same relative humidity represents very different absolute humidities at different ambient temperatures, the present study was designed to examine the interaction of temperature and absolute humidity on the thermal balance of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Thermal balance was examined in six unacclimated, unanesthetized, female rhesus monkeys at ambient temperatures of 25, 30, 35, and 40 degrees C and absolute humidities of 6, 22, and 40 torr. Monkeys were capable of achieving thermal balance under all conditions except at 40 degrees C with 40 torr absolute humidity, where experiments were stopped after rectal temperature exceeded 40.5 degrees C. At 40 degrees C, monkeys increased evaporative heat loss through both respiration and sweating; the slope of the relationship between evaporative heat loss and core temperature was attenuated by increases in absolute humidity. In contrast, absolute humidity had no direct effect on metabolic rate. The rise in body temperature under the conditions of high heat/high humidity was therefore most attributable to humidity-dependent decreases in evaporative heat loss.

  10. Mononeuropathy multiplex in rhesus monkeys with chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Philipp, M T

    1997-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a recognized but poorly understood manifestation of Lyme disease. We performed serial electrophysiological studies on 8 rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi and compared the results with those of similar studies on 10 uninfected control monkeys. Four infected and 2 uninfected animals underwent sural nerve biopsy. Five of the infected and 1 of the uninfected animals also had postmortem neuropathological examinations. Altogether, 5 of the infected monkeys demonstrated primarily axonal-loss-variety multifocal neuropathies. Only one nerve lesion exhibited findings compatible with demyelination. Pathologically, peripheral nerve specimens showed multifocal axonal degeneration and regeneration and occasional perivascular inflammatory cellular infiltrates without vessel wall necrosis. Free spirochetal structures were not seen, but several macrophages exhibited positive immunostaining with a highly specific anti-B. burgdorferi, 7.5-kd lipoprotein monoclonal antibody. In the infected animals, serial analysis of serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed increasing numbers of IgG specificities and new IgM specificities, suggesting persistent infection. Thus, peripheral neuropathy in the form of a mononeuropathy multiplex develops frequently in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. The pathogenesis of these nerve lesions is not yet known, but our studies suggest an immune-mediated process perhaps driven by persistent infection with B. burgdorferi.

  11. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  12. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism. © 2014 ARVO.

  13. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism. PMID:25027164

  14. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  15. Discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1996-02-01

    Three rhesus monkeys discriminated between 0.178 mg/kg of nalbuphine and saline while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Nalbuphine produced dose-related increases in drug-lever responding with > or = 90% of responses occurring on the drug lever at doses larger than 0.1 mg/kg. The duration of action of the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine was less than 5.25 hr. Rank order potency of compounds that substituted for the nalbuphine discriminative stimulus (i.e., > or = 90% responding on the nalbuphine lever) in all three subjects was fentanyl > butorphanol > methadone > morphine. Compounds that did not substitute completely in all monkeys included the kappa agonists ethylketocyclazocine, enadoline, spiradoline and U-50,488 and the nonopioids cocaine, d-amphetamine, clonidine, ketamine and phencyclidine. Naltrexone antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine, shifting the nalbuphine dose-effect curve in a manner that was consistent with mu receptor mediation. Results from the current study demonstrate that, in rhesus monkeys, the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are mediated by mu opioid receptors. Although there is evidence suggesting that nalbuphine has kappa agonist effects (e.g., subjective effects in humans), results from several studies, including the current study, strongly suggest that in rhesus monkeys nalbuphine does not exert agonist actions at kappa receptors. Moreover, these data indicate that differences in behavioral effects between nalbuphine and prototypic mu opioids (e.g., morphine) probably result from differences in activity (e.g., efficacy) at mu receptors rather than any kappa agonist actions of nalbuphine.

  16. TALEN-mediated gene mutagenesis in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailiang; Chen, Yongchang; Niu, Yuyu; Zhang, Kunshan; Kang, Yu; Ge, Weihong; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhao, Enfeng; Wang, Chencheng; Lin, Shaoyun; Jing, Bo; Si, Chenyang; Lin, Quan; Chen, Xiaoying; Lin, Haijun; Pu, Xiuqiong; Wang, Yingying; Qin, Binlian; Wang, Fang; Wang, Hong; Si, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Tao; Li, Tianqing; Ji, Shaohui; Xue, Zhigang; Luo, Yuping; Cheng, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Li, Siguang; Sun, Yi Eve; Ji, Weizhi

    2014-03-06

    Recent advances in gene editing technology have introduced the potential for application of mutagenesis approaches in nonhuman primates to model human development and disease. Here we report successful TALEN-mediated mutagenesis of an X-linked, Rett syndrome (RTT) gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), in both rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Microinjection of MECP2-targeting TALEN plasmids into rhesus and cynomolgus zygotes leads to effective gene editing of MECP2 with no detected off-target mutagenesis. Male rhesus (2) and cynomolgous (1) fetuses carrying MECP2 mutations in various tissues including testes were miscarried during midgestation, consistent with RTT-linked male embryonic lethality in humans. One live delivery of a female cynomolgus monkey occurred after 162 days of gestation, with abundant MECP2 mutations in peripheral tissues. We conclude that TALEN-mediated mutagenesis can be an effective tool for genetic modeling of human disease in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognizing Facial Cues: Individual Discrimination by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Winslow, James T.; Hopkins, William D.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Faces are one of the most salient classes of stimuli involved in social communication. Three experiments compared face-recognition abilities in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In the face-matching task, the chimpanzees matched identical photographs of conspecifics' faces on Trial 1, and the rhesus monkeys did the same after 4 generalization trials. In the individual-recognition task, the chimpanzees matched 2 different photographs of the same individual after 2 trials, and the rhesus monkeys generalized in fewer than 6 trials. The feature-masking task showed that the eyes were the most important cue for individual recognition. Thus, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys are able to use facial cues to discriminate unfamiliar conspecifics. Although the rhesus monkeys required many trials to learn the tasks, this is not evidence that faces are not as important social stimuli for them as for the chimpanzees. PMID:10739311

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hair pulling and eating in captive rhesus monkey troops.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, V; Reinhardt, A; Houser, D

    1986-01-01

    Hair pulling and eating has not yet received attention in the nonhuman primate literature. Hair pulling and eating was recorded 388 times in two heterogeneous troops of healthy rhesus monkeys that were kept according to modern management practices. The behavior in question consists of the following sequence: pulling with the fingers (1/3 of cases) or with the teeth (2/3 of cases) tufts of hair from one's own or from a partner's coat; chewing the hair and finally swallowing it; the undigested material is excreted in the feces. Hair pulling was almost exclusively (378/388) partner-directed. It was observed 364 times between animals whose dominance relationships were known; it was performed in 96% (349/364) of observations by a dominant but only in 4% (15/364) of observations by a subordinate monkey. The recipient of hair pulling showed typical fear and/or avoidance reactions. In both troops young animals (2-8 years of age) engaged in hair pulling and eating significantly more often than old animals (10-26 years of age). There was no evidence that nutritional, toxicological or climatic factors were responsible for the manifestation of this behavior. It was concluded that, similar to trichotillomania in man, wool pulling and eating in sheep and muskox, and feather picking in poultry, hair pulling and eating is an aggressive behavioral disorder in rhesus monkeys reflecting adjustment problems to a stressful environment.

  20. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  1. Intrapericardial denervation: Responses to water immersion in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings. water immersion; natriuresis; vasopressin; eardiae denervation; monkey

  2. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) complex learning skills reassessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    An automated computerized testing facility is employed to study basic learning and transfer in rhesus monkeys including discrimination learning set and mediational learning. The data show higher performance levels than those predicted from other tests that involved compromised learning with analogous conditions. Advanced transfer-index ratios and positive transfer of learning are identified, and indications of mediational learning strategies are noted. It is suggested that these data are evidence of the effectiveness of the present experimental apparatus for enhancing learning in nonhuman primates.

  3. Prompted progression order in a troop of captive rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, V; Reinhardt, A; Houser, D

    1987-01-01

    It is a routine practice to subject captive groups of primates to single-file movement; yet no records on the sequences of such progressions have been published. The present study analyzes the progression sequence during prompted single-file movement for the purpose of routine weighing in a captive troop of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The animals had to overcome fear before leaving their home pen; nonetheless, they left in a well-defined, stable sequence. An individual's position in this progression order as well as the consistency with which it retained its place were dependent on its age but not on its dominance status. It was suggested that the monkeys gradually learned with age to master their fear with the prospect of quickly returning to their home pen.

  4. Caloric restriction improves health and survival of rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Julie A.; Colman, Ricki J.; Beasley, T. Mark; Allison, David B.; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Roth, George S.; Ingram, Donald K.; Weindruch, Richard; de Cabo, Rafael; Anderson, Rozalyn M.

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders in most species but its impact in nonhuman primates has been controversial. In the late 1980s two parallel studies were initiated to determine the effect of CR in rhesus monkeys. The University of Wisconsin study reported a significant positive impact of CR on survival, but the National Institute on Aging study detected no significant survival effect. Here we present a direct comparison of longitudinal data from both studies including survival, bodyweight, food intake, fasting glucose levels and age-related morbidity. We describe differences in study design that could contribute to differences in outcomes, and we report species specificity in the impact of CR in terms of optimal onset and diet. Taken together these data confirm that health benefits of CR are conserved in monkeys and suggest that CR mechanisms are likely translatable to human health. PMID:28094793

  5. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  6. Retinohypothalamic connections in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijuka, John C.

    Previous studies of retinohypothalamic projections in macaques were performed with anterograde degeneration or autoradiographic techniques that were not sufficiently sensitive to fully define these projections. Results of studies in non-primates using sensitive tracers have revealed more extensive retinohypothalamic projection than previously seen. We hypothesize that there are more extensive retinohypothalamic projections in the higher primate, macaque monkey. Thus, the primary goal of this investigation was to characterize the retinohypothalamic projections in the macaque monkey using the more sensitive tract tracer, cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) unilaterally injected intravitreally. Secondary goals were to determine: (1) whether there is a retinal projection to the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus; (2) whether there are direct retinal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus; and (3) whether any retinally-projecting hypothalamic neurons can be retrogradely labeled by intravitreal CTB injections. Our results confirmed our hypothesis that there are more extensive projections to the central targets. We found that, in addition to the well-described retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a number of other hypothalamic areas were labeled. We observed projections to the medial and lateral preoptic areas, including the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area. A number of retinal fibers terminated immediately dorsal to the supraoptic nucleus (SO), with a few fibers penetrating and terminating within the nucleus. A few fibers continued laterally beyond the SO into the substantia innominata immediately ventral to the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, a dense plexus of CTB-labeled, retinal fibers were present in the subventricular nucleus and adjacent subventricular area. Some of these fibers coursed dorsally from this region to penetrate the ependyma lining the third ventricle and apparently

  7. Drusenoid maculopathy in rhesus monkeys: autofluorescence, lipofuscin and drusen pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gouras, Peter; Ivert, Lena; Mattison, Julie A; Ingram, Donald K; Neuringer, Martha

    2008-10-01

    To examine patterns of retinal pigment epithelial autofluorescence and lipofuscin accumulation in relation to drusen and to explore the pathogenesis of drusen in rhesus monkeys. The macular areas of six rhesus monkeys, euthanized at 19 to 28 years of age, were studied by bright field and fluorescence light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. There was strong autofluorescence in the retinal epithelium that tended to diminish over drusen. Electron microscopy revealed that all retinal epithelial cells had large concentrations of lipofuscin bodies. The epithelial cells overlying drusen, however, tended to have less lipofuscin than epithelial cells not associated with drusen. Electron microscopy revealed that the epithelial cells overlying drusen were losing segments of cytoplasm containing lipofuscin bodies. Macrophage-like cells were consistently present in Bruch's membrane microns away from this lipofuscin-containing cytoplasmic material. Retinal epithelial cells overlying drusen have less lipofuscin than neighboring epithelial cells. The loss of lipofuscin seems due to a loss of cytoplasm containing lipofuscin that contributes to drusen formation. Macrophages in Bruch's membrane may be responsible for removing this lipofuscin debris. The results support in vivo studies showing reduced autofluorescence over drusen and support the "budding" of epithelial cytoplasm as a source of drusen material.

  8. Drusenoid maculopathy in rhesus monkeys: Autofluorescence, lipofuscin and drusen pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ivert, Lena; Mattison, Julie A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Neuringer, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine patterns of retinal pigment epithelial autofluorescence and lipofuscin accumulation in relation to drusen and to explore the pathogenesis of drusen in rhesus monkeys. Methods The macular areas of six rhesus monkeys, euthanized at 19 to 28 years of age, were studied by bright field and fluorescence light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results There was strong autofluorescence in the retinal epithelium which tended to diminish over drusen. Electron microscopy revealed that all retinal epithelial cells had large concentrations of lipofuscin bodies. The epithelial cells overlying drusen, however, tended to have less lipofuscin than epithelial cells not associated with drusen. Electron microscopy revealed that the epithelial cells overlying drusen were losing segments of cytoplasm containing lipofuscin bodies. Macrophage-like cells were consistently present in Bruch’s membrane microns away from this lipofuscin-containing cytoplasmic material. Conclusions Retinal epithelial cells overlying drusen have less lipofuscin than neighboring epithelial cells. The loss of lipofuscin seems due to a loss of cytoplasm containing lipofuscin that contributes to drusen formation. Macrophages in Bruch’s membrane may be responsible for removing this lipofuscin debris. The results support in vivo studies showing reduced autofluorescence over drusen and support the “budding” of epithelial cytoplasm as a source of drusen material. PMID:18696097

  9. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Godwin, Dwayne W.; Czoty, Paul W.; Nader, Michael A.; Kraft, Robert A.; Buchheimer, Nancy C.; Daunais, James B.

    2009-01-01

    The use of minimally and non-invasive neuroimaging methods in animal models has sharply increased over the past decade. Such studies have enhanced understanding of the neural basis of the physical signals quantified by these tools, and have addressed an assortment of fundamental and otherwise intractable questions in neurobiology. To date, these studies have almost exclusively utilized positron-emission tomography or variants of magnetic resonance based imaging. These methods provide largely indirect measures of brain activity and are strongly reliant on intact vasculature and normal blood flow, which is known to be compromised in many clinical conditions. The current study provides the first demonstration of whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive and direct measure of neuronal activity, in a rhesus monkey, and in the process supplies the initial data on systems-level dynamics in somatosensory cortices. An adult rhesus monkey underwent three separate studies of tactile stimulation on the pad of the right second or fifth digit as whole-head MEG data were acquired. The neural generators of the primary neuromagnetic components were localized using an equivalent-current-dipole model. Second digit stimulation produced an initial cortical response peaking ∼16 ms after stimulus onset in the contralateral somatosensory cortices, with a later response at ∼96 ms in an overlapping or nearby neural area with a roughly orthogonal orientation. Stimulation of the fifth digit produced similar results, the main exception being a substantially weaker later response. We believe the 16ms response is likely the monkey homologue of the human M50 response, as both are the earliest cortical response and localize to the contralateral primary somatosensory area. Thus, these data suggest that mechanoreception in nonhuman primates operates substantially faster than that in adult humans. More broadly, these results demonstrate that it is feasible to use current human whole

  10. [Therapeutic Effect of Recombinant Human Stem Cell Factor on Rhesus Monkeys with Severe Acute Radiation Sickness].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang-Min; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Shen, Xing; Xie, Ling; Li, Ming; Guo, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Rui-Ying; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xin-Ru; Cong, Yu-Wen; Yu, Zu-Yin; Xing, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of rhSCF early administration on rhesus monkeys with severe acute radiation sickness(ARS). Twelve adult monkeys totally exposed to 7.0 Gy 60 Co were divided into radiation control and SCF groups, and monkeys in SCF group were subcutaneously injected recombinant human SCF(rhSCF) 200 µg/kg at half an hour and 24 hour after irradiation, while the radiation control monkeys were injected physiological saline. Survival was monitored and hematopoiesis was evaluated at 40 days following early treatment. 6 animals treated with rhSCF all survived, while 2 in irradiated controls survived on 40 day after radiation. rhSCF treatment promoted hematopoiesis recovery significantly, increased the nadir of white blood cells, neutrophils and platelets, and simplified supportive care in ARS rhesus monkeys. RhSCF injection soon after TBI taken shows an significant therapeutic efficiency on rhesus monkeys with severe acute radiation sickness.

  11. Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, L R; Butelman, E R; Woods, J H; France, C P

    1994-11-01

    Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine and other opioids were studied in rhesus monkeys. In a thermal, tail withdrawal assay, the kappa agonist enadoline and the mu agonists alfentanil and fentanyl produced maximum antinociceptive effects in all subjects and over a wide range of temperatures, whereas nalbuphine produced antinociceptive effects in only some subjects and only when the water temperature was < or = 50 degrees C. Naltrexone antagonized the antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine, alfentanil and enadoline; however, the magnitude of antagonism was not equal among agonists. In subjects that did not show an antinociceptive response to nalbuphine, nalbuphine (3.2-10.0 mg/kg) antagonized the antinociceptive effects of fentanyl but not enadoline. The irreversible opioid antagonist clocinnamox produced a parallel shift to the right in the nalbuphine dose-effect curve 1 hr after administration and decreased the maximum effect produced by nalbuphine 24 and 48 hr after administration. Nalbuphine had modest respiratory-depressant effects in monkeys breathing air and attenuated hyperventilation produced by 5% CO2. In contrast, alfentanil had marked respiratory-depressant effects in monkeys breathing air or 5% CO2 in air and these effects were antagonized by nalbuphine. Taken together, these results suggest nalbuphine has low efficacy at mu opioid receptors; however, quantitative differences between alfentanil and nalbuphine indicate a second (non-enadoline sensitive) receptor might also be important for the antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine.

  12. Absence of deleterious effects of chronic microwave radiation on the eyes of rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, R.D.; Ortiz-Lugo, R.; Bishop, R.; Gordon, R.

    1983-10-01

    Microwave irradiation of rhesus monkeys' eyes at 9.31 and 2.45 GHz and at an average power density of 150 mW per centimeter square is reported. Irradiation, beginning in 1976, of 17 monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was accomplished without restraint or anesthesia by training the monkeys to irradiate themselves. To data microwave radiation of these monkeys has not resulted in deleterious ocular effects.

  13. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  14. The Rhesus monkey as a model for testing the immunological effects of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Schaffar, L.; Schmitt, D. A.; Peres, C.; Miller, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Rhesus monkey has been proposed as a model for the effects of space flight on immunity. In order to determine the feasibility of the use of the Rhesus monkey as a model, we studied the use of Rhesus monkey cells for immunological procedures that have been shown to be affected by space flight in both rodents and humans. We have shown that both lymph node cells and peripheral blood leukocytes can be stained with monoclonal antibodies to detect the following surface markers: CD4, CD-8, Ia and surface immunoglobulin. Also, the level of Ia antigen expression was increased by treatment of the cells with human interferon-gamma. In addition, cells were induced to produce interferons and interleukins. Isolated neutrophils also demonstrated increased oxidative burst. These data indicate that the Rhesus monkey will be a useful model for space flight studies of immunity.

  15. Conservation of nonpeptide antigen recognition by rhesus monkey V gamma 2V delta 2 T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Hoi K; Bukowski, Jack F; Li, Hongmin; Mariuzza, Roy A; Chen, Zheng W; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Morita, Craig T

    2003-04-01

    We have previously found that monkey Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells mount adaptive immune responses in response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infections. We have now analyzed rhesus monkey gammadelta T cell responses to nonpeptide Ags and superantigens. Like human Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells, rhesus monkey gammadelta T cells are stimulated when exposed to prenyl pyrophosphate, bisphosphonate, and alkylamine Ags. Responsiveness was limited to gammadelta T cells expressing Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCRs. Rhesus monkey Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells also responded to the superantigen, staphyloccocal enterotoxin A. Sequencing of the rhesus monkey Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR revealed a strong sequence homology to human Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR that preserves important sequence motifs. Moreover, chimeric TCRs that pair human Vgamma2 with monkey Vdelta2 and monkey Vgamma2 with human Vdelta2 retain reactivity to nonpeptide Ags and B cell lymphomas. A molecular model of the rhesus monkey Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR has a basic region in the complementarity-determining region 3 binding groove that is similar to that seen in the human Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR and preserves the topology of the complementarity-determining region loops. Thus, recognition of nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphate, bisphosphonate, and alkylamine Ags is conserved in primates suggesting that primates can provide an animal model for human gammadelta T cell Ag responses.

  16. Behavioral effects of 6-methylene naltrexone (nalmefene) in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    France, C P; Gerak, L R

    1994-09-01

    Nalmefene [17-N-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14-beta-dihydroxy-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6- methylenemorphinan hydrochloride (also NIH 10365)], a 6-methylene derivative of naltrexone, was compared to naltrexone for its behavioral effects in rhesus monkeys. Nalmefene had opioid antagonist actions under all conditions, having a potency similar to that of naltrexone. In morphine-treated monkeys, discriminating between 0.01 mg/kg of naltrexone and saline, nalmefene substituted completely for naltrexone at doses larger than 0.001 mg/kg. The onset of discriminative stimulus effects was similar for nalmefene and naltrexone. A dose of 0.032 mg/kg of either antagonist occasioned > or = 90% naltrexone-level responding beginning 6 to 8 min after s.c. administration; the effects of this dose of either antagonist persisted for more than 1 hr. Like the parent compound naltrexone, nalmefene also antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of opioid agonists. Nalmefene prevented the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in monkeys acutely deprived of morphine and antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in a separate group of monkeys discriminating between nalbuphine and saline. At the dose of naltrexone and nalmefene that produced an equivalent antagonism of morphine when the antagonist was administered 0.25 hr before morphine (0.01 mg/kg), the duration of antagonist action was < 4 hr and > 6 hr, respectively. Nalmefene also attenuated the antinociceptive effects of the mu agonist alfentanil and the kappa agonist CI-977 [5R-(5,7,8-beta)-N-methyl- N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl]-4-benzofuranaceta mide], being 55 times more potent in attenuating the antinociceptive effects of alfentanil as compared to Cl-977.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 {mu}g/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  18. Phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine in human and rhesus monkey lenses.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, H M; Zigler, J S

    1989-11-01

    Phosphorylcholine (P-choline) and phosphorylethanolamine (P-ethanolamine) are important precursors of phospholipids. The metabolism and concentration of P-choline has been shown to change in animal models of cataract, especially in oxidatively or osmotically stressed rat lenses. The concentrations of P-choline and P-ethanolamine were determined in monkey lenses and in normal and cataractous human lenses, and the rate of synthesis of P-choline was determined in human and monkey lenses. The concentration of P-choline in 53 clear human lenses was 0.94 mM (+/- 0.31 S.D.) and was relatively unaffected by age, eye bank storage, or freezing. There was a 70% decrease in P-choline in brown cataracts but no significant change from normal in non-brown cataracts. The concentration of P-ethanolamine in human lenses was 0.45 mM (+/- 0.26 S.D.), and it appeared to decrease during frozen storage of lenses and in cataracts. The concentrations of P-choline and P-ethanolamine in 12 rhesus monkey lenses were 1.51 mM (+/- 0.27 S.D.) and 0.75 mM (+/- 0.14 S.D.), respectively. The rate of synthesis of P-choline in monkey lenses incubated with [3H]choline was 8 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight in 1 mM choline. Adult human lenses incubated in 1 mM choline synthesized P-choline at a rate of 23 nmol hr-1 g-1 (+/- 6 S.D.). This limited capacity for P-choline synthesis in primate lenses may contribute to the lower P-choline concentration relative to rat lenses, which contain 11 mM P-choline and can synthesize P-choline at an apparent maximum rate of 130 nmol hr-1 g-1.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.doerge@fda.hhs.go; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. Themore » concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 {mu}g/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.« less

  20. Exploratory factor analysis of human infant temperament in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Marsiske, Michael; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee

    2010-02-01

    The triadic model of human infant temperament, involving Negative Affectivity, Orienting/Regulation, and Surgency/Extraversion factors, was applied to the rhesus neonate using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Replicating and expanding earlier work in rhesus monkeys, the three-factor solution produced latent constructs comparable to human neonatal temperament. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Behavioral consequences of developmental iron deficiency in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Germann, Stacey L.; Capitanio, John P.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Human studies have shown that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants are associated with behavioral impairment, but the periods of brain development most susceptible to iron deficiency have not been established. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were deprived of iron by dietary iron restriction during prenatal (n = 14, 10 μg Fe/g diet) or early postnatal (n = 12, 1.5 mg Fe/L formula) brain development and compared to controls (n = 12, 100 μg Fe/g diet, 12 mg Fe/L formula) in behavioral evaluations conducted during the first four months of life in the nonhuman primate nursery. Iron deficiency anemia was detected in the pregnant dams in the third trimester and compromised iron status was seen in the prenatally iron-deprived infants at birth, but no iron deficiency was seen in either the prenatally or postnatally iron-deprived infants during the period of behavioral evaluation. Neither prenatal nor postnatal iron deprivation led to significant delays in growth, or gross or fine motor development. Prenatally deprived infants demonstrated a 20% reduced spontaneous activity level, lower inhibitory response to novel environments, and more changes from one behavior to another in weekly observation sessions. Postnatally deprived infants demonstrated poorer performance of an object concept task, and greater emotionality relative to controls. This study indicates that different syndromes of behavioral effects are associated with prenatal and postnatal iron deprivation in rhesus monkey infants and that these effects can occur in the absence of concurrent iron deficiency as reflected in hematological measures. PMID:16343844

  2. Tissue Distribution of Memory T and B Cells in Rhesus Monkeys following Influenza A Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yongvanitchit, Kosol; Limsalakpetch, Amporn; Kum-Arb, Utaiwan; Im-Erbsin, Rawiwan; Boonnak, Kobporn; Thitithayanont, Arunee; Jongkaewwattana, Anan; Wiboon-ut, Suwimon; Mongkolsirichaikul, Duangrat; Mahanonda, Rangsini; Spring, Michele; Chuang, Ilin; Mason, Carl J.; Saunders, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of influenza-specific immune responses in humans have largely assessed systemic responses involving serum Ab and peripheral blood T cell responses. However, recent evidence indicates that tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells play an important role in local murine intrapulmonary immunity. Rhesus monkeys were pulmonary exposed to 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus at days 0 and 28 and immune responses in different tissue compartments were measured. All animals were asymptomatic postinfection. Although only minimal memory immune responses were detected in peripheral blood, a high frequency of influenza nucleoprotein–specific memory T cells was detected in the lung at the “contraction phase,” 49–58 d after second virus inoculation. A substantial proportion of lung nucleoprotein-specific memory CD8+ T cells expressed CD103 and CD69, phenotypic markers of TRM cells. Lung CD103+ and CD103- memory CD8+ T cells expressed similar levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Unlike memory T cells, spontaneous Ab secreting cells and memory B cells specific to influenza hemagglutinin were primarily observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes. Little difference in systemic and local immune responses against influenza was observed between young adult (6–8 y) and old animals (18–28 y). Using a nonhuman primate model, we revealed substantial induction of local T and B cell responses following 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. Our study identified a subset of influenza-specific lung memory T cells characterized as TRM cells in rhesus monkeys. The rhesus monkey model may be useful to explore the role of TRM cells in local tissue protective immunity after rechallenge and vaccination. PMID:26408671

  3. Evaluation of Rhesus Monkey and Guinea Pig Hepatic Cytosol Fractions as Models for Human Aldehyde Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Choughule, Kanika V.; Barr, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a cytosolic enzyme expressed across a wide range of species, including guinea pig and rhesus monkey. These species are believed to be the best preclinical models for studying human AOX-mediated metabolism. We compared AOX activity in rhesus monkeys, guinea pigs, and humans using phthalazine and N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridone-4-carboxamide (DACA) as substrates and raloxifene as an inhibitor. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed for phthalazine oxidation in rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human liver cytosol, whereas substrate inhibition was seen with DACA oxidase activity in all three livers. Raloxifene inhibited phthalazine and DACA oxidase activity uncompetitively in guinea pig, whereas mixed-mode inhibition was seen in rhesus monkey. Our analysis of the primary sequence alignment of rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human aldehyde oxidase isoform 1 (AOX1) along with homology modeling has led to the identification of several amino acid residue differences within the active site and substrate entrance channel of AOX1. We speculate that some of these residues might be responsible for the differences observed in activity. Overall, our data indicate that rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs would overestimate intrinsic clearance in humans and would be unsuitable to use as animal models. Our study also showed that AOX metabolism in species is substrate-dependent and no single animal model can be reliably used to predict every drug response in humans. PMID:23918666

  4. Visual, auditive and somatosensory pathways alterations in geriatric rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Contreras, A; Poblano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-Godínez, B; Hernández-Arciga, U; Toledo, R; Königsberg, M

    2016-04-01

    Synapses loss during aging is associated to neurophysiologic alterations that impair organism's health span, thus making the study and prevention of sensory decline relevant for healthy aging and welfare. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain normative data related to the electrophysiological responses of the different neurosensory components in the visual, auditory and somatosensory pathways in healthy geriatric rhesus monkeys in captivity. Twenty-four rhesus monkeys were divided in two groups: (i) Geriatric monkeys, 20-30 years of age, and (ii) Young monkeys, 7 years of age. Evoked potentials were obtained from the visual, auditory and somatosensory pathways. Regardless the sensory pathways evaluated, a significant delay in nerve conduction was observed in the geriatric group in comparison to the young group. Evoked potentials allowed identifying changes generated during aging in rhesus monkeys and normative data for this species were obtained. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E{sub 2}) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E{sub 2} dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E{sub 2} increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  7. Acute side effects of homologous interleukin-3 in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, F. C.; Mulder, A. H.; van den Bos, C.; Burger, H.; van Leen, R. W.; Wagemaker, G.

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin-3 treatment of juvenile rhesus monkeys elicits a dose- and time-dependent syndrome that includes urticaria, palpable lymph nodes, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, edema, and arthritis, apart from a strong stimulation of hemopoiesis. Arthritis was found to occur significantly more often in animals expressing the major histocompatibility complex alleles B9 and Dr5. Histological analysis revealed an abundance of mast cells in urticaria and, to a lesser extent, in lungs and synovia of arthritic joints. Active osteoclasts were abundant in ribs and arthritic joints. Extramedullary hemopoiesis was encountered in liver, spleen, and kidneys. The spleen showed deposits of hemosiderin, and in the liver, Kupffer cells were loaded with iron, indicating enhanced turnover of hemoglobin. Lymph nodes and bone marrow showed macrophages involved in hemophagocytosis, which probably contributed to the development of anemia and thrombopenia. Biochemical parameters in sera were indicative of parenchymal liver damage, with cholestasis and increased erythrocyte destruction. The side effects were strongly reduced in monkeys subjected to total body irradiation just before interleukin-3 treatment. Histamine antagonists were not significantly effective in preventing side effects, which is explained by the perpetual stimulation of basophilic granulocytes by exogenous interleukin-3. The nature of the side effects indicates that interleukin-3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute type hypersensitivity reactions and arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8256852

  8. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-01-01

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans. PMID:22084079

  9. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans.

  10. Induction, management, and complications of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Je; Kim, Jung-Sik; Yoon, Il-Hee; Jeong, Won-Young; Lee, Ga-Eul; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Ju-Eun; Jin, Sang-Man; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) model using streptozotocin (STZ) which induces chemical ablation of β cell in the pancreas has been widely used for various research purposes in non-human primates. However, STZ has been known to have a variety of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and even mortality. The purpose of this study is to report DM induction by STZ, toxicity associated with STZ and procedure and complication of exogenous insulin treatment for DM management in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that are expected to be transplanted with porcine islets within 2 months. Streptozotocin (immediately dissolved in normal saline, 110 mg/kg) was slowly infused via central catheter for 10 minutes in 22 rhesus monkeys. Clinical signs, complete blood count and blood chemistry were monitored to evaluate toxicity for 1 week after STZ injection. Monkey basal C-peptides were measured and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to confirm complete induction of DM. Exogenous insulin was subcutaneously injected to maintain blood glucose in diabetic rhesus monkeys and the complications were recorded while in insulin treatment. Severe salivation and vomiting were observed within 1 hour after STZ injection in 22 rhesus monkeys. One monkey died at 6 hours after STZ injection and the reason for the death was unknown. Pancreatitis was noticed in one monkey after STZ injection, but the monkey recovered after 5 days by medical treatment. Serum total protein and albumin decreased whereas the parameters for the liver function such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased (P<.05) after STZ injection, but they were resolved within 1 week. Azotemia was not observed. Monkey fasting C-peptide levels after STZ injection were <0.1 ng/mL in 18 rhesus monkeys, but 0.34, 0.22, 0.16 ng/mL in three monkeys, respectively. The value of daily insulin requirement was 0.92±0.26IU/kg/d (range=0.45-1.29) in

  11. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengfei; Song, Haibo; Yang, Pingliang; Xie, Huiqi; Kang, Y James

    2011-06-01

    Chloral hydrate has been long used as a safe sedative and hypnotic drug in humans. However, reports on its cardiovascular adverse effects have been published from time to time. The present study was undertaken to use Rhesus monkeys as a model to define the dose regiment of chloral hydrate at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced and the consequences of the cardiac events. Male Rhesus monkeys of 2-3 years old were intravenously infused with chloral hydrate starting at 50 mg/kg with an increasing increment of 25 mg/kg until the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, a traditional up-and-down dosing procedure was applied to define a single dose level at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced. The data obtained showed that when the sequentially escaladed dose reached 125 mg/kg, cardiac arrhythmias occurred in all monkeys tested. The single effective dose to cause cardiac arrhythmias calculated from the crossover analysis was 143 ± 4 mg/kg. This value would be equivalent to 68.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg for children and 46.4 ± 1.3 mg/kg for adults in humans. Under either multiple or single dose condition, cardiac arrhythmias did not occur before 40 min after the onset of anesthesia induced by chloral hydrate. Cardiac arrhythmias were recovered without help at the end of the anesthesia in most cases, but also continued after the regain of consciousness in some cases. The cardiac arrhythmias were accompanied with compromised cardiac function including suppressed fractional shortening and ejection fraction. This study thus suggests that cautions need to be taken when chloral hydrate is used above certain levels and beyond a certain period of anesthesia, and cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate need to be closely monitored because compromised cardiac function may occur simultaneously. In addition, patients with cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate should be monitored even after they are recovered from the anesthesia.

  12. Delay discounting of food and remifentanil in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Drug abuse can be conceptualized as choice between drug and nondrug reinforcers in which drug choice is excessive; factors impacting drug taking can be examined using procedures in which subjects choose between drug and an alternative reinforcer. This experiment examined the effects of delayed reinforcement on choice between food and the mu-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil. Rhesus monkeys responded under a concurrent fixed-ratio 5, fixed-ratio 5 schedule in which responding on one lever delivered one food pellet and responding on another lever delivered an i.v. infusion. With no delay, monkeys responded predominantly for food rather than saline or small doses of remifentanil; as the dose of remifentanil increased (0.1-1.0 μg/kg/infusion), monkeys responded more for drug. Delaying delivery (30-240 s) of 0.32 and not 1.0 μg/kg/infusion of remifentanil (food delivered immediately) decreased responding for drug and increased responding for food, resulting in a rightward shift in the remifentanil dose-effect curve. Delaying delivery of food (60-240 s) when doses of remifentanil smaller than 0.32 μg/kg/infusion (but not saline) were available decreased responding for food and increased responding for drug, resulting in a leftward shift in the remifentanil dose-effect curve. These results provide evidence that delaying the delivery of a mu-opioid receptor agonist reduces its potency as a positive reinforcer; more importantly, delaying the delivery of an alternative nondrug reinforcer (e.g., food) enhances the reinforcing potency of the agonist. Thus, understanding the factors that control substance abuse requires examination of contingencies for both drug and nondrug reinforcers.

  13. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  14. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  15. Exposure to Sunlight Reduces the Risk of Myopia in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Hui; Stell, William K.; Liu, Liangping; Li, Saiqun; Liu, Hongshan; Zhong, Xingwu

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight has recently been postulated as responsible for the effect that more time spent outdoors protects children from myopia, while early life exposure to natural light was reported to be possibly related to onset of myopia during childhood. In this study, we had two aims: to determine whether increasing natural light exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic defocus-induced myopia, and to observe whether early postnatal exposure to natural light causes increased risk of refractive error in adolescence. Eight rhesus monkeys (aged 20-30 days) were treated monocularly with hyperopic-defocus (-3.0D lens) and divided randomly into two groups: AL group (n=4), reared under Artificial (indoor) Lighting (08:00-20:00); and NL group (n=4), exposed to Natural (outdoor) Light for 3 hours per day (11:00-14:00), and to indoor lighting for the rest of the light phase. After being reared with lenses for ca. 190 days, all monkeys were returned to unrestricted vision until the age of 3 years. Another eight age-matched monkeys, reared with unrestricted vision under artificial lighting since birth, were employed as controls. The ocular refraction, corneal curvature and axial dimensions were measured before lens-wearing (at 23±3 days of age), monthly during the light phase, and at the age of puberty (at 1185+3 days of age). During the lens-wearing treatment, infant monkeys in the NL group were more hyperopic than those in the AL group (F=5.726, P=0.032). Furthermore, the two eyes of most NL monkeys remained isometropic, whereas 3 of 4 AL monkeys developed myopic anisometropia more than -2.0D. At adolescence, eyes of AL monkeys showed significant myopic anisometropia compared with eyes of NL monkeys (AL vs NL: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.22±0.44D; P=0.002) and controls (AL vs Control: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.05±0.85D; P<0.0001). All differences in refraction were associated with parallel changes in axial dimensions. Our results suggest that exposure to natural outdoor light

  16. Exposure to sunlight reduces the risk of myopia in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Hui; Stell, William K; Liu, Liangping; Li, Saiqun; Liu, Hongshan; Zhong, Xingwu

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight has recently been postulated as responsible for the effect that more time spent outdoors protects children from myopia, while early life exposure to natural light was reported to be possibly related to onset of myopia during childhood. In this study, we had two aims: to determine whether increasing natural light exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic defocus-induced myopia, and to observe whether early postnatal exposure to natural light causes increased risk of refractive error in adolescence. Eight rhesus monkeys (aged 20-30 days) were treated monocularly with hyperopic-defocus (-3.0D lens) and divided randomly into two groups: AL group (n=4), reared under Artificial (indoor) Lighting (08:00-20:00); and NL group (n=4), exposed to Natural (outdoor) Light for 3 hours per day (11:00-14:00), and to indoor lighting for the rest of the light phase. After being reared with lenses for ca. 190 days, all monkeys were returned to unrestricted vision until the age of 3 years. Another eight age-matched monkeys, reared with unrestricted vision under artificial lighting since birth, were employed as controls. The ocular refraction, corneal curvature and axial dimensions were measured before lens-wearing (at 23±3 days of age), monthly during the light phase, and at the age of puberty (at 1185+3 days of age). During the lens-wearing treatment, infant monkeys in the NL group were more hyperopic than those in the AL group (F=5.726, P=0.032). Furthermore, the two eyes of most NL monkeys remained isometropic, whereas 3 of 4 AL monkeys developed myopic anisometropia more than -2.0D. At adolescence, eyes of AL monkeys showed significant myopic anisometropia compared with eyes of NL monkeys (AL vs NL: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.22±0.44D; P=0.002) and controls (AL vs Control: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.05±0.85D; P<0.0001). All differences in refraction were associated with parallel changes in axial dimensions. Our results suggest that exposure to natural outdoor light

  17. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dose range for three groups [2 × 108, 2 × 109 and 2 × 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)] was determined. In addition, the monkeys were re-infected. The identified optimal challenge dose was 2 × 109 CFU; this dose elicited 60% protection in monkeys when they were re-challenged with a one log higher dose (2 × 1010 CFU). The challenge dose, 2 × 1010 CFU, produced severe dysentery in all monkeys, with one monkey dying within 24 h, elicited 100% protection when re-challenged with the same dose. All monkeys exhibited immune responses. This study concludes that the rhesus monkey model closely mimics the disease and immune response seen in humans and is a suitable animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Prior infection with the 1617 strain can protect monkeys against subsequent re-challenges with homologous strains. PMID:24028276

  18. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gravett, Michael G; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Tao, Lin

    2012-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive-aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specific polymerase chain reaction, and 16S rRNA gene sequence.   A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was Lactobacillus reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. Lactobacillus johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Cloning and characterization of rhesus monkey MCH-R1 and MCH-R2.

    PubMed

    Fried, Steven; O'Neill, Kim; Hawes, Brian E

    2002-08-01

    Rhesus monkey MCH-R1 and MCH-R2 receptors were cloned. Amino acid homology is 98.8% between monkey and human MCH-R1, while monkey and human MCH-R2 are 98% homologous. Binding and intracellular signaling characteristics of the monkey receptors were compared with the human homologues. The results demonstrate that MCH binds to the monkey MCH-R1 receptor with a K(d) of 6.5 nM and monkey MCH-R2 with a K(d) of 2.2 nM similar to K(d) values for human MCH-R1 and MCH-R2. Additionally, monkey MCH-R1 couples through G(i)/G(o) and G(q)-type G proteins similar to human MCH-R1 whereas monkey and human MCH-R2 utilize the G(q) signaling pathway. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Considerations and Efficacy of Levofloxacin in an Inhalational Anthrax (Postexposure) Rhesus Monkey Model

    PubMed Central

    Kao, L. Mark ; Bush, Karen; Barnewall, Roy; Estep, James; Thalacker, Frederic W.; Olson, Pamela H. ; Drusano, George L.; Minton, Neil; Chien, Shuchean; Hemeryck, Alex; Kelley, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    Because the treatment of inhalational anthrax cannot be studied in human clinical trials, it is necessary to conduct efficacy studies using a rhesus monkey model. However, the half-life of levofloxacin was approximately three times shorter in rhesus monkeys than in humans. Computer simulations to match plasma concentration profile, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and time above MIC for a human oral dose of 500 mg levofloxacin once a day identified a dosing regimen in rhesus monkeys that would most closely match human exposure: 15 mg/kg followed by 4 mg/kg administered 12 h later. Approximately 24 h following inhalational exposure to approximately 49 times the 50% lethal doses of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain), monkeys were treated daily with vehicle, levofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin for 30 days. Ciprofloxacin was administered at 16 mg/kg twice a day. Following the 30-day treatment, monkeys were observed for 70 days. Nine of 10 control monkeys died within 9 days of exposure. No clinical signs were observed in fluoroquinolone-treated monkeys during the 30 treatment days. One monkey died 8 days after levofloxacin treatment, and two monkeys from the ciprofloxacin group died 27 and 36 days posttreatment, respectively. These deaths were probably related to the germination of residual spores. B. anthracis was positively cultured from several tissues from the three fluoroquinolone-treated monkeys that died. MICs of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin from these cultures were comparable to those from the inoculating strain. These data demonstrate that a humanized dosing regimen of levofloxacin was effective in preventing morbidity and mortality from inhalational anthrax in rhesus monkeys and did not select for resistance. PMID:17065619

  1. A Comparison of Refractive Development between Two Subspecies of Infant Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Different subspecies of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that are derived from different geographical locations, primarily Indian and China, are commonly employed in vision research. Substantial morphological and behavioral differences have been reported between Chinese- and Indian-derived subspecies. The purpose of this study was to compare refractive development in Chinese- and Indian-derived rhesus monkeys. Methods The subjects were 216 Indian-derived and 78 Chinese-derived normal infant rhesus monkeys. Cross-sectional data were obtained at 3 weeks of age for all subjects. In addition, longitudinal data were obtained from 10 Indian-derived (male = 5, female = 5) and 5 Chinese-derived monkeys (male =3, female =2) that were reared with unrestricted vision. Ocular and refractive development was assessed by retinoscopy, keratometry, video-based ophthalmophakometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Results Although the course of emmetropization was very similar in these two groups of rhesus monkeys, there were consistent and significant inter-group differences in ocular dimensions and refractive error. Throughout the observation period, the Chinese-derived monkeys were on average about 0.4 D less hyperopic than the Indian-derived monkeys and the Chinese-derived monkeys had longer overall axial lengths, deeper anterior and vitreous chamber depths, thicker crystalline lenses, flatter corneas and lower powered crystalline lenses. Conclusions The ocular differences observed in this study presumably reflect genetic differences between subspecies but could reflect the differences in the genetic pool between isolated colonies rather than true subspecies differences. Nonetheless, the substantial ocular differences that we observed emphasize that caution must be exercised when comparing and/or pooling data from rhesus monkeys obtained from different colonies. These inter-subspecies differences might be analogous to the ethnic differences in ocular parameters that have been

  2. Cardiovascular depressant effects of neomycin and gentamicin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, H R

    1975-01-01

    1. The acute cardiovascular effects of neomycin and gentamicin, representative aminoglycoside antibiotics, were examined in surgically-prepared anaesthetized rhesus monkeys. 2. Intravenous administration of 14, 28, and 56 mg/kg of neomycin consistently induced a dose-dependent depression of systemic blood pressure, cardiac output, left ventricular contractile force, maximum dF/dt of left ventricular contraction, and heart rate. Neomycin produced similar cardiovascular depressant effects when heart rate was maintained constant by electrical pacing. 3. Maximum depression of haemodynamic values usually occurred within 2 to 5 min after injection of neomycin; values then gradually returned to control levels within 20 to 30 (14 mg/kg) or 60 to 80 (56 mg/kg) minutes. 4. Injection of CaCl2 (1.35 mEq Ca2+/kg, i.v.) during the peak depressant effect of neomycin produced a rapid and maintained restoration of cardiovascular function to control levels; conversely, noradrenaline (2 mug, i.v.) of isoprenaline (0.5 mug, i.v.) produced only transient reversal of the neomycin effects. 5. Similar evidence of cardiovascular dysfunction was observed with gentamicin. 6. These findings demonstrate the direct cardiovascular depressant effects of aminoglycoside natibiotics in a higher primate species, and suggest that this adverse response is related to an alteration of calcium ion function. PMID:809079

  3. Cardiovascular depressant effects of neomycin and gentamicin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Adams, H R

    1975-08-01

    1. The acute cardiovascular effects of neomycin and gentamicin, representative aminoglycoside antibiotics, were examined in surgically-prepared anaesthetized rhesus monkeys. 2. Intravenous administration of 14, 28, and 56 mg/kg of neomycin consistently induced a dose-dependent depression of systemic blood pressure, cardiac output, left ventricular contractile force, maximum dF/dt of left ventricular contraction, and heart rate. Neomycin produced similar cardiovascular depressant effects when heart rate was maintained constant by electrical pacing. 3. Maximum depression of haemodynamic values usually occurred within 2 to 5 min after injection of neomycin; values then gradually returned to control levels within 20 to 30 (14 mg/kg) or 60 to 80 (56 mg/kg) minutes. 4. Injection of CaCl2 (1.35 mEq Ca2+/kg, i.v.) during the peak depressant effect of neomycin produced a rapid and maintained restoration of cardiovascular function to control levels; conversely, noradrenaline (2 mug, i.v.) of isoprenaline (0.5 mug, i.v.) produced only transient reversal of the neomycin effects. 5. Similar evidence of cardiovascular dysfunction was observed with gentamicin. 6. These findings demonstrate the direct cardiovascular depressant effects of aminoglycoside natibiotics in a higher primate species, and suggest that this adverse response is related to an alteration of calcium ion function.

  4. Otoacoustic emissions measured in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G.; Raper, Jessica; Wallen, Kim

    2003-10-01

    In humans, otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are stronger in females than in males and stronger in right ears than in left. The physiological bases for these differences are unknown, but several lines of circumstantial evidence suggest that the sex difference is attributable to androgenizing mechanisms operating during prenatal development. Specifically, it appears that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development diminishes the strength of the cochlear amplifiers and thus the strength of the OAEs. Sex and ear differences in OAEs have not been well studied in species other than humans. Accordingly, click-evoked OAEs and distortion-product OAEs were measured in nine female and nine male rhesus monkeys. For CEOAEs, but less clearly for DPOAEs, females exhibited significantly stronger OAEs than males. There was no consistent ear difference for either sex for either type of OAE. In order to better study the early components of the CEOAE waveform, a nonlinear procedure [Molenaar et al., Hearing Res. 143, 197-207 (2002)] was used to collect CEOAEs along with our standard (linear) procedure. This colony also contains animals of each sex that were treated with androgenic or antiandrogenic agents during prenatal development, and OAEs are also currently being measured on those animals. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  5. Biobehavioral comparisons between adopted and nonadopted rhesus monkey infants.

    PubMed

    Champoux, M; Boyce, W T; Suomi, S J

    1995-02-01

    Differences between adopted and nonadopted infant rhesus monkeys were examined, as were differences between biological and foster mothers, in measures of infancy and postinfancy behaviors, maternal-infant interactions, and neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to separations. Newborns were experimentally allocated to continuous postnatal care by either their biological mothers (n = 9) or adoptive, nonbiological mothers (n = 7). Behavioral observations were completed during the neonatal period, during separations at 30 days and 5 months, and from 6 to 18 months of age, when animals were housed in a large social group. Maternal and infant responses to separation stress were assessed using measures of behavioral, adrenocortical, and growth hormone reactivity. Out of 84 possible comparisons, only six achieved statistical significance, a number compatible with the operation of chance. Negligible differences in behavioral and neuroendocrine endpoints were found between adopted and nonadopted mother-infant pairs. These findings lend additional credence to human studies finding no increase in the incidence or severity of mental disorders in adopted children.

  6. The Signature of Maternal Social Rank in Placenta Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation Profiles in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Massart, Renaud; Suderman, Matthew J; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sutti, Sheila; Ruggiero, Angela M; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Szyf, Moshe

    2017-05-01

    The effects of social status on human health can be modeled in captive cohorts of nonhuman primates. This study shows that maternal social rank is associated with broad changes in DNA methylation in placentae of rhesus monkeys (N = 10). Differentially methylated genes between social ranks are enriched in signaling pathways playing major roles in placenta physiology. Moreover, the authors found significant overlaps with genes whose expression was previously associated with social rank in adult rhesus monkeys (Tung et al., 2012) and whose methylation was associated with perinatal stress in newborn humans and rhesus monkeys (Nieratschker et al., 2014). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that system-wide epigenetic changes in multiple tissues are involved in long-term adaptations to the social environment. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Subsecond timing in primates: comparison of interval production between human subjects and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zarco, Wilbert; Merchant, Hugo; Prado, Luis; Mendez, Juan Carlos

    2009-12-01

    This study describes the psychometric similarities and differences in motor timing performance between 20 human subjects and three rhesus monkeys during two timing production tasks. These tasks involved tapping on a push-button to produce the same set of intervals (range of 450 to 1,000 ms), but they differed in the number of intervals produced (single vs. multiple) and the modality of the stimuli (auditory vs. visual) used to define the time intervals. The data showed that for both primate species, variability increased as a function of the length of the produced target interval across tasks, a result in accordance with the scalar property. Interestingly, the temporal performance of rhesus monkeys was equivalent to that of human subjects during both the production of single intervals and the tapping synchronization to a metronome. Overall, however, human subjects were more accurate than monkeys and showed less timing variability. This was especially true during the self-pacing phase of the multiple interval production task, a behavior that may be related to complex temporal cognition, such as speech and music execution. In addition, the well-known human bias toward auditory as opposed to visual cues for the accurate execution of time intervals was not evident in rhesus monkeys. These findings validate the rhesus monkey as an appropriate model for the study of the neural basis of time production, but also suggest that the exquisite temporal abilities of humans, which peak in speech and music performance, are not all shared with macaques.

  8. Discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gerak, Lisa R.; France, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Neuroactive steroids and benzodiazepines can positively modulate GABA by acting at distinct binding sites on synaptic GABAA receptors. Although these receptors are thought to mediate the behavioral effects of both benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids, other receptors (e.g., extrasynaptic GABAA, NMDA, σ1, or 5-HT3 receptors) might contribute to the effects of neuroactive steroids, resulting in differences among positive modulators. Objective The current study established the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone as a discriminative stimulus to determine whether actions in addition to positive modulation of synaptic GABAA receptors might contribute to its discriminative stimulus effects. Methods Four rhesus monkeys discriminated 5.6 mg/kg pregnanolone while responding under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Results Positive modulators acting at benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or neuroactive steroid sites produced ≥80% pregnanolone-lever responding, whereas drugs acting primarily at receptors other than synaptic GABAA receptors, such as extrasynaptic GABAA, NMDA, σ1, and 5-HT3 receptors, produced vehicle-lever responding. Flumazenil antagonized the benzodiazepines midazolam and flunitrazepam, with Schild analyses yielding slopes that did not deviate from unity and pA2 values of 7.39 and 7.32, respectively. Flumazenil did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. Conclusion While these results do not exclude the possibility that pregnanolone acts at receptors other than synaptic GABAA receptors, they indicate a primary if not exclusive role of synaptic GABAA receptors in its discriminative stimulus effects. Reported differences in the chronic effects of benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids are not due to differences in their actions at synaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:23949204

  9. Discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids and benzodiazepines can positively modulate GABA by acting at distinct binding sites on synaptic GABA(A) receptors. Although these receptors are thought to mediate the behavioral effects of both benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids, other receptors (e.g., extrasynaptic GABA(A), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), σ₁, or 5-HT₃ receptors) might contribute to the effects of neuroactive steroids, accounting for differences among positive modulators. The current study established the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone as a discriminative stimulus to determine whether actions in addition to positive modulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors might contribute to its discriminative stimulus effects. Four rhesus monkeys discriminated 5.6 mg/kg pregnanolone while responding under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Positive modulators acting at benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or neuroactive steroid sites produced ≥80 % pregnanolone-lever responding, whereas drugs acting primarily at receptors other than synaptic GABA(A) receptors, such as extrasynaptic GABA(A), NMDA, σ₁, and 5-HT₃ receptors, produced vehicle-lever responding. Flumazenil antagonized the benzodiazepines midazolam and flunitrazepam, with Schild analyses yielding slopes that did not deviate from unity and pA₂ values of 7.39 and 7.32, respectively. Flumazenil did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. While these results do not exclude the possibility that pregnanolone acts at receptors other than synaptic GABA(A) receptors, they indicate a primary and possibly exclusive role of synaptic GABA(A) receptors in its discriminative stimulus effects. Reported differences in the effects of benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids are not due to differences in their actions at synaptic GABA(A) receptors.

  10. Treatment of persistent self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys through socialization: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Weed, James L; Wagner, Peggy O; Byrum, Russ; Parrish, Stephanie; Knezevich, Mary; Powell, Doug A

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a retrospective report describing outcomes for six male rhesus monkeys, each with a history of persistent self-injurious behavior (SIB), after their social introduction to female rhesus monkeys. Pairing procedures for five of the six male primates were implemented after surgical vasectomy. One male had previous pairing experience with a female prior to vasectomy resulting in an unplanned pregnancy. This male was re-socialized with his former female partner after surgery. The SIB-related medical histories of the males before and after the pairings are presented. One goal for promoting pair-housing of chronic SIB male monkeys with female monkeys was to determine whether this intervention would function to reduce or eliminate the expression of SIB and thus provide enhanced socialization opportunities for previously singly housed animals.

  11. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-08

    os. Black arrows outline gall blciddr.Wiearwndctspiio ofrgtaboia oaiy 10• V.. b:k The absence of reports or mention of spontaneous urolithiasis in the...literature indicates that this entity is rare in rhesus monkeys. A case report of urolithiasis in one Macaca cyclopis monkey and a literature review...intravenous pyelography, cholelithiasis and urolithiasis were deleted as possible causes of the opacities. It is possible that these dense objects

  12. Vestibular functions and sleep in space experiments. [using rhesus and owl monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Physical indices of sleep were continuously monitored in an owl monkey living in a chamber continuously rotating at a constant angular velocity. The electrophysiological data obtained from chronically implanted electrodes was analyzed to determine the chronic effects of vestibular stimulation on sleep and wakefulness cycles. The interaction of linear and angular acceleration on the vestibulo-ocular reflex was investigated in three rhesus monkeys at various angular accelerations.

  13. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  14. Effect of space flight on cytokine production and other immunologic parameters of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Davis, S.; Taylor, G. R.; Mandel, A. D.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Lesnyak, A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Peres, C.; Tkackzuk, J.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight. Additional samples were obtained approximately 1 month after flight for a postflight restraint study. Two types of experiments were carried out throughout this study. The first experiment determined the ability of leukocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to express interleukin-2 receptors. The second experiment examined the responsiveness of rhesus bone marrow cells to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human reagents that cross-reacted with monkey tissue were utilized for the bulk of the studies. Results from both studies indicated that there were changes in immunologic function attributable to space flight. Interleukin-1 production and the expression of interleukin-2 receptors was decreased after space flight. Bone marrow cells from flight monkeys showed a significant decrease in their response to GM-CSF compared with the response of bone marrow cells from nonflight control monkeys. These results suggest that the rhesus monkey may be a useful surrogate for humans in future studies that examine the effect of space flight on immune response, particularly when conditions do not readily permit human study.

  15. A Draft Map of Rhesus Monkey Tissue Proteome for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Gyun; McKinney, Kimberly Q.; Lee, Yong-Yook; Chung, Hae-Na; Pavlopoulos, Antonis J.; Jung, Kook Y.; Kim, Woong-Ki; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Han, David K.; Hwang, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Though the rhesus monkey is one of the most valuable non-human primate animal models for various human diseases because of its manageable size and genetic and proteomic similarities with humans, proteomic research using rhesus monkeys still remains challenging due to the lack of a complete protein sequence database and effective strategy. To investigate the most effective and high-throughput proteomic strategy, comparative data analysis was performed employing various protein databases and search engines. The UniProt databases of monkey, human, bovine, rat and mouse were used for the comparative analysis and also a universal database with all protein sequences from all available species was tested. At the same time, de novo sequencing was compared to the SEQUEST search algorithm to identify an optimal work flow for monkey proteomics. Employing the most effective strategy, proteomic profiling of monkey organs identified 3,481 proteins at 0.5% FDR from 9 male and 10 female tissues in an automated, high-throughput manner. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001972. Based on the success of this alternative interpretation of MS data, the list of proteins identified from 12 organs of male and female subjects will benefit future rhesus monkey proteome research. PMID:25974132

  16. Quantity Representation in Children and Rhesus Monkeys: Linear Versus Logarithmic Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Ready, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The performances of 4- and 5-year-olds and rhesus monkeys were compared using a computerized task for quantity assessment. Participants first learned two quantity anchor values and then responded to intermediate values by classifying them as similar to either the large anchor or the small anchor. Of primary interest was an assessment of where the…

  17. Rhesus Monkey - Miss Sam - Fiberglass Couch - Little Joe (LJ)-1B Flight - Prep

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-12-04

    B59-00828 (21 Jan. 1959) --- The test subject, a rhesus monkey named Miss Sam, is seen encased in a model of the Mercury fiberglass contour couch. She is being placed in a container for the Little Joe 1B suborbital test flight of the Mercury Capsule. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Hauser, Marc D.; Glynn, David D.; Barner, David

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental questions in cognitive science concern the origins and nature of the units that compose visual experience. Here, we investigate the capacity to individuate and store information about non-solid portions, asking in particular whether free-ranging rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") quantify portions of a non-solid substance presented in…

  19. Quantification of Drug Choice with the Generalized Matching Law in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Woods, James H.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized matching law provides precise descriptions of choice, but has not been used to characterize choice between different doses of drugs or different classes of drugs. The current study examined rhesus monkeys' drug self-administration choices between identical drug doses, different doses, different drugs (cocaine, remifentanil, and…

  20. Mother-Infant Interaction in Rhesus Monkeys Treated Chronically with Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Mari S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Drug-exposed mother-infant rhesus monkey pairs were similar to nontreated controls in the amount and types of activity displayed at the infant's tenth and ninetieth day of age. At about 3 months of age drug-exposed pairs increased in interaction, signaling mother-infant independence. This finding suggests that mother-infant attachment may be…

  1. Evidence for Motor Planning in Monkeys: Rhesus Macaques Select Efficient Grips when Transporting Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naive adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with…

  2. Mother-Infant Attachment, Peer Relationships, and the Development of Social Networks in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomi, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The social networks that rhesus monkeys develop in nature are centered around multiple generations of matrilineal kin embedded in larger social groupings that have some degree of distinctiveness and permanence. Within each family, infants initially grow up in the care of their mothers and the close presence of relatives, and they subsequently…

  3. The Neural Basis of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in the Rhesus Monkey Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Uwe J.; Thier, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are performed in order to prevent retinal image blur of a moving object. Rhesus monkeys are able to perform smooth pursuit eye movements quite similar as humans, even if the pursuit target does not consist in a simple moving dot. Therefore, the study of the neuronal responses as well as the consequences of…

  4. Proteome profiling of the sperm maturation milieu in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) epididymis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Jin, Shao-Hua; Liu, Xue-Xia; Wang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The mammalian spermatozoon acquires its fertilising potential during transit through the epididymis, where it interacts with epididymal luminal fluid proteins (the sperm maturation milieu). In order to highlight the epididymal-specific function of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) in sperm maturation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of epididymal luminal fluid proteins was followed by identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) or MALDI-TOF/TOF and revealed over five hundred spots, comprising 198 non-redundant proteins. Some mass spectrometric data were confirmed by western blotting identification. Some common epididymal fluid proteins were identified, such as clusterin, α-1-antitrypsin, malate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase B, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 and α-mannosidase. More than 7% of all proteins were anti-oxidative, which might control oxidative stress within the male tract. When compared with bull and human epididymal luminal fluid proteins, those in the rhesus monkey had more overlap with the human, which provides evidence of a close evolutionary relationship between the rhesus monkey and man. This study provides new proteomic information on possible rhesus monkey epididymal functions and novel potential biomarkers for the noninvasive assessment of male fertility.

  5. In Vitro Interleukin-1 and 2 Production and Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Didier A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Husson, David; Tkaczuk, Jean; Andre, Eric; Schaffar, Laurance

    1996-01-01

    Anti-human monoclonal antibodies were used to detect and quantify interleukins-1 and 2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a rhesus monkey. Interleukin-1 production could be induced by phorbol esters (PMA) and was potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Interleukin-2 secretion could also be induced by the combination of PHA and PMA, but only weakly with PHA alone. Interleukin-2 receptor expression was present in a subpopulation of unstimulated lymphocytes and could be enhanced by PHA or PMA. These data show once again that the rhesus monkey immune system is cross-reactive with the human one and that rhesus macaque could be a good model to study interleukin therapy.

  6. Lassa Virus Infection of Rhesus Monkeys: Pathogenesis and Treatment with Ribavirin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    antigens within cells. 6.0 LETHALLY INFECTED Ribavirin treatment of Lassa virus-infected Y0 rhesus monkeys. To establish base -line virologic ALL...mained huddled in the corners of their cages, ex- based on six monkeys; for surviving infected (0), on hibited a severe petechial rash most apparent on...arithmetic means ± SE, based on the S400- same monkeys whose viremia titers z were presented in figures I and 2. 200- 100- to- 40- 20 5 tO is DAYS

  7. Cognitive performance in rhesus monkeys varies by sex and prenatal androgen exposure.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rebecca A; Wallen, Kim

    2007-04-01

    Men and women differ on performance and strategy on several spatial tasks. Rodents display similar sex differences, and manipulations of early hormone exposure alter the direction of these differences. However, most cognitive testing of nonhuman primates has utilized sample sizes too small to investigate sexually differentiated behaviors. This study presents an investigation of sex differences and the effects of prenatal androgen on spatial memory and strategy use in rhesus monkeys. Monkeys prenatally exposed to vehicle, testosterone, or the androgen receptor blocker flutamide performed a search task in which 5 of 12 goal boxes contained food rewards. Spatial consistency and the presence of local landmarks were varied. Performance when both spatial and marker cues were available did not differ by sex or prenatal treatment. Contrary to predictions, females easily solved the task when local markers were removed, and their performance outscored males. Although eliminating spatial consistency and requiring subjects to use local markers impaired performance by all monkeys, females continued to locate correct goal boxes at higher than chance levels and scored better than males. Blocking prenatal androgen exposure in males improved use of local markers. These findings suggest that the tendency to attend to landmarks and to use them in solving spatial problems is typical of females across many species, including rodents, humans, and rhesus monkeys. In rhesus monkeys and rodents, developmental androgen eliminates this specialization. However, these results are the only known example of better performance of females than males when salient markers are removed.

  8. Development of a rhesus monkey lung geometry model and application to particle deposition in comparison to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Rick; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Richard E.; Harkema, Jack; Carey, Stephan A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, Dallas; Kimbell, Julia S.; Miller, Frederick J.

    2012-11-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 µm in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 µm for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Finally, future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.

  9. Impairment of male copulatory behavior in rhesus monkeys following acute administration of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, S M; Hepner, B C; Wertz, J M

    1994-01-01

    Although numerous studies in nonhuman primates have demonstrated an influence of cocaine on behavior, no studies have yet examined whether cocaine affects sexual behavior in nonhuman primates. The objective of the present study was to examine the acute effects of cocaine on male copulatory behavior of rhesus monkeys. Administration of cocaine produced dose-dependent effects on male copulatory behavior, with monkeys taking significantly longer to initiate copulation (mount latency) and achieve an ejaculation (ejaculation latency) after receiving 200-800 micrograms/kg cocaine. Male copulatory behavior was not affected by cocaine at doses below 200 micrograms/kg. These results indicate that cocaine can acutely impair sexual behavior performance of male rhesus monkeys. Further study is needed to determine the possible long-term consequences of chronic cocaine administration on male sexual behavior.

  10. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  11. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al. concluded that pigeons’ lack of an information-seeking capacity reflected their broader lack of metacognition. We report a striking species contrast to pigeons. Eight rhesus macaques and seven capuchin monkeys passed the Roberts et al. test of information seeking—often in their first testing session. Members of both primate species appreciated immediately the lack of information signaled by an occluded sample, and the need for an information-seeking response to manage the situation. In subsequent testing, macaques demonstrated flexible/varied forms of information management. Capuchins did not. The research findings bear on the phylogenetic distribution of metacognition across the vertebrates, and on the underlying psychological requirements for metacognitive and information-seeking performances. PMID:21459372

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the T-cell receptor beta chain gene in rhesus monkey by high throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhoufang; Liu, Guangjie; Tong, Yin; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Ying; Qin, Li; Wang, Zhanhui; Chen, Xiaoping; He, Jiankui

    2015-01-01

    Profiling immune repertoires by high throughput sequencing enhances our understanding of immune system complexity and immune-related diseases in humans. Previously, cloning and Sanger sequencing identified limited numbers of T cell receptor (TCR) nucleotide sequences in rhesus monkeys, thus their full immune repertoire is unknown. We applied multiplex PCR and Illumina high throughput sequencing to study the TCRβ of rhesus monkeys. We identified 1.26 million TCRβ sequences corresponding to 643,570 unique TCRβ sequences and 270,557 unique complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) gene sequences. Precise measurements of CDR3 length distribution, CDR3 amino acid distribution, length distribution of N nucleotide of junctional region, and TCRV and TCRJ gene usage preferences were performed. A comprehensive profile of rhesus monkey immune repertoire might aid human infectious disease studies using rhesus monkeys. PMID:25961410

  13. Behavioral efficacy of diazepam against nerve agent exposure in rhesus monkeys. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, C.A.; Larsen, T.; Finger, A.V.; Solana, R.P.; McMaster, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    The possibility that nerve agents will be used on the battlefield is real. The traditional therapy against nerve agent exposure consists of pyridostigmine pretreatment and atropine-pralidoxime chloride therapy administered after nerve agent exposure. This therapy regimen is extremely effective in preventing mortality in laboratory animals exposed to multilethal concentrations of nerve agent, yet these animals often display convulsions, brain damage, and behavioral incapacitation. We report here that the addition of diazepam to the traditional therapy for nerve agent (soman) exposure not only decreases the incidence of convulsions, but also attenuates the cognitive impairments of rhesus monkeys trained on a Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task. Monkeys which received diazepam treatment required only 6 days before their performance on the SPR task returned to presoman exposure levels, compared to nondiazepamtreated monkeys which required 15 days. Moreover, only 1 out of the 5 monkeys which received diazepain treatment suffered tonic-clonic convulsions; in contrast all 5 monkeys which did not receive diazepam treatment experienced severe convulsive episodes. These results suggest that diazepam would be an excellent adjunct to traditional nerve agent therapy to facilitate behavioral recovery from nerve agent intoxication that might be encountered by US military personnel on the battlefield or accidental organophosphate poisoning encountered in industrial or agricultural accidents. Serial probe recognition task, diazepam, nerve agents, soman convulsions, rhesus monkeys, cognition, organophosphate.

  14. Behavioral efficacy of diazepam against nerve agent exposure in rhesus monkeys. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, C.A.; Larsen, T.; Finger, A.V.

    1991-12-31

    The possibility that nerve agents will be used on the battlefield is real. The traditional therapy against nerve agent exposure consists of pyridostigmine pretreatment and atropine-pralidoxime chloride therapy administered after nerve agent exposure. This therapy regimen is extremely effective in preventing mortality in laboratory animals exposed to multilethal concentrations of nerve agent, yet these animals often display convulsions, brain damage, and behavioral incapacitation. We report here that the addition of diazepam to the traditional therapy for nerve agent (soman) exposure not only decreases the incidence of convulsions, but also attenuates the cognitive impairments of rhesus monkeys trained on a Serialmore » Probe Recognition (SPR) task. Monkeys which received diazepam treatment required only 6 days before their performance on the SPR task returned to presoman exposure levels, compared to nondiazepamtreated monkeys which required 15 days. Moreover, only 1 out of the 5 monkeys which received diazepain treatment suffered tonic-clonic convulsions; in contrast all 5 monkeys which did not receive diazepam treatment experienced severe convulsive episodes. These results suggest that diazepam would be an excellent adjunct to traditional nerve agent therapy to facilitate behavioral recovery from nerve agent intoxication that might be encountered by US military personnel on the battlefield or accidental organophosphate poisoning encountered in industrial or agricultural accidents. Serial probe recognition task, diazepam, nerve agents, soman convulsions, rhesus monkeys, cognition, organophosphate.« less

  15. Soluble human CD4 elicits an antibody response in rhesus monkeys that inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Chen, Zheng W.; Tsubota, Hiroshi; Lord, C.I.; Levine, C.G.; Letvin, N.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV{sub mac}) demonstrate significant virologic and clinical improvement as a result of treatment with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). The authors show that human rsCD4 does not efficiently inhibit SIV{sub mac} replication in bone marrow macrophages of rhesus monkeys and does not significantly augment bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. However, plasma of human rsCD4-treated rhesus monkeys does exhibit significant anti-SIV{sub mac} activity in vitro. Plasma of these animals efficiently blocks SIV{sub mac} replicaton in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages. It also increases granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in vitro by bone marrow cells of SIV{sub mac}-infected monkeys. This plasma and the IgG fraction of plasma from a rhesus monkey immunized with human rsCD4 in adjuvant demonstrate reactivity with a soluble form of the rhesus monkey CD4 molecule, exhibit binding to CD4{sup +} but not CD8{sup +} concanavalin A-activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, and precipitate the CD4 molecule from surface-labeled activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-viral activity is demonstrable in the IgG fraction of plasma from a human rsCD4-immunized monkey. These studies raise the possibility that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response that could potentially induce a beneficial therapeutic response in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

  16. Soluble human CD4 elicits an antibody response in rhesus monkeys that inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Chen, Zheng W.; Tsubota, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV{sub mac}) demonstrate significant virologic and clinical improvement as a result of treatment with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). The authors show that human rsCD4 does not efficiently inhibit SIV{sub mac} replication in bone marrow macrophages of rhesus monkeys and does not significantly augment bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. However, plasma of human rsCD4-treated rhesus monkeys does exhibit significant anti-SIV{sub mac} activity in vitro. Plasma of these animals efficiently blocks SIV{sub mac} replicaton in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages. It also increases granulocyte/macrophage colony formation inmore » vitro by bone marrow cells of SIV{sub mac}-infected monkeys. This plasma and the IgG fraction of plasma from a rhesus monkey immunized with human rsCD4 in adjuvant demonstrate reactivity with a soluble form of the rhesus monkey CD4 molecule, exhibit binding to CD4{sup +} but not CD8{sup +} concanavalin A-activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, and precipitate the CD4 molecule from surface-labeled activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-viral activity is demonstrable in the IgG fraction of plasma from a human rsCD4-immunized monkey. These studies raise the possibility that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response that could potentially induce a beneficial therapeutic response in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.« less

  17. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of (14C)ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected (14C)ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats.

  18. An assessment of domain-general metacognitive responding in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests. Monkeys showed a trend toward generalization in Experiments 2 & 3, and reliable generalization in Experiment 4. In Experiments 5 & 6, we presented the decline-test response in a delayed matching-to-sample task. Memory tests differed from perceptual tests in that the appearance of the test display could not control metacognitive responding. In Experiment 6, monkeys made prospective metamemory judgments before seeing the tests. Generalization across perceptual tests with different visual properties and mixed generalization from perceptual to memory tests provide provisional evidence that domain-general, private cues controlled metacognition in some monkeys. We observed individual differences in generalization, suggesting that monkeys differ in use of public and private metacognitive cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing significant (> 30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A.; Menard, Mark T.; El-Mallah, Saif N.; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K.; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2016-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (> 30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in 3 categories of coat condition: 1) monkeys that remained fully haired, 2) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss), or 3) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). PMID:27008590

  20. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Adverse Rearing Experiences Enhance Responding to both Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli in Juvenile Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eric E.; Herman, Khalisa N.; Barrett, Catherine E.; Noble, Pamela L.; Wojteczko, Kimberly; Chisholm, Kelli; Delaney, Deborah; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A.; Winslow, James T.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background While adverse rearing is thought to alter threat responding, the effects on appetitive behavior remains minimally explored. This study examines the effects that early-life emotional adversity has on response to both threatening and appetitive stimuli in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Methods Twenty-four, two year old monkeys with differential rearing histories were tested for fear-potentiated startle responding and consumption of an artificially sweetened solution. Results Relative to monkeys reared under typical conditions, monkeys removed from their mothers at birth and reared with peers demonstrated both increases in reward responding, as evidenced by greater consumption of a palatable solution in a free choice test, and increased threat responding, as evidenced by enhanced fear potentiated startle responding. Conclusions Findings suggest that early rearing impacts juvenile manifestations of both appetitive and aversive emotional systems. Results are discussed in the context of development, anxiety, depression and substance abuse. PMID:19450795

  2. Amygdalectomy and responsiveness to novelty in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): generality and individual consistency of effects.

    PubMed

    Mason, William A; Capitanio, John P; Machado, Christopher J; Mendoza, Sally P; Amaral, David G

    2006-02-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with bilateral ibotenic acid-produced lesions of the amygdala were compared with controls in several novel situations, including exposures to metal objects, toy animals, and a person. Early in testing, the monkeys with lesions showed reduced inhibitions on responsiveness compared with controls. With continuing exposures, differences between groups diminished sharply as inhibitions waned in the controls. This outcome is consistent with the hypothesis that the amygdala mediates caution in initial reactions to ambiguous or threatening novel situations, which, in the absence of adverse consequences, diminishes with repetition. Consistency of individual responsiveness across different situations, including pairing with other monkeys, was substantial in lesioned and normal monkeys, suggesting that stable qualities of temperament influenced the results in both groups.

  3. Spectral sensitivity differences between rhesus monkeys and humans: implications for neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Lindbloom-Brown, Zachary; Tait, Leah J; Horwitz, Gregory D

    2014-12-15

    Spectral sensitivity of humans and rhesus monkeys was compared using identical displays and similar procedures. Detection thresholds were measured for the following: 1) 15-Hz modulation of a blue and a green cathode-ray tube phosphor; 2) 15-Hz modulation of all three phosphors together; and 3) slow (<1 Hz) modulations of a blue and a green phosphor under scotopic conditions. Monkeys had lower blue-to-green threshold ratios than humans at all eccentricities tested (0.5 to 7°), consistent with a lower lens optical density in monkeys. In addition to apparently having a lower lens density than humans, monkeys were more sensitive to 15-Hz red-green isoluminant modulations than humans, an effect that cannot be explained by optical factors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, C. J.; Simon, M. A.; Bergsagel, D. J.; Pauley, D. R.; King, N. W.; Garcea, R. L.; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) disease was diagnosed in four rhesus monkeys that died with SIV-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One juvenile monkey seroconverted for SV40 6 months after inoculation with SIV and developed severe bilateral tubulointerstitial nephritis. In contrast, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in two adult monkeys that were seropositive for SV40 before SIV inoculation, as well as a third adult that was naturally infected with SIV and seropositive for SV40 5 years before death. Large intranuclear inclusions containing abundant polyomavirus particles were limited to either renal tubular epithelial cells or oligodendrocytes. In situ DNA hybridization for SV40 large T antigen further demonstrated that SV40 nucleic acid was localized to either kidney or brain tissue. By immunohistochemical analysis, areas of central nervous system inflammation and demyelination were shown to contain CD68+ macrophages (gitter cells), aggregates of CD8+ T lymphocytes, and numerous gemistocytic astrocytes that labeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein. These observations indicate that rhesus monkeys with SIV-induced AIDS are predisposed to polyomaviral disease, in which SV40 nucleic acid is observed in renal tissue in primary infections and brain tissue after viral reactivation. Furthermore, this organ-specific replication suggests that tissue-tropic strains of SV40 may develop in immunodeficient monkeys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1376560

  5. Ventilatory effects of negative GABA(A) modulators in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, L R; Estupinan, L E; France, C P

    1998-12-01

    This study examined changes in ventilation produced by negative gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) modulators in rhesus monkeys. The effects of Ro 15-4513, beta-CCE and beta-CCM were examined in four rhesus monkeys breathing air or 5% CO2 in air. When monkeys breathed CO2, minute volume (VE) and frequency (f) increased, on average, to 158 and 140% of control (air), respectively. Ro 15-4513 did not modify ventilation in monkeys breathing either gas mixture; however, beta-CCE and beta-CCM increased VE and f in monkeys breathing air to between 123 and 141% of control and had no effect on ventilation of 5% CO2. Increased ventilation produced by the negative GABA(A) modulators appeared to be maximal, because ventilation was not further enhanced when the dose was increased three-fold. Each of the three negative GABA(A) modulators reversed the decreases in ventilation produced by diazepam, suggesting that these drugs are acting at benzodiazepine receptors; however, the increased ventilation produced by beta-CCE and beta-CCM might suggest that they have more negative efficacy than Ro 15-4513. These data extend previous findings by showing that some negative GABA(A) modulators (Ro 15-4513) do not alter ventilation and further indicate that changes in ventilation can be used to evaluate efficacy differences among GABA(A) modulators.

  6. Effect of whole-body irradiation on skeletal growth in rhesus monkeys. [X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sonneveld, P.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1979-03-01

    Late effects of single whole-body doses of 400 to 500 and 750 to 900 rads on skeletal growth in 32 rhesus monkeys were studied. Findings indicated growth inhibition strongly related to dose and age at irradiation. Doses of 750 to 900 rads before the age of 40 months resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition (11%) than doses given during or shortly after adolescence (p < 0.005). Doses of less than 750 rads were not significant. In view of the close similarity between monkeys and man, irradiation of children at doses greater than 750 rads may carry a strong risk ofmore » subsequent growth retardation.« less

  7. Effect of rotopositioning on the growth and maturation of mandibular bone in immobilized Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Parvin, C.; Smith, K. C.; France, P.; Kazarian, L.

    1986-01-01

    The rates of bone formation and mineralization in the mandibular cortex of juvenile Rhesus monkeys exposed to immobilization/rotopositioning are evaluated. The monkeys were restrained in a supine position and rotated 90 deg every 30 minutes through a full 360 deg for 14 days. The microscopic distribution of mineral densities in osteonal bone and the porosity of cortical bone are studied using microradiographs, and osteon closure rates are assessed using tetracycline labeling; normal distributions of osteons of different mineral density and cortical bone porosity values are observed. It is concluded that 14 days of immobilization/rotopositioning did not cause abnormal changes in osteon mineralization, cortical porosity, and osteon closure rates.

  8. Differentiation and characterization of rhesus monkey atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Cao, Henghua; Bai, Shuyun; Huo, Weibang; Ma, Yue

    2017-04-01

    The combination of non-human primate animals and their induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) provides not only transplantation models for cell-based therapy of heart diseases, but also opportunities for heart-related drug research on both cellular and animal levels. However, the subtypes and electrophysiology properties of non-human primate iPSC-CMs hadn't been detailed characterized. In this study, we generated rhesus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells (riPSCs), and efficiently differentiated them into ventricular or atrial cardiomyocytes by modulating retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Our results revealed that the electrophysiological characteristics and response to canonical drugs of riPSC-CMs were similar with those of human pluripotent stem cell derived CMs. Therefore, rhesus monkeys and their iPSC-CMs provide a powerful and practicable system for heart related biomedical research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium of rhesus monkey: lack of diminution with centrophenoxine treatment.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L D; Brizzee, K R

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was performed to test the ability of Centrophenoxine to reduce the amount of lipofuscin (age pigment) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of aged rhesus monkeys. Centrophenoxine is reputed to have this action in neurons of lower mammals. Quantitative electron microscopic analysis was performed on sections from the perifovea of ten rhesus monkeys, all approximately 20 years of age. Four of the animals received 80 mg/kg Centrophenoxine (IM injection) daily for 12 weeks. No significant difference between the treated and control groups could be demonstrated statistically (Mann-Whitney U-test) either in the fraction of RPE cell cytoplasm occupied by lipofuscin granules or in the average size of the granules.

  10. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-05

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  11. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established. PMID:15983367

  12. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  13. The pharmacokinetics of lisuride hydrogen maleate in rat, rabbit and rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Humpel, M; Toda, T; Oshino, N; Pommerenke, G

    1981-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lisuride hydrogen maleate (LHM) were investigated in rat, rabbit and rhesus monkey. Experiments were designed to meet not only the requirements of drug registration but also to serve other preclinical disciplines (toxicology, pharmacology). LHM is absorbed almost completely at a dose level of 100-250 micrograms/kg. During absorption and first liver passage (FPE) LHM is metabolized. The FPE was highest in the rhesus monkey and lowest in the rat. Calculated on bioavailability during chronic tolerance studies, in the highest dose group rats were burdened with 180-fold and rhesus monkeys with 70-fold the highest human dose (parkinsonism). Total clearance values indicated the presence of extrahepatic metabolism in all animal species. Terminal half-lives of unchanged drug in plasma were in the range of a few hours. Therefore, no accumulation of unchanged drug was expected to occur following daily repeated administration in the animal species investigated. Elimination of 14C-radioactivity proceeded mainly via the liver in rat and rabbit. The rhesus monkey excreted most of the dose administered in the urine. Enterohepatic circulation of 14C-material was demonstrated in the rat. In the rat but not in the other two species a small part of the dose (about 2%) accumulated in blood cells in the form of metabolites. Unchanged lisuride is able to cross membranes very rapidly, this was shown in distribution studies (whole-body autoradiography of rat, direct measurements in rat and rabbit). Transfer of lisuride into fetuses and brain is governed by its concentration in plasma. Drug level decrease in fetuses and brain was shown to somewhat slower than in plasma. Detailed evaluation of the distribution pattern in the brain of rat and rabbit showed a high affinity of lisuride for its preferential target tissue, the pituitary.

  14. Identification and Pathological Characterization of Persistent Asymptomatic Ebola Virus infection in Rhesus Monkeys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-12

    Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we screened a collection of 74 archived tissue (eye, testicle, brain, lymph node, liver , spleen) samples from... liver , lymph node, and spleen). Next to rhesus monkeys, crab-eating macaques are 81 frequently used for experimental EBOV infections 19 . We...nucleoprotein (NP) gene-specific probes (Fig. 1). In contrast, genomic EBOV RNA could 98 not be detected in brains, livers , lymph nodes, ovaries/uteri

  15. Longitudinal Stability of Friendships in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Individual- and Relationship-level Effects

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A.R.; Capitanio, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The longevity of children’s friendships is influenced by a multitude of individual- and relationship-level attributes, but little is known about the factors that impact friendship maintenance in nonhuman primate juveniles. We investigated whether the following predicted the longitudinal stability of friendships in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): (a) individual characteristics including sex, dominance rank, matriline size, and temperament; and (b) relationship characteristics including kinship, reciprocity, complexity, and similarity between friends in sex, rank, and temperament. We recorded affiliative interactions of 29 two-year-old rhesus monkeys, previously observed as yearlings, at the California National Primate Research Center. Friends were defined as peers with whom subjects spent more time affiliating than expected by chance. Temperament had been assessed at 3-4 months of age. Sex was the only individual characteristic predicting friendship stability: males maintained more friendships from age one to two than did females. Relationship characteristics predicting friendship stability included similarity between individuals in temperament, kinship, and sex. In addition, reciprocated friendships, rather than unidirectional friendships, were significantly more likely to persist over time. Our findings suggest that the factors influencing friendship maintenance in rhesus monkeys are similar to those impacting human friendship longevity. PMID:22352887

  16. Anatomical description of the periprostatic nerves in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Roman; Neuhaus, Jochen; Gratzke, Christian; Blana, Andreas; Wieland, Wolf F; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Recent publications have revealed a variable course of the periprostatic nerves in humans. It is unclear to what extent nerves outside the dorsolateral region of the prostate are involved in the physiology of erectile function. As functional studies in humans are limited by ethical aspects investigations in animal models could provide further insight. The intention of this study was to give a detailed description of the topographical anatomy of autonomic nerves along the seminal vesicles and the prostate in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to investigate its suitability as an animal model for future physiological studies. Wholemount serial sections of pelvic organ blocks of ten male rhesus monkeys were investigated. Autonomic nerves were stained with an antibody against S100. Autonomic nerves were dispersed along the dorsolateral to the ventrolateral aspect of the capsule of the prostate within a layer of connective tissue. There was no accumulation of vessels and nerves in the dorsolateral position of the prostate. The prostate is located dorsally to the urethra and does not encircle it. No adjacent nerves were found in the cranial two-thirds of the seminal vesicles. The male rhesus monkey is limited suitable as an animal model for studies on the periprostatic nerves provided the following differences to humans are considered: the special topography of the prostate, the nerve course along the seminal vesicles and the missing nerve accumulation dorsolaterally to the prostate.

  17. Parallel evolutionary events in the haptoglobin gene clusters of rhesus monkey and human

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, L.M.; Maeda, N.

    1994-08-01

    Parallel occurrences of evolutionary events in the haptoglobin gene clusters of rhesus monkeys and humans were studied. We found six different haplotypes among 11 individuals from two rhesus monkey families. The six haplotypes include two types of haptoglobin gene clusters: one type with a single gene and the other with two genes. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the one-gene and the two-gene clusters were both formed by unequal homologous crossovers between two genes of an ancestral three-gene cluster, near exon 5, the longest exon of the gene. This exon is also the location where a separate unequal homologous crossover occuredmore » in the human lineage, forming the human two-gene haptoglobin gene cluster from an ancestral three-gene cluster. The occurrence of independent homologous unequal crossovers in rhesus monkey and in human within the same region of DNA suggests that the evolutionary history of the haptoglobin gene cluster in primates is the consequence of frequent homologous pairings facilitated by the longest and most conserved exon of the gene. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. Oral curcumin supplementation improves fine motor function in the middle-aged rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tara L; Bowley, Bethany G E; Shultz, Penny L; Calderazzo, Samantha M; Shobin, Eli J; Uprety, Ajay R; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2018-02-15

    Aged individuals experience decreased fine motor function of the hand and digits, which could result, in part, from the chronic, systemic state of inflammation that occurs with aging. Recent research for treating age-related inflammation has focused on the effects of nutraceuticals that have anti-inflammatory properties. One particular dietary polyphenol, curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory effects and there is mounting evidence that curcumin may serve to reduce systemic inflammation. Therefore, it could be useful for alleviating age-related impairments in fine motor function. To test this hypothesis we assessed the efficacy of a dietary intervention with a commercially available optimized curcumin to ameliorate or delay the effects of aging on fine motor function of the hand of rhesus monkeys. We administered oral daily doses of curcumin or a control vehicle to 11 monkeys over a 14- to 18-month period in which they completed two rounds of fine motor function testing. The monkeys receiving curcumin were significantly faster at retrieving a food reward by round 2 of testing than monkeys receiving a control vehicle. Further, the monkeys receiving curcumin demonstrated a greater degree of improvement in performance on our fine motor task by round 2 of testing than monkeys receiving a control vehicle. These findings reveal that fine motor function of the hand and digits is improved in middle-aged monkeys receiving chronic daily administration of curcumin.

  19. Rhesus monkey lens as an in vitro model for studying oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, J.S. Jr.; Lucas, V.A.; Du, X.Y.

    1989-10-01

    Lenses from young rhesus monkeys were incubated in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or oxygen radical generating systems to determine their suitability as a model for investigating lenticular oxidative stress. Additionally, direct comparisons were made between the effects found with the monkey lenses and those observed with cultured rat lenses exposed to the same oxidizing systems. As in earlier studies with rat lenses the monkey lenses exhibited impaired ability to actively accumulate from the medium radioactively labelled rubidium and choline following exposure to oxidative stress. Based on the effects of various scavengers of oxygen radicals it appeared that themore » mechanisms responsible for lens damage were the same for both rat and monkey lenses. However, rat lenses were damaged by lower concentrations of oxidants than were monkey lenses. It was concluded that oxidative stress affects both rat and monkey lenses by similar mechanisms but that lenses from monkeys, and probably other primates, are more resistant to these effects because they have better endogenous antioxidant defenses.« less

  20. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Janice M.; Siebert, Erin R.; Wallen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough and tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans. PMID:18452921

  1. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Janice M; Siebert, Erin R; Wallen, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Sex differences in toy preferences in children are marked, with boys expressing stronger and more rigid toy preferences than girls, whose preferences are more flexible. Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender-specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically-determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough-and-tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans.

  2. 5-androstenediol stimulates multilineage hematopoiesis in rhesus monkeys with radiation-induced myelosuppression.

    PubMed

    Stickney, Dwight R; Dowding, Charles; Garsd, Armando; Ahlem, Clarence; Whitnall, Mark; McKeon, Marie; Reading, Christopher; Frincke, James

    2006-11-01

    Total body ionizing irradiation (TBI) between 2-8 Gy causes the hematopoietic component of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in humans. Here we report on an exploratory study with 5-androstenediol (AED) in rhesus monkeys exposed to 4 Gy (60)Co gamma TBI. In this study, the effects of two formulations administered 3-4 h after irradiation were evaluated. After radiation, severe neutropenia (<500 neutrophils/microL), thrombocytopenia (<50,000 platelets/microL), and anemia (hemoglobin <8.0 g/dL) occurred in 6, 6, and 5 of the 6 control animals, respectively. In these 6 control animals, the median time to first day of each defined cytopenia was 8.5, 13, and 20 days and the median time to last occurrence was 22.5, 19.5 and 29.5 days, respectively. All treated groups had a decrease in the duration of severe neutropenia relative to vehicle control. All but one dosing regimen decreased the duration of thrombocytopenia and anemia. Five consecutive days of a 15 mg/kg intramuscular (IM) micro-particle preparation and a once weekly 15 mg/kg subcutaneous (SC) nanoparticle suspension generally provided the greatest radiation protection. AED, as a single agent, promotes multilineage hematopoietic recovery of the bone marrow. These data suggest that it may play an important therapeutic role in the management of acute radiation syndrome.

  3. Social Facilitation of Cognition in Rhesus Monkeys: Audience Vs. Coaction.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Amélie J; Guedj, Carole; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine; Monfardini, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad) performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone vs. in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  4. Hand preferences of rhesus monkeys on differing tasks.

    PubMed

    Lehman, R A

    1989-01-01

    In a replication study, monkeys were tested for hand preference on three differing tasks: simple reaching for food presented on a board, choice of hand during a visual discrimination task and retrieval of food pellets from a row. Both laterality and degree of hand preference correlated significantly on two of the three tasks. Extremely little correlation was found across the other task combinations. Consistency of hand preference was greater within repetitions of a task than between any two tasks. The implication of these findings upon the search for a cerebral dominance underlying hand preference in the monkey is discussed.

  5. Osmotic tolerance limits and properties of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rutllant, Josep; Pommer, Angela C; Meyers, Stuart A

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental cryobiological characteristics of rhesus spermatozoa must be determined for successful cryopreservation techniques to be established. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the osmotic behavior and osmotic tolerance limits of rhesus macaque spermatozoa. Cell volume changes over anisotonic conditions were assessed using an electronic particle counter and sperm motility was evaluated with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Analysis of membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential was performed using flow cytometry. Rhesus monkey spermatozoa behave as linear osmometers in the osmotic range tested (75-900 mOsmol kg(-1)), as shown by the Boyle van't Hoff plot (r(2) =.99). Rhesus spermatozoa have a mean cell volume of 36.8 +/- 0.5 micro m(3) at 22 degrees C, with 77.2% of the intracellular volume being osmotically inactive. Results regarding sperm tolerance to osmotic stress showed that sperm motility was more sensitive than membrane integrity to deviations from isotonicity and, in addition, that rhesus sperm motility and membrane integrity were more sensitive to hypertonic than hypotonic conditions. Mitochondrial membrane potential did not explain the lack of sperm motility observed under anisosmolal conditions in our study. Although most spermatozoa were able to recover initial volume after osmotic stress, they were not able to recover initial motility.

  6. Roll Tilt Psychophysics in Rhesus Monkeys During Vestibular and Visual Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard F.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    How does the brain calculate the spatial orientation of the head relative to gravity? Psychophysical measurements are critical to investigate this question, but such measurements have been limited to humans. In non-human primates, behavioral measures have focused on vestibular-mediated eye movements, which do not reflect percepts of head orientation. We have therefore developed a method to measure tilt perception in monkeys, derived from the subjective visual vertical (SVV) task. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to align a light bar parallel to gravity and performed this task during roll tilts, centrifugation, and roll optokinetic stimulation. The monkeys accurately aligned the light bar with gravity during static roll tilts but also demonstrated small orientation-dependent misperceptions of the tilt angle analogous to those measured in humans. When the gravito-inertial force (GIF) rotated dynamically in the roll plane, SVV responses remained closely aligned with the GIF during roll tilt of the head (coplanar canal rotational cues present), lagged slightly behind the GIF during variable-radius centrifugation (no canal cues present), and shifted gradually during fixed-radius centrifugation (orthogonal yaw canal cues present). SVV responses also deviated away from the earth-vertical during roll optokinetic stimulation. These results demonstrate that rotational cues derived from the semicircular canals and visual system have prominent effects on psychophysical measurements of roll tilt in rhesus monkeys and therefore suggest that a central synthesis of graviceptive and rotational cues contributes to percepts of head orientation relative to gravity in non-human primates. PMID:18417632

  7. Interactions between Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and mu opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys: discrimination and antinociception.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xu; McMahon, Lance R; Gerak, Lisa R; Becker, Ginger L; France, Charles P

    2008-08-01

    Opioid receptor agonists can enhance some effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists, and cannabinoid receptor agonists can enhance some effects of opioid receptor agonists; however, the generality of these interactions is not established. This study examined interactions between the discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of mu opioid receptor agonists and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rhesus monkeys. Neither heroin nor morphine (intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.)) altered the discriminative stimulus effects of THC in monkeys (n = 5) discriminating 0.1 mg/kg THC i.v. In contrast, THC (s.c.) markedly attenuated the discriminative stimulus effect of morphine and heroin in nondependent monkeys (n = 4) discriminating 1.78 mg/kg morphine s.c. Doses of THC that attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in nondependent monkeys failed to modify the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in morphine-dependent (5.6 mg/kg/12 h) monkeys (n = 4) discriminating 0.0178 mg/kg naltrexone s.c. THC also failed to modify the discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone in morphine-dependent monkeys or the effects of midazolam in monkeys (n = 4) discriminating 0.32 mg/kg midazolam s.c. Doses of THC (s.c.) that attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in nondependent monkeys enhanced the antinociceptive effects of morphine (s.c.) in nondependent monkeys. While mu receptor agonists did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of THC, THC altered the effects of mu receptor agonists in a context-dependent manner. That the same doses of THC enhance, attenuate, or do not affect morphine, depending on the condition, suggests that attenuation of morphine by THC can result from perceptual masking rather than common pharmacodynamic mechanisms or pharmacokinetic interactions.

  8. Differential expression of anti-glycan antibodies in schistosome-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice

    PubMed Central

    Luyai, Anthony E; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Nyame, A Kwame; Wilkins, Patricia; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Smith, David F; Van Die, Irma; Secor, W Evan; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of humans, endemic in tropical areas, for which no vaccine is available. Evidence points to glycan antigens as being important in immune responses to infection. Here we describe our studies on the comparative humoral immune responses to defined schistosome-type glycan epitopes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice. Rhesus anti-glycan responses over the course of infection were screened on a defined glycan microarray comprising semi-synthetic glycopeptides terminating with schistosome-associated or control mammalian-type glycan epitopes, as well as a defined glycan microarray of mammalian-type glycans representing over 400 glycan structures. Infected rhesus monkeys generated a high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose epitope of N-glycans, which peaked at 8–11 weeks post infection, coinciding with maximal ability to kill schistosomula in vitro. By contrast, infected humans generated low antibody levels to this epitope. At 18 months following praziquantel therapy to eliminate the parasite, antibody levels were negligible. Mice chronically infected with S. mansoni generated high levels of anti-fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1, 4(Fucα1, 3)GlcNAc) IgM antibodies, but lacked a robust response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose N-glycan antigens compared with other species studied, and their sera demonstrated an intermediate level of schistosomula killing in vitro. These differential responses to parasite glycan antigens may be related to the ability of rhesus monkeys to self-cure in contrast to the chronic infection seen in humans and mice. Our results validate defined glycan microarrays as a useful technology to evaluate diagnostic and vaccine antigens for schistosomiasis and perhaps other infections. PMID:24727442

  9. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM,more » irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  11. Severe oxidative stress in an acute inflammatory demyelinating model in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Jordon; van de Vis, Reinofke; Bauer, Jan; Wubben, Jacqueline; van Driel, Nikki; Laman, Jon D.; ‘t Hart, Bert A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury. Here, we investigated the presence of oxidative injury in another NHP EAE model, i.e. in rhesus macaques, which yields an acute demyelinating disease, which may more closely resemble acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) than MS. Rhesus monkey EAE diverges from marmoset EAE by abundant neutrophil recruitment into the CNS and destructive injury to white matter. This difference prompted us to investigate to which extent the oxidative pathway features elicited in MS and marmoset EAE are reflected in the acute rhesus monkey EAE model. The rhesus EAE brain was characterized by widespread demyelination and active lesions containing numerous phagocytic cells and to a lesser extent T cells. We observed induction of the oxidative stress pathway, including injury, with a predilection of p22phox expression in neutrophils and macrophages/microglia. In addition, changes in iron were observed. These results indicate that pathogenic mechanisms in the rhesus EAE model may differ from the marmoset EAE and MS brain due to the neutrophil involvement, but may in the end lead to similar induction of oxidative stress and injury. PMID:29136024

  12. Development of a rhesus monkey lung geometry model and application to particle deposition in comparison to humans

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Rick; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Richard E.; Harkema, Jack; Carey, Stephan A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, Dallas; Kimbell, Julia S.; Miller, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 μm in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 μm for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model. PMID:23121298

  13. Development of a rhesus monkey lung geometry model and application to particle deposition in comparison to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene

    2012-11-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of themore » animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 µm in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 µm for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Finally, future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.« less

  14. Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Julie A; Roth, George S; Beasley, T Mark; Tilmont, Edward M; Handy, April M; Herbert, Richard L; Longo, Dan L; Allison, David B; Young, Jennifer E; Bryant, Mark; Barnard, Dennis; Ward, Walter F; Qi, Wenbo; Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-09-13

    Calorie restriction (CR), a reduction of 10–40% in intake of a nutritious diet, is often reported as the most robust non-genetic mechanism to extend lifespan and healthspan. CR is frequently used as a tool to understand mechanisms behind ageing and age-associated diseases. In addition to and independently of increasing lifespan, CR has been reported to delay or prevent the occurrence of many chronic diseases in a variety of animals. Beneficial effects of CR on outcomes such as immune function, motor coordination and resistance to sarcopenia in rhesus monkeys have recently been reported. We report here that a CR regimen implemented in young and older age rhesus monkeys at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) has not improved survival outcomes. Our findings contrast with an ongoing study at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC), which reported improved survival associated with 30% CR initiated in adult rhesus monkeys (7–14 years) and a preliminary report with a small number of CR monkeys. Over the years, both NIA and WNPRC have extensively documented beneficial health effects of CR in these two apparently parallel studies. The implications of the WNPRC findings were important as they extended CR findings beyond the laboratory rodent and to a long-lived primate. Our study suggests a separation between health effects, morbidity and mortality, and similar to what has been shown in rodents, study design, husbandry and diet composition may strongly affect the life-prolonging effect of CR in a long-lived nonhuman primate.

  15. Discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of dihydroetorphine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, Lisa R; Gauthier, Cheryl R A; France, Charles R A P

    2003-04-01

    Although dihydroetorphine has micro opioid agonist activity there is evidence to suggest that it is not identical to that of morphine. This study compared dihydroetorphine to other opioids under behavioral conditions that are sensitive to micro opioid agonism. The acute effects of dihydroetorphine, etorphine and morphine were evaluated using two procedures. In one procedure, monkeys received 3.2 mg/kg per day of morphine and discriminated naltrexone from saline while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus shock termination. In addition, a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure was used in untreated monkeys. When acutely deprived of morphine, monkeys responded on the naltrexone lever, and this effect was reversed by dihydroetorphine, etorphine and morphine. Each agonist produced the maximum (20-s latency) antinociceptive effect in 50 degrees C water. Naltrexone antagonized the discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of dihydroetorphine and etorphine, although Schild analyses yielded large variability in slopes and pA(2) values. Naltrexone reversed established effects of dihydroetorphine and morphine in both procedures and pretreatment with dihydroetorphine (2, 6 or 24 h) did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. Taken together, these data support the notion that dihydroetorphine is a micro agonist with a short duration of action; however, variability in antagonism of dihydroetorphine and morphine might be a manifestation of differences that have been reported for these drugs at the cellular level.

  16. Is the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) comparable to humans? Histomorphology of the sphincteric musculature of the lower urinary tract including 3D-reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, R; Köhler, D; Neuhaus, J; Dorschner, W; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2004-12-01

    The physiology of the muscle systems of the human lower urinary tract is still not known in detail. To study the functional basics of this complex organ system, experiments are often performed in animal models including rhesus monkeys. To apply the results of animal model studies to the humans, a clear knowledge of the comparative anatomy of both species is necessary. However, detailed comparative studies of the lower urinary tract of the rhesus monkey and the humans are lacking. Accordingly, a detailed study on the sphincteric musculature of the lower urinary tract of the rhesus monkey was performed in order to demonstrate anatomical correspondences and differences between both species. The lower urinary tract anatomy was investigated in 18 male and female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by serial sections. Immunohistochemical staining methods were used to differentiate striated and smooth musculature. Three-dimensional reconstructions were performed in order to demonstrate the topographical anatomy of the different muscle systems. In both man and male rhesus monkeys, a urethral sphincter muscle exists independent of the pelvic floor musculature, with a smooth and a striated muscular part. A urinary diaphragm (diaphragma urogenitale) does neither exist in the rhesus monkey nor in the human. In contrast to women, a striated muscle encircles the urethra and vagina together in the female rhesus monkey. A vesical sphincter muscle, found in the human bladder outlet, does not exist in the rhesus monkey.

  17. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  18. Social subordination impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M.; Wilson, Mark E.; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies organize and maintain stability in female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups regardless of group size. As a consequence of their low social status, subordinate females suffer from an array of adverse outcomes including reproductive compromise, impaired immune function, and poor cardiovascular health. However, data that differentiate limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (LHPA) parameters between dominant from subordinate female monkeys are inconsistent, bringing into question whether social subordination alters the LHPA axis in female macaques. One difficulty in examining LHPA function in macaques may be the confounding effects of cycling ovarian steroids that are known to modulate LHPA activity. The current study used ovariectomized dominant and subordinate female rhesus monkeys to examine the effect that social subordination has on LHPA function by measuring morning and diurnal serum cortisol levels, dexamethasone (Dex) suppression of cortisol, metabolic clearance of Dex, and ACTH stimulation of adrenal cortisol release and cortisol response following exposure to acute social isolation. Compared to dominant females, subordinate females showed diminished morning peak cortisol secretion, weakened glucocorticoid negative feedback, and decreased adrenal cortisol response to an ACTH challenge as well as a restrained cortisol response following social isolation. However, the metabolism of Dex did not account for differences in Dex suppression between dominant and subordinate females. These results indicate that the ability to mount and limit glucocorticoid release is significantly reduced by psychosocial stress in female rhesus macaques, suggesting a hyporesponsive LHPA phenotype which resembles that observed in several human psychopathologies. PMID:22940527

  19. Social subordination impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-09-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies organize and maintain stability in female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups regardless of group size. As a consequence of their low social status, subordinate females suffer from an array of adverse outcomes including reproductive compromise, impaired immune function, and poor cardiovascular health. However, data that differentiate limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA) parameters between dominant from subordinate female monkeys are inconsistent, bringing into question whether social subordination alters the LHPA axis in female macaques. One difficulty in examining LHPA function in macaques may be the confounding effects of cycling ovarian steroids that are known to modulate LHPA activity. The current study used ovariectomized dominant and subordinate female rhesus monkeys to examine the effect that social subordination has on LHPA function by measuring morning and diurnal serum cortisol levels, dexamethasone (Dex) suppression of cortisol, metabolic clearance of Dex, and ACTH stimulation of adrenal cortisol release and cortisol response following exposure to acute social isolation. Compared to dominant females, subordinate females showed diminished morning peak cortisol secretion, weakened glucocorticoid negative feedback, and decreased adrenal cortisol response to an ACTH challenge as well as a restrained cortisol response following social isolation. However, the metabolism of Dex did not account for differences in Dex suppression between dominant and subordinate females. These results indicate that the ability to mount and limit glucocorticoid release is significantly reduced by psychosocial stress in female rhesus macaques, suggesting a hyporesponsive LHPA phenotype which resembles that observed in several human psychopathologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

  1. Discrimination of faces and houses by rhesus monkeys: the role of stimulus expertise and rotation angle

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The face inversion effect, or impaired recognition of upside down compared to upright faces, is used as a marker for the configural processing of faces in primates. The inversion effect in humans and chimpanzees is strongest for categories of stimuli for which subjects have considerable expertise, primarily conspecifics' faces. Moreover, discrimination performance decreases linearly as faces are incrementally rotated from upright to inverted. This suggests that rotated faces must be transformed, or normalized back into their most typical viewpoint before configural processing can ensue, and the greater the required normalization, the greater the likelihood of errors resulting. Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated a general face inversion effect in rhesus monkeys that was not influenced by expertise. Therefore, the present study examined the influence of rotation angle on the visual perception of face and nonface stimuli that varied in their level of expertise to further delineate the processes underlying the inversion effect in rhesus monkeys. Five subjects discriminated images in five orientation angles. Results showed significant linear impairments for all stimulus categories, including houses. However, compared to the upright images, only rhesus faces resulted in worse performance at rotation angles greater than 45°, suggesting stronger configural processing for stimuli for which subjects had the greatest expertise. PMID:18256863

  2. Disruptions in follicle cell functions in the ovaries of rhesus monkeys during summer.

    PubMed

    VandeVoort, Catherine A; Mtango, Namdori R; Midic, Uros; Latham, Keith E

    2015-04-01

    Oocytes isolated from female rhesus monkeys following standard ovarian stimulation protocols during the summer months displayed a reduced capacity to mature compared with stimulation during the normal breeding season. Because the gene expression profiles of oocyte-associated cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells (CCs and GCs) are indicative of altered oocyte quality and can provide insight into intrafollicular processes that may be disrupted during oogenesis, we performed array-based transcriptome comparisons of CCs and GCs from summer and normal breeding season stimulation cycles. Summer CCs and GCs both display deficiencies in expression of mRNAs related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and endocrine signaling, as well as reduced expression of glycogen phosphorylase. Additionally, CCs display deficiencies in expression of mRNAs related to stress response. These results provide the first insight into the specific molecular pathways and processes that are disrupted in the follicles of rhesus macaque females during the summer season. Some of the changes seen in summer GCs and CCs have been reported in humans and in other model mammalian species. This suggests that the seasonal effects seen in the rhesus monkey may help us to understand better the mechanisms that contribute to reduced oocyte quality and fertility in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Disruptions in follicle cell functions in the ovaries of rhesus monkeys during summer

    PubMed Central

    VandeVoort, Catherine A.; Mtango, Namdori R.; Midic, Uros

    2015-01-01

    Oocytes isolated from female rhesus monkeys following standard ovarian stimulation protocols during the summer months displayed a reduced capacity to mature compared with stimulation during the normal breeding season. Because the gene expression profiles of oocyte-associated cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells (CCs and GCs) are indicative of altered oocyte quality and can provide insight into intrafollicular processes that may be disrupted during oogenesis, we performed array-based transcriptome comparisons of CCs and GCs from summer and normal breeding season stimulation cycles. Summer CCs and GCs both display deficiencies in expression of mRNAs related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and endocrine signaling, as well as reduced expression of glycogen phosphorylase. Additionally, CCs display deficiencies in expression of mRNAs related to stress response. These results provide the first insight into the specific molecular pathways and processes that are disrupted in the follicles of rhesus macaque females during the summer season. Some of the changes seen in summer GCs and CCs have been reported in humans and in other model mammalian species. This suggests that the seasonal effects seen in the rhesus monkey may help us to understand better the mechanisms that contribute to reduced oocyte quality and fertility in humans. PMID:25586978

  4. Assessing significant (>30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Novak, Melinda A; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (>30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in three categories of coat condition: (i) monkeys that remained fully haired; (ii) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss); or (iii) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, A.M.; Novak, M.A.; Meyer, J.S.; Suomi, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m2) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m2) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ2=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across five years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. PMID:24636502

  7. Effect of pair-housing on operant behavior task performance by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Paule, Merle G

    2003-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of pair-housing on several operant (trained) behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sixteen young, male, individually housed rhesus monkeys (age, 2.5 to 5.5 years) performed a battery of behaviors consisting of motivation (progressive ratio, PR), short-term memory and attention (delayed matching-to-sample, DMTS), color and position discrimination (conditioned position responding, CPR), and learning (incremental repeated acquisition, IRA) tasks. Behavioral assessments occurred 5 days/week, with the PR, IRA, and CPR tasks presented on one test day, and the DMTS task presented on the next test day. Thus, each task was performed two or three days/week. Eight subjects then were pair-housed, while eight age-matched controls remained individually housed. Pair-housed monkeys were separated for behavior testing and feeding but allowed access to each other approximately 20 h/day. The performance of the two groups of monkeys were compared for the 2 months prior to pairing, for a 2-month transition period as the pairs adjusted to the new housing situation, and for a 2-month period after the pairs had been established. Performance of the CPR and IRA tasks did not change over time in either group. For the PR and DMTS tasks, the number of trials completed increased over the course of the study in the controls but not in the pair-housed monkeys. In conclusion, pair-housing monkeys is feasible for studies involving operant behavior testing as a model for a variety of complex brain functions. However, housing condition may affect some test parameters, and this must be taken into consideration during experimental design.

  8. Fetal iron deficiency and genotype influence emotionality in infant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E

    2015-03-01

    Anemia during the third trimester of fetal development affects one-third of the pregnancies in the United States and has been associated with postnatal behavioral outcomes. This study examines how fetal iron deficiency (ID) interacts with the fetal monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype. MAOA metabolizes monoamine neurotransmitters. MAOA polymorphisms in humans affect temperament and modify the influence of early adverse environments on later behavior. The aim of the study was to advance translation of developmental ID research in animal models by taking into account genetic factors that influence outcomes in human populations. Male infant rhesus monkeys 3-4 mo old born to mothers fed an ID (10 ppm iron) diet were compared with controls (100 ppm iron). Infant monkeys with high- or low-transcription rate MAOA polymorphisms were equally distributed between diet groups. Behavioral responses to a series of structured experiences were recorded during a 25-h separation of the infants from their mothers. Infant monkeys with low-transcription MAOA polymorphisms more clearly demonstrated the following ID effects suggested in earlier studies: a 4% smaller head circumference, a 39% lower cortisol response to social separation, a 129% longer engagement with novel visual stimuli, and 33% lesser withdrawal in response to a human intruder. The high MAOA genotype ID monkeys demonstrated other ID effects: less withdrawal and emotionality after social separation and lower "fearful" ratings. MAOA × ID interactions support the role of monoamine neurotransmitters in prenatal ID effects in rhesus monkeys and the potential involvement of common human polymorphisms in determining the pattern of neurobehavioral effects produced by inadequate prenatal nutrition. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Effects of Form Deprivation on Peripheral Refractions and Ocular Shape in Infant Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Blasdel, Terry L.; Humbird, Tammy L.; Bockhorst, Kurt H.; Smith, Earl L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual experience can alter ocular shape and peripheral refractive error pattern, the authors investigated the effects of form deprivation on refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys. Methods Monocular form deprivation was imposed in 10 rhesus monkeys by securing diffuser lenses in front of their treated eyes between 22 ± 2 and 163 ± 17 days of age. Each eye's refractive status was measured longitudinally by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at 15° intervals along the horizontal meridian to eccentricities of 45°. Control data for peripheral refraction were obtained from the nontreated fellow eyes and six untreated monkeys. Near the end of the diffuser-rearing period, the shape of the posterior globe was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Central axial dimensions were also determined by A-scan ultrasonography. Results Form deprivation produced interocular differences in central refractive errors that varied between +2.69 and –10.31 D (treated eye–fellow eye). All seven diffuser-reared monkeys that developed at least 2.00 D of relative central axial myopia also showed relative hyperopia in the periphery that increased in magnitude with eccentricity. Alterations in peripheral refraction were highly correlated with eccentricity-dependent changes in vitreous chamber depth and the shape of the posterior globe. Conclusions Like humans with myopia, monkeys with form-deprivation myopia exhibit relative peripheral hyperopia and eyes that are less oblate and more prolate. Thus, in addition to producing central refractive errors, abnormal visual experience can alter the shape of the posterior globe and the pattern of peripheral refractive errors in infant primates. PMID:19420338

  10. Aging increases mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative stress in liver of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Castro, María del R; Suarez, Edu; Kraiselburd, Edmundo; Isidro, Angel; Paz, José; Ferder, León; Ayala-Torres, Sylvette

    2012-01-01

    While the mechanisms of cellular aging remain controversial, a leading hypothesis is that mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a critical role in this process. Here, we provide data in aging rhesus macaques supporting the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress is a major characteristic of aging and may be responsible for the age-associated increase in mitochondrial dysfunction. We measured mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage by quantitative PCR in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of young, middle age, and old monkeys and show that older monkeys have increases in the number of mtDNA lesions. There was a direct correlation between the amount of mtDNA lesions and age, supporting the role of mtDNA damage in the process of aging. Liver from older monkeys showed significant increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylations and reduced antioxidant enzyme activity. Similarly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the middle age group showed increased levels in carbonylated proteins, indicative of high levels of oxidative stress. Together, these results suggest that the aging process is associated with defective mitochondria, where increased production of reactive oxygen species results in extensive damage at the mtDNA and protein levels. This study provides valuable data based on the rhesus macaque model further validating age-related mitochondrial functional decline with increasing age and suggesting that mtDNA damage might be a good biomarker of aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Demonstration of an eye-movement-induced visual motion illusion (Filehne illusion) in Rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dash, Suryadeep; Dicke, Peter W; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Haarmeier, Thomas; Thier, Peter

    2009-08-14

    During pursuit eye movements, the world around us remains perceptually stable despite the retinal-image slip induced by the eye movement. It is commonly held that this perceptual invariance is achieved by subtracting an internal reference signal, reflecting the eye movement, from the retinal motion signal. However, if the reference signal is too small or too large, a false eye-movement-induced motion of the external world, the Filehne illusion (FI), will be perceived. A reference signal of inadequate size can be simulated experimentally by asking human subjects to pursue a target across backgrounds with externally added motion that are perceived as moving. In the present study we asked if non-human primates respond to such manipulation in a way comparable to humans. Using psychophysical methods, we demonstrate that Rhesus monkeys do indeed experience a percept of pursuit-induced background motion. In this study we show that an FI can be predictably induced in Rhesus monkeys. The monkey FI shows dependencies on the size and direction of background movement, which is very similar to the ones characterizing the human FI. This congruence suggests that the perception of self-induced visual motion is based on similar inferential mechanisms in non-human and human primates.

  12. Food intake and meal patterns in rhesus monkeys: Significance of chronic hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, J.; Hansen, B.C. )

    1990-10-01

    To investigate the role of plasma insulin on food intake, we have examined the effect of naturally occurring chronic hyperinsulinemia on the feeding behavior of male rhesus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys, a group with normal fasting insulin concentrations (52.4 +/- 2.2 microU/ml) (mean +/- SE) and a hyperinsulinemic group (148.6 +/- 14.5 microU/ml), were selected to be similar in weight, 13.0 +/- 1.0 and 15.3 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively, prior to study. Food intake and feeding patterns were recorded and analyzed. No differences in either daily caloric intake, 815.2 +/- 27.4 versus 890.0 +/- 64.2 kcal (p less than 0.32), or feeding patterns were found. The number of meals taken per day did not differ between the two groups, 8.7 +/- 1.7 versus 6.7 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.35), nor did meal size differ, 129 +/- 16.5 versus 110.5 +/- 16.3 (p less than 0.45). We conclude that chronic endogenous hyperinsulinemia as it occurs naturally in some obese rhesus monkeys has no significant effect on daily feeding behavior.

  13. Rapid Seeding of the Viral Reservoir Prior to SIV Viremia in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, James B.; Hill, Alison L.; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Liu, Jinyan; Shetty, Mayuri; Parenteau, Lily; Cabral, Crystal; Shields, Jennifer; Blackmore, Stephen; Smith, Jeffrey Y.; Brinkman, Amanda L.; Peter, Lauren E.; Mathew, Sheeba I.; Smith, Kaitlin M.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Lewis, Mark G.; Hattersley, Jillian; Li, Bei; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-01-01

    The viral reservoir represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 eradication strategies1–5. However, it remains unclear when and where the viral reservoir is seeded during acute infection and the extent to which it is susceptible to early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we show that the viral reservoir is seeded very early following mucosal SIV infection of rhesus monkeys and prior to systemic viremia. We initiated suppressive ART in groups of monkeys on days 3, 7, 10, and 14 following intrarectal SIVmac251 infection. Treatment on day 3 blocked the emergence of viral RNA and proviral DNA in peripheral blood and also substantially reduced levels of proviral DNA in lymph nodes and gastrointestinal mucosa as compared with treatment at later timepoints. In addition, treatment on day 3 abrogated the induction of SIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Nevertheless, following discontinuation of ART after 24 weeks of fully suppressive therapy, virus rebounded in all animals, although animals treated on day 3 exhibited a delayed viral rebound as compared with animals treated on days 7, 10 and 14. The time to viral rebound correlated with total viremia during acute infection and with proviral DNA at the time of ART discontinuation. These data demonstrate that the viral reservoir is seeded very early following intrarectal SIV infection of rhesus monkeys, during the “eclipse” phase, and prior to viremia. This strikingly early seeding of the refractory viral reservoir raises important new challenges for HIV-1 eradication strategies. PMID:25042999

  14. Investigations of rhesus monkey video-task performance: evidence for enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) for psychological research. Basically, the LRC-CTS is a battery of software tasks--computerized versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology--and the hardware required to administer them. An XT- or 386-compatible computer is connected to a color monitor, onto which computer-generated stimuli are presented. Sound feedback is delivered through an external speaker/amplifier, and a joystick is used as an input device. The animals reach through the mesh of their home cages to manipulate the joystick, which causes isomorphic movements of a cursor on the screen thereby allowing animals to respond according to the varied demands of the tasks. Correct responses are rewarded with a fruit-flavored chow pellet. Using this technology, we have trained and tested rhesus monkeys, a variety of apes, human adults, and normally developing or mentally retarded human children. Other labs using the LRC-CTS are beginning to report encouraging results with other monkey species as well. From this research, a number of interesting and important psychological findings have resulted. In the present paper, however, evidence will be reviewed which suggests that the LRC-CTS is an effective means of providing environmental enrichment to singly housed rhesus monkeys.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR MOTOR PLANNING IN MONKEYS: RHESUS MACAQUES SELECT EFFICIENT GRIPS WHEN TRANSPORTING SPOONS

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2014-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naïve adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with the elevated spoon problem, and observed how monkeys learned the affordances of spoons over sessions. Strikingly, monkeys developed two different strategies for efficient spoon transport in just 12 to 36 trials. In subsequent testing with a novel double bowl spoon approximately 1 year later, monkeys demonstrated that they were attending to the baited spoon bowl and continued to select efficient grips for transporting the spoon. Monkey data were contrasted with previous studies in human infants using a perception-action perspective in an effort to understand the fundamentals of tool use and motor planning that may be common in the development of these abilities across species and their origins in human behavior. PMID:21676101

  16. Discriminative-stimulus effects of triazolam and midazolam in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lelas, S; Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1999-02-01

    The present study characterized the discriminative-stimulus effects of triazolam and midazolam in rhesus monkeys. Six monkeys discriminated 0.1 mg/kg of triazolam from vehicle under a fixed-ratio 5 (FR 5) schedule of stimulus-shock termination (SST). Four monkeys subsequently discriminated 0.56 mg/kg of midazolam from vehicle under the same schedule of reinforcement. Benzodiazepine (BDZ) agonists midazolam and diazepam, and the barbiturate pentobarbital, substituted for triazolam, and the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine did not. Triazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, flunitrazepam, as well as the barbiturates amobarbital and pentobarbital, substituted for midazolam, and ketamine did not. The BDZ antagonist flumazenil antagonized both the triazolam and midazolam discriminative stimuli. Bretazenil, a low-efficacy BDZ agonist, did not substitute for the midazolam discriminative stimulus in three of the monkeys and shifted the midazolam dose-effect curve to the right; in a fourth monkey, bretazenil substituted for midazolam and shifted the midazolam dose-effect curve to the left. Schild analyses with flumazenil or bretazenil, in combination with midazolam, yielded slopes that deviated significantly from unity. While clearly supporting the notion that BDZ agonists produce stimulus effects by acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptor complex, these data also suggest that the discriminative-stimulus effects of midazolam might be mediated by more than one BDZ receptor subtype.

  17. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests.

    PubMed

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2012-05-01

    The possibility that memory awareness occurs in nonhuman animals has been evaluated by providing opportunity to decline memory tests. Current evidence suggests that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) selectively decline tests when memory is weak (Hampton in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5359-5362, 2001; Smith et al. in Behav Brain Sci 26:317-374, 2003). However, much of the existing research in nonhuman metacognition is subject to the criticism that, after considerable training on one test type, subjects learn to decline difficult trials based on associative learning of external test-specific contingencies rather than by evaluating the private status of memory or other cognitive states. We evaluated whether such test-specific associations could account for performance by presenting monkeys with a series of generalization tests across which no single association with external stimuli was likely to adaptively control use of the decline response. Six monkeys performed a four alternative delayed matching to location task and were significantly more accurate on trials with a decline option available than on trials without it, indicating that subjects selectively declined tests when memory was weak. Monkeys transferred appropriate use of the decline response under three conditions that assessed generalization: two tests that weakened memory and one test that enhanced memory in a novel way. Bidirectional generalization indicates that use of the decline response by monkeys is not controlled by specific external stimuli but is rather a flexible behavior based on a private assessment of memory.

  18. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Spontaneous voice-face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

    2011-01-25

    Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance.

  20. Spontaneous voice–face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance. PMID:21220340

  1. Iron deficiency anemia and affective response in rhesus monkey infants.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E; Widaman, Keith F; Capitanio, John P

    2009-01-01

    Infant iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs spontaneously in monkey populations as it does in humans, providing a model for understanding effects on brain and behavior. A set of 34 monkey infants identified as IDA (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) over a 5-year period at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) was compared to a set of 57 controls (hemoglobin >12 g/dl) matched for age and caging location. The infants had participated in a Biobehavioral Assessment conducted at 3-4 months of age at CNPRC that included measures of behavioral and adrenocortical response to a novel environment. IDA males differed from control males in two factors ("activity," "emotionality") derived from observational data taken on the first and second day of the exposure to the novel environment. In the male infants, IDA was associated with less restriction of activity in the novel environment on both days and less emotionality on the second day (p < .05). IDA males also displayed less response to approach by a human (human intruder test) than did control males. IDA females did not differ from controls. Adrenocortical response was not significantly affected. These findings may be relevant to functional deficits in human infants with IDA that influence later behavior.

  2. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Affective Response in Rhesus Monkey Infants

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Capitanio, John P.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs spontaneously in monkey populations as it does in humans, providing a model for understanding effects on brain and behavior. A set of 34 monkey infants identified as IDA (hemoglobin <11 g/dL) over a 5-year period at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) was compared to a set of 57 controls (hemoglobin >12 g/dL) matched for age and caging location. The infants had participated in a Biobehavioral Assessment conducted at 3–4 months of age at CNPRC that included measures of behavioral and adrenocortical response to a novel environment. IDA males differed from control males in two factors (“activity”, “emotionality”) derived from observational data taken on the first and second day of the exposure to the novel environment. In the male infants, IDA was associated with less restriction of activity in the novel environment on both days and less emotionality on the second day (p<.05). IDA males also displayed less response to approach by a human (human intruder test) than did control males. IDA females did not differ from controls. Adrenocortical response was not significantly affected. These findings may be relevant to functional deficits in human infants with IDA that influence later behavior. PMID:18814183

  3. Cochlear implantation feasibility in rhesus macaque monkey: anatomic and radiologic results.

    PubMed

    Marx, Mathieu; Girard, Pascal; Escudé, Bernard; Barone, Pascal; Fraysse, Bernard; Deguine, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Large animal models of implantable hearing devices are needed to assess innovative technologies before using them in humans. The rhesus macaque has cognitive abilities close to humans and has been used in the past but with noncommercial implants or no detailed radiologic descriptions of the surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cochlear implantation in this animal model. We present detailed radiologic data (CT scan and Cone beam computed tomography) from 7 heads of rhesus macaque monkeys coming from autopsy materials. Several comparative measurements were performed with 10 human temporal bones to emphasize similarities and differences between the macaque and the human inner ear. The radiologic analyses helped planning the surgical approach for cochlear implant insertion in the macaque. We managed to perform one full (720 degrees) and 3 partial insertions (190-330 degrees) of cochlear implants in 4 rhesus macaque cochleae, documented by cone beam computed tomography reconstructions. We confirm that the procedure is facilitated in this animal because the cochlea dimensions are close to humans. However, marked differences in the orientation of the external auditory canal and the basal turn must be taken into account. We suggest that the removal of the inferior wall of tympanal bone provides the optimal axis for electrode array insertion. The rhesus macaque monkey is a valid and close-to-human animal model for cochlear implants insertion. Because this species is widely used in both behavioral and physiologic studies, we expect that functional implants can be coupled with electrophysiologic recordings to study the mechanisms of auditory compensation.

  4. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Vestibular Prosthesis Electrode Implantation and Stimulation on Hearing in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of vestibular prosthesis electrode implantation and activation on hearing in rhesus monkeys, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in four rhesus monkeys before and after unilateral implantation of vestibular prosthesis electrodes in each of 3 left semicircular canals (SCC). Each of the 3 left SCCs were implanted with electrodes via a transmastoid approach. Right ears, which served as controls, were not surgically manipulated. Hearing tests were conducted before implantation (BI) and then 4 weeks post implantation both without electrical stimulation (NS) and with electrical stimulation (S). During the latter condition, prosthetic electrical stimuli encoding 3 dimensions of head angular velocity were delivered to the 3 ampullary branches of the left vestibular nerve via each of 3 electrode pairs of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis. Electrical stimuli comprised charge-balanced biphasic pulses at a baseline rate of 94 pulses/sec, with pulse frequency modulated from 48–222 pulses/s by head angular velocity. ABR hearing thresholds to clicks and tone pips at 1, 2, and 4 kHz increased by 5–10 dB from BI to NS and increased another ~5 dB from NS to S in implanted ears. No significant change was seen in right ears. DPOAE amplitudes decreased by 2–14 dB from BI to NS in implanted ears. There was a slight but insignificant decrease of DPOAE amplitude and a corresponding increase of DPOAE/Noise floor ratio between NS and S in implanted ears. Vestibular prosthesis electrode implantation and activation have small but measurable effects on hearing in rhesus monkeys. Coupled with the clinical observation that patients with cochlear implants only rarely exhibit signs of vestibular injury or spurious vestibular nerve stimulation, these results suggest that although implantation and activation of multichannel vestibular prosthesis electrodes in human will carry a risk of hearing loss

  6. The handedness of rhesus monkeys. III. Consistency within and across activities.

    PubMed

    Lehman, R A

    1980-08-01

    The results of this study of the hand preferences of rhesus monkeys on three different tasks are threefold: (1) When retested on the same task at intervals exceeding one month virtually all individuals prefer the same hand as they did during the original test, (2) When retested on the same task, the strength of hand preference displayed by each individual is increased. (3) When tested on differing tasks, monkeys display little consistency in the laterality of hand preference or the strength of handedness expressed during different tasks. Many authors have concluded that the lack of obvious intertask consistency in the laterality of hand preference expressed by lower primates constitutes evidence for a corresponding lack of consistent laterality in the cerebral control of this behavior. This has led to them to conclude that cerebral dominance probably does not exist in these animals (Deuel, 1975; Warren, 1977). However, where data is available from the literature, including the present study, all reports show monkeys to more frequently prefer the same hand on all of the unimanual tasks they were given than would be expected by chance alone. This finding suggests that there is a weak tendency for consistent lateralization of hand usage in the monkey. Presumably, there is a corresponding predominance of the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand over its mate. Other studies consistent with the concept of cerebral predominance in the monkey were reviewed. These findings do not constitute evidence for cerebral dominance in the monkey akin to that found in man. They do suggest that when performing certain activities, monkeys may have one hemisphere predominant over the other even though the degree and laterality of predominance may vary greatly from one individual and task to another.

  7. A 75-Year Pictorial History of the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Monkey Colony

    PubMed Central

    KESSLER, MATTHEW J.; RAWLINS, RICHARD G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a pictorial history of the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of its establishment by Clarence R. Carpenter in December 1938. It is based on a presentation made by the authors at the symposium, Cayo Santiago: 75 Years of Leadership in Translational Research, held at the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 20 June 2013. PMID:25764995

  8. A Finite Element Analysis of the Creep Response of Lumbar Intervertebral Joints in the Rhesus Monkey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    RD-A124 740 R FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE. CREEP RESPONSE OF 12 LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL.. (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH SCHOOL...I !. :. .. . . . ..,L ,4 t ’ i lC = j a . .. :,] Ill AFIT/GAE/AA/82D-24 A FINITE ELEMENT AN~ALYSIS CF THE CREEP -’ RESPONSE OF LUMBAR ...AFIT/GAE/AA/82D- 24 A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE CREEP RESPONSE OF LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL JOINTS IN THE RHESUS MONKEY THESIS * Presented to

  9. A 75-year pictorial history of the Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey colony.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Rawlins, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a pictorial history of the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of its establishment by Clarence R. Carpenter in December 1938. It is based on a presentation made by the authors at the symposium, Cayo Santiago: 75 Years of Leadership in Translational Research, held at the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 20 June 2013. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the toxicity, pathology, and treatment of cyclohexylmethylphosphonofluoridate (CMPF) poisoning in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koplovitz, I; Gresham, V C; Dochterman, L W; Kaminskis, A; Stewart, J R

    1992-01-01

    Cyclohexylmethylphosphonofluoridate (CMPF) is an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor with military significance. The purpose of these studies was 1) to determine the acute toxicity of CMPF in the male rhesus monkey, 2) to evaluate the efficacy of pyridostigmine (PYR) pretreatment plus atropine and oxime (2-PAM or H16) treatment, and 3) to evaluate the pathological consequences of acute poisoning. An i.m. LD50 of CMPF was estimated using an up-and-down dose selection procedure and 12 animals. The 48-h and 7-day LD50 was 46.6 micrograms/kg, i.m. In the protection experiments, pyridostigmine (0.3-0.7 mg/kg/24 h) was administered by surgically implanted osmotic minipumps for 3-12 days resulting in 21-65% inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity. Animals were challenged with 5 x L50 CMPF (233 micrograms/kg) and treated with atropine (0.4 mg/kg) and either 2-PAM (25.7 mg/kg) or HI6 (37.8 mg/kg) at the onset of signs or 1 min after challenge. Osmotic pumps were removed within 30 min after agent challenge. Pyridostigmine, atropine, and either 2-PAM or H16 were completely effective against CMPF, saving ten of ten animals in each group. In comparison, three of five animals challenged with 5 x LD50 of soman and treated with atropine and 2-PAM survived 7 days. The primary histologic lesions in the acute toxicity group were neuronal degeneration/necrosis and spinal cord hemorrhage. The CMPF treated groups (total of 20 animals) had minimal nervous system changes with no significant lesion difference resulting from the different oxime therapies. The primary non-neural lesions were degenerative cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle degeneration which occasionally progressed to necrosis and mineralization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Preexisting antibodies can protect against congenital cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Cody S.; Tran, Dollnovan; Bialas, Kristy M.; Stamper, Lisa; Wu, Huali; Blair, Robert; Itell, Hannah; Chen, Meng; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Walter, Mark R.; Barry, Peter A.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Koelle, Katia; Permar, Sallie R.

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection and a known cause of microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and cognitive impairment among newborns worldwide. Natural maternal HCMV immunity reduces the incidence of congenital infection, but does not prevent the disease altogether. We employed a nonhuman primate model of congenital CMV infection to investigate the ability of preexisting antibodies to protect against placental CMV transmission in the setting of primary maternal infection and subsequent viremia, which is required for placental virus exposure. Pregnant, CD4+ T cell–depleted, rhesus CMV–seronegative (RhCMV-seronegative) rhesus monkeys were treated with either standardly produced hyperimmune globulin (HIG) from RhCMV-seropositive macaques or dose-optimized, potently RhCMV-neutralizing HIG prior to intravenous challenge with an RhCMV mixture. HIG passive infusion provided complete protection against fetal loss in both groups. The dose-optimized, RhCMV-neutralizing HIG additionally inhibited placental transmission of RhCMV and reduced viral replication and diversity. Our findings suggest that the presence of durable and potently neutralizing antibodies at the time of primary infection can prevent transmission of systemically replicating maternal RhCMV to the developing fetus, and therefore should be a primary target of vaccines to eliminate this neonatal infection. PMID:28679960

  12. Radiographic Incidence of Spinal Osteopathologies in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; de Oca, Guadalupe García-Montes; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 18.5 y). Spinal radiographic evaluation (left lateral, right lateral, and ventrodorsal views) of the spinal column (C1 to S1) was performed, and spinal degenerative disease was scored. The incidence of osteopathology was higher in the 14- to 18-y-old group, but incidence did not differ according to sex. In the studied population, degenerative changes were present in monkeys as young as 9 y of age. PMID:21262126

  13. Behavior and temperature of rhesus monkeys exposed to low level microwave irradiation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorge, J.O.

    1976-01-19

    Male rhesus monkeys, trained to respond on an auditory vigilance task, were exposed to vertically polarized 2450 MHz microwaves in an anechoic room. Power densities of 4, 16, 32, 42, 52, 62, and 72 mW/sq cm, and exposure times of 30, 60, and 120 minutes were used. The monkeys performed the vigilance task in a styrofoam restraint chair while irradiated from the front. Body temperature was monitored during exposure at all but the lowest power density. Vigilance performance was not affected until 72 mW/sq cm illuminations occurred. Colonic temperature increase appeared to be a logarithmic function of power density frommore » 16 to 72 mW/sq cm, whereas no such relationship was observed with behavioral indices. The animals showed adaptation to the microwaves in both behavioral and thermal measures, and thermal equilibrium was obtained except at 72 mW/sq cm. (GRA)« less

  14. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), video tasks, and implications for stimulus-response spatial contiguity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue

    1989-01-01

    Recent reports support the argument that the efficiency of primate learning is compromised to the degree that there is spatial discontiguity between discriminands and the locus of response. Experiments are reported here in which two rhesus monkeys easily mastered precise control of a joystick to respond to a variety of computer-generated targets despite the fact that the joystick was located 9 to 18 cm from the video screen. It is argued that stimulus-response contiguity is a significant parameter of learning only to the degree that the monkey visually attends to the directional movements of its hand in order to displace discriminands. If attention is focused on the effects of the hand's movement rather than on the hand itself, stimulus-response contiguity is no longer a primary parameter of learning. The implications of these results for mirror-guided studies are discussed.

  15. Fetal, infant, adolescent and adult phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Tarantal, Alice F; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Old World monkeys provide naturally-occurring and experimentally-induced phenotypes closely resembling the highly prevalent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women. In particular, experimentally-induced fetal androgen excess in female rhesus monkeys produces a comprehensive adult PCOS-like phenotype that includes both reproductive and metabolic dysfunction found in PCOS women. Such a reliable experimental approach enables the use of the prenatally androgenized (PA) female rhesus monkey model to (1) examine fetal, infant and adolescent antecedents of adult pathophysiology, gaining valuable insight into early phenotypic expression of PCOS, and (2) to understand adult pathophysiology from a mechanistic perspective. Elevated circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are the earliest indication of reproductive dysfunction in late gestation nonhuman primate fetuses and infants exposed to androgen excess during early (late first to second trimester) gestation. Such early gestation-exposed PA infants also are hyperandrogenic, with both LH hypersecretion and hyperandrogenism persisting in early gestation-exposed PA adults. Similarly, subtle metabolic abnormalities appearing in young nonhuman primate infants and adolescents precede the abdominal adiposity, hyperliplidemia, and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes that characterize early gestated-exposed PA adults. These new insights into the developmental origins of PCOS, and progression of the pathophysiology from infancy to adulthood, provide opportunities for clinical intervention to ameliorate the PCOS phenotype thus providing a preventive health care approach to PCOS-related abnormalities. For example, PCOS-like traits in PA monkeys, as in PCOS women, can improve with better insulin-glucose homeostasis, suggesting that lifestyle interventions preventing increased adiposity in adolescent daughters of PCOS mothers also may reduce their risk of acquiring many PCOS-related metabolic abnormalities in adulthood. PMID

  16. Handedness influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) but not rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Boeving, Emily R; Lacreuse, Agnès; Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Novak, Melinda A; Nelson, Eliza L

    2015-03-01

    Intermanual transfer refers to an effect, whereby training one hand to perform a motor task improves performance in the opposite untrained hand. We tested the hypothesis that handedness facilitates intermanual transfer in two nonhuman primate species: rhesus monkeys (N = 13) and chimpanzees (N = 52). Subjects were grouped into one of four conditions: (1) left-handers trained with the left (dominant) hand; (2) left-handers trained with the right (nondominant) hand; (3) right-handers trained with the left (nondominant) hand; and (4) right-handers trained with the right (dominant) hand. Intermanual transfer was measured using a task where subjects removed a Life Savers(®) candy (monkeys) or a washer (chimpanzees) from metal shapes. Transfer was measured with latency by comparing the average time taken to solve the task in the first session with the trained hand compared to the first session with the untrained hand. Hypotheses and predictions were derived from three models of transfer: access: benefit training with nondominant hand; proficiency: benefit training with dominant hand; and cross-activation: benefit irrespective of trained hand. Intermanual transfer (i.e., shorter latency in untrained hand) occurred regardless of whether monkeys trained with the dominant hand or nondominant hand, supporting the cross-activation model. However, transfer was only observed in chimpanzees that trained with the dominant hand. When handedness groups were examined separately, the transfer effect was only significant for right-handed chimpanzees, partially supporting the proficiency model. Findings may be related to neurophysiological differences in motor control as well as differences in handedness patterning between rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees.

  17. Pharmacological profile of a deuterium-substituted mirfentanil derivative, OHM10579, in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lelas, S; Gerak, L R; Landers, L K; Brandt, M R; Bagley, J R; Brockunier, L L; France, C P

    1998-07-01

    The discriminative-stimulus, respiratory, and antinociceptive effects of OHM10579, an isotopic isomer of mirfentanil, were characterized in rhesus monkeys. In monkeys discriminating nalbuphine, 0.32 mg/kg of OHM10579 partially substituted for nalbuphine. In monkeys treated daily with 3.2 mg/kg of morphine and discriminating 0.01 mg/kg of naltrexone, 0.32 mg/kg of OHM10579 substituted for naltrexone. In morphine-abstinent monkeys, morphine reversed naltrexone-lever responding, an effect attenuated by OHM10579. The shift to the right in the morphine dose-effect curve was greater 2 h after 0.32 mg/kg of OHM10579 compared to 0.32 mg/kg of mirfentanil, indicating that OHM10579 has a longer duration of action than mirfentanil. In a warm-water tail-withdrawal procedure, 10 and 17.8 mg/kg of OHM10579 had antinociceptive effects that were not antagonized by naltrexone. Morphine decreased breathing in air to 48%, whereas the maximal decrease with OHM10579 was to 75% of control. OHM10579 attenuated hyperventilation induced by 5% CO2 and partially antagonized the respiratory-depressant effects of morphine. OHM10579 can be classified as a low-efficacy mu-opioid agonist with some nonopioid actions. These results indicate that the pharmacology of the mirfentanil isotope OHM10579 is similar to that of mirfentanil, but that OHM10579 might have a longer duration of action.

  18. Evaluation of the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, W L; Rowlett, J K; Winger, G; Woods, J H; Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1999-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of GABA that is present in the CNS and fulfils at least some of the criteria for a neurotransmitter. Its effects are generally similar to those of CNS depressants and include ataxia, sleep and anesthesia. It has also been suggested that GHB is a drug of abuse. The present experiment was designed to evaluate GHB in procedures predictive of abuse and dependence potential in rhesus monkeys. Three monkeys were surgically prepared with indwelling silicone venous catheters and allowed to self-administer methohexital or saline in twice-daily experimental sessions. Other groups of monkeys were trained in drug discrimination paradigms to discriminate D-amphetamine (AMPH; n = 4), pentobarbital (PB; n = 3) or triazolam (n = 3) from saline. Another group was maintained on diazepam daily and trained to discriminate flumazenil from saline (n = 2). GHB (0.01-10 mg/kg per injection) maintained self-administration marginally above saline levels at one dose (3.2 or 10 mg/kg) in two of the three monkeys tested. GHB (1.0-178 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.) or intragastrically (i.g.)) did not reliably substitute as a discriminative stimulus for any of the training conditions. Taken together with previous results, the present experiment suggests that GHB has, at most, low potential for abuse.

  19. Do You See What I See? A Comparative Investigation of the Delboeuf Illusion in Humans (Homo sapiens), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of two central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as ‘small’ or ‘large.’ We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all three species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. PMID:26322505

  20. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure.

    PubMed

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Allen, Daicia C; Gonzales, Steven W; Walter, Nicole A R; Grant, Kathleen A

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal's performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey's performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys.

  2. Effectiveness of spiramycin for treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Schoondermark-Van de Ven, E; Melchers, W; Camps, W; Eskes, T; Meuwissen, J; Galama, J

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of spiramycin for the treatment of rhesus monkey fetuses congenitally infected with Toxoplasma gondii was studied. Eight monkeys were infected at day 90 of pregnancy. This is comparable to the second trimester of organogenetic development in humans. Transmission of infection was found prenatally in five of the eight monkeys by detection of the parasite in the amniotic fluid. Treatment with spiramycin (20 mg/kg/day in two intermittent doses given intravenously) was started as soon as fetal infection was proven and was continued until birth. Nine to 14 days after initiation of treatment, the parasite was still detectable in amniotic fluid samples from four of these five cases. However, the parasite was detected only by PCR and not by mouse inoculation. T. gondii was also detected only by PCR in the placenta of one monkey that delivered prematurely. This monkey received spiramycin treatment for only 2 weeks. In the four monkeys that received treatment for about 7 weeks, the parasite was not present at birth in the placenta nor in amniotic fluid or neonatal organs. Spiramycin accumulates mainly in maternal tissues. Although concentrations in neonatal tissue were found to be 5 to 28 times higher than the corresponding concentrations in neonatal serum, the concentrations in neonatal tissue were still 11 to 16 times lower than those found in the mothers. However, no spiramycin was found in the fetal brains. Early treatment with spiramycin may prevent transmission of infection to the fetus but most probably cannot interrupt an existing brain infection, which is the most severe outcome of congenital toxoplasmosis in humans. Images PMID:7811000

  3. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  4. Interactive effects of morphine and scopolamine, MK-801, propanolol on spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianHong; Chen, YanMei; Carlson, Synnöve; Li, Liang; Hu, XinTian; Ma, YuanYe

    2012-08-15

    Opiate, cholinergic, glutamatergic and beta-adrenergic neurotransmitters play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals. Dysfunction of the interactions between these neurotransmitters may induce human diseases. In the present study, the interactions of morphine and acetylcholine (ACh), NMDA, and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (scopolamine, MK-801, and propanolol) were evaluated in a single-blind design by co-administrations of morphine and these drugs in a delayed response in rhesus monkeys. The results indicated that: (1) Co-administration of morphine and scopolamine deteriorated spatial working memory. (2) Co-treatment of morphine and MK-801 restored impairment caused by morphine and MK-801 in a dose-depending pattern. (3) Morphine plus propranolol impaired spatial working memory. High dose of morphine (0.01 mg/kg) reversed impaired spatial working memory induced by single propranolol and morphine treatment. These data suggested that the interactions of morphine and AChergic, NMDAergic and beta-adrenergic compounds were involved in spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inferential Learning of Serial Order of Perceptual Categories by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated. Ordinal decisions generalized both to novel stimuli and, as a consequence, to novel pairings. Thus, we showed that rhesus monkeys could learn to categorize on the basis of implied ordinal position, without prior matching-to-sample training, and that they could then make inferences about category order. Our results challenge the plausibility of association models of category learning and broaden the scope of the transitive inference paradigm. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cognitive abilities of nonhuman animals are of enduring interest to scientists and the general public because they blur the dividing line between human and nonhuman intelligence. Categorization and sequence learning are highly abstract cognitive abilities each in their own right. This study is the first to provide evidence that visual categories can be ordered serially by macaque monkeys using a behavioral paradigm that provides no explicit feedback about category or serial order. These results strongly challenge accounts of learning based on stimulus–response associations. PMID:28546309

  6. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) held in captivity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Márcia Cristina Ribeiro; Gabeira, Sanny Cerqueira de Oliveira; Abreu-Lopes, Danielle; Esteves, Wagner Thadeu Cardoso; Vilardo, Mônica de Castro Britto; Thomé, Jacqueline D'arc da Silva; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Lauria-Filgueiras, Ana Luzia

    2007-02-01

    Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  7. Germline repertoire of the immunoglobulin V(H)3 family in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Helmuth, E F; Letvin, N L; Margolin, D H

    2000-06-01

    To facilitate molecular studies of antibody responses in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we cloned and sequenced germline segments from its largest and most diverse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene family, V(H)3. Using a PCR-based approach, we characterized 29 sequences, 20 with open reading frames (ORFs) and 9 pseudogenes. The leader sequences, introns, exons, and recombination signal sequences of M. mulatta V(H)3 gene segments are not strictly identical to those of humans, but the mature coding regions demonstrate, on average, greater than 90% sequence similarity. Although the framework regions are more highly conserved, the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) also show strong similarities, and their predicted three-dimensional structures resemble those of their human homologues. In one instance, homologous macaque and human CDR1 sequences were 100% identical at the nucleotide level, and some CDR2s shared nucleotide identity as high as 96.5%. However, some rhesus V(H)3 ORFs have unusual structural features, including atypical CDR lengths and uncommon amino acids at structurally crucial positions. The similarity of rhesus and human V(H)3 homologues reinforces the notion that humoral immunity in this nonhuman primate species is an appropriate system for modeling human antibody responses.

  8. Dengue Type Four Viruses with E-Glu345Lys Adaptive Mutation from MRC-5 Cells Induce Low Viremia but Elicit Potent Neutralizing Antibodies in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Tsai, Meng-Ju; Hsiao, Hung-Ju; Peng, Jia-Guan; Sue, Shih-Che; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of virulence and immunogenicity is important for development of live-attenuated dengue vaccines. We previously reported that an infectious clone-derived dengue type 4 virus (DENV-4) passaged in MRC-5 cells acquired a Glu345Lys (E-E345K) substitution in the E protein domain III (E-DIII). The same cloned DENV-4 was found to yield a single E-Glu327Gly (E-E327G) mutation after passage in FRhL cells and cause the loss of immunogenicity in rhesus monkeys. Here, we used site-directed mutagenesis to generate the E-E345K and E-E327G mutants from DENV-4 and DENV-4Δ30 infectious clones and propagated in Vero or MRC-5 cells. The E-E345K mutations were consistently presented in viruses recovered from MRC-5 cells, but not Vero cells. Recombinant E-DIII proteins of E345K and E327G increased heparin binding correlated with the reduced infectivity by heparin treatment in cell cultures. Different from the E-E327G mutant viruses to lose the immunogencity in rhesus monkeys, the E-E345K mutant viruses were able to induce neutralizing antibodies in rhesus monkeys with an almost a 10-fold lower level of viremia as compared to the wild type virus. Monkeys immunized with the E-E345K mutant virus were completely protected with no detectable viremia after live virus challenges with the wild type DENV-4. These results suggest that the E-E345K mutant virus propagated in MRC-5 cells may have potential for the use in live-attenuated DENV vaccine development. PMID:24959738

  9. Effects of prenatal androgens on rhesus monkeys: A model system to explore the organizational hypothesis in primates

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Jan; Zehr, Julia L.; Loose, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    After proposing the organizational hypothesis from research in prenatally androgenized guinea pigs (Phoenix et al., 1959), the same authors almost immediately extended the hypothesis to a nonhuman primate model, the rhesus monkey. Studies over the last 50 years have verified that prenatal androgens have permanent effects in rhesus monkeys on the neural circuits that underlie sexually dimorphic behaviors. These behaviors include both sexual and social behaviors, all of which are also influenced by social experience. Many juvenile behaviors such as play and mounting are masculinized, and aspects of adult sexual behavior are both masculinized (e.g. approaches, sex contacts, and mounts) and defeminized (e.g. sexual solicits). Different behavioral endpoints have different periods of maximal susceptibility to the organizing actions of prenatal androgens. Aromatization is not important, as both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are equally effective in rhesus monkeys. Although the full story of the effects of prenatal androgens on sexual and social behaviors in the rhesus monkey has not yet completely unfolded, much progress has been made. Amazingly, a large number of the inferences drawn from the original 1959 study have proved applicable to this nonhuman primate model. PMID:19446080

  10. Effects of prenatal androgens on rhesus monkeys: a model system to explore the organizational hypothesis in primates.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Jan; Zehr, Julia L; Loose, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    After proposing the organizational hypothesis from research in prenatally androgenized guinea pigs (Phoenix, C.H., Goy, R.W., Gerall, A.A., Young, W.C., 1959. Organizational action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig. Endocrinology 65, 369-382.), the same authors almost immediately extended the hypothesis to a nonhuman primate model, the rhesus monkey. Studies over the last 50 years have verified that prenatal androgens have permanent effects in rhesus monkeys on the neural circuits that underlie sexually dimorphic behaviors. These behaviors include both sexual and social behaviors, all of which are also influenced by social experience. Many juvenile behaviors such as play, mounting, and vocal behaviors are masculinized and/or defeminized, and aspects of adult sexual behavior are both masculinized (e.g. approaches, sex contacts, and mounts) and defeminized (e.g. sexual solicits). Different behavioral endpoints have different periods of maximal susceptibility to the organizing actions of prenatal androgens. Aromatization is not important, as both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are equally effective in rhesus monkeys. Although the full story of the effects of prenatal androgens on sexual and social behaviors in the rhesus monkey has not yet completely unfolded, much progress has been made. Amazingly, a large number of the inferences drawn from the original 1959 study have proved applicable to this nonhuman primate model.

  11. Differential Antagonism of Cocaine Self-Administration and Cocaine-Induced Disruptions of Learning by Haloperidol in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsauer, Peter J.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.; Roussell, Alison M.

    2008-01-01

    Six rhesus monkeys responding under a three-component multiple schedule were administered haloperidol to determine its effects on cocaine self-administration and on cocaine's disruptive effects on the repeated acquisition and performance of response chains. In the absence of haloperidol, 0.0032 - 0.032 mg/kg/infusion of cocaine increased response…

  12. Environmental Control, Social Context, and Individual Differences in Behavioral and Cortisol Responses to Novelty in Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roma, Peter G.; Champoux, Maribeth; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of appetitive controllability on behavioral and cortisol reactivity to novelty in 12 infant rhesus monkeys were studied. Surrogate-peer-reared infants had homecage access to food treats contingently via lever pressing ("master") or noncontingently ("yoked") for 12 weeks from postnatal month 2. Masters lever-pressed more, but did not…

  13. Standardized automated training of rhesus monkeys for neuroscience research in their housing environment.

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Calapai, A; Stephan, V; Niessing, M; Burchardt, L; Gail, A; Treue, S

    2018-03-01

    Teaching nonhuman primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal. In addition, self-paced training schedules with individualized learning speeds based on automatic updating of task conditions could enhance the animals' motivation and welfare. We developed a training paradigm for across-task unsupervised training (AUT) of successively more complex cognitive tasks to be administered through a stand-alone housing-based system optimized for rhesus monkeys in neuroscience research settings (Calapai A, Berger M, Niessing M, Heisig K, Brockhausen R, Treue S, Gail A. Behav Res Methods 5: 1-11, 2016). The AUT revealed interindividual differences in long-term learning progress between animals, helping to characterize learning personalities, and commonalities, helping to identify easier and more difficult learning steps in the training protocol. Our results demonstrate that 1) rhesus monkeys stay engaged with the AUT over months despite access to water and food outside the experimental sessions but with lower numbers of interaction compared with conventional fluid-controlled training; 2) with unsupervised training across sessions and task levels, rhesus monkeys can learn tasks of sufficient complexity for state-of-the-art cognitive neuroscience in their housing environment; and 3) AUT learning progress is primarily determined by the number of interactions with the system rather than the mere exposure time. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that highly structured training of behavioral tasks, as used in

  14. Peer social interaction is facilitated in juvenile rhesus monkeys treated with fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E; Bulleri, Alicia M

    2016-06-01

    Fluoxetine improves social interactions in children with autism, social anxiety and social phobia. It is not known whether this effect is mediated directly or indirectly by correcting the underlying pathology. Genetics may also influence the drug effect. Polymorphisms of the MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene interact with fluoxetine to influence metabolic profiles in juvenile monkeys. Juvenile nonhuman primates provide an appropriate model for studying fluoxetine effects and drug*gene interactions in children. Male rhesus monkeys 1-3 years of age living in permanent social pairs were treated daily with a therapeutic dose of fluoxetine or vehicle (n = 16/group). Both members of each social pair were assigned to the same treatment group. They were observed for social interactions with their familiar cagemate over a 2-year dosing period. Subjects were genotyped for MAOA variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms categorized for high or low transcription rates (hi-MAOA, low-MAOA). Fluoxetine-treated animals spent 30% more time in social interaction than vehicle controls. Fluoxetine significantly increased the duration of quiet interactions, the most common type of interaction, and also of immature sexual behavior typical of rhesus in this age group. Specific behaviors affected depended on MAOA genotype of the animal and its social partner. When given fluoxetine, hi-MOAO monkeys had more social invitation and initiation behaviors and low-MAOA subjects with low-MAOA partners had more grooming and an increased frequency of some facial and vocal expressive behaviors. Fluoxetine may facilitate social interaction in children independent of remediation of psychopathology. Common genetic variants may modify this effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peer social interaction is facilitated in juvenile rhesus monkeys treated with fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Bulleri, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fluoxetine improves social interactions in children with autism, social anxiety and social phobia. It is not known whether this effect is mediated directly or indirectly by correcting the underlying pathology. Genetics may also influence the drug effect. Polymorphisms of the MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene interact with fluoxetine to influence metabolic profiles in juvenile monkeys. Juvenile nonhuman primates provide an appropriate model for studying fluoxetine effects and drug*gene interactions in children. Methods Male rhesus monkeys 1–3 years of age living in permanent social pairs were treated daily with a therapeutic dose of fluoxetine or vehicle (n=16/group). Both members of each social pair were assigned to the same treatment group. They were observed for social interactions with their familiar cagemate over a 2-year dosing period. Subjects were genotyped for MAOA variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms categorized for high or low transcription rates (hi-MAOA, low-MAOA). Results Fluoxetine-treated animals spent 30% more time in social interaction than vehicle controls. Fluoxetine significantly increased the duration of quiet interactions, the most common type of interaction, and also of immature sexual behavior typical of rhesus in this age group. Specific behaviors affected depended on MAOA genotype of the animal and its social partner. When given fluoxetine, hi-MOAO monkeys had more social invitations and initiation behaviors and low-MAOA subjects with low-MAOA partners had more grooming and an increased frequency of some facial and vocal expressive behaviors. Conclusions Fluoxetine may facilitate social interaction in children independent of remediation of psychopathology. Common genetic variants may modify this effect. PMID:26905291

  16. Activation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy alters behavioral development of rhesus monkey offspring.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Melissa D; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Smith, Stephen E P; Bregere, Catherine; Amaral, David G; Patterson, Paul H

    2014-02-15

    Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Supporting this correlation, experimentally activating the maternal immune system during pregnancy in rodents produces offspring with abnormal brain and behavioral development. We have developed a nonhuman primate model to bridge the gap between clinical populations and rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA). A modified form of the viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid stabilized with poly-L-lysine) was delivered to two separate groups of pregnant rhesus monkeys to induce MIA: 1) late first trimester MIA (n = 6), and 2) late second trimester MIA (n = 7). Control animals (n = 11) received saline injections at the same first or second trimester time points or were untreated. Sickness behavior, temperature, and cytokine profiles of the pregnant monkeys confirmed a strong inflammatory response to MIA. Behavioral development of the offspring was studied for 24 months. Following weaning at 6 months of age, MIA offspring exhibited abnormal responses to separation from their mothers. As the animals matured, MIA offspring displayed increased repetitive behaviors and decreased affiliative vocalizations. When evaluated with unfamiliar conspecifics, first trimester MIA offspring deviated from species-typical macaque social behavior by inappropriately approaching and remaining in immediate proximity of an unfamiliar animal. In this rhesus monkey model, MIA yields offspring with abnormal repetitive behaviors, communication, and social interactions. These results extended the findings in rodent MIA models to more human-like behaviors resembling those in both autism and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shallow discounting of delayed cocaine by male rhesus monkeys when immediate food is the choice alternative.

    PubMed

    Huskinson, Sally L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Rowlett, James K; Woolverton, William L; Freeman, Kevin B

    2016-12-01

    Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives. Accordingly, we analyzed 3 male rhesus monkeys' choices between immediate food and delayed cocaine (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/injection) using a hyperbolic model that allowed us to compare discounting rates between qualitatively different reinforcers. Choice of immediate food increased with food amount, and choice functions generally shifted leftward as delay to cocaine increased, indicating a decrease in the subjective value of cocaine. Compared with our previous delay-discounting experiment with immediate cocaine versus delayed food, both doses of delayed cocaine were discounted at a shallow rate. The present results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys will tolerate relatively long delays in an immediate-food versus delayed-drug situation, suggesting that in intertemporal choices between cocaine and food, the subjective value of cocaine is less affected by the delay until reinforcement than is the subjective value of delayed food. More generally, the present findings suggest that although drug abusers may choose impulsively when immediate drug reinforcement is available, they exercise self-control in the acquisition of a highly preferred, delayed drug reinforcer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies

  19. Pathobiological and Behavioral Effects of Lead Intoxication in the Infant Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J. R.; McWey, P. J.; Suomi, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    When infant rhesus monkeys were exposed to lead via the addition of lead acetate (0.5–9 mg/kg body weight) to their formula or by the consumption of lead particles from lead-based surrogate mothers, they developed symptoms of lead intoxication within 6 weeks. Seizures, muscular tremors, and altered social interaction were the predominant changes. Visual impairment was also apparent in the more severely affected animals. In the animals showing obvious symptoms lead levels varied between 300 to 500 μg/100 ml of blood. Even in those animals having blood lead levels below 100 μg, hyperactivity and insomnia were observed. When the exposure to lead was eliminated, seizures subsided and visual impairment was reduced; however, the abnormal social interaction persisted. These animals also experienced a gradual decline in hematocrit and hemoglobin values during the period of examination. Liver and kidney biopsies obtained from these lead-exposed animals revealed characteristic intranuclear inclusions. When adolescent and adult monkeys were exposed to doses of lead acetate similar to those employed in the infant experiments, lead levels in excess of 200 μg/100 ml of blood were recorded. However, there were no obvious behavioral abnormalities observed. There were, however, numerous lead inclusion bodies in kidney biopsy specimens from these animals. These data suggest that, like man, the infant nonhuman primate is much more susceptible to lead intoxication than is the adult. The clinical and behavioral changes recorded in these infant rhesus monkeys suggest their use as an experimental model to evaluate lead intoxication. ImagesFIGURE 6. PMID:4208658

  20. Discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil in rhesus monkeys treated chronically with chlordiazepoxide.

    PubMed

    France, C P; Gerak, L R

    1997-03-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil were studied in two rhesus monkeys receiving 3.2 mg/kg/12 h of chlordiazepoxide while discriminating between vehicle and 0.056 mg/kg of flumazenil. In a drug discrimination component responding was maintained under a FR 10 schedule of stimulus-shock termination; in a non-discrimination component responding was maintained under a FR 10 schedule of food presentation. Flumazenil and Ro 15-4513 occasioned >80% flumazenil-lever responding at doses larger than 0.032 and 0.056 mg/kg, respectively. Pentylenetetrazole, ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (betaCCE), ketamine and spiradoline failed to substitute for flumazenil although >80% drug-lever responding was observed for two of the compounds in one monkey. Flumazenil, Ro 15-4513, pentylenetetrazole, betaCCE but not ketamine or spiradoline decreased rates of responding in the food component at doses that had little effect on rates in the stimulus-shock termination component. When chlordiazepoxide injections were discontinued and saline was administered before the session, monkeys did not respond on the flumazenil lever; when flumazenil was administered under the same conditions, monkeys responded on the flumazenil lever despite not having received chlordiazepoxide for nine days. Drug stimulus control was established with flumazenil in monkeys receiving chlordiazepoxide and substitution studies suggest that this effect of flumazenil might result from antagonist actions at benzodiazepine receptors: however, lack of withdrawal-related effects after termination of chlordiazepoxide treatment precludes validation of this procedure for studying benzodiazepine dependence.

  1. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Shnitko, Tatiana A.; Allen, Daicia C.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal’s performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey’s performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys. PMID:28386222

  2. Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Nicole; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Rotella, Diane L.; Hynes, Stephanie M.; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S.; Morecraft, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance. PMID:23652723

  3. Recognition errors suggest fast familiarity and slow recollection in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses can demonstrate dual processes has been repeatedly challenged. Here, we present independent converging evidence for the dual-process model from analyses of recognition errors made by rhesus monkeys. Recognition choices were made in three different ways depending on processing duration. Short-latency errors were disproportionately false alarms to familiar lures, suggesting control by familiarity. Medium-latency responses were less likely to be false alarms and were more accurate, suggesting onset of a recollective process that could correctly reject familiar lures. Long-latency responses were guesses. A response deadline increased false alarms, suggesting that limiting processing time weakened the contribution of recollection and strengthened the contribution of familiarity. Together, these findings suggest fast familiarity and slow recollection in monkeys, that monkeys use a “recollect to reject” strategy to countermand false familiarity, and that primate recognition performance is well-characterized by a dual-process model consisting of recollection and familiarity. PMID:23864646

  4. Acquisition Of Cocaine Self-Administration With Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement In Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Galuska, Chad M; Woods, James H

    2005-01-01

    Six experimentally naive rhesus monkeys produced 0.01 mg/kg/infusion cocaine by lever pressing under a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule. One lever press initiated an unsignaled 15- or 30-s delay culminating in cocaine delivery. Each press made during the delay reset the delay interval. With two exceptions, responding was acquired and maintained at higher rates than responding on a second (inoperative) lever. For the exceptions, a cancellation contingency was arranged in which each formerly inoperative-lever response reset the tandem schedule. This manipulation reduced presses on the inoperative lever. Subsequently, the consequences of responding on the two levers were reversed, and the monkeys again responded at higher rates on the operative lever. As a comparison, 3 additional experimentally naive monkeys received response-independent cocaine deliveries. Although lever pressing was observed, it extinguished and was subsequently reestablished under the tandem schedule. The results suggest that although response-reinforcer contiguity is not required for cocaine to acquire reinforcing functions, a response-reinforcer relation appears necessary. PMID:16262189

  5. Exploring the extent and function of higher-order auditory cortex in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Poremba, Amy; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2007-07-01

    Just as cortical visual processing continues far beyond the boundaries of early visual areas, so too does cortical auditory processing continue far beyond the limits of early auditory areas. In passively listening rhesus monkeys examined with metabolic mapping techniques, cortical areas reactive to auditory stimulation were found to include the entire length of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) as well as several other regions within the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Comparison of these widespread activations with those from an analogous study in vision supports the notion that audition, like vision, is served by several cortical processing streams, each specialized for analyzing a different aspect of sensory input, such as stimulus quality, location, or motion. Exploration with different classes of acoustic stimuli demonstrated that most portions of STG show greater activation on the right than on the left regardless of stimulus class. However, there is a striking shift to left-hemisphere "dominance" during passive listening to species-specific vocalizations, though this reverse asymmetry is observed only in the region of temporal pole. The mechanism for this left temporal pole "dominance" appears to be suppression of the right temporal pole by the left hemisphere, as demonstrated by a comparison of the results in normal monkeys with those in split-brain monkeys.

  6. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P < 0.05). Decreases in parathyroid hormone did not reach significance. Calcitonin showed modest decreases postflight (P < 0.02). Overall, effects of spaceflight on the calcium endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  7. Clustering of PCOS-like traits in naturally hyperandrogenic female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D H; Rayome, B H; Dumesic, D A; Lewis, K C; Edwards, A K; Wallen, K; Wilson, M E; Appt, S E; Levine, J E

    2017-04-01

    Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS. Progress in treating women with PCOS is limited by incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis and the absence of naturally occurring PCOS in animal models. A female macaque monkey, however, with naturally occurring hyperandrogenism, anovulation and polyfollicular ovaries, accompanied by insulin resistance, increased adiposity and endometrial hyperplasia, suggests naturally occurring origins for PCOS in nonhuman primates. As part of a larger study, circulating serum concentrations of selected pituitary, ovarian and adrenal hormones, together with fasted insulin and glucose levels, were determined in a single, morning blood sample obtained from 120 apparently healthy, ovary-intact, adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while not pregnant or nursing. The monkeys were then sedated for somatometric and ultrasonographic measurements. Female monkeys were of prime reproductive age (7.2 ± 0.1 years, mean ± SEM) and represented a typical spectrum of adult body weight (7.4 ± 0.2 kg; maximum 12.5, minimum 4.6 kg). Females were defined as having normal (n = 99) or high T levels (n = 21; ≥1 SD above the overall mean, 0.31 ng/ml). Electronic health records provided menstrual and fecundity histories. Steroid hormones were determined by tandem LC-MS-MS; AMH was measured by enzymeimmunoassay; LH, FSH and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay; and glucose was read by glucose meter. Most analyses were limited to 80 females (60 normal T, 20 high T) in

  8. Effect of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Opioid abusers discount delayed reinforcers more rapidly than nonusers; however, it is unclear whether chronic drug administration or its discontinuation impacts discounting. This study examined the impact of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys. Responding on one lever delivered one food pellet immediately; responding on another lever delivered two food pellets either immediately or after a delay (30-120 s) that increased within the session. Monkeys (n=3) responded for the large reinforcer when both reinforcers were delivered immediately and more for the smaller, immediately available reinforcer as the delay to delivery of the large reinforcer increased. When administered acutely, morphine (0.032-5.6 mg/kg) increased trial omissions and had variable effects on choice, with small doses decreasing and large doses increasing choice of the large delayed reinforcer. Chronic morphine administration (0.1 mg/kg/day to 3.2 mg/kg twice daily) reduced choice of the large delayed reinforcer in two monkeys, while increasing choice in a third monkey. Despite the development of tolerance to some effects (i.e. rightward shifts in dose-effect curves for the number of trials omitted) and evidence of mild opioid dependence (e.g. decrease in the number of trials completed, as well as body weight), discontinuation of treatment did not appear to systematically impact discounting. Overall, these results suggest that repeated opioid administration causes persistent effects on choice under a delay discounting procedure; however, differences in the direction of effect among individuals suggest that factors other than, or in addition to, changes in discounting might play a role.

  9. Effect of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abusers discount delayed reinforcers more rapidly than non-users; however, it is unclear whether chronic drug administration or its discontinuation impact discounting. This study examined daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys. Responding on one lever delivered 1 food pellet immediately; responding on another lever delivered 2 food pellets either immediately or after a delay (30–120 sec) that increased within the session. Monkeys (n=3) responded for the large reinforcer when both reinforcers were delivered immediately and more for the smaller, immediately available reinforcer as delay to delivery of the large reinforcer increased. When administered acutely, morphine (0.032–5.6 mg/kg) increased trial omissions and had variable effects on choice, with small doses decreasing and large doses increasing choice of the large delayed reinforcer. Chronic morphine administration (0.1 mg/kg/day to 3.2 mg/kg twice daily) reduced choice of the large delayed reinforcer in two monkeys while increasing choice in a third monkey. Despite the development of tolerance to some effects (i.e., rightward shifts in dose-effect curves for the number of trials omitted) and evidence of mild opioid dependence (e.g., decrease in the number of trials completed as well as body weight), discontinuation of treatment did not appear to systematically impact discounting. Overall, these results suggest that repeated opioid administration causes persistent effects on choice under a delay discounting procedure; however, differences in the direction of effect among individuals suggest factors other than, or in addition to, changes in discounting might play a role. PMID:26397762

  10. Lorcaserin Reduces the Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Gerak, Lisa R; Javors, Martin A; France, Charles P

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse and obesity are serious public health problems, and studies suggest that both dopamine and serotonin systems are involved in regulating the consumption of drugs and food. Lorcaserin has serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor agonist actions, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating obesity, and might be effective for treating cocaine abuse. These studies characterized the pharmacokinetic and behavioral profiles of lorcaserin (intragastric administration) and determined the effectiveness of lorcaserin to alter discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine (intravenous administration) in rhesus monkeys. Administered acutely, lorcaserin dose-dependently increased the occurrence of yawning while decreasing spontaneous activity and operant responding for food. These effects appeared within 30-60 minutes of administration and began to dissipate by 240 minutes, a time course closely matching plasma concentrations of lorcaserin. In monkeys discriminating cocaine from saline, lorcaserin alone did not occasion cocaine-appropriate responding but shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the right and down in two of three monkeys. When administered acutely, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreased the rate at which monkeys responded for infusions of cocaine. When administered chronically, 3.2 mg/kg lorcaserin reduced the rate of cocaine-maintained responding by 50% for the duration of a 14-day treatment period. Together, these results show that lorcaserin attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine after acute administration and the reinforcing effects of cocaine after acute and repeated administration, consistent with the view that it might have utility in treating cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Tucker A.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Roegge, Cindy S.; Callicott, Ralph J.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ► Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ► Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ► BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ► BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ► Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these measurements.

  12. Lorcaserin Reduces the Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Gerak, Lisa R.; Javors, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse and obesity are serious public health problems, and studies suggest that both dopamine and serotonin systems are involved in regulating the consumption of drugs and food. Lorcaserin has serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor agonist actions, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating obesity, and might be effective for treating cocaine abuse. These studies characterized the pharmacokinetic and behavioral profiles of lorcaserin (intragastric administration) and determined the effectiveness of lorcaserin to alter discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine (intravenous administration) in rhesus monkeys. Administered acutely, lorcaserin dose-dependently increased the occurrence of yawning while decreasing spontaneous activity and operant responding for food. These effects appeared within 30–60 minutes of administration and began to dissipate by 240 minutes, a time course closely matching plasma concentrations of lorcaserin. In monkeys discriminating cocaine from saline, lorcaserin alone did not occasion cocaine-appropriate responding but shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the right and down in two of three monkeys. When administered acutely, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreased the rate at which monkeys responded for infusions of cocaine. When administered chronically, 3.2 mg/kg lorcaserin reduced the rate of cocaine-maintained responding by 50% for the duration of a 14-day treatment period. Together, these results show that lorcaserin attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine after acute administration and the reinforcing effects of cocaine after acute and repeated administration, consistent with the view that it might have utility in treating cocaine abuse. PMID:26534942

  13. Cardiovascular results from a rhesus monkey flown aboard the Cosmos 1514 spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Hines, J.; Benjamin, B. A.; Halpryn, B. M.; Krotov, V. P.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Cosmos 1514 cardiovascular experiment, in which the blood flow to the head and the carotid pressure of a rhesus monkey were measured during the 5-d spaceflight, are reported. A single cylindrical probe containing both pressure and flow transducers was chronically implanted as a cuff around the left common carotid artery; measurements were obtained for 4 min every 2 h and compared to identical recordings obtained during a preflight control period and during 12 h on a launch pad. Immediately on its insertion into orbit, mean arterial pressure increased by 10 percent and has maintained a 16-27 percent increase over the first few hours of flight before returning to baseline level. Blood flow showed reciprocal changes to pressure on orbital insertion. Cardiovascular system changes persisted into the second day of flight, with the signs of adaptation appearing on days 3-5.

  14. Sensory Processing in Rhesus Monkeys: Developmental Continuity, Prenatal Treatment, and Genetic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Adkins, Miriam; Barr, Christina S.; Larson, Julie A.; Resch, Leslie M.; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sensory processing (tactile and vestibular function) was tested in 78 rhesus macaques from two experiments. At ages 4–5 years, striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding was examined using positron emission tomography. At ages 5–7 years, adult sensory processing was assessed. Findings were: (a) prenatal stress exposure yielded less optimal neonatal sensory processing; (b) animals carrying the short rh5-HTTLPR allele had less optimal neonatal sensory scores than monkeys homozygous for the long allele; (c) neonatal sensory processing was significantly related to striatal D2 receptor binding for carriers of the short allele, but not for animals homozygous for the long allele; and (d) there was moderate developmental continuity in sensory processing from the neonatal period to adulthood. PMID:27338151

  15. Chronic, Wireless Recordings of Large Scale Brain Activity in Freely Moving Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, David A.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Hanson, Timothy L.; Dimitrov, Dragan F.; Lehew, Gary; Meloy, Jim; Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Subramanian, Vivek; Ifft, Peter J.; Li, Zheng; Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Tate, Andrew; Zhuang, Katie; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in techniques for recording large-scale brain activity contribute to both the elucidation of neurophysiological principles and the development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Here we describe a neurophysiological paradigm for performing tethered and wireless large-scale recordings based on movable volumetric three-dimensional (3D) multielectrode implants. This approach allowed us to isolate up to 1,800 units per animal and simultaneously record the extracellular activity of close to 500 cortical neurons, distributed across multiple cortical areas, in freely behaving rhesus monkeys. The method is expandable, in principle, to thousands of simultaneously recorded channels. It also allows increased recording longevity (5 consecutive years), and recording of a broad range of behaviors, e.g. social interactions, and BMI paradigms in freely moving primates. We propose that wireless large-scale recordings could have a profound impact on basic primate neurophysiology research, while providing a framework for the development and testing of clinically relevant neuroprostheses. PMID:24776634

  16. Sensory Processing in Rhesus Monkeys: Developmental Continuity, Prenatal Treatment, and Genetic Influences.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Mary L; Moore, Colleen F; Adkins, Miriam; Barr, Christina S; Larson, Julie A; Resch, Leslie M; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sensory processing (tactile and vestibular function) was tested in 78 rhesus macaques from two experiments. At ages 4-5 years, striatal dopamine D 2 receptor binding was examined using positron emission tomography. At ages 5-7 years, adult sensory processing was assessed. Findings were: (a) prenatal stress exposure yielded less optimal neonatal sensory processing; (b) animals carrying the short rh5-HTTLPR allele had less optimal neonatal sensory scores than monkeys homozygous for the long allele; (c) neonatal sensory processing was significantly related to striatal D 2 receptor binding for carriers of the short allele, but not for animals homozygous for the long allele; and (d) there was moderate developmental continuity in sensory processing from the neonatal period to adulthood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Cortisol in Neonatal Mother's Milk Predicts Later Infant Social and Cognitive Functioning in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Murphy, Ashley M; Guitarra, Denisse; Slonecker, Emily; Suomi, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Hinde, Katie

    2017-03-29

    Milk provides not only the building blocks for somatic development but also the hormonal signals that contribute to the biopsychological organization of the infant. Among mammals, glucocorticoids (GCs) in mother's milk have been associated with infant temperament. This study extended prior work to investigate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads (N = 34) from birth through 8 months postpartum. Regression analysis revealed that cortisol concentrations in milk during the neonatal period predicted impulsivity on a cognitive task, but not global social behaviors, months later. During this time period, sex-differentiated social behavior emerged. For female infants, milk cortisol concentrations predicted total frequency of play. Collectively, these findings support and extend the "lactational programming" hypothesis on the impact of maternal-origin hormones ingested via milk. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Sequence of the rhesus monkey T-cell receptor {beta} chain diversity and joining loci

    SciTech Connect

    Cheynier, R.; Henrichwark, S.; Wain-Hobson, S.

    1996-06-01

    Rhesus monkeys are frequently used as animal models for human diseases, most noticeably for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and simian AIDS. An analysis of HIV proviruses and HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells in splenic white pulps relied heavily on the analysis of rearranged TCRBV sequences. The spleens were derived from patients with drug-insensitive idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura and frequently taken at an advanced stage of disease. In order to obtain some insight into the balance of forces between the virus and the immune system during earlier stages of infection, one must inevitably turn to the SIV/macaque AIDS model. As a prerequisitemore » to undertaking similar virological and immunological studies the nucleotide sequence of the macaque TCRBJ loci had to be established. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  19. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  20. Neuron Numbers in the Hypothalamus of the Normal Aging Rhesus Monkey: Stability Across the Adult Lifespan and Between the Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D.E.; Killiany, R.J.; Rosene, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by changes in hypothalamic functions including autonomic and endocrine functions and circadian rhythms. The rhesus monkey provides an excellent model of normal aging without the potential confounds of incipient Alzheimer's disease inherent in human populations. This study examined the hypothalamus of 51 rhesus monkeys (23 male, 18 female, 6.5–31 years old) using design-based stereology to obtain unbiased estimates of neuron and glia numbers and the Cavalieri method to estimate volumes for eight reference spaces: total unilateral hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), dorsomedial nucleus (DM), ventromedial nucleus (VM), medial mammillary nucleus (MMN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). The results demonstrated no age-related difference in neuron number, glia number, or volume in any area in either sex except the PVN of male monkeys, which showed a significant increase in both neuron and glia numbers with age. Comparison of males and females for sexual dimorphisms revealed no significant differences in neuron number. However, males had more glia overall as well as in the SCN, DM, and LHA and had a larger hypothalamic volume overall and in the SCN, SON, VM, DM, and MMN. These results demonstrate that hypothalamic neuron loss cannot account for age-related deficits in hypothalamic function and provides further evidence of the absence of neurode-generation and cell death in the normal aging rhesus monkey. PMID:21935936

  1. Gene-Environment Interactions, Not Neonatal Growth Hormone Deficiency, Time Puberty in Female Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Kinkead, Becky

    2008-01-01

    The factors that influence the timing of puberty and the onset of adult fertility are poorly understood. While focus on the juvenile period has provided insights into how growth-related cues affect pubertal timing, growth velocity during infancy that is sustained into the juvenile period may be important. On the other hand, social factors, specifically exposure to psychosocial stressors, can delay sexual maturation, possibly by altering growth velocities during development. Using female rhesus monkeys, the present study used a prospective analysis to determine how neonatal growth hormone (GH) inhibition with a sandostatin analog or suppression of the pituitary – gonadal axis with a GnRH analog affected growth and sexual maturation. Secondly, a separate retrospective analysis was done assessing the effects of social dominance status during development on pubertal timing. Because a specific polymorphism in the gene encoding the serotonin (5HT) reuptake transporter increases vulnerability to psychosocial stressors, females were also genotyped and were then classified as socially dominant having both alleles for the long promoter variant or having at least one allele for the short promoter variant or classified as socially subordinate having the long variant or subordinate having the short variant. Neonatal treatments were not balanced for social status or genotype so analyses were performed separately. Although the neonatal treatments reduced GH secretion postnatally and through the juvenile period, neither growth nor sexual maturation were affected. In contrast, the retrospective analysis showed sexual maturation was delayed significantly in subordinate females carrying at least one allele of the short promoter variant in the gene encoding the serotonin reuptake transporter and this delay was associated with reduced GH and leptin secretion during the juvenile phase but not with differences in growth velocities from birth. These data suggest that decreased neonatal

  2. Effects of 12 days exposure to simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Koenig, S. C.; Krotov, V. P.; Fanton, J. W.; Korolkov, V. I.; Trambovetsky, E. V.; Ewert, D. L.; Truzhennikov, A.; Latham, R. D.

    Central circulatory hemodynamic responses were measured before and during the initial 9 days of a 12-day 10 ° head-down tilt (HDT) in 4 flight-sized juvenile rhesus monkeys who were surgically instrumented with a variety of intrathoracic catheters and blood flow sensors to assess the effects of simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics. Each subject underwent measurements of aortic and left ventricular pressures, and aortic flow before and during HDT as well as during a passive head-up postural test before and after HDT. Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were measured, and dP/dt and left ventricular elastance was calculated from hemodynamic measurements. The postural test consisted of 5 min of supine baseline control followed by 5 minutes of 90 ° upright tilt (HUT). Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure showed no consistent alterations during HDT. Left ventricular elastance was reduced in all animals throughout HDT, indicating that cardiac compliance was increased. HDT did not consistently alter left ventricular +dP/dt, indicating no change in cardiac contractility. Heart rate during the post-HDT HUT postural test was elevated compared to pre-HDT while post-HDT cardiac output was decreased by 52% as a result of a 54% reduction in stroke volume throughout HUT. Results from this study using an instrumented rhesus monkey suggest that exposure to microgravity may increase ventricular compliance without alterating cardiac contractility. Our project supported the notion that an invasively-instrumented animal model should be viable for use in spaceflight cardiovascular experiments to assess potential changes in myocardial function and cardiac compliance.

  3. Endocrine antecedents of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in fetal and infant prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Barnett, Deborah K; Levine, Jon E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Dumesic, Daniel A; Jacoris, Steve; Tarantal, Alice F

    2008-01-01

    Experimentally induced fetal androgen excess induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like traits in adult female rhesus monkeys. Developmental changes leading to this endocrinopathy are not known. We therefore studied 15 time-mated, gravid female rhesus monkeys with known female fetuses. Nine dams received daily subcutaneous injections of 15 mg testosterone propionate (TP) and six received injections of oil vehicle (controls) from 40 through 80 days of gestation (term 165 [range: ±10] days), and all fetuses were delivered by Cesarean-section using established methods at term. Ultrasound-guided fetal blood sample collection and peripheral venous sample collection of dams and subsequent infants enabled determination of circulating levels of steroid hormones, LH and FSH. TP injections elevated serum testosterone and androstenedione levels in the dams and prenatally androgenized (PA) fetuses. After cessation of TP injections, testosterone levels mostly normalized, while serum androstenedione levels in PA infants were elevated. TP injections did not increase estrogen levels in the dams, PA fetuses and infants, yet conjugated estrogen levels were elevated in the TP-injected dams. Serum levels of LH and FSH were elevated in late gestation PA fetuses, and LH levels were elevated in PA infants. These studies suggest that experimentally-induced fetal androgen excess increases gonadotropin secretion in PA female fetuses and infants, and elevates endogenous androgen levels in PA infants. Thus, in this nonhuman primate model, differential programming of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary unit with concomitant hyperandrogenism provides evidence to suggest developmental origins of LH and androgen excess in adulthood. PMID:18385445

  4. Inheritance of sutural pattern at the pterion in Rhesus monkey skulls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Opperman, Lynne A; Havill, Lorena M; Carlson, David S; Dechow, Paul C

    2006-10-01

    Five of the bones that characteristically comprise the cranial vault articulate on the lateral aspect of the skull at or near the cephalometric landmark referred to as the pterion. The pattern of articulation in the sutures associated with these bones varies among and within primate species and has been used as a criterion for classification in taxonomic studies, as well as in archeological and forensic studies. Within species, the sutural patterns found within the region of the pterion have remarkable consistency, which lead to the hypothesis that these patterns have a genetic basis. Sutural pattern variations were investigated at the pterion in 422 skulls from 66 rhesus monkey families with known genealogies from the long-standing colony on Cayo Santiago. Four specific types of articulation patterns were recorded. The results demonstrated that the most common suture pattern at the pterion of Cayo Santiago rhesus monkeys (86%; similar to that seen in some other anthropoid species but not humans and some apes) was characterized by an articulation between the temporal bone and parietal bone. Articulation between the sphenoid and parietal bones (type SP) accounted for 14% of the specimens and was concentrated in a dozen families. Mothers with the SP phenotype had a high incidence of offspring with SP phenotypes. Most non-SP mothers having SP offspring had siblings or family members from previous generations with the SP type. This is the first study to examine variation in sutural patterns at the pterion in pedigrees. Variation of sutural patterns shows familial aggregation, suggesting that this variation is heritable. Future work will be focused on defining the inheritance patterns of variation at the pterion, with the ultimate objective of identifying the specific genes involved and their mechanism of action.

  5. Airway epithelial wounds in rhesus monkey generate ionic currents that guide cell migration to promote healing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao-Hui; Reid, Brian; Fontaine, Justin H.; Miller, Lisa A.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Mogilner, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the respiratory epithelium is one of the most critical steps to many life-threatening diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mechanisms underlying repair of the damaged epithelium have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we provide experimental evidence suggesting a novel mechanism for wound repair: endogenous electric currents. It is known that the airway epithelium maintains a voltage difference referred to as the transepithelial potential. Using a noninvasive vibrating probe, we demonstrate that wounds in the epithelium of trachea from rhesus monkeys generate significant outward electric currents. A small slit wound produced an outward current (1.59 μA/cm2), which could be enhanced (nearly doubled) by the ion transport stimulator aminophylline. In addition, inhibiting cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with CFTR(Inh)-172 significantly reduced wound currents (0.17 μA/cm2), implicating an important role of ion transporters in wound induced electric potentials. Time-lapse video microscopy showed that applied electric fields (EFs) induced robust directional migration of primary tracheobronchial epithelial cells from rhesus monkeys, towards the cathode, with a threshold of <23 mV/mm. Reversal of the field polarity induced cell migration towards the new cathode. We further demonstrate that application of an EF promoted wound healing in a monolayer wound healing assay. Our results suggest that endogenous electric currents at sites of tracheal epithelial injury may direct cell migration, which could benefit restitution of damaged airway mucosa. Manipulation of ion transport may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to repair damaged respiratory epithelium. PMID:21719726

  6. Comparisons between pharmacologically and Edinger-Westphal-stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Glasser, Adrian

    2005-02-01

    Accommodation results in increased lens thickness and lens surface curvatures. Previous studies suggest that lens biometric accommodative changes are different with pharmacological and voluntary accommodation. In this study, refractive and biometric changes during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys were compared. Accommodation was stimulated by an indwelling permanent electrode in the EW nucleus of the midbrain in one eye each of four rhesus monkeys. Dynamic refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and lens biometric changes were measured with high-resolution, continuous A-scan ultrasonography for increasing stimulus current amplitudes, including supramaximal current amplitudes. Accommodation was then stimulated pharmacologically and biometry was measured continuously for 30 minutes. During EW-stimulated accommodation, lens surfaces move linearly with refraction, with an increase in lens thickness of 0.06 mm/D, an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface of 0.04 mm/D, and a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface of 0.02 mm/D. Peak velocity of accommodation (diopters per second) and lens thickness (in millimeters per second) increased with supramaximal stimulus currents, but without further increase in amplitude or total lens thickness. After carbachol stimulation, there was initially an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface and a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface; but by 30 minutes, there was an overall anterior shift of the lens. Ocular biometric changes differ with EW and pharmacological stimulation of accommodation. Pharmacological stimulation results in a greater increase in lens thickness, an overall forward movement of the lens and a greater change in dioptric power.

  7. Effects of 12 days exposure to simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Koenig, S. C.; Krotov, V. P.; Fanton, J. W.; Korolkov, V. I.; Trambovetsky, E. V.; Ewert, D. L.; Truzhennikov, A.; Latham, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Central circulatory hemodynamic responses were measured before and during the initial 9 days of a 12-day 10 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) in 4 flight-sized juvenile rhesus monkeys who were surgically instrumented with a variety of intrathoracic catheters and blood flow sensors to assess the effects of simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics. Each subject underwent measurements of aortic and left ventricular pressures, and aortic flow before and during HDT as well as during a passive head-up postural test before and after HDT. Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were measured, and dP/dt and left ventricular elastance was calculated from hemodynamic measurements. The postural test consisted of 5 min of supine baseline control followed by 5 minutes of 90 degrees upright tilt (HUT). Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure showed no consistent alterations during HDT. Left ventricular elastance was reduced in all animals throughout HDT, indicating that cardiac compliance was increased. HDT did not consistently alter left ventricular +dP/dt, indicating no change in cardiac contractility. Heart rate during the post-HDT HUT postural test was elevated compared to pre-HDT while post-HDT cardiac output was decreased by 52% as a result of a 54% reduction in stroke volume throughout HUT. Results from this study using an instrumented rhesus monkey suggest that exposure to microgravity may increase ventricular compliance without alternating cardiac contractility. Our project supported the notion that an invasively-instrumented animal model should be viable for use in spaceflight cardiovascular experiments to assess potential changes in myocardial function and cardiac compliance.

  8. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  9. Attenuation of cocaine self-administration by chronic oral phendimetrazine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, P W; Blough, B E; Fennell, T R; Snyder, R W; Nader, M A

    2016-06-02

    Chronic treatment with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine has been consistently shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in laboratory studies and clinical trials. However, the abuse potential of d-amphetamine is an obstacle to widespread clinical use. Approaches are needed that exploit the efficacy of the agonist approach but avoid the abuse potential associated with dopamine releasers. The present study assessed the effectiveness of chronic oral administration of phendimetrazine (PDM), a pro-drug for the monoamine releaser phenmetrazine (PM), to decrease cocaine self-administration in four rhesus monkeys. Each day, monkeys pressed a lever to receive food pellets under a 50-response fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement and self-administered cocaine (0.003-0.56 mg/kg per injection, i.v.) under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule in the evening. After completing a cocaine self-administration dose-response curve, sessions were suspended and PDM was administered (1.0-9.0 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.). Cocaine self-administration was assessed using the PR schedule once every 7 days while food-maintained responding was studied daily. When a persistent decrease in self-administration was observed, the cocaine dose-effect curve was re-determined. Daily PDM treatment decreased cocaine self-administration by 30-90% across monkeys for at least 4 weeks. In two monkeys, effects were completely selective for cocaine. Tolerance developed to initial decreases in food-maintained responding in the third monkey and in the fourth subject, fluctuations were observed that were lower in magnitude than effects on cocaine self-administration. Cocaine dose-effect curves were shifted down and/or rightward in three monkeys. These data provide further support for the use of agonist medications for cocaine abuse, and indicate that the promising effects of d-amphetamine extend to a more clinically viable pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a flow feedback pulse duplicator system with rhesus monkey arterial input impedance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaub, J. D.; Koenig, S. C.; Schroeder, M. J.; Ewert, D. L.; Drew, G. A.; Swope, R. D.; Convertino, V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    An in vitro pulsatile pump flow system that is capable of producing physiologic pressures and flows in a mock circulatory system tuned to reproduce the first nine harmonics of the input impedance of a rhesus monkey was developed and tested. The system was created as a research tool for evaluating cardiovascular function and for the design, testing, and evaluation of electrical-mechanical cardiovascular models and chronically implanted sensors. The system possesses a computerized user interface for controlling a linear displacement pulsatile pump in a controlled flow loop format to emulate in vivo cardiovascular characteristics. Evaluation of the pump system consisted of comparing its aortic pressure and flow profiles with in vivo rhesus hemodynamic waveforms in the time and frequency domains. Comparison of aortic pressure and flow data between the pump system and in vivo data showed good agreement in the time and frequency domains, however, the pump system produced a larger pulse pressure. The pump system can be used for comparing cardiovascular parameters with predicted cardiovascular model values and for evaluating such items as vascular grafts, heart valves, biomaterials, and sensors. This article describes the development and evaluation of this feedback controlled cardiovascular dynamics simulation modeling system.

  11. Demographic Histories of ERV-K in Humans, Chimpanzees and Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Camila M.; de Melo, Fernando L.; Corsini, Marco Aurelio B.; Holmes, Edward C.; de A. Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2007-01-01

    We detected 19 complete endogenous retroviruses of the K family in the genome of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta; RhERV-K) and 12 full length elements in the genome of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes; CERV-K). These sequences were compared with 55 human HERV-K and 20 CERV-K reported previously, producing a total data set of 106 full-length ERV-K genomes. Overall, 61% of the human elements compared to 21% of the chimpanzee and 47% of rhesus elements had estimated integration times less than 4.5 million years before present (MYBP), with an average integration times of 7.8 MYBP, 13.4 MYBP and 10.3 MYBP for HERV-K, CERV-K and RhERV-K, respectively. By excluding those ERV-K sequences generated by chromosomal duplication, we used 63 of the 106 elements to compare the population dynamics of ERV-K among species. This analysis indicated that both HERV-K and RhERV-K had similar demographic histories, including markedly smaller effective population sizes, compared to CERV-K. We propose that these differing ERV-K dynamics reflect underlying differences in the evolutionary ecology of the host species, such that host ecology and demography represent important determinants of ERV-K dynamics. PMID:17925874

  12. Demographic histories of ERV-K in humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Romano, Camila M; de Melo, Fernando L; Corsini, Marco Aurelio B; Holmes, Edward C; Zanotto, Paolo M de A

    2007-10-10

    We detected 19 complete endogenous retroviruses of the K family in the genome of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta; RhERV-K) and 12 full length elements in the genome of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes; CERV-K). These sequences were compared with 55 human HERV-K and 20 CERV-K reported previously, producing a total data set of 106 full-length ERV-K genomes. Overall, 61% of the human elements compared to 21% of the chimpanzee and 47% of rhesus elements had estimated integration times less than 4.5 million years before present (MYBP), with an average integration times of 7.8 MYBP, 13.4 MYBP and 10.3 MYBP for HERV-K, CERV-K and RhERV-K, respectively. By excluding those ERV-K sequences generated by chromosomal duplication, we used 63 of the 106 elements to compare the population dynamics of ERV-K among species. This analysis indicated that both HERV-K and RhERV-K had similar demographic histories, including markedly smaller effective population sizes, compared to CERV-K. We propose that these differing ERV-K dynamics reflect underlying differences in the evolutionary ecology of the host species, such that host ecology and demography represent important determinants of ERV-K dynamics.

  13. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Graham, James L; Morton, Gregory J; Bales, Karen L; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Moreover, the low dose of OT suppressed 12-h chow intake by 26 ± 7% (P < 0.05). The higher dose of OT reduced 12-h chow intake by 27 ± 5% (P < 0.05) and 8-h fructose-sweetened beverage intake by 18 ± 8% (P < 0.05). OT increased EE during the dark cycle by 14 ± 3% (P < 0.05) and was associated with elevations of free fatty acids and glycerol and reductions in triglycerides suggesting increased lipolysis. Together, these data suggest that OT reduces BW in DIO rhesus monkeys through decreased food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis.

  14. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Bales, Karen L.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Havel, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Moreover, the low dose of OT suppressed 12-h chow intake by 26 ± 7% (P < 0.05). The higher dose of OT reduced 12-h chow intake by 27 ± 5% (P < 0.05) and 8-h fructose-sweetened beverage intake by 18 ± 8% (P < 0.05). OT increased EE during the dark cycle by 14 ± 3% (P < 0.05) and was associated with elevations of free fatty acids and glycerol and reductions in triglycerides suggesting increased lipolysis. Together, these data suggest that OT reduces BW in DIO rhesus monkeys through decreased food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis. PMID:25540103

  15. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task. III. A developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Matzke, S M; Castro, C A

    1998-04-01

    In children, the recency effect emerges prior to the primacy effect. To determine whether this dissociation is also seen in nonhuman primates, we evaluated the development of the primacy and recency effect in 3 young adult (35 months) and 4 adolescent (21 months) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a six-item serial probe recognition (SPR) task. As predicted, the young adult monkeys displayed both effects, while the adolescent monkeys only displayed the recency effect. Not until after 26 months of training on the SPR task did the adolescent monkeys exhibit both the primacy and recency effect. Interference and strategy differences are discussed in terms of the results along with an interpretation of Rudy's (1992) configural association theory of cognitive development. Additional possible explanations for this developmental dissociation include the delayed maturation of the neocortical, hippocampal, and/or cholinergic systems, the latter two having been shown to be important in the expression of the primacy but not the recency effect.

  16. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hengxi; Liu, Xiangjie; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Li; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Xinzheng; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated) and 84 (downregulated) genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates. PMID:26421297

  17. Delay discounting of the mu opioid receptor agonist remifentanil in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R.; Gerak, Lisa R.; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Although increased impulsivity (delay discounting) is an important risk factor for drug abuse, the impact of delay on drug taking has received relatively little attention. This study examined delay discounting of the mu opioid receptor agonist remifentanil in rhesus monkeys (n=4) responding for intravenous (i.v.) infusions under a concurrent choice procedure. Dose-effect curves for remifentanil were determined by varying the dose available on one lever (0.001-0.32 μg/kg/infusion) while keeping the dose available on the other lever (0.1 μg/kg/infusion) the same. Dose-effect curves were determined when both infusions were delivered immediately and when delivery of the fixed dose was delayed (15-180 s). When both doses of remifentanil were delivered immediately, monkeys chose the large dose. Delaying delivery of the fixed dose reduced choice of that dose and increased choice of small immediately available doses. Extending previous studies these results show that the effects of delay on choice between two doses of a mu opioid receptor agonist are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Delaying delivery of a preferred reinforcer (e.g., large dose of drug) reduces its effectiveness and increases the effectiveness of small immediately available doses. This effect of delay, particularly on drug self-administration, might contribute to drug abuse. PMID:26397761

  18. Delay discounting of the μ-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Although increased impulsivity (delay discounting) is an important risk factor for drug abuse, the impact of delay on drug taking has received relatively little attention. This study examined delay discounting of the μ-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil in rhesus monkeys (n=4) responding for intravenous infusions under a concurrent choice procedure. Dose-effect curves for remifentanil were determined by varying the dose available on one lever (0.001-0.32 μg/kg/infusion) while keeping the dose available on the other lever (0.1 μg/kg/infusion) the same. Dose-effect curves were determined when both infusions were delivered immediately and when delivery of the fixed dose was delayed (15-180 s). When both doses of remifentanil were delivered immediately, monkeys chose the large dose. Delaying delivery of the fixed dose reduced choice of that dose and increased choice of small immediately available doses. Extending previous studies, these results show that the effects of delay on choice between two doses of a μ-opioid receptor agonist are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Delaying delivery of a preferred reinforcer (e.g. large dose of drug) reduces its effectiveness and increases the effectiveness of small immediately available doses. This effect of delay, particularly on drug self-administration, might contribute to drug abuse.

  19. Static lung mechanics of intact and excised rhesus monkey lungs and lobes.

    PubMed

    Pare, P D; Boucher, R; Michoud, M C; Hogg, J C

    1978-04-01

    Subdivisions of lung volume and pressure-volume (PV) curves of the lung and chest wall (CW) were measured in 12 rhesus monkeys (Macacca mulatta) under pentobarbital anesthesia. In addition, volumes and PV curves were obtained on the excised lungs and lobes of 12 cynomolgus monkeys (M. fasicularis). Boyle's law was used to determine functional residual capacity (FRC) in the intact animals and water displacement to determine minimal volume (MV) in the excised lungs. Total lung capacity (TLC = lung volume at a transpulmonary pressure of 30 cmH2O) was similar in vivo and in vitro (90 + 83 ml/kg) but residual volume (RV = volume at airway pressure of -50 cmH2O) and MV differed markedly (16.5 + 5.9 ml/kg). In the intact animals a very stiff CW appeared to determine RV, whereas airway closure determined MV in excised lungs. PV curves of upper and lower lobes were not different when expressed as %TLC but when expressed as milliliters of gas per gram of lung, the upper lobes contained significantly more gas per unit weight.

  20. Effects of spatial training on transitive inference performance in humans and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Lazareva, Olga F; Bergene, Clara N; Hampton, Robert R

    2014-10-01

    It is often suggested that transitive inference (TI; if A > B and B > C, then A > C) involves mentally representing overlapping pairs of stimuli in a spatial series. However, there is little direct evidence to unequivocally determine the role of spatial representation in TI. We tested whether humans and rhesus monkeys use spatial representations in TI by training them to organize 7 images in a vertical spatial array. Then, we presented subjects with a TI task using these same images. The implied TI order was either congruent or incongruent with the order of the trained spatial array. Humans in the congruent condition learned premise pairs more quickly, and were faster and more accurate in critical probe tests, suggesting that the spatial arrangement of images learned during spatial training influenced subsequent TI performance. Monkeys first trained in the congruent condition also showed higher test trial accuracy when the spatial and inferred orders were congruent. These results directly support the hypothesis that humans solve TI problems by spatial organization, and suggest that this cognitive mechanism for inference may have ancient evolutionary roots.

  1. Effects of spatial training on transitive inference performance in humans and rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Lazareva, Olga F.; Bergene, Clara N.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    It is often suggested that transitive inference (TI; if A>B and B>C then A>C) involves mentally representing overlapping pairs of stimuli in a spatial series. However, there is little direct evidence to unequivocally determine the role of spatial representation in TI. We tested whether humans and rhesus monkeys use spatial representations in TI by training them to organize seven images in a vertical spatial array. Then, we presented subjects with a TI task using these same images. The implied TI order was either congruent or incongruent with the order of the trained spatial array. Humans in the congruent condition learned premise pairs more quickly, and were faster and more accurate in critical probe tests, suggesting that the spatial arrangement of images learned during spatial training influenced subsequent TI performance. Monkeys first trained in the congruent condition also showed higher test trial accuracy when the spatial and inferred orders were congruent. These results directly support the hypothesis that humans solve TI problems by spatial organization, and suggest that this cognitive mechanism for inference may have ancient evolutionary roots. PMID:25546105

  2. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  3. Too good to be true: rhesus monkeys react negatively to better-than-expected offers.

    PubMed

    Knight, Emily J; Klepac, Kristen M; Kralik, Jerald D

    2013-01-01

    To succeed in a dynamically changing world, animals need to predict their environments. Humans, in fact, exhibit such a strong desire for consistency that one of the most well-established findings in social psychology is the effort people make to maintain consistency among their beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. However, displeasure with unpredictability leads to a potential paradox, because a positive outcome that exceeds one's expectations often leads to increased subjective value and positive affect, not the opposite. We tested the hypothesis that two evolutionarily-conserved evaluation processes underlie goal-directed behavior: (1) consistency, concerned with prediction errors, and (2) valuation, concerned with outcome utility. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) viewed a food item and then were offered an identical, better, or worse food, which they could accept or reject. The monkeys ultimately accepted all offers, attesting to the influence of the valuation process. However, they were slower to accept the unexpected offers, and they exhibited aversive reactions, especially to the better-than-expected offers, repeatedly turning their heads and looking away before accepting the food item. Our findings (a) provide evidence for two separable evaluation processes in primates, consistency and value assessment, (b) reveal a direct relationship between consistency assessment and emotional processes, and (c) show that our wariness with events that are much better than expected is shared with other social primates.

  4. The alpha-2a noradrenergic agonist, guanfacine, improves delayed response performance in young adult rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Franowicz, J S; Arnsten, A F

    1998-03-01

    In aged monkeys with naturally occurring catecholamine depletion, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists such as guanfacine have repeatedly been shown to improve dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function, as assessed by the spatial delayed response task. Both low (0.0001-0.001 mg/kg) and high (0.5 mg/kg) but not intermediate (0.01-0.05 mg/kg) doses of guanfacine improve spatial working memory performance in aged animals. However, it is not known whether guanfacine would similarly improve performance in young animals. In the present study, the effects of guanfacine on delayed response performance were characterized in seven young adult rhesus monkeys. Low doses of guanfacine (0.0001-0.01 mg/kg) had no effect on task performance, while high doses of guanfacine (0.1-0.7 mg/kg) significantly improved task performance. The highest doses produced mild sedation that was independent of drug effects on delayed response. The most effective dose of guanfacine was challenged with the alpha-2 antagonist idazoxan (0.1 mg/kg). This dose of idazoxan had no effect on task performance when given alone. Consistent with an alpha-2 mechanism, idazoxan significantly decreased delayed response performance in guanfacine-treated animals. These results support the hypothesis that delayed response performance in young intact animals can be improved through actions at alpha-2 adrenergic receptors.

  5. Effects of buprenorphine on candy and sweetened fluid self-administration by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Comer, Sandra D; Evans, Suzette M; Pudiak, Cindy M; Foltin, Richard W

    2002-11-01

    . Previous studies have shown that buprenorphine differentially suppresses the reinforcing effects of different drugs (cocaine, alfentanil), drug versus nondrug reinforcers (food, drug), and the same reinforcer (food) maintained under different schedules of reinforcement. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether buprenorphine (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg) differentially affects candy versus sweetened fluid self-administration. The hypotheses were that (1) candy would maintain higher rates of responding and would be chosen on more occasions than sweetened fluid, and (2) buprenorphine would produce smaller disruptions in responding for the more-preferred reinforcer. During separate sessions, rhesus monkeys self-administered candy alone, sweetened fluid alone, or had the opportunity to choose between candy and sweetened fluid. Monkeys responded under a second order, two-chain schedule of reinforcement. Candy was a more-preferred reinforcer than sweetened fluid. Buprenorphine significantly decreased rates of responding for fluid, but increased rates of responding for candy. Although buprenorphine significantly decreased both candy and fluid intake, it produced a more robust, and longer-lasting suppression of sweetened-fluid intake than candy. Choice to self-administer candy or fluid was not affected by buprenorphine. These results demonstrate that behavior maintained by a less-preferred reinforcer is more easily disrupted by buprenorphine than is behavior maintained by a more-preferred reinforcer.

  6. Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A pulmonary fibrosarcoma of bronchial origin was discovered in a Rhesus monkey that died of pulmonary fibrosis 9 years after inhalation of plutonium-239 dioxide and with a radiation dose to lung of 1400 rad (14 Gy). It grew around the major bronchus of the right cardiac lung lobe and extended into the bronchial lumen and into surrounding pulmonary parenchyma. It also readily invaded muscular pulmonary arteries, resulting in infarction and scarring in the right cardiac lobe. Despite this aggressive growth, the tumor did not metastasize. The primary cause of death was severe pulmonary fibrosis involving the alveolar septa and and perivascular and peribronchial interstitium. Bullous or pericitrical emphysema was prominent. The initial lung burden of plutonium in this monkey was 270 nCi (10 kBq) which is equivalent to approximately 500 times the maximum permissible lung burden for man on a radioactivity per unit body weight basis. The time-dose relationship for survival is consistent with that of dogs and baboons that inhaled plutonium dioxide and died with lung tumors.

  7. Similar stimulus features control visual classification in orangutans and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Rachel F L; Stoinski, Tara S; Mickelberg, Jennifer L; Basile, Benjamin M; Gazes, Regina Paxton; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Many species classify images according to visual attributes. In pigeons, local features may disproportionately control classification, whereas in primates global features may exert greater control. In the absence of explicitly comparative studies, in which different species are tested with the same stimuli under similar conditions, it is not possible to determine how much of the variation in the control of classification is due to species differences and how much is due to differences in the stimuli, training, or testing conditions. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) in identical tests in which images were modified to determine which stimulus features controlled classification. Monkeys and orangutans were trained to classify full color images of birds, fish, flowers, and people; they were later given generalization tests in which images were novel, black and white, black and white line drawings, or scrambled. Classification in these primate species was controlled by multiple stimulus attributes, both global and local, and the species behaved similarly. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of technetium-99-metallothionein-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody B72. 3 in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, S.W.; Hadjian, R.A.; Hladik, W.B.; Drozynski, C.A.; Tolman, G.L.; Haber, S.B.; Gallagher, B.M. )

    1989-08-01

    These studies were conducted to determine the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of ({sup 99m}Tc)metallothionein-conjugated B72.3 ((Tc)MT-B72.3) in Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that were performed as part of the preclinical evaluation of (Tc)MT-B72.3. The B72.3-MT conjugate was studied at three doses of B72.3 ranging from 0.03 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg to determine whether a relationship existed between the dose of total antibody administered intravenously and the biodistribution and clearance of the radiolabeled protein. Results indicated that (Tc)MT-B72.3 distributes rapidly to central body cavity organs and that there was no difference in the rate of blood elimination for the three doses of B72.3 studied. The terminal phase of blood elimination was found to be 26.2 +/- 6.1 hr for the combined groups of monkeys. Approximately one-half of injected {sup 99m}Tc activity was recovered in the urine within 24 hr. A second purpose of these studies was to evaluate the overall immunogenicity of the mouse monoclonal B72.3 IgG1 antibody in Rhesus monkeys. These results demonstrated that a single i.v. exposure to mouse monoclonal B72.3 at doses of 0.3 mg/kg or greater elicited antibody production to B72.3 in Rhesus monkeys within 3 wk. Analysis of (Tc)MT-B72.3 biodistribution and clearance in monkeys with circulating levels of antibodies to B72.3 (immunized monkeys) revealed that the liver was the primary site of clearance of the presumed immune complex and that blood elimination was greatly accelerated.

  9. The effects of premedication drugs on the lower oesophageal high pressure zone and reflux status of rhesus monkeys and man.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A W; Moossa, A R; Clark, J; Cooley, G R; Skinner, D B

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-five human volunteers and eight Rhesus monkeys were studied with standard gastrooesophageal manometric techniqes and their reflux status was evaluated witha pH probe placed in the lower oesophagus. morphine sulphate, pethidine hydrochloride, or idazepam was given intravenously until drowsiness was induced. The manometric and pH studies were repeated. All three drugs decreased the lower oesophageal high pressure zone and increased the probability of relux in both monkeys and man. Thes findings are relevant in the preparation of patients for surgery since gastrooesophageal reflux and pulmonary aspiration may be a problen in the pre-and postoperative phases. PMID:237803

  10. Interactions between dopamine transporter and cannabinoid receptor ligands in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, David R.; Carroll, F. Ivy; McMahon, Lance R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) modifies dopamine efflux. However, the extent to which cannabinoid and dopamine drugs modify each other’s behavioral effects has not been fully established. Objectives This study examined dopamine releasers and/or transport inhibitors alone and in combination with cannabinoids in two drug discrimination assays. Methods Experimentally and pharmacologically experienced rhesus monkeys (n=5) discriminated Δ9-THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) from vehicle while responding under a fixed ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. A separate group (n=6) of monkeys responded under the same schedule, received daily Δ9-THC (1 mg/kg/12 h s.c.), and discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.), i.e. cannabinoid withdrawal, from vehicle. A sign of withdrawal sign (head shaking) was examined in monkeys receiving Δ9-THC daily. Results Rimonabant antagonized the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus and a dose of Δ9-THC greater than the daily treatment attenuated the rimonabant discriminative stimulus. In monkeys discriminating Δ9-THC, the dopamine transporter ligands cocaine, amphetamine, bupropion, RTI 113, and RTI 177 produced a maximum of 2% responding on the drug lever and blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ9-THC. In Δ9-THC treated monkeys discriminating rimonabant, the dopamine transporter ligands partially substituted for and increased the potency of rimonabant to produce discriminative stimulus effects. The dopamine antagonist haloperidol enhanced the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus without significantly modifying the rimonabant discriminative stimulus. Imipramine and desipramine, which have low affinity for dopamine transporters, were less effective in modifying either the Δ9-THC or rimonabant discriminations. The dopamine transporter ligands and haloperidol attenuated head shaking, whereas imipramine and desipramine did not. Conclusions Dopamine release and/or inhibition of dopamine transport

  11. Discriminative stimulus effects of benzodiazepine (BZ)(1) receptor-selective ligands in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Lance R; Gerak, Lisa R; Carter, Lawrence; Ma, Chunrong; Cook, James M; France, Charles P

    2002-02-01

    Drug discrimination was used to examine the effects of benzodiazepine (BZ)(1) receptor-selective ligands in rhesus monkeys. In diazepam-treated (5.6 mg/kg, p.o.) monkeys discriminating the nonselective BZ antagonist flumazenil (0.32 mg/kg, s.c.), the BZ(1)-selective antagonist beta-carboline-3-carboxylate-t-butyl ester (beta-CCt) substituted for flumazenil. The onset of action of beta-CCt was delayed with a dose of 5.6 mg/kg beta-CCt substituting for flumazenil 2 h after injection. In monkeys discriminating the nonselective BZ agonist midazolam (0.56 mg/kg, s.c.), the BZ(1)-selective agonists zaleplon (ED(50) = 0.78 mg/kg) and zolpidem (ED(50) = 1.73 mg/kg) substituted for midazolam. The discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam, zaleplon, and zolpidem were antagonized by beta-CCt (1.0-5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), and the effects of zaleplon and zolpidem were also antagonized by flumazenil (0.01-0.32 mg/kg, s.c.). Schild analyses supported the notion of a simple, competitive interaction between beta-CCt and midazolam (slope = -1.08; apparent pA(2) = 5.41) or zaleplon (slope = -1.57; apparent pA(2) = 5.49) and not between beta-CCt and zolpidem. Schild analyses also were consistent with a simple, competitive interaction between flumazenil and zaleplon (slope = -1.03; apparent pA(2) = 7.45) or zolpidem (slope = -1.11; apparent pA(2) = 7.63). These results suggest that the same BZ receptor subtype(s) mediate(s) the effects of midazolam, zolpidem, and zaleplon under these conditions and that selective binding of BZ ligands does not necessarily confer selective effects in vivo.

  12. Drug discrimination using a conditioned taste-aversion paradigm in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Glowa, J R; Jeffreys, R D; Riley, A L

    1991-01-01

    The development of drug discrimination was assessed in rhesus monkeys using the conditioned taste-aversion paradigm. Monkeys were initially trained to respond under a fixed-ratio 30-response schedule of food-pellet delivery to assess the rate-decreasing effects of alprazolam (0.03 to 3 mg/kg, i.m., 60 min presession). Alprazolam decreased responding at doses greater than 0.1 mg/kg. Discriminative stimulus effects of alprazolam were then assessed by giving 0.03 mg/kg before sessions in which 1.8 mEq/kg lithium chloride was given immediately after the session (alprazolam/lithium session). On intervening days, saline was given before and after the session (saline/saline session). Rates of responding decreased over successive alprazolam/lithium sessions and also during the saline/saline session that immediately followed an alprazolam/lithium session. During subsequent saline/saline sessions, rates of responding returned to levels near baseline rates within two to four sessions. The discriminative stimulus effects of alprazolam were then assessed by giving 0.1 mg/kg before sessions in which 1 mg/kg d-amphetamine was given immediately after the session (alprazolam/d-amphetamine session). Rates of responding decreased during subsequent alprazolam/d-amphetamine sessions in drug-experienced monkeys, but did not decrease during intervening saline/saline sessions. These findings demonstrate that drug stimuli associated with postsession drug injections can rapidly develop control over behavior and suggest that similar methods be explored in the assessment of drug discrimination. PMID:1659608

  13. Restoration of 3D Vestibular Sensation in Rhesus Monkeys Using a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Davidovics, Natan; Chiang, Bryce; Ahn, Joong Ho; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    Profound bilateral loss of vestibular hair cell function can cause chronically disabling loss of balance and inability to maintain stable vision during head and body movements. We have previously shown that chinchillas rendered bilaterally vestibular-deficient via intratympanic administration of the ototoxic antibiotic gentamicin regain a more nearly normal 3-dimensional vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D VOR) when head motion information sensed by a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) is encoded via rate-modulated pulsatile stimulation of vestibular nerve branches. Despite significant improvement versus the unaided condition, animals still exhibited some 3D VOR misalignment (i.e., the 3D axis of eye movement responses did not precisely align with the axis of head rotation), presumably due to current spread between a given ampullary nerve’s stimulating electrode(s) and afferent fibers in nontargeted branches of the vestibular nerve. Assuming that effects of current spread depend on relative orientation and separation between nerve branches, anatomic differences between chinchilla and human labyrinths may limit the extent to which results in chinchillas accurately predict MVP performance in humans. In this report, we describe the MVP-evoked 3D VOR measured in alert rhesus monkeys, which have labyrinths that are larger than chinchillas and temporal bone anatomy more similar to humans. Electrodes were implanted in five monkeys treated with intratympanic gentamicin to bilaterally ablate vestibular hair cell mechanosensitivity. Eye movements mediated by the 3D VOR were recorded during passive sinusoidal (0.2–5 Hz, peak 50°/s) and acceleration-step (1000°/s2 to 150°/s) whole-body rotations in darkness about each semicircular canal axis. During constant 100 pulse/s stimulation (i.e., MVP powered ON but set to stimulate each ampullary nerve at a constant mean baseline rate not modulated by head motion), 3D VOR responses to head rotation exhibited

  14. Plasmodium cynomolgi: gametocytocidal activity of the anti-malarial compound CDRI 80/53 (elubaquine) in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Puri, S K; Dutta, G P

    2005-09-01

    The gametocytocidal action of a new enamine analogue of primaquine, elubaquine (compound CDRI 80/53, bulaquine), has been evaluated against Plasmodium cynomolgi B in rhesus monkeys. Colony bred Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed on gametocyte carrying rhesus monkeys prior to and at varying intervals after oral administration of a single dose of elubaquine at doses ranging between 0.63 and 5.00 mg/kg. Complete loss of oocyst development and mosquito infectivity was observed within 24 h after administering a single 1.25 mg/kg dose, while higher dose of 3.75 mg/kg inhibited oocyst development within 5 h, indicating gametocytocidal action of the compound. Elubaquine did not show any action against developing oocysts in the vector.

  15. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that produced by PHA (MI < 0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  16. Effect of hypoxia by intermittent altitude exposure on semen characteristics and testicular morphology of male rhesus monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, D. K.

    1995-09-01

    Semen characteristics and testicular morphology of rhesus monkeys were studied on exposure to a simulated high altitude of 4411 m for 21 days. There was a partially reversible decrease in the semen volume, sperm count and sperm motility, as well as an elevation of pH and fructose concentration. These changes were associated with degeneration of the germinal epithelium and spermatogenic arrest at the end of third week of exposure which had not recovered even 3 weeks after the exposure.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Inhaled Nano- and Micro-Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Simulations of Inhaled Nano- and Micro-Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...unified atomic mass unit (amu) 1.660 539 × 10 –27 kilogram (kg) pound-mass per cubic foot (lb ft –3 ) 1.601 846 × 10 1 kilogram per cubic meter (kg m...8 3.2. NASAL MICROPARTICLE DEPOSITION

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Inhaled Nano-and Micro-Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Simulations of Inhaled Nano- and Micro-Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...unified atomic mass unit (amu) 1.660 539 × 10 –27 kilogram (kg) pound-mass per cubic foot (lb ft –3 ) 1.601 846 × 10 1 kilogram per cubic meter (kg m...8 3.2. NASAL MICROPARTICLE DEPOSITION

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus non-genetic Rhesus monkey model induced by high fat and high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuai-yao; Qi, Su-dong; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Yan-yan; Yang, Feng-mei; Yu, Wen-hai; Jin, Ma; Chen, Li-Xiong; Wang, Jun-bin; He, Zhan-long; Li, Hong-jun

    2015-01-01

    To build an ideal animal model for studying the mechanism of occurrence, developing and treating of diabetes become a more important issue, facing with the fact that the big threat of diabetes to human health has been worsen. First, we used the normal control diets or the high-fat/high-sucrose diets to feed the adult rhesus monkeys and the macaques induced by the high-fat/high-sucrose diets in the high-fat/high-sucrose group and the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group developed the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia at 6 months in accordance with the precious researches that reported that minipigs, rats and mice could develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and obesity after being induced with high-fat/high-carbohydrate diets. Second, the rhesus monkeys in T2DM group were injected STZ at a low dosage of 35 mg/kg BW to induce glucose persistent elevation which maintained pretty well after 12 months. Third, we took the assay of glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance index, assessed the changing tendency of serum resistin and analysed the pathological characteristics of the tissues like pancreas and liver by staining in different ways. The results indicate the rhesus monkeys in T2DM group have lots of clinical features of T2DM. The experimental non-genetic T2DM rhesus monkeys model not only contribute to simulating of clinical manifestations and pathological features of human T2DM, but also may be a good kind of model for research on the treatment of T2DM and for new drugs evaluation. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Maternal antibodies from mothers of children with autism alter brain growth and social behavior development in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Bauman, M D; Iosif, A-M; Ashwood, P; Braunschweig, D; Lee, A; Schumann, C M; Van de Water, J; Amaral, D G

    2013-07-09

    Antibodies directed against fetal brain proteins of 37 and 73 kDa molecular weight are found in approximately 12% of mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not in mothers of typically developing children. This finding has raised the possibility that these immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies cross the placenta during pregnancy and impact brain development, leading to one form of ASD. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of these antibodies by using a nonhuman primate model. IgG was isolated from mothers of children with ASD (IgG-ASD) and of typically developing children (IgG-CON). The purified IgG was administered to two groups of female rhesus monkeys (IgG-ASD; n=8 and IgG-CON; n=8) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Another control group of pregnant monkeys (n=8) was untreated. Brain and behavioral development of the offspring were assessed for 2 years. Behavioral differences were first detected when the macaque mothers responded to their IgG-ASD offspring with heightened protectiveness during early development. As they matured, IgG-ASD offspring consistently deviated from species-typical social norms by more frequently approaching familiar peers. The increased approach was not reciprocated and did not lead to sustained social interactions. Even more striking, IgG-ASD offspring displayed inappropriate approach behavior to unfamiliar peers, clearly deviating from normal macaque social behavior. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed that male IgG-ASD offspring had enlarged brain volume compared with controls. White matter volume increases appeared to be driving the brain differences in the IgG-ASD offspring and these differences were most pronounced in the frontal lobes.

  1. Maternal antibodies from mothers of children with autism alter brain growth and social behavior development in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, M D; Iosif, A-M; Ashwood, P; Braunschweig, D; Lee, A; Schumann, C M; Van de Water, J; Amaral, D G

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies directed against fetal brain proteins of 37 and 73 kDa molecular weight are found in approximately 12% of mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not in mothers of typically developing children. This finding has raised the possibility that these immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies cross the placenta during pregnancy and impact brain development, leading to one form of ASD. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of these antibodies by using a nonhuman primate model. IgG was isolated from mothers of children with ASD (IgG-ASD) and of typically developing children (IgG-CON). The purified IgG was administered to two groups of female rhesus monkeys (IgG-ASD; n=8 and IgG-CON; n=8) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Another control group of pregnant monkeys (n=8) was untreated. Brain and behavioral development of the offspring were assessed for 2 years. Behavioral differences were first detected when the macaque mothers responded to their IgG-ASD offspring with heightened protectiveness during early development. As they matured, IgG-ASD offspring consistently deviated from species-typical social norms by more frequently approaching familiar peers. The increased approach was not reciprocated and did not lead to sustained social interactions. Even more striking, IgG-ASD offspring displayed inappropriate approach behavior to unfamiliar peers, clearly deviating from normal macaque social behavior. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed that male IgG-ASD offspring had enlarged brain volume compared with controls. White matter volume increases appeared to be driving the brain differences in the IgG-ASD offspring and these differences were most pronounced in the frontal lobes. PMID:23838889

  2. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  4. A 30-day preclinical safety evaluation study of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone in female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongming; Chen, Zhengmin; Zhang, Zongpeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Li, Ming; Liu, Changxiao

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify potential target organs for toxicity of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) in female rhesus monkeys and to establish a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). In all, 24 female rhesus monkeys (Chinese origin, weighing 3.4-5.2 kg, approximately 5 years of age) received repeated subcutaneous (sc) r-hFSH at doses of 10, 60, and 300 IU/kg per d or vehicle once daily for 30 days followed by a 15-day recovery period. Endometrial hyperplasia and dermal edema in the external genitals were found in some animals at 300 IU/kg per d. Pharmacologic-related multiple cystic follicles were found in all r-hFSH-treated groups. A weak, anti-FSH antibody response was detected at the end of treatment in animals administered 60 and 300 IU/kg per d. These results indicate that the primary effects of r-hFSH in female rhesus monkeys were related to its pharmacological activity on the reproductive system. The NOAEL was considered to be 60 IU/kg per d.

  5. RepSox improves viability and regulates gene expression in rhesus monkey-pig interspecies cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Luo, Zhao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Qi-Rong; Wang, Jun-Xia; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the small molecule, RepSox, on the expression of developmentally important genes and the pre-implantation development of rhesus monkey-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. Rhesus monkey cells expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 which have a normal (42) chromosome complement, were used as donor cells to generate iSCNT embryos. RepSox increased the expression levels of the pluripotency-related genes, Oct4 and Nanog (p < 0.05), but not of Sox2 compared with untreated embryos at the 2-4-cell stage. Expression of the anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl2, and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was also affected at the 2-4-cell stage. RepSox treatment also increased the immunostaining intensity of Oct4 at the blastocyst stage (p < 0.05). Although the blastocyst developmental rate was higher in the group treated with 25 µM RepSox for 24 h than in the untreated control group (2.4 vs. 1.2%, p > 0.05), this was not significant. RepSox can improve the developmental potential of rhesus monkey-pig iSCNT embryos by regulating the expression of pluripotency-related genes.

  6. [Quantitative determination of Cantide, an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide in rhesus monkey plasma using non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Wang, Qingqing; Wang, Shihong; Li, Weiping; Song, Haifeng; Lu, Dandan; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-06-01

    A dual solid phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment coupling with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (NGCE) analysis method was established for the quantitative determination of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, Cantide, in rhesus monkey plasma. The conditions of SPE and the NGCE analysis were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (the SPE conditions: the pH of loading buffer was 9.0; the volumes of loading and the elution solution for the anion-exchange column were 5 mL and 3 mL, respectively. The NGCE analysis conditions: loading gel time was 30 min and the separation voltage was 24 kV), the linear dynamic range of Cantide in rhesus monkeys plasma was 1.95-250 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient (r) was more than 0. 998. The limit of quantitation was 1.95 mg/L. The intra-batch accuracies ranged from 93.38% to 100.71% with the intra-batch relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 11%. The inter-batch accuracies were from 89.46% to 103.46% with the inter-batch RSD less than 9%. The stability experiment showed that the Cantide plasma sample was stable when stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h, room temperature.for 4 h, -80 degrees C for 30 days and freeze-thaw for 2 cycles. This method was finally successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Cantide in rhesus monkeys.

  7. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) rapidly learn to select dominant individuals in videos of artificial social interactions between unfamiliar conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Regina; Basile, Benjamin M; Adachi, Ikuma; Suzuki, Wendy A; Wilson, Mark E; Hampton, Robert R

    2010-11-01

    Social animals, such as primates, must behave appropriately in complex social situations such as dominance interactions. Learning dominance information through trial and error would be dangerous; therefore, cognitive mechanisms for rapid learning of dominance information by observation would be adaptive. We used a set of digitally edited artificial social interactions to examine whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) can learn dominance relationships between unfamiliar conspecifics through observation. Our method allowed random assignment of stimulus monkeys to ranks in an artificial hierarchy, controlling for nonbehavioral cues that could indicate dominance. Subject monkeys watched videos depicting 1 stimulus monkey behaving dominantly toward another and were rewarded for selecting the dominant individual. Monkeys rapidly learned this discrimination across 5 behavior types in Experiment 1 and transferred performance to novel videos of new individuals in Experiment 2. In addition, subjects selected the dominant individual more often than expected by chance in probe videos containing no behavioral dominance information, indicating some retention of the relative dominance status of stimulus monkeys from training. Together, our results suggest that monkeys can learn dominance hierarchies through observation of third-party social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Dominant CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses suppress expansion of vaccine-elicited subdominant T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys challenged with pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Edwin R; Yeh, Wendy W; Seaman, Michael S; Furr, Kathryn; Lifton, Michelle A; Hulot, Sandrine L; Autissier, Patrick; Letvin, Norman L

    2009-10-01

    Emerging data suggest that a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against a diversity of epitopes confers greater protection against a human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus infection than does a more focused response. To facilitate the creation of vaccine strategies that will generate cellular immune responses with the greatest breadth, it will be important to understand the mechanisms employed by the immune response to regulate the relative magnitudes of dominant and nondominant epitope-specific cellular immune responses. In this study, we generated dominant Gag p11C- and subdominant Env p41A-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses in Mamu-A*01(+) rhesus monkeys through vaccination with plasmid DNA and recombinant adenovirus encoding simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) proteins. Infection of vaccinated Mamu-A*01(+) rhesus monkeys with a SHIV Gag Deltap11C mutant virus generated a significantly increased expansion of the Env p41A-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte response in the absence of secondary Gag p11C-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses. These results indicate that the presence of the Gag p11C-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte response following virus challenge may exert suppressive effects on primed Env p41A-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses. These findings suggest that immunodomination exerted by dominant responses during SHIV infection may diminish the breadth of recall responses primed during vaccination.

  9. Dominant CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Responses Suppress Expansion of Vaccine-Elicited Subdominant T Lymphocytes in Rhesus Monkeys Challenged with Pathogenic Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Edwin R.; Yeh, Wendy W.; Seaman, Michael S.; Furr, Kathryn; Lifton, Michelle A.; Hulot, Sandrine L.; Autissier, Patrick; Letvin, Norman L.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging data suggest that a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against a diversity of epitopes confers greater protection against a human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus infection than does a more focused response. To facilitate the creation of vaccine strategies that will generate cellular immune responses with the greatest breadth, it will be important to understand the mechanisms employed by the immune response to regulate the relative magnitudes of dominant and nondominant epitope-specific cellular immune responses. In this study, we generated dominant Gag p11C- and subdominant Env p41A-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses in Mamu-A*01+ rhesus monkeys through vaccination with plasmid DNA and recombinant adenovirus encoding simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) proteins. Infection of vaccinated Mamu-A*01+ rhesus monkeys with a SHIV Gag Δp11C mutant virus generated a significantly increased expansion of the Env p41A-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte response in the absence of secondary Gag p11C-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses. These results indicate that the presence of the Gag p11C-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte response following virus challenge may exert suppressive effects on primed Env p41A-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses. These findings suggest that immunodomination exerted by dominant responses during SHIV infection may diminish the breadth of recall responses primed during vaccination. PMID:19641002

  10. Differences between male and female rhesus monkey erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase activity before and after exposure to sarin

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, C.L.; Calamaio, C.A.; Kaminskis, A.; Anderson, D.R.; Harris, L.W.

    1993-05-13

    The female rhesus monkey has a menstrual cycle like the human. Additionally, several differences in enzyme levels between males and females and in the female during the menstrual cycle are present. Therefore we quantitated plasma cholinesterase (ChE/BuChE) and erythrocyte (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity before and after exposure to sarin (GB)(1 5 ug/kg, iv; a 0.75 LD50), in male and female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Twenty-eight-day preexposure baseline plasma ChE and RBC AChE values for six male and six female rhesus monkeys were compared for intra-animal, within sex and between sex differences. After these baseline values were obtained, the organophosphorus (OP) compound/Isopropyl methylphosphono-fluoridate (GB) was administered to atropinized monkeys to determine if there was a significant in vivo difference between the sexes in their response to this intoxication in regard to the rate of BuChE /AChE inhibition, pyridine-2-aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM) reactivation of the phosphonylated BuChE and the rate of aging of the phosphonylated:BuChE/AChE. In the pre-exposure portion of the protocol; the intra-animal and intra-group BuChE/AChE variations were found to be minimal; but there were significant differences between the male and female monkeys in both plasma BuChE and RBC AChE levels; although probably clinically insignificant in respect to an OP intoxication. No significant cyclic fluctuations were seen during the 28-day study in either sex.

  11. Differences between male and female rhesus monkey erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase activity before and after exposure to sarin

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, C.L.; Calamaio, C.A.; Kaminskis, A.

    1993-05-13

    The female rhesus monkey has a menstrual cycle like the human. Additionally, several differences in enzyme levels between males and females and in the female during the menstrual cycle are present. Therefore we quantitated plasma cholinesterase (ChE/BuChE) and erythrocyte (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity before and after exposure to sarin (GB)(1 5 ug/kg, iv; a 0.75 LD50), in male and female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Twenty-eight-day preexposure baseline plasma ChE and RBC AChE values for six male and six female rhesus monkeys were compared for intra-animal, within sex and between sex differences. After these baseline values were obtained, the organophosphorus (OP)more » compound/Isopropyl methylphosphono-fluoridate (GB) was administered to atropinized monkeys to determine if there was a significant in vivo difference between the sexes in their response to this intoxication in regard to the rate of BuChE /AChE inhibition, pyridine-2-aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM) reactivation of the phosphonylated BuChE and the rate of aging of the phosphonylated:BuChE/AChE. In the pre-exposure portion of the protocol; the intra-animal and intra-group BuChE/AChE variations were found to be minimal; but there were significant differences between the male and female monkeys in both plasma BuChE and RBC AChE levels; although probably clinically insignificant in respect to an OP intoxication. No significant cyclic fluctuations were seen during the 28-day study in either sex.« less

  12. Recent developments in vaccination against malaria: Immunization of rhesus monkeys with blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium knowlesi*

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, K. H.; Cabrera, E. J.; Campbell, G. H.; Jost, R. C.; Miranda, R.; O'Leary, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of 3 nonviable blood-stage antigens—schizont Ag, merozoite Ag, and ”French press” Ag—of Plasmodium knowlesi, emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), was carried out in a study involving 32 rhesus monkeys. After 2 immunizations, administered 6 weeks apart, monkeys were challenged with a variant of P. knowlesi different from that used for immunization. All 8 control monkeys that received either PBS or FCA developed a severe parasitaemia and died of the infection within 12 days after parasite challenge. In the group that received the freeze-thawed schizont Ag, 5 of the 8 monkeys died at the same time as the controls, 1 died a day later, and 2 survived the infection (maximum parasitaemia: 0.7%; 3.2%). In the freeze-thawed merozoite Ag group, 1 monkey died at the same time as the controls, 5 monkeys died between 14 and 17 days after challenge, and 2 monkeys survived the infection (maximum parasitaemia: <0.01%; 2.7%). In the lyophilized French press Ag group, 2 monkeys died at the same time as the controls, 2 died between 12 and 15 days after challenge, and 4 survived the infection (maximum parasitaemia: 1.2%; 0.4%; 0.9%; 0.07%). Immunized monkeys failed to gain weight during the period of immunization and abscess formation at injection sites was comparable in monkeys of the 3 Ag groups. Reticulocytosis and anaemia developed in all monkeys that survived longer than 12 days after challenge, even in monkeys with very low-grade levels of parasitaemia. Various tests were performed to assess humoral or cell-mediated immune responses during the period of immunization and after challenge. No clear-cut relationship could be established between the results of any of these tests and the survival of immunized monkeys after parasite challenge. Some of the results, however, suggest that there might be some relationship between cell-mediated responses and the survival of immunized monkeys beyond the survival time of control monkeys. PMID

  13. Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Tucker A.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Roegge, Cindy S.

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) weremore » attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ► Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ► Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ► BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ► BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ► Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these

  14. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  15. Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. IV. Prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bulter, W R; Krey, L C; Lu, K H; Peckham, W D; Knobil, E

    1975-05-01

    The effects of anterior and complete hypothalamic deafferentation on prolactin secretion in the rhesus monkey have been assessed. Complete disconnection ofthe medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) had no apparent effect on serum prolactin concentrations, in either intact or ovariectomized monkeys, nor did it diminish the stimulation of prolactin secretion induced by sodium pentobarbital anesthesia. Anterior disconnection of the MBH in intact females was also without effect on prolactin secretion. When the MBH was inadvertently damaged during the complete disconnection procedure, serum prolactin levels increased approximately 5-fold in otherwise intact animals while remaining unchanged in ovariectomized monkeys, thereby suggesting that ovarian hormones may modulate the secretion of prolactin in response to a reduction of hypothalamic inhibitory influences. In contrast, basal serum prolactin concentrations were not notably influenced by ovariectomy or estrogen administration nor were the patterns of prolactin secretion related to the phases of the menstrual cycle. The results of these studies suggest that the consequences of complete MBH disconnection on prolactin secretion are essentially the same in the rhesus monkey and in the rat, although major differences exist between these species with regard to the influence of estrogen on the production of this hormone.

  16. The effects of horizontal body casting on blood volume, drug responsiveness, and +Gz tolerance in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, D. T.; Billman, G. E.; Teoh, K.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    To simulate the weightless condition, eight rhesus monkeys, instrumented with solid-state pressure transducers, were horizontally restrained in body casts for 28 days. Blood volume decreased an average of 13% after 14 days of restraint, due mainly to a drop in plasma volume. Aortic pressure and heart rate responses to norepinephrine and phenylephrine decreased after 14 days of restraint. The monkeys did not show a statistically significant decreased tolerance to a 90 deg sudden upright tilt after horizontal restraint. During the fifth week of casting, four animals were subjected to +Gz acceleration tests on a centrifuge. The acceleration tolerance of the casted monkeys was significantly reduced compared to four similarly instrumented control animals. These findings indicate that the cardiovascular deconditioning associated with simulated weightlessness results from an inability to maintain central blood volume during orthostatic stress.

  17. The effects of horizontal body casting on blood volume, drug responsiveness, and +Gz tolerance in the Rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Dickey, D T; Billman, G E; Teoh, K; Sandler, H; Stone, H L

    1982-02-01

    To simulate the weightless condition, eight rhesus monkeys, instrumented with solid-state pressure transducers, were horizontally restrained in body casts for 28 d. Blood volume decreased an average of 13% after 14 d of restraint, due mainly to a drop in plasma volume. Aortic pressure and heart rate responses to norepinephrine and phenylephrine decreased after 14 d of restraint. The monkeys did not show a statistically significant decreased tolerance to a 90 degree sudden upright tilt after horizontal restraint. During the fifth week of casting, four animals were subjected to +Gz acceleration tests on a centrifuge. The acceleration tolerance of the casted monkeys was significantly reduced compared to four similarly instrumented control animals. These findings indicate that the cardiovascular deconditioning associated with simulated weightlessness results from an inability to maintain central blood volume during orthostatic stress.

  18. Kinetics of 11C-labeled opiates in the brain of rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Hartvig, P.; Bergstroem, K.; Lindberg, B.; Lundberg, P.O.; Lundqvist, H.; Langstroem, B.; Svaerd, H.; Rane, A.

    1984-07-01

    The regional uptake in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of i.v. administered 11C-labeled morphine, codeine, heroin and pethidine was studied by means of positron emission tomography. The technique measures the sum of parent drug and radiolabeled metabolites. (For the sake of simplicity the drug derived radioactivity is denoted by the drug name.) Morphine had a limited uptake to discrete areas of the brain. The maximum normalized uptake, with respect to dose per kilogram body weight, was about 0.2, i.e., 20% of the calculated activity if the drug had been evenly distributed throughout the body of the monkey. Maximum radioactivity appeared 30 to 45 min after injection. Morphine left the brain slowly with an estimated half-life of more than 2 hr. An area with a normalized uptake of about 1.0 was detected centrally in the lowest horizontal transsection of the skull. The origin of this area was identified as the pituitary. Codeine, heroin and pethidine were taken up to the brain to a larger extent than morphine, with maximum normalized uptakes of 2.6, 4.6 and 6.3, respectively. Maximum radioactivities of these drugs were achieved earlier and the elimination rates were faster than for morphine. Differences in the uptake of these drugs to the brain, as well as differences in time to maximal normalized uptake and rate of disappearance are considered to reflect differences in the lipophilic character between the drugs. Pethidine had the most rapid and extensive uptake followed by heroin, codeine and morphine in order of decreasing lipophilicity.

  19. Functional specialization of medial auditory belt cortex in the alert rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Kusmierek, Pawel; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-09-01

    Responses of neural units in two areas of the medial auditory belt (middle medial area [MM] and rostral medial area [RM]) were tested with tones, noise bursts, monkey calls (MC), and environmental sounds (ES) in microelectrode recordings from two alert rhesus monkeys. For comparison, recordings were also performed from two core areas (primary auditory area [A1] and rostral area [R]) of the auditory cortex. All four fields showed cochleotopic organization, with best (center) frequency [BF(c)] gradients running in opposite directions in A1 and MM than in R and RM. The medial belt was characterized by a stronger preference for band-pass noise than for pure tones found medially to the core areas. Response latencies were shorter for the two more posterior (middle) areas MM and A1 than for the two rostral areas R and RM, reaching values as low as 6 ms for high BF(c) in MM and A1, and strongly depended on BF(c). The medial belt areas exhibited a higher selectivity to all stimuli, in particular to noise bursts, than the core areas. An increased selectivity to tones and noise bursts was also found in the anterior fields; the opposite was true for highly temporally modulated ES. Analysis of the structure of neural responses revealed that neurons were driven by low-level acoustic features in all fields. Thus medial belt areas RM and MM have to be considered early stages of auditory cortical processing. The anteroposterior difference in temporal processing indices suggests that R and RM may belong to a different hierarchical level or a different computational network than A1 and MM.

  20. Transfer of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls to nursing infant rhesus monkeys: enhanced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.; Knauf, V.; Mueller, W.; Hobson, W.

    1980-02-01

    Clophen A-30 (CA-30 or PCB) or hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were given daily by gavage to lactating rhesus monkeys for either 30 days (CA-30, 16 mg/kg/day) or 60 days (HCB, 64 mg/kg/day) to three infant-mother pairs per compound. The extent to which the CA-30 or HCB were concentreated in the milk of the mothers and consequently transferred to the nursing infants was determined by measuring concentrations of both substances in milk and serum samples collected at frequent intervals. One mother and all the infants from each group were sacrificed and the tissue content of HCB or PCBs measured. Milk concentrations averaged 20 and 17 times higher than maternal serum levels for CA-300 and HCB-treated monkeys, respectively. Infant serum levels were approximately two to three (PCBs)-or two to five (HCB)-fold higher than serum concentrations in their mothers. All of the HCB-treated mothers remained healthy during dosing but one infant became moribund and was sacrificed on Day 22, and another died on Day 38. One CA-30-treated infant-mother pair was sacrificed on Day 23 of the study when they developed severe symptoms of poisoning. In general tissue levels of both HCB and Ca-30 were higher in the infants than in their mothers. Both HCB and PCB were concentrated in the infant fat, bone marrow, and adrenals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that nursing infants are at greater risk than their mothers when the mothers are exposed to lipophilic toxins.

  1. Kinetics of 11C-labeled opiates in the brain of rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Hartvig, P.; Bergstroem, K.; Lindberg, B.

    1984-07-01

    The regional uptake in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of i.v. administered 11C-labeled morphine, codeine, heroin and pethidine was studied by means of positron emission tomography. The technique measures the sum of parent drug and radiolabeled metabolites. (For the sake of simplicity the drug derived radioactivity is denoted by the drug name.) Morphine had a limited uptake to discrete areas of the brain. The maximum normalized uptake, with respect to dose per kilogram body weight, was about 0.2, i.e., 20% of the calculated activity if the drug had been evenly distributed throughout the body of the monkey. Maximum radioactivity appearedmore » 30 to 45 min after injection. Morphine left the brain slowly with an estimated half-life of more than 2 hr. An area with a normalized uptake of about 1.0 was detected centrally in the lowest horizontal transsection of the skull. The origin of this area was identified as the pituitary. Codeine, heroin and pethidine were taken up to the brain to a larger extent than morphine, with maximum normalized uptakes of 2.6, 4.6 and 6.3, respectively. Maximum radioactivities of these drugs were achieved earlier and the elimination rates were faster than for morphine. Differences in the uptake of these drugs to the brain, as well as differences in time to maximal normalized uptake and rate of disappearance are considered to reflect differences in the lipophilic character between the drugs. Pethidine had the most rapid and extensive uptake followed by heroin, codeine and morphine in order of decreasing lipophilicity.« less

  2. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  3. Functional Specialization of Medial Auditory Belt Cortex in the Alert Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Kuśmierek, Paweł; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2009-01-01

    Responses of neural units in two areas of the medial auditory belt (middle medial area [MM] and rostral medial area [RM]) were tested with tones, noise bursts, monkey calls (MC), and environmental sounds (ES) in microelectrode recordings from two alert rhesus monkeys. For comparison, recordings were also performed from two core areas (primary auditory area [A1] and rostral area [R]) of the auditory cortex. All four fields showed cochleotopic organization, with best (center) frequency [BF(c)] gradients running in opposite directions in A1 and MM than in R and RM. The medial belt was characterized by a stronger preference for band-pass noise than for pure tones found medially to the core areas. Response latencies were shorter for the two more posterior (middle) areas MM and A1 than for the two rostral areas R and RM, reaching values as low as 6 ms for high BF(c) in MM and A1, and strongly depended on BF(c). The medial belt areas exhibited a higher selectivity to all stimuli, in particular to noise bursts, than the core areas. An increased selectivity to tones and noise bursts was also found in the anterior fields; the opposite was true for highly temporally modulated ES. Analysis of the structure of neural responses revealed that neurons were driven by low-level acoustic features in all fields. Thus medial belt areas RM and MM have to be considered early stages of auditory cortical processing. The anteroposterior difference in temporal processing indices suggests that R and RM may belong to a different hierarchical level or a different computational network than A1 and MM. PMID:19571201

  4. Mechanisms of Inferential Order Judgments in Humans (Homo sapiens) and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2010-01-01

    If A > B, and B > C, it follows logically that A > C. The process of reaching that conclusion is called transitive inference (TI). Several mechanisms have been offered to explain transitive performance. Scanning models claim that the list is scanned from the ends of the list inward until a match is found. Positional discrimination models claim that positional uncertainty accounts for accuracy and reaction time patterns. In Experiment 1, we trained rhesus monkeys and humans on adjacent pairs (e.g. AB, BC, CD, DE, EF) and tested them with previously untrained nonadjacent pairs (e.g. BD). In Experiment 2, we trained a second list, and tested with nonadjacent pairs selected between lists (e.g. B from list 1, D from list 2). We then introduced associative competition between adjacent items in Experiment 3 by training two items per position (e.g. B1C1, B2C2) before testing with untrained nonadjacent items. In all three Experiments, humans and monkeys showed distance effects in which accuracy increased, and reaction time decreased, as the distance between items in each pair increased (e.g. BD vs. BE). In Experiment 4, we trained adjacent pairs with separate 9- list and 5-item lists. We then tested with nonadjacent pairs selected between lists to determine whether list items were chosen according to their absolute position (e.g. D, 5-item list > E, 9-item list), or their relative position (e.g. D, 5-item list < E, 9-item list). Both monkeys’ and humans’ choices were most consistent with a relative positional organization. PMID:21341909

  5. Relative reinforcing effects of different oral ethanol doses in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert B; Wang, Nian-Sheng; Bass, April A; Meisch, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    The relative reinforcing effects of different doses of orally delivered ethanol were evaluated. Mouth-contact responding by rhesus monkeys was measured under concurrent fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedules of liquid delivery (0.67 ml/delivery) from each of two spouts during daily 3-hr sessions. Experiment 1 examined persistence of responding with ethanol (2%, 8%, and 32% wt/vol) and water available. When fixed-ratio values from 8 to 128 were tested, the number of ethanol deliveries obtained per session decreased as the response requirement increased. The decrease in deliveries was less at higher than at lower ethanol concentrations, however. Experiment 2 examined choice between two ethanol concentrations under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 schedules (4% vs. 8%, 4% vs. 16%, 8% vs. 16%, 2% vs. 8%, 2% vs. 32%, 8% vs. 32%). Higher concentrations (16%, 32%) generally maintained more responding than concurrently available concentrations of 8% or less. An exception was the observation of a preference for 8% over 32% ethanol. When the fixed-ratio value was increased, however, the relative preference for these two doses was reversed so that 32% ethanol maintained more responding than 8% ethanol. Thus, the direction of the preference depended on the size of the response requirement. These results indicate that the reinforcing effects of ethanol increase with dose. PMID:11831783

  6. Diet choice, cortisol reactivity, and emotional feeding in socially housed rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Marilyn; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Shepard, Kathryn N.; Ha, Quynh-Chau; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress produces an array of adverse health consequences that are highly comorbid, including emotional eating, affective disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The consumption of high caloric diets (HCD) is thought to provide comfort in the face of unrelenting psychosocial stress. Using social subordination in female rhesus monkeys as a model of continual exposure to daily stressors in women, we tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would consume significantly more calories from a HCD compared to dominant females, and this pattern of food intake would be associated with reduced cortisol release and reduced frequency of anxiety- like behaviors. Food intake, parameters of cortisol secretion, and socio-emotional behavior were assessed for 3 weeks during a no choice phase when only a low caloric diet (LCD) was available and during a choice condition when both a LCD and HCD were available. While all animals preferred the HCD, subordinate females consumed significantly more of the HCD than did dominant females. A flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm and a greater increase in serum cortisol to an acute social separation occurred during the diet choice condition in all females. Furthermore, the rate of anxiety- like behavior progressively declined during the 3-week choice condition in subordinate but not dominant females. These data provide support for the hypothesis that daily exposure to psychosocial stress increases consumption of calorically dense foods. Furthermore, consumption of HCDs may be a metabolic stressor that synergizes with the psychosocial stress of subordination to further increase the consumption of these diets. PMID:20670639

  7. DELAY DISCOUNTING OF FOOD BY RHESUS MONKEYS: COCAINE AND FOOD CHOICE IN ISOMORPHIC AND ALLOMORPHIC SITUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Huskinson, Sally L.; Woolverton, William L.; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Freeman, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    Research on delay discounting has focused largely on non-drug reinforcers in an isomorphic context in which choice is between alternatives that involve the same type of reinforcer. Less often, delay discounting has been studied with drug reinforcers in a more ecologically valid allomorphic context where choice is between alternatives involving different types of reinforcers. The present experiment is the first to examine discounting of drug and non-drug reinforcers in both isomorphic and allomorphic situations using a theoretical model (i.e., the hyperbolic discounting function) that allows for comparisons of discounting rates between reinforcer types and amounts. The goal of the current experiment was to examine discounting of a delayed, non-drug reinforcer (food) by male rhesus monkeys when the immediate alternative was either food (isomorphic situation) or cocaine (allomorphic situation). In addition, we sought to determine whether there was a magnitude effect with delayed food in the allomorphic situation. Choice of immediate food and immediate cocaine increased with amount and dose, respectively. Choice functions for immediate food and cocaine generally shifted leftward as delay increased. Compared to isomorphic situations in which food was the immediate alternative, delayed food was discounted more steeply in allomorphic situations where cocaine was the immediate alternative. Notably, discounting was not affected by the magnitude of the delayed reinforcer. These data indicate that how steeply a delayed non-drug reinforcer is discounted may depend more on the qualitative characteristics of the immediate reinforcer and less on the magnitude of the delayed one. PMID:25938515

  8. Contractile properties of rat, rhesus monkey, and human type I muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, J. J.; Romatowski, J. G.; Karhanek, M.; Fitts, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that skeletal muscle intrinsic maximal shortening velocity is inversely related to species body mass. However, there is uncertainty regarding the relationship between the contractile properties of muscle fibers obtained from commonly studied laboratory animals and those obtained from humans. In this study we determined the contractile properties of single chemically skinned fibers prepared from rat, rhesus monkey, and human soleus and gastrocnemius muscle samples under identical experimental conditions. All fibers used for analysis expressed type I myosin heavy chain as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allometric coefficients for type I fibers from each muscle indicated that there was little change in peak tension (force/fiber cross-sectional area) across species. In contrast, both soleus and gastrocnemius type I fiber maximal unloaded shortening velocity (Vo), the y-intercept of the force-velocity relationship (Vmax), peak power per unit fiber length, and peak power normalized for fiber length and cross-sectional area were all inversely related to species body mass. The present allometric coefficients for soleus fiber Vo (-0.18) and Vmax (-0.11) are in good agreement with published values for soleus fibers obtained from common laboratory and domesticated mammals. Taken together, these observations suggest that the Vo of slow fibers from quadrupeds and humans scale similarly and can be described by the same quantitative relationships. These findings have implications in the design and interpretation of experiments, especially those that use small laboratory mammals as a model of human muscle function.

  9. Clinically employed opioid analgesics produce antinociception via μ-δ opioid receptor heteromers in Rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yekkirala, Ajay S; Banks, Matthew L; Lunzer, Mary M; Negus, Stevens S; Rice, Kenner C; Portoghese, Philip S

    2012-09-19

    Morphine and related drugs are widely employed as analgesics despite the side effects associated with their use. Although morphine is thought to mediate analgesia through mu opioid receptors, delta opioid receptors have been implicated in mediating some side effects such as tolerance and dependence. Here we present evidence in rhesus monkeys that morphine, fentanyl, and possibly methadone selectively activate mu-delta heteromers to produce antinociception that is potently antagonized by the delta opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI). Studies with HEK293 cells expressing mu-delta heteromeric opioid receptors exhibit a similar antagonism profile of receptor activation in the presence of NTI. In mice, morphine was potently inhibited by naltrindole when administered intrathecally, but not intracerebroventricularly, suggesting the possible involvement of mu-delta heteromers in the spinal cord of rodents. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, in primates, mu-delta heteromers are allosterically coupled and mediate the antinociceptive effects of three clinically employed opioid analgesics that have been traditionally viewed as mu-selective. Given the known involvement of delta receptors in morphine tolerance and dependence, our results implicate mu-delta heteromers in mediating both antinociception and these side effects in primates. These results open the door for further investigation in humans.

  10. Clinically Employed Opioid Analgesics Produce Antinociception via μ-δ Opioid Receptor Heteromers in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Morphine and related drugs are widely employed as analgesics despite the side effects associated with their use. Although morphine is thought to mediate analgesia through mu opioid receptors, delta opioid receptors have been implicated in mediating some side effects such as tolerance and dependence. Here we present evidence in rhesus monkeys that morphine, fentanyl, and possibly methadone selectively activate mu-delta heteromers to produce antinociception that is potently antagonized by the delta opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI). Studies with HEK293 cells expressing mu-delta heteromeric opioid receptors exhibit a similar antagonism profile of receptor activation in the presence of NTI. In mice, morphine was potently inhibited by naltrindole when administered intrathecally, but not intracerebroventricularly, suggesting the possible involvement of mu-delta heteromers in the spinal cord of rodents. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, in primates, mu-delta heteromers are allosterically coupled and mediate the antinociceptive effects of three clinically employed opioid analgesics that have been traditionally viewed as mu-selective. Given the known involvement of delta receptors in morphine tolerance and dependence, our results implicate mu-delta heteromers in mediating both antinociception and these side effects in primates. These results open the door for further investigation in humans. PMID:23019498

  11. Identifying individual differences of fluoxetine response in juvenile rhesus monkeys by metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Hogrefe, C E; Grapov, D; Palazoglu, M; Fiehn, O; Turck, C W; Golub, M S

    2014-11-04

    Fluoxetine is the only psychopharmacological agent approved for depression by the US Food and Drug Administration for children and is commonly used therapeutically in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Therapeutic response shows high individual variability, and severe side effects have been observed. In the current study we set out to identify biomarkers of response to fluoxetine as well as biomarkers that correlate with impulsivity, a measure of reward delay behavior and potential side effect of the drug, in juvenile male rhesus monkeys. The study group was also genotyped for polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a gene that has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We used peripheral metabolite profiling of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from animals treated daily with fluoxetine or vehicle for one year. Fluoxetine response metabolite profiles and metabolite/reward delay behavior associations were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Our analyses identified a set of plasma and CSF metabolites that distinguish fluoxetine- from vehicle-treated animals and metabolites that correlate with impulsivity. Some metabolites displayed an interaction between fluoxetine and MAOA genotype. The identified metabolite biomarkers belong to pathways that have important functions in central nervous system physiology. Biomarkers of response to fluoxetine in the normally functioning brain of juvenile nonhuman primates may aid in finding predictors of response to treatment in young psychiatric populations and in progress toward the realization of a precision medicine approach in the area of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. New noninvasive imaging technique for cataract evaluation in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Amnotte, Rodney E.; Smith, Audrey B.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Hee, Michael R.; Fujimoto, James G.; Swanson, Eric A.; Roach, William P.

    1995-05-01

    We present the first in vivo study using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as the imaging device for lenticular cataracts in the geriatric rhesus monkey. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that produces a 2D cross sectional image of intraocular tissue similar to ultrasound B scan. In OCT the images are formed by measuring optical reflections from the tissue. Eighteen geriatric subjects with documented lenticular opacities and one control subject were imaged. The OCT images produced are compared to current and previous clinical cataract grading exams and slit-lamp photography. Histopathology was collected on one subject and is compared to the OCT image. OCT provides information on nuclear, cortical and subcapsular opacities. The image formation is presented based on a color coded computer generated log reflective scale. The log reflective scale is converted to a qualitative grading system. Although movement and shadow artifact can occur, these are readily identifiable and can be differentiated from underlying lenticular abnormalities. OCT has great potential to assist in further characterization of cataracts.

  13. Intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for microcirculatory evaluation in rhesus monkey with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Chen, Fu-Chao; Shen, Hui-Yong; Ye, Ji-Chao; Cai, Zhao-Peng; Lin, Xi

    2017-06-20

    This study tried to quantify spinal cord perfusion by using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in rhesus monkey models with acute spinal cord injury. Acute spinal cord perfusion after injury was detected by CEUS, coupling with conventional ultrasound (US) and Color Doppler US (CDFI). Time-intensity curves and perfusion parameters were obtained by autotracking contrast quantification (ACQ) software in the epicenter and adjacent regions of injury, respectively. Neurological and histological examinations were performed to confirm the severity of injury. US revealed spinal cords were hypoechoic and homogeneous, whereas dura maters, pia maters, and cerebral aqueducts were hyperechoic. After spinal cord contusion, the injured spinal cord was hyperechoic on US, and intramedullary vessels of adjacent region of injury were increased and dilated on CDFI. On CEUS hypoperfusion were found in the epicenter of injury, while hyperperfusion in its adjacent region. Quantitative analysis showed that peak intensity (PI) decreased in epicenters of injury but significantly increased in adjacent regions at all time points (p < 0.05). Functional evaluation demonstrated significant deterioration compared to pre-contusion (p < 0.05). Quantitative analysis with CEUS is a promising method for monitoring perfusion changes of spinal cord injury in overall views and real-time.

  14. Late cataractogenesis in rhesus monkeys irradiated with protons and radiogenic cataract in other species

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Lee, A.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1991-05-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) which were irradiated at ca. 2 years of age with acute doses (less than or equal to 5 Gy) of protons (32-2300 MeV) are exhibiting the late progressive phase of radiation cataractogenesis 20-24 years after exposure, the period during which we have been monitoring the sequelae of irradiation of the lens. The median life span of the primate is approximately 24 years. Analogous late ocular changes also occur in a similar period of the lifetimes of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) exposed at 8-10 weeks of age to 460-MeV {sup 56}Fe ions. In thismore » experiment, which has been in progress for ca. 6 years, we are following the development of radiation-induced lenticular opacification (cataractogenic profiles) throughout the life span. The median life span of the lagomorph is 5-7 years. Cataractogenic profiles for NZW rabbits irradiated with {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar ions and {sup 60}Co gamma photons were obtained previously. Reference is also made to measurements of the cataractogenic profiles of a short-lived rodent, the Fischer 344 rat (Rattus norvegicus) during the first year after exposure at 8-10 weeks of age to spread-Bragg-peak protons of 55 MeV nominal energy. The median life span of the rodent is reported to be 2-3 years.« less

  15. Concurrent performances: reinforcement by different doses of intravenous cocaine in rhesus monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Iglauer, Carol; Woods, James H.

    1974-01-01

    Different doses of intravenous cocaine reinforced the lever pressing of rhesus monkeys under two-lever concurrent or concurrent-chain schedules. Under the concurrent procedure, responding produced drug reinforcers arranged according to independent variable-interval 1-min schedules. Under the concurrent-chain procedure, responding in the variable-interval link led to one of two mutually exclusive, equal-valued, fixed-ratio links; completion of the ratio produced a drug reinforcer. Under both procedures, responding on one lever produced a constant dose of 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/injection, while on the other lever, dose was systematically varied within a range of 0.013 to 0.8 mg/kg/injection. Preference, indicated by relative response frequency on the variable-dose lever during the variable-interval link, was always for the larger of the doses. Relative response frequencies on the variable-dose lever roughly matched relative drug intake (mg/kg of drug obtained on variable lever divided by mg/kg of drug obtained on both levers). For many dose comparisons, responding occurred and reinforcers were obtained almost exclusively on the preferred lever. Overall variable-interval rates generally were lower than with other reinforcers, and these low rates, under the experimental conditions, may have occasioned the exclusive preferences. PMID:4455758

  16. Maternal and Fetal Pharmacokinetics of Oral Radiolabeled and Authentic Bisphenol A in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    VandeVoort, Catherine A.; Gerona, Roy R.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Hillenweck, Anne; Zalko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in pregnant rhesus monkeys to determine the rapidity and extent to which BPA reaches the fetal compartment following oral ingestion, and the 24-hr fate of BPA. To assess metabolism changes during the course of pregnancy, we compared BPA biotransformation during the second and third trimesters in the same animals, measuring the levels of sulfated, gluronidated, and free BPA in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, and fetal serum. All animals showed measurable unconjugated and conjugated BPA in the fetal compartment and slow clearance compared to maternal serum. There were higher levels of BPA-G in amniotic fluid at 150 days gestation compared to 100 days gestation, as well as higher levels of BPA-G than BPA-S. We also monitored 3H-BPA (and metabolites) in key tissues and excreta from a mother and fetus and from a non-pregnant female. The elimination of radioactivity was rapid, but residues were still detectable 24 hr after dosing in all tissues analyzed. These data suggest that, in primates, rapid maternal processing of BPA does not alleviate the risk of exposure to the developing fetus. This study elevates concerns about levels of current BPA human exposure from potentially a large number of unknown sources and the risks posed to developing fetuses. PMID:27930651

  17. Design and performance of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis that restores semicircular canal sensation in rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Bryce; Fridman, Gene Y.; Dai, Chenkai; Rahman, Mehdi A.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    In normal individuals, the vestibular labyrinths sense head movement and mediate reflexes that maintain stable gaze and posture. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation causes chronic disequilibrium, oscillopsia, and postural instability. We describe a new multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) intended to restore modulation of vestibular nerve activity with head rotation. The device comprises motion sensors to measure rotation and gravitoinertial acceleration, a microcontroller to calculate pulse timing, and stimulator units that deliver constant-current pulses to microelectrodes implanted in the labyrinth. This new MVP incorporates many improvements over previous prototypes, including a 50% decrease in implant size, a 50% decrease in power consumption, a new microelectrode array design meant to simplify implantation and reliably achieve selective nerve-electrode coupling, multiple current sources conferring ability to simultaneously stimulate on multiple electrodes, and circuitry for in vivo measurement of electrode impedances. We demonstrate the performance of this device through in vitro bench-top characterization and in vivo physiological experiments with a rhesus macaque monkey. PMID:21859631

  18. Social instability and immunity in rhesus monkeys: the role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-05-26

    Social instability can adversely affect endocrine, immune and health outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might mediate these effects. We conducted two studies with adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to understand how social conditions affect measures of SNS activity and immune function. In Experiment 1, animals were socialized in stable social conditions, then were switched to unstable (stressful) social conditions, then were returned to stable conditions. Analysis revealed quadratic effects for measures of behaviour, urinary metabolites of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and expression of immune response genes: as expected, social instability adversely impacted most measures, and the effects remediated upon re-imposition of stable conditions. Cortisol levels were unaffected. In Experiment 2, we used the sympathomimetic drug methamphetamine to challenge the SNS; animals also underwent socialization in stable or unstable groups. Surprisingly, while methamphetamine elevated plasma catecholamines, responses in lymph nodes tracked the social, and not the drug, condition: social instability upregulated the density of SNS fibres in lymph nodes and downregulated Type I interferon gene expression. Together, these results indicate that the SNS is extremely sensitive to social conditions; full understanding of the adverse effects of social instability on health should therefore incorporate measures of this health-relevant system. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Causal effect of disconnection lesions on interhemispheric functional connectivity in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Jill X.; Croxson, Paula L.; Jbabdi, Saad; Sallet, Jerome; Noonan, MaryAnn P.; Mars, Rogier B.; Browning, Philip G.F.; Wilson, Charles R. E.; Mitchell, Anna S.; Miller, Karla L.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of external stimuli or task demands, correlations in spontaneous brain activity (functional connectivity) reflect patterns of anatomical connectivity. Hence, resting-state functional connectivity has been used as a proxy measure for structural connectivity and as a biomarker for brain changes in disease. To relate changes in functional connectivity to physiological changes in the brain, it is important to understand how correlations in functional connectivity depend on the physical integrity of brain tissue. The causal nature of this relationship has been called into question by patient data suggesting that decreased structural connectivity does not necessarily lead to decreased functional connectivity. Here we provide evidence for a causal but complex relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity: we tested interhemispheric functional connectivity before and after corpus callosum section in rhesus monkeys. We found that forebrain commissurotomy severely reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity, but surprisingly, this effect was greatly mitigated if the anterior commissure was left intact. Furthermore, intact structural connections increased their functional connectivity in line with the hypothesis that the inputs to each node are normalized. We conclude that functional connectivity is likely driven by corticocortical white matter connections but with complex network interactions such that a near-normal pattern of functional connectivity can be maintained by just a few indirect structural connections. These surprising results highlight the importance of network-level interactions in functional connectivity and may cast light on various paradoxical findings concerning changes in functional connectivity in disease states. PMID:23924609

  20. Delay discounting of food by rhesus monkeys: Cocaine and food choice in isomorphic and allomorphic situations.

    PubMed

    Huskinson, Sally L; Woolverton, William L; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Freeman, Kevin B

    2015-06-01

    Research on delay discounting has focused largely on nondrug reinforcers in an isomorphic context in which choice is between alternatives that involve the same type of reinforcer. Less often, delay discounting has been studied with drug reinforcers in a more ecologically valid allomorphic context where choice is between alternatives involving different types of reinforcers. The present experiment is the first to examine discounting of drug and nondrug reinforcers in both isomorphic and allomorphic situations using a theoretical model (i.e., the hyperbolic discounting function) that allows for comparisons of discounting rates between reinforcer types and amounts. The goal of the current experiment was to examine discounting of a delayed, nondrug reinforcer (food) by male rhesus monkeys when the immediate alternative was either food (isomorphic situation) or cocaine (allomorphic situation). In addition, we sought to determine whether there was a magnitude effect with delayed food in the allomorphic situation. Choice of immediate food and immediate cocaine increased with amount and dose, respectively. Choice functions for immediate food and cocaine generally shifted leftward as delay increased. Compared to isomorphic situations in which food was the immediate alternative, delayed food was discounted more steeply in allomorphic situations where cocaine was the immediate alternative. Notably, discounting was not affected by the magnitude of the delayed reinforcer. These data indicate that how steeply a delayed nondrug reinforcer is discounted may depend more on the qualitative characteristics of the immediate reinforcer and less on the magnitude of the delayed one. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Pathology of fractionated whole-brain irradiation in rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ).

    PubMed

    Hanbury, David B; Robbins, Mike E; Bourland, J Daniel; Wheeler, Kenneth T; Peiffer, Ann M; Mitchell, Erin L; Daunais, James B; Deadwyler, Samuel A; Cline, J Mark

    2015-03-01

    Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI), used to treat brain metastases, often leads to neurologic injury and cognitive impairment. The cognitive effects of irradiation in nonhuman primates (NHP) have been previously published; this report focuses on corresponding neuropathologic changes that could have served as the basis for those effects in the same study. Four rhesus monkeys were exposed to 40 Gy of fWBI [5 Gy × 8 fraction (fx), 2 fx/week for four weeks] and received anatomical MRI prior to, and 14 months after fWBI. Neurologic and histologic sequelae were studied posthumously. Three of the NHPs underwent cognitive assessments, and each exhibited radiation-induced impairment associated with various degrees of vascular and inflammatory neuropathology. Two NHPs had severe multifocal necrosis of the forebrain, midbrain and brainstem. Histologic and MRI findings were in agreement, and the severity of cognitive decrement previously reported corresponded to the degree of observed pathology in two of the animals. In response to fWBI, the NHPs showed pathology similar to humans exposed to radiation and show comparable cognitive decline. These results provide a basis for implementing NHPs to examine and treat adverse cognitive and neurophysiologic sequelae of radiation exposure in humans.

  2. Pathology of Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hanbury, David B.; Robbins, Mike E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Mitchell, Erin L.; Daunais, James B.; Deadwyler, Samuel A.; Cline, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI), used to treat brain metastases, often leads to neurologic injury and cognitive impairment. The cognitive effects of irradiation in nonhuman primates (NHP) have been previously published; this report focuses on corresponding neuropathologic changes that could have served as the basis for those effects in the same study. Four rhesus monkeys were exposed to 40 Gy of fWBI [5 Gy×8 fraction (fx), 2 fx/week for four weeks] and received anatomical MRI prior to, and 14 months after fWBI. Neurologic and histologic sequelae were studied posthumously. Three of the NHPs underwent cognitive assessments, and each exhibited radiation-induced impairment associated with various degrees of vascular and inflammatory neuropathology. Two NHPs had severe multifocal necrosis of the forebrain, midbrain and brainstem. Histologic and MRI findings were in agreement, and the severity of cognitive decrement previously reported corresponded to the degree of observed pathology in two of the animals. In response to fWBI, the NHPs showed pathology similar to humans exposed to radiation and show comparable cognitive decline. These results provide a basis for implementing NHPs to examine and treat adverse cognitive and neurophysiologic sequelae of radiation exposure in humans. PMID:25688996

  3. Fatty acid formula supplementation and neuromotor development in rhesus monkey neonates.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Maribeth; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Shannon, Courtney; Majchrzak, Sharon; Suomi, Stephen J; Salem, Norman; Higley, James D

    2002-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is highly concentrated in CNS tissues. Although breast milk contains the fatty acids DHA and arachidonic acid, infant formulas marketed in North America do not contain these nutrients. The potential deleterious effects of rearing infants with formulas devoid of these nutrients was assessed by comparing nursery-reared rhesus macaque infants (Macaca mulatta) fed standard formula with infants fed standard formula supplemented with physiologically relevant concentrations of DHA (1.0%) and arachidonic acid (1.0%). Neurobehavioral assessments were conducted on d 7, 14, 21, and 30 of life using blinded raters. The 30-min assessment consisted of 45 test items measuring orienting, temperament, reflex capabilities, and motor skills. Plasma concentrations of DHA in standard formula-fed infants were significantly lower than those fed supplemented formula or mother-raised (breast-fed) infants; however, infants fed the supplemented formula exhibited higher arachidonic acid levels than either mother-reared infants or infants fed standard formula. Infant monkeys fed the supplemented formula exhibited stronger orienting and motor skills than infants fed the standard formula, with the differences most pronounced during d 7 and 14. This pattern suggests an earlier maturation of specific visual and motor abilities in the supplemented infants. Supplementation did not affect measures of activity or state control, indicating no effect on temperament. These data support the assertion that preformed DHA and arachidonic acid in infant formulas are required for optimal development.

  4. Developmental changes of rhesus monkeys in response to separation from the mother.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Noble, Pamela L; Fox, Nathan A; Suomi, Stephen J; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric E

    2012-12-01

    The development of separation response behaviors in infant rhesus macaques across the first 6 months of life was assessed. Seventeen infants underwent a neonatal assessment at 7, 14, 21, and 30 days of age which included a brief period of social isolation. At 3 and 6 months of age these same monkeys and four additional subjects were again subjected to a period of brief social isolation and also exposed to a novel environment with their sedated mother. Results indicate a developmental increase followed by a steady decline in the frequency of separation vocalizations. A modest relationship between early-infancy locomotor profiles and separation responses was also observed at several time points suggesting a possible relationship between these measures. However, stable inter-individual measures of separation distress did not emerge until late in the infantile period. This could suggest that high levels of maternal contact-seeking behavior early in infancy are context specific and not a reliable index of enduring temperament. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Iron deprivation during fetal development changes the behavior of juvenile rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E; Germann, Stacey L

    2007-04-01

    Sensitive periods for induction of behavioral impairments by developmental iron deficiency were studied in a nonhuman primate model. Rhesus monkey infants were deprived of iron prenatally (n = 14) via the dam's diet (10 microg Fe/g) or postnatally (birth-4 mo, n = 12) via infant formula (1.5 mg Fe/L). They were compared with controls (n = 12) with adequate dietary iron throughout development in a series of cognitive tests and related assessments from 6 to 12 mo of age, a developmental stage corresponding approximately to 2-4 y of age in humans. Health, growth, and hematological status were not affected. Auditory brainstem response and white matter volumes in the cerebrum were similarly unaffected. Male infants in the prenatally deprived group had reduced spontaneous daytime activity relative to controls, as monitored by actimeter. On cognitive tests, prenatally deprived juveniles had similar level of correct responding, but showed more completed trials, and shorter latencies during early phases of the tests. Juveniles deprived of iron as infants showed a similar pattern of behavioral change, but most differences from controls were not as great. Inadequate iron nutrition during pregnancy was reflected in the juvenile period primarily as attenuated inhibitory response. This finding may be relevant to individual differences in temperament or to behavior disorders in children involving reduced inhibitory control.

  6. Social instability and immunity in rhesus monkeys: the role of the sympathetic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, John P.; Cole, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Social instability can adversely affect endocrine, immune and health outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might mediate these effects. We conducted two studies with adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to understand how social conditions affect measures of SNS activity and immune function. In Experiment 1, animals were socialized in stable social conditions, then were switched to unstable (stressful) social conditions, then were returned to stable conditions. Analysis revealed quadratic effects for measures of behaviour, urinary metabolites of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and expression of immune response genes: as expected, social instability adversely impacted most measures, and the effects remediated upon re-imposition of stable conditions. Cortisol levels were unaffected. In Experiment 2, we used the sympathomimetic drug methamphetamine to challenge the SNS; animals also underwent socialization in stable or unstable groups. Surprisingly, while methamphetamine elevated plasma catecholamines, responses in lymph nodes tracked the social, and not the drug, condition: social instability upregulated the density of SNS fibres in lymph nodes and downregulated Type I interferon gene expression. Together, these results indicate that the SNS is extremely sensitive to social conditions; full understanding of the adverse effects of social instability on health should therefore incorporate measures of this health-relevant system. PMID:25870391

  7. Influence of social variables on the biobehavioral response to separation in rhesus monkey infants.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Franklin, D; Gonzalez, C A

    1984-08-01

    Effects of social stimuli on behavioral and physiological responses to separation were examined in 4-month-old rhesus monkeys. Infants were removed from their social group under 3 counterbalanced conditions: (1) infant totally isolated from its familiar physical and social environment and placed alone in a cage for 4 days; (2) "mother in"--housing the infant in a single cage in front of its social group with mother remaining in the group; (3) "mother out"--similar situation, except that mother was removed from the group during separation. Infant behavior was recorded, and, at selected times during separation, a blood sample was obtained for analysis of plasma cortisol. Infants rarely vocalized when totally isolated, but showed high vocalization and movement in the presence of their social groups. Vocalization was transiently higher in mother-out condition than in mother-in condition. Infants never showed signs of depression. Plasma cortisol response did not differentiate between groups. Animals showed significantly high levels of plasma cortisol 3 hours following separation. These data indicate that the responses of the infant following separation are attempts to produce effective coping responses. The concepts of "protest" and "despair" are discussed as they relate to behavioral differences observed following different separation paradigms.

  8. Rearing environment and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal regulation in young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Mendoza, Sally P; Mason, William A; Maninger, Nicole

    2005-05-01

    A mammal's early social environment has important regulatory effects on its behavior and physiology, and this is especially true for regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The present study was designed to test hypotheses that various aspects of the social environment are important influences on HPA regulation. Seven hundred seventy eight, 3- to 4-month-old rhesus monkeys were studied as part of a standardized, 24-hr biobehavioral assessment program, which included blood sampling to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that nursery-rearing results in a reduced cortisol set-point for the HPA system, and, for nursery-reared (NR) animals, more peer exposure during infancy is associated with a higher set-point. Age and sex differences during this period were evident but small in magnitude. These data demonstrate the important regulatory role of the social environment on nonhuman primate physiology and suggest caution in assuming that differences between individuals' cortisol levels reflect only differences in perceptions of the "stressfulness" of events. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  9. Vitamin A intake of captive rhesus monkeys exceeds national research council recommendations.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2006-11-01

    The specific vitamin A (VA) requirements of nonhuman primates have not been adequately determined via species-specific scientific experimentation. Recommendations are considered to be similar to human requirements, particularly for Old World monkeys. Manufacturers of primate diets add an excess of most nutrients in order to compensate for losses that occur during storage and handling. Moreover, the form of VA used in these diets is synthetic VA esters, which are readily absorbed and stored. Primates in the wild obtain much of their VA from provitamin A carotenoids, which are cleaved as needed to form active VA and are considered nontoxic, unlike preformed VA. The purpose of this study was to determine what types of feed are used at the National Primate Centers and to estimate the amount of VA that rhesus macaques are consuming. Five of the eight centers responded to a short survey that was administered through telephone and electronic mail contacts. VA intakes are well above those that are considered adequate for humans, and VA concentrations in commercially prepared standard primate diets exceed National Research Council (NRC) recommendations by as much as four times. Thus, the VA provided in primate diets should be reevaluated with regard to the concentration and form of the vitamin used. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) remember agency information from past events and integrate this knowledge with spatial and temporal features in working memory.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Megan L; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether rhesus monkeys remember information about their own agency-along with spatial, temporal and contextual properties-from a previously experienced event. In Experiment 1, rhesus monkeys (n = 4) used symbols to reliably indicate whether they had performed or observed an event on a computer screen. In Experiment 2, naïve and experienced monkeys (n = 8) reported agency information when stringent controls for perceptual and proprioceptive cues were included. In Experiment 3, five of the monkeys completed a task in which they reported agency information along with spatial and temporal features of events. Two monkeys performed this agency discrimination when they could not anticipate which memory test they would receive. There was also evidence that these features were integrated in memory. Implications of this research are discussed in relation to working memory, episodic memory and self-awareness in nonhuman animals.

  11. Behavioral effects and receptor binding affinities of fentanyl derivatives in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    France, C P; Gerak, L R; Flynn, D; Winger, G D; Medzihradsky, F; Bagley, J R; Brockunier, L L; Woods, J H

    1995-07-01

    These studies examined the opioid receptor binding affinities and behavioral effects of several fentanyl derivatives in rhesus monkeys. OHM3295, OHM3296, OHM3326 and OHM3463 displayed high affinity for mu (IC50 = 7-66 nM) as compared to kappa (IC50 = 263-3255 nM) or delta (IC50 = 480-4500 nM) receptors as measured by their ability to displace [3H](D-Ala2-Me-Phe4,Glyol5)enkephalin, [3H](5,7,8[beta])-N-[2- (1-pyrrolidinyl)1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl]benzeneacetamide and [3H](D-Pen2-D-Pen5)enkephalin, respectively. All four compounds maintained i.v. self-administration responding at rates above those maintained by the mu agonist alfentanil. In drug discrimination studies, OHM3463, OHM3326 and OHM3296 substituted completely for nalbuphine whereas OHM3295, and a related compound, mirfentanil, substituted partially for nalbuphine. In morphine-treated monkeys, OHM3295 substituted for naltrexone; in monkeys acutely deprived of morphine, only OHM3463 reversed naltrexone-lever responding. All four compounds had antinociceptive effects, although the extent to which these effects were accompanied by respiratory depression or modified by naltrexone, as well as the interactions between antinociceptive effects of fentanyl derivatives and alfentanil, varied markedly among compounds. Thus, OHM3463 shared effects with mu agonists (e.g., alfentanil) under all conditions; the other three compounds had opioid agonist effects under only a subset of conditions. Moreover, one of these compounds (OHM3295) antagonized the discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of other mu agonists. Collectively, these compounds appear to vary on two dimensions: opioid efficacy and the contribution of nonopioid actions to their antinociceptive effects. Together with results obtained with other fentanyl derivatives (mirfentanil) under similar conditions, results of the current study suggest this chemical class might be especially fertile for the development of novel analgesics that might have reduced

  12. Biobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to A Matrilineal Overthrow and Relocation in Captive Infant Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Joshua A.; Del Rosso, Laura A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally-occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center’s Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. PMID:27150125

  13. Biobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to a matrilineal overthrow and relocation in captive infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Del Rosso, Laura A; Capitanio, John P

    2016-09-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 78:895-903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On the nature of directed behavior to drug-associated light cues in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Reilly, Mark P; Berndt, Sonja I; Woods, James H

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure. Four monkeys were given response-independent injections of cocaine. In two monkeys, a red light preceded cocaine injections by 5 s, and a green light co-occurred with the 5-s cocaine injections. In the other two monkeys, the light presentations and cocaine injections occurred independently. Light-directed behavior occurred in all four monkeys within the first couple of trials and at high levels but decreased across sessions. The cocaine-paired stimulus maintained behavior longer and at higher levels than the uncorrelated stimuli. Furthermore, light-directed behavior was not maintained when cocaine was replaced with saline. Light-directed behavior did not occur in the absence of the lights. When these monkeys were subsequently trained to lever press for cocaine, light-directed behavior increased to levels higher than previously observed. Behavior directed towards drug-paired stimuli is robust, reliable and multiply determined; the mechanisms underlying this activity likely include Pavlovian conditioning, stimulus novelty, habituation and operant conditioning.

  15. A preliminary study on the feasibility of gene expression profile of rhesus monkey detected with human microarray.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y R; Wang, L N; Jin, X; Chen, Y N; Cong, C; Yuan, Y; Li, Y C; Tang, W D; Li, H X; Wu, X T; Li, Y P; Wang, L; Cheng, J Q

    2008-03-01

    A pig-to-monkey transplant model was initiated to investigate the outcome of pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Though monkey is close to human in biology and physiology, the genetic differences between the two species remains unclear. This study sought to compare the gene expressions of three tissues from humans and rhesus monkey. RNA samples extracted from liver, spleen, and peripheral blood cells were hybridized onto Illumina gene expression microarray. Genes with detected signals greater than 1000 and diff-scores higher than 100 were selected as significant results. The data were analyzed with Illumina software. mRNA expression levels were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Of the 47,293 transcripts tested on every gene chip, more than 6000 genes were expressed in three tissues. Total numbers of genes detected and the similarity ratios followed the same rule as liver < PBC < spleen. The 136 IRI-related genes, 192 immunological-related genes, and 131 cell cycle-related genes selected and analyzed showed gene expression concordance rates of 82.35%, 72.92%, and 77.10%, respectively. RT-PCR tests indicated similar mRNA expression levels of RTN4, interleukin (IL)-1beta, NF-kappaB1, IL-8, and G0S2 to the results on chips. The detected mRNA expressions in human and monkey tissues showed an average consistency in 85.78%, indicating that a human microarray might provide a part of the information for monkey sample testing. Therefore, in pig-to-monkey transplant models, monkey microarray may be used to determine recipient gene expressions. The genetic difference between human and monkey must be taken into account in interpreting the experimental results.

  16. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesusmore » monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.« less

  17. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christopher J; Emery, Nathan J; Capitanio, John P; Mason, William A; Mendoza, Sally P; Amaral, David G

    2008-04-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed in nonhuman primates with bilateral amygdala lesions. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. This study measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in 2 contexts. Monkeys interacted in 4-member social groups over 32 test days. They were previously assessed in pairs (N. J. Emery et al., 2001) and were therefore familiar with each other at the beginning of this study. Across the 2 contexts, amygdala lesions produced a highly consistent pattern of social behavior. Operated monkeys engaged in more affiliative social interactions with control partners than did controls. In the course of their interactions, amygdala-lesioned monkeys also displayed an earlier decrease in nervous and fearful personality qualities than did controls. The increased exploration and sexual behavior recorded for amygdala-lesioned monkeys in pairs was not found in the 4-member groups. The authors concluded that the amygdala contributes to social inhibition and that this function transcends various social contexts.

  18. YC-1 Inhibits VEGF and Inflammatory Mediators Expression on Experimental Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in Rhesus Monkey.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhipeng; An, Jianbin; Shang, Qingli; Zhou, Nalei; Ma, Jingxue

    2018-01-24

    To investigate the therapeutic potential of YC-1 for experimental central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) of rhesus monkey. Six adult rhesus monkeys were recruited in this study. Laser-induced CRVO was established in both eyes of all subjects. Intravitreal injection of YC-1 90 μl (200 μM with 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as vehicle) was administrated in right eye and 0.01% DMSO 90 μl in left eye respectively at 1 week after CRVO established. All eyes underwent routine examination at 1 day, 1 week, 2 week, and 1 month after intravitreal injection of YC-1 or DMSO. Meanwhile, vitreous fluid was collected at each time points to analyze concentration of VEGF, HIF-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mediators by CBA or ELASA method. The experimental CRVO was successfully established in six rhesus monkeys. As expected, the thickness of macular edema significantly decreased at 1 week and 2 weeks after YC-1 injection compared with that of DMSO injection. Subsequently, the central macular thickness in all eyes was recovered to the initial levels at 1 month after photocoagulation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was not significantly different between two groups during all follow up. Meanwhile, the concentration of IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and HIF-1α in vitreous fluid significantly decreased after YC-1 injection compared with that of DMSO injection, MCP-1 was not significantly different between both groups. Intravitreal injection of YC-1 significantly alleviated macular edema compared with that of DMSO control group. Meanwhile, both inflammatory factors and angiogenesis-related factors expression were inhibited in vitreous by YC-1 injection.

  19. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-02-21

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P>0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P<0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2mM valproic acid for 24h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Signaling Network Underlies the Pubertal Increase in GnRH Release in Female Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Garcia, James P; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Keen, Kim L; Kenealy, Brian P; Seminara, Stephanie B; Terasawa, Ei

    2017-10-01

    Loss-of-function or inactivating mutations in the genes coding for kisspeptin and its receptor (KISS1R) or neurokinin B (NKB) and the NKB receptor (NK3R) in humans result in a delay in or the absence of puberty. However, precise mechanisms of kisspeptin and NKB signaling in the regulation of the pubertal increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in primates are unknown. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments infusing agonists and antagonists of kisspeptin and NKB into the stalk-median eminence, where GnRH, kisspeptin, and NKB neuroterminal fibers are concentrated, and measuring GnRH release in prepubertal and pubertal female rhesus monkeys. Results indicate that (1) similar to those previously reported for GnRH stimulation by the KISS1R agonist (i.e., human kisspeptin-10), the NK3R agonist senktide stimulated GnRH release in a dose-responsive manner in both prepubertal and pubertal monkeys; (2) the senktide-induced GnRH release was blocked in the presence of the KISS1R antagonist peptide 234 in pubertal but not prepubertal monkeys; and (3) the kisspeptin-induced GnRH release was blocked in the presence of the NK3R antagonist SB222200 in the pubertal but not prepubertal monkeys. These results are interpreted to mean that although, in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin and NKB signaling to GnRH release is independent, in pubertal female monkeys, a reciprocal signaling mechanism between kisspeptin and NKB neurons is established. We speculate that this cooperative mechanism by the kisspeptin and NKB network underlies the pubertal increase in GnRH release in female monkeys. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  1. Innovative coconut-opening in a semi free-ranging rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): A case report on behavioral propensities

    PubMed Central

    Comins, Jordan A.; Russ, Brian E.; Humbert, Kelley A.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    The present case report provides a description of the emergence of an innovative, highly beneficial for- aging behavior in a single rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Selectively choosing the island’s cement dock and nearby surrounding rocky terrain, our focal subject (ID: 84 J) opens coconuts using two types of underhand tosses: (1) a rolling motion to move it, and (2) a throwing motion up in the air to crack the shell. We discuss this innovative behavior in light of species-specific behavioral propensities. PMID:23280047

  2. Developmental consequences of behavioral inhibition: a model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chun, Katie; Capitanio, John P

    2016-11-01

    In children, behavioral inhibition is characterized by a disposition to withdraw in the presence of strangers and novel situations. Later in life, behavioral inhibition can result in an increased risk for anxiety and depression and a decrease in social behavior. We selected rhesus monkeys that, during infancy, showed evidence of behavioral inhibition in response to separation, and contrasted them with non-inhibited peers. To understand the development of behavioral inhibition at juvenile age, we collected behavioral data in response to relocation; in response to a human intruder challenge; and in naturalistic outdoor field corrals. At 4 years of age (young adulthood), we again collected behavioral data in the outdoor field corrals to understand the adult social consequences of behavioral inhibition. We also included sex, dominance rank, and number of available kin in our analyses. Finally, to understand the consistency in behavior in behaviorally inhibited animals, we conducted exploratory analyses contrasting behaviorally inhibited animals that showed high vs. low durations of non-social behaviors as adults. At juvenile age, behaviorally inhibited animals continued to show behavioral differences in the novel testing room and during the human intruder challenge, generally showing evidence of greater anxiety and emotionality compared to non-inhibited controls. In their outdoor corrals, behaviorally inhibited juveniles spent more time alone and less time in proximity and grooming with mother and other adult females. In young adulthood, we found that behavioral inhibition was not related to time spent alone. We did find that duration of time alone in adulthood was related to time alone exhibited as juveniles; sex, dominance rank, or the number of kin were not influential in adult non-social duration, either as main effects or as moderators. Finally, exploratory analyses revealed that behaviorally inhibited females that were more sociable (less time spent alone) as

  3. Developmental consequences of behavioral inhibition: A model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Katie; Capitanio, John P.

    2017-01-01

    In children, behavioral inhibition is characterized by a disposition to withdraw in the presence of strangers and novel situations. Later in life, behavioral inhibition can result in an increased risk for anxiety and depression and a decrease in social behavior. We selected rhesus monkeys that, during infancy, showed evidence of behavioral inhibition in response to separation, and contrasted them with non-inhibited peers. To understand the development of behavioral inhibition at juvenile age, we collected behavioral data in response to relocation; in response to a human intruder challenge; and in naturalistic outdoor field corrals. At four years of age (young adulthood), we again collected behavioral data in the outdoor field corrals to understand the adult social consequences of behavioral inhibition. We also included sex, dominance rank, and number of available kin in our analyses. Finally, to understand the consistency in behavior in behaviorally inhibited animals, we conducted exploratory analyses contrasting behaviorally inhibited animals that showed high vs. low durations of non-social behaviors as adults. At juvenile age, behaviorally inhibited animals continued to show behavioral differences in the novel testing room and during the human intruder challenge, generally showing evidence of greater anxiety and emotionality compared to non-inhibited controls. In their outdoor corrals, behaviorally inhibited juveniles spent more time alone and less time in proximity and grooming with mother and other adult females. In young adulthood, we found that behavioral inhibition was not related to time spent alone. We did find that duration of time alone in adulthood was related to time alone exhibited as juveniles; sex, dominance rank, or the number of kin were not influential in adult non-social duration, either as main effects or as moderators. Finally, exploratory analyses revealed that behaviorally inhibited females that were more sociable (less time spent alone) as

  4. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    An Efficacy and. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce The -. Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated...FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Diazepam , rheus monkeys, Soman-" (GD) pyridostigmine, atropin , 1 I pralidoxime chloride 2-PA), convulsions, pharmacokinetics...of diazepam that would result in no Zupercent i convulsions in male rhesus monkeys pretreated with pyridostigmine, challenged with soman, and post

  5. [The study of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rhesus monkeys].

    PubMed

    Lai, Kunbei; Jin, Chenjin; Tu, Shu; Xiong, Yunfan; Huang, Rui; Ge, Jian

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the morphological and functional changes of the laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rhesus monkeys. Experimental study. Eight adult rhesus monkeys weighted 4 to 7 kg were used in this study. CNVs were induced with small high-energy laser spots at short pulse duration by an argon green laser. Eyes were monitored weekly by color fundus photography, fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA) , and optical coherence tomography (OCT) . Fluorescein leaking intensities of grade 4 CNV lesions were analyzed by the method of ANOVA for repeated measures. Electroretinogram (ERG) was performed before laser photocoagulation and 56 days after laser photocoagulation and the data were analyzed with paired t-test. (1) FFA revealed that the mean intensities of grade 4 CNV lesions were 89.44 ± 26.28, 97.56 ± 26.47, 110.22 ± 29.76, 100.26 ± 29.24, 91.77 ± 28.11, 77.76 ± 24.85 and 63.23 ± 22.34 on day 14, day 21, day 28, day 35, day 42, day 49, and day 56 respectively and the differences were statistically significant (F = 39.715, P < 0.01) . The differences between any time-point and its previous time-point were also statistically significant (t14-21 = 4.824, P < 0.01; t21-28 = 5.225, P < 0.01; t28-35 = 7.378, P < 0.01;t35-42 = 2.954, P < 0.05; t42-49 = 5.386, P < 0.01; t49-56 = 6.138, P < 0.01). (2) OCT images showed retinal edema, subretinal fluid and hyper-reflective lesions of CNVs in the laser sites and histopathology showed that fibrovascular tissues together with proliferating retinal pigment epithelium cells were seen in the laser sites. (3) ERG data revealed that implicit time of dark-adapted b wave (t = 4.23, P < 0.01) increased while the amplitudes of dark-adapted a wave (t = 6.35, P < 0.01) , dark-adapted b wave (t = 3.12, P < 0.01) and light-adapted b wave (t = 3.93, P < 0.01) decreased 56 days after laser photocoagulation compared with those before laser photocoagulation. The laser-induced CNV in non-human primate model shows continuous

  6. Pharmacokinetics of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and its catabolites and interactions with probenecid in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Cretton, E M; Schinazi, R F; McClure, H M; Anderson, D C; Sommadossi, J P

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) were investigated in rhesus monkeys after subcutaneous administration of 33.3 mg of AZT per kg of body weight alone or in the presence of 100 mg of probenecid per kg. In addition to unchanged drug, two catabolites, 5'-O-glucuronide (GAZT) and 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), were detected in plasma within 30 min. GAZT exhibited a kinetic profile similar to that of AZT, with an elimination half-life of approximately 1 h, while AMT was more variable, with an apparent half-life of 1.6 +/- 1.5 h. Approximately 90% of the total administered dose was recovered in urine within 24 h as AZT, GAZT, AMT, and the 5'-O-glucuronide of AMT. AZT and AMT demonstrated similar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration 1 h after AZT treatment, while GAZT poorly crossed the blood-brain barrier. Concomitant administration of probenecid greatly altered the pharmacokinetics of AZT, GAZT, and AMT, resulting in prolongation of their apparent elimination half-lives, increased concentrations in plasma, and marked reduction in renal clearances. In addition, the CSF/plasma concentration ratios for AZT and its catabolites were greatly increased, suggesting that probenecid inhibits efflux of AZT and its catabolites from CSF to plasma. The substantial levels of AMT in plasma suggest that this catabolite affects the pharmacodynamic properties of AZT in relation to its activity against human immunodeficiency virus replication and cytotoxicity to host cells. Enhanced AMT levels in plasma in the presence of probenecid may decrease the therapeutic efficacy of the AZT-probenecid combination. PMID:1854160

  7. Effects of daily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R.; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Poly-drug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated co-administration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of daily treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and its discontinuation on self-administration of heroin in rhesus monkeys (n=4) lever-pressing under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. Heroin self-administration (0.32–32 μg/kg/infusion, i.v.) generated an inverted U-shaped dose–effect curve. Administered acutely, Δ9-THC (0.01–0.32 mg/kg, s.c.) dose dependently decreased responding for heroin and flattened the self-administration dose-effect curve. Daily treatment with Δ9-THC (0.01–0.1 mg/kg/12hr, s.c.) either had no effect on or decreased responding for heroin. In addition, daily treatment did not significantly impact extinction of heroin self-administration or resumption of responding for heroin after extinction. Discontinuation of daily Δ9-THC treatment did not systematically impact rates of heroin self-administration. These data suggest that repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor agonist likely does not increase, and possibly decreases, the positive reinforcing effects of a mu opioid receptor agonist. PMID:26397756

  8. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Impairs Visuo-Spatial Associative Memory in Periadolescent Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Crean, Rebecca D.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Katner, Simon N.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in the adult is often preceded by high alcohol consumption during adolescence. Profound changes in brain structure and function occur during this developmental period, therefore alcohol may impact essential cognitive skill development during the formal educational years. The objective of this study was to determine if chronic oral alcohol intake slows acquisition and performance of cognitive tasks in male adolescent rhesus monkeys. Treatment groups (Alcohol, N=4; Control, N=3) were evaluated on bimanual dexterity and tests of visuo-spatial memory and learning adapted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Animals were trained daily in 30 min sessions and had subsequent access to alcohol/Tang® solutions (Alcohol group) or Tang® only (Control group) Monday through Friday for 11 months. Recordings of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BSAEP) were conducted periodically before and during the chronic drinking. Results Chronic alcohol drinking (ave of 1.78g/kg alcohol per session) impaired behavioral performance assessed ~22 hrs after the prior drinking session. The Alcohol group required more trials than the Control group to reach criterion on the visuo-spatial memory task and showed increased sensitivity to trial difficulty and retention interval. Alcohol animals also had slowed initial acquisition of the bimanual task. The latency of P4 and P5 BSAEP peaks were also delayed in the Alcohol group. Chronic alcohol consumption impaired the acquisition and performance of a spatial memory task and disrupted brainstem auditory processing, thus these results show that repeated alcohol exposure in adolescence interferes with a range of brain functions including complex visuo-spatial mnemonic processing. PMID:20951512

  9. Multilineage differentiation of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Silvia S.; Revoltella, Roberto P.; Papini, Sandra; Michelini, Monica; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Margolis, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    In the course of normal embryogenesis, embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate along different lineages in the context of complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures. In order to study this phenomenon in vitro under controlled conditions, 3D culture systems are necessary. Here, we studied in vitro differentiation of rhesus monkey ES cells in 3D collagen matrixes (collagen gels and porous collagen sponges). Differentiation of ES cells in these 3D systems was different from that in monolayers. ES cells differentiated in collagen matrixes into neural, epithelial, and endothelial lineages. The abilities of ES cells to form various structures in two chemically similar but topologically different matrixes were different. In particular, in collagen gels ES cells formed gland-like circular structures, whereas in collagen sponges ES cells were scattered through the matrix or formed aggregates. Soluble factors produced by feeder cells or added to the culture medium facilitated ES cell differentiation into particular lineages. Coculture with fibroblasts in collagen gel facilitated ES cell differentiation into cells of a neural lineage expressing nestin, neural cell adhesion molecule, and class III beta-tubulin. In collagen sponges, keratinocytes facilitated ES cell differentiation into cells of an endothelial lineage expressing factor VIII. Exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor further enhanced endothelial differentiation. Thus, both soluble factors and the type of extracellular matrix seem to be critical in directing differentiation of ES cells and the formation of tissue-like structures. Three-dimensional culture systems are a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of these phenomena.

  10. Spaceflight effects on single skeletal muscle fiber function in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Desplanches, D.; Romatowski, J. G.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand how 14 days of weightlessness alters the cellular properties of individual slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey. The diameter of the soleus (Sol) type I, medial gastrocnemius (MG) type I, and MG type II fibers from the vivarium controls averaged 60 +/- 1, 46 +/- 2, and 59 +/- 2 microm, respectively. Both a control 1-G capsule sit (CS) and spaceflight (SF) significantly reduced the Sol type I fiber diameter (20 and 13%, respectively) and peak force, with the latter declining from 0.48 +/- 0.01 to 0.31 +/- 0.02 (CS group) and 0.32 +/- 0.01 mN (SF group). When the peak force was expressed as kiloNewtons per square meter (kN/m(2)), only the SF group showed a significant decline. This group also showed a significant 15% drop in peak fiber stiffness that suggests that fewer cross bridges were contracting in parallel. In the MG, SF but not CS depressed the type I fiber diameter and force. Additionally, SF significantly depressed absolute (mN) and relative (kN/m(2)) force in the fast-twitch MG fibers by 30% and 28%, respectively. The Ca(2+) sensitivity of the type I fiber (Sol and MG) was significantly reduced by growth but unaltered by SF. Flight had no significant effect on the mean maximal fiber shortening velocity in any fiber type or muscle. The post-SF Sol type I fibers showed a reduced peak power and, at peak power, an elevated velocity and decreased force. In conclusion, CS and SF caused atrophy and a reduced force and power in the Sol type I fiber. However, only SF elicited atrophy and reduced force (mN) in the MG type I fiber and a decline in relative force (kN/m(2)) in the Sol type I and MG type II fibers.

  11. Neural Correlates of Exposure to Cocaine Cues in Rhesus Monkeys: Modulation by the Dopamine Transporter.

    PubMed

    Porrino, Linda J; Miller, Mack D; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Susan H; Nader, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    A major goal of treatments for cocaine addiction is to reduce relapse-associated cravings, which are typically induced by environmental stimuli associated with cocaine use and related to changes in dopamine neurotransmission. The present study used an animal model of cocaine seeking to determine functional consequences of cue exposure using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and to relate findings to juvenile levels of dopamine transporter and D 2 -like receptor availabilities determined before any drug exposure. Adult male rhesus monkeys (N = 11) self-administered cocaine (0.2 mg/kg per injection) under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding was maintained by conditioned reinforcers. Positron emission tomography scans assessing glucose utilization, a marker of functional activation, were conducted during cocaine-cue responding and food-reinforced responding in a context where cocaine was never available. Compared with the noncocaine condition, we found significant functional activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, precuneus region of the parietal cortex, and striatum-findings similar to those reported in humans who abuse cocaine. Furthermore, these functional activations in the prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortex measured during cocaine-cue responding were significantly correlated with juvenile measures of dopamine transporter availability, whereas no significant relationship with prior D 2 -like receptor availability was observed in any brain region. The similarity between the present findings and findings in humans who use cocaine supports the use of this model for examination of factors that affect the development and intensity of cue-induced drug seeking and provides evidence for potential biomarkers for the evaluation of potential treatments (behavioral and pharmacologic) for cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Choice between variable and fixed cocaine injections in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Huskinson, S L; Freeman, K B; Petry, N M; Rowlett, J K

    2017-08-01

    The schedule of drug availability may enhance choice of a drug. In non-human subjects, reinforcers are chosen more often when available under variable schedules of reinforcement relative to fixed schedules. To determine whether variable-drug access is an important determinant of cocaine choice by manipulating the schedule, drug dose, and combination of schedule + dose. Four male rhesus monkeys chose between cocaine doses (0.025-0.4 mg/kg/injection). In control conditions, the schedule and dose of each drug delivery were fixed. In other conditions, the reinforcement schedule (i.e., variable-ratio schedule), dose of each cocaine delivery, or both were variable on one lever while all aspects on the other lever remained fixed. When cocaine dose was equal on average (0.1 mg/kg/injection), 2 of 4 subjects chose cocaine associated with the variable schedule more than the fixed schedule. All subjects chose the variable dose that was equal on average to the fixed dose, and this difference was statistically significant. Three of 4 subjects chose cocaine associated with the variable combination over the fixed option (when the dose was equal on average). During dose-response determinations (when dose on the variable and fixed options were not equal), making the schedule, dose, or both variable generally did not alter cocaine's potency as a reinforcer. While many factors contribute to drug choice, unpredictable drug access is a feature that may be common in the natural environment and could play a key role in the allocation of behavior to drug alternatives by patients with substance-use disorders.

  13. Photoreceptor mosaic: number and distribution of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey retina.

    PubMed

    Wikler, K C; Williams, R W; Rakic, P

    1990-07-22

    Video-enhanced differential interference contrast optics was used to determine the number and distribution of photoreceptors across the entire retinal surface of 9 eyes obtained from 7 adult rhesus monkeys. We found that the retina of this primate contains an average of 3,100,000 cones (+/- 130,000) and 61,000,000 rods (+/- 7,500,000). Variation among animals in the number of rods and cones cannot be accounted for by differences in sex, age, or retinal surface area, nor is there a correlation between the number of rods and cones (a retina with a high number of rods does not typically have a high number of cones). Cone density peaks at 141,000 cones/mm2 in the foveola and decreases about 100-fold toward the periphery. Rod density in a central annulus around the fovea is 130,000/mm2 and decreases 6-8-fold toward the periphery. In all 9 retinae, we found that an area 4-5 mm dorsal to the fovea had the highest rod density at 184,000 rods/mm2. The functional significance of this area, which we term the dorsal rod peak (DRP), may be related to high sensitivity vision under scotopic conditions. Outside of the DRP, rod density is symmetrical around the major axes of the retina, whereas cone density is elevated in nasal retina. Among animals, both rods and cones display a 2-fold individual difference in receptor density at any given eccentricity. Although rods and cones differ in absolute number, the location and magnitude of their peak densities, and their central to peripheral density gradients, the ratio of the density of rods to cones (15-30:1) is remarkably stable from 3 mm to 15 mm eccentricity. The relative consistency in the proportion of rods and cones in extrafoveal retina may be related to mechanisms of retinal development and functional interactions between scotopic and photopic systems.

  14. Early life allergen and air pollutant exposures alter longitudinal blood immune profiles in infant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Candace M; Fontaine, Justin H; Gerriets, Joan E; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-08-01

    Early life is a critical period for the progressive establishment of immunity in response to environmental stimuli; the impact of airborne challenges on this process is not well defined. In a longitudinal fashion, we determined the effect of episodic house dust mite (HDM) aerosol and ozone inhalation, both separately and combined, on peripheral blood immune cell phenotypes and cytokine expression from 4 to 25weeks of age in an infant rhesus monkey model of childhood development. Immune profiles in peripheral blood were compared with lung lavage at 25weeks of age. Independent of exposure, peripheral blood cell counts fluctuated with chronologic age of animals, while IFNγ and IL-4 mRNA levels increased over time in a linear fashion. At 12weeks of age, total WBC, lymphocyte numbers, FoxP3 mRNA and IL-12 mRNA were dramatically reduced relative to earlier time points, but increased to a steady state with age. Exposure effects were observed for monocyte numbers, as well as CCR3, FoxP3, and IL-12 mRNA levels in peripheral blood. Significant differences in cell surface marker and cytokine expression were detected following in vitro HDM or PMA/ionomycin stimulation of PBMC isolated from animals exposed to either HDM or ozone. Lavage revealed a mixed immune phenotype of FoxP3, IFNγ and eosinophilia in association with combined HDM plus ozone exposure, which was not observed in blood. Collectively, our findings show that airborne challenges during postnatal development elicit measureable cell and cytokine changes in peripheral blood over time, but exposure-induced immune profiles are not mirrored in the lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity of Glutamatergic Synaptic Strength in Lateral Prefrontal versus Primary Visual Cortices in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Luebke, Jennifer I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding commonalities and differences in glutamatergic synaptic signaling is essential for understanding cortical functional diversity, especially in the highly complex primate brain. Previously, we have shown that spontaneous EPSCs differed markedly in layer 3 pyramidal neurons of two specialized cortical areas in the rhesus monkey, the high-order lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the primary visual cortex (V1). Here, we used patch-clamp recordings and confocal and electron microscopy to determine whether these distinct synaptic responses are due to differences in firing rates of presynaptic neurons and/or in the features of presynaptic or postsynaptic entities. As with spontaneous EPSCs, TTX-insensitive (action potential-independent) miniature EPSCs exhibited significantly higher frequency, greater amplitude, and slower kinetics in LPFC compared with V1 neurons. Consistent with these physiological differences, LPFC neurons possessed higher densities of spines, and the mean width of large spines was greater compared with those on V1 neurons. Axospinous synapses in layers 2–3 of LPFC had larger postsynaptic density surface areas and a higher proportion of large perforated synapses compared with V1. Axonal boutons in LPFC were also larger in volume and contained ∼1.6× more vesicles than did those in V1. Further, LPFC had a higher density of AMPA GluR2 receptor labeling than V1. The properties of spines and synaptic currents of individual layer 3 pyramidal neurons measured here were significantly correlated, consistent with the idea that significantly more frequent and larger synaptic currents are likely due to more numerous, larger, and more powerful synapses in LPFC compared with V1. PMID:25568107

  16. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  17. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female's motivation to interact with conspecifics. 2010 Elsevier

  18. Spaceflight effects on single skeletal muscle fiber function in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Fitts, R H; Desplanches, D; Romatowski, J G; Widrick, J J

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand how 14 days of weightlessness alters the cellular properties of individual slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey. The diameter of the soleus (Sol) type I, medial gastrocnemius (MG) type I, and MG type II fibers from the vivarium controls averaged 60 +/- 1, 46 +/- 2, and 59 +/- 2 microm, respectively. Both a control 1-G capsule sit (CS) and spaceflight (SF) significantly reduced the Sol type I fiber diameter (20 and 13%, respectively) and peak force, with the latter declining from 0.48 +/- 0.01 to 0.31 +/- 0.02 (CS group) and 0.32 +/- 0.01 mN (SF group). When the peak force was expressed as kiloNewtons per square meter (kN/m(2)), only the SF group showed a significant decline. This group also showed a significant 15% drop in peak fiber stiffness that suggests that fewer cross bridges were contracting in parallel. In the MG, SF but not CS depressed the type I fiber diameter and force. Additionally, SF significantly depressed absolute (mN) and relative (kN/m(2)) force in the fast-twitch MG fibers by 30% and 28%, respectively. The Ca(2+) sensitivity of the type I fiber (Sol and MG) was significantly reduced by growth but unaltered by SF. Flight had no significant effect on the mean maximal fiber shortening velocity in any fiber type or muscle. The post-SF Sol type I fibers showed a reduced peak power and, at peak power, an elevated velocity and decreased force. In conclusion, CS and SF caused atrophy and a reduced force and power in the Sol type I fiber. However, only SF elicited atrophy and reduced force (mN) in the MG type I fiber and a decline in relative force (kN/m(2)) in the Sol type I and MG type II fibers.

  19. Effects of l-methamphetamine treatment on cocaine- and food-maintained behavior in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kohut, Stephen J.; Bergman, Jack; Blough, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Monoamine releasers with prominent dopaminergic actions, e.g., d-methamphetamine (d-MA), significantly reduce cocaine use and craving in clinical and preclinical laboratory studies. However, d-MA and related drugs also display high abuse potential, which limits their acceptability as agonist replacement medications for the management of Cocaine Use Disorder. Objectives The l-isomer of methamphetamine (l-MA), unlike d-MA, has preferential noradrenergic actions and is used medicinally with low, if any, abuse liability. The present study was conducted to determine whether l-MA could serve as an agonist replacement medication by both mimicking interoceptive effects of cocaine and decreasing intravenous (IV) cocaine self-administration. Methods Separate groups (N=4-5) of rhesus monkeys were studied to determine whether l-MA could (1) substitute for cocaine in subjects that discriminated intramuscular (IM) cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) from saline and, (2) decrease IV cocaine self-administration under a second-order FR2(VR16:S) schedule of reinforcement. Results l-MA, like d-MA but with approximately 5-fold lesser potency, substituted for cocaine in drug discrimination experiments in a dose-dependent manner. In IV self-administration studies, 5-10 day treatments with continuously infused l-MA (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/hr, IV) dose-dependently decreased cocaine-maintained responding; the highest dosage reduced cocaine intake to levels of saline self-administration without appreciable effects on food-maintained responding. Conclusions These results indicate that l-MA both shares discriminative-stimulus effects with cocaine and reduces cocaine self-administration in a behaviorally selective manner. l-MA and other compounds with a similar pharmacological profile deserve further evaluation for the management of Cocaine Use Disorder. PMID:26713332

  20. Effects of L-methamphetamine treatment on cocaine- and food-maintained behavior in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack; Blough, Bruce E

    2016-03-01

    Monoamine releasers with prominent dopaminergic actions, e.g., D-methamphetamine (D-MA), significantly reduce cocaine use and craving in clinical and preclinical laboratory studies. However, D-MA and related drugs also display high abuse potential, which limits their acceptability as agonist replacement medications for the management of Cocaine Use Disorder. The L-isomer of methamphetamine (L-MA), unlike D-MA, has preferential noradrenergic actions and is used medicinally with low, if any, abuse liability. The present study was conducted to determine whether L-MA could serve as an agonist replacement medication by both mimicking interoceptive effects of cocaine and decreasing intravenous (IV) cocaine self-administration. Separate groups (N = 4-5) of rhesus monkeys were studied to determine whether L-MA could (1) substitute for cocaine in subjects that discriminated intramuscular (IM) cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) from saline and (2) decrease IV cocaine self-administration under a second-order FR2(VR16:S) schedule of reinforcement. L-MA, like D-MA but with approximately 5-fold lesser potency, substituted for cocaine in drug discrimination experiments in a dose-dependent manner. In IV self-administration studies, 5-10-day treatments with continuously infused L-MA (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h, IV) dose-dependently decreased cocaine-maintained responding; the highest dosage reduced cocaine intake to levels of saline self-administration without appreciable effects on food-maintained responding. These results indicate that L-MA both shares discriminative stimulus effects with cocaine and reduces cocaine self-administration in a behaviorally selective manner. L-MA and other compounds with a similar pharmacological profile deserve further evaluation for the management of Cocaine Use Disorder.

  1. Social status modifies estradiol activation of sociosexual behavior in female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Katherine; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen (E2) has activational effects on sexual motivation and mitigating effects on anxiety-like behaviors that can be attenuated with chronic exposure to psychosocial stress. Some studies suggest that this attenuation can be overcome by higher doses of E2, while others show that chronic psychosocial stress may alter the mechanisms of E2 function, thus reducing any positive benefit from higher doses of E2. To determine the interaction between psychosocial stress and E2 dose on behavior, we examined the scope of attenuation across a suite of socioemotional behaviors, including reproduction, affiliation, aggression, submission, and anxiety-like behaviors on 36 ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. Females were exposed to graded psychosocial stress, established by an intrinsic female dominance hierarchy, where subordinate animals receive high amounts of harassment. Our data show that E2 dose-dependently increased sexual motivation and male-affiliation in dominant (e.g. low-stress) females, while subordinate females showed no positive effects of E2, even at higher doses. In addition, contact aggression was attenuated in dominant females, while non-contact aggression was attenuated in both dominant and middle-ranking females. These results suggest that the stress-induced attenuation of E2's activational effects on sexual behavior and affiliation with males may not be overcome with higher doses of E2. Furthermore, the observed behavioral consequences of psychosocial stress and E2 dose may be dependent on the behaviors of all the females in the social-group, and better resolution on these effects depends on isolating treatment to individuals within the group to minimize alterations in social-group interactions. PMID:23046624

  2. Social status modifies estradiol activation of sociosexual behavior in female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Reding, Katherine; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-11-01

    Estrogen (E2) has activational effects on sexual motivation and mitigating effects on anxiety-like behaviors that can be attenuated with chronic exposure to psychosocial stress. Some studies suggest that this attenuation can be overcome by higher doses of E2, while others show that chronic psychosocial stress may alter the mechanisms of E2 function, thus reducing any positive benefit from higher doses of E2. To determine the interaction between psychosocial stress and E2 dose on behavior, we examined the scope of attenuation across a suite of socioemotional behaviors, including reproduction, affiliation, aggression, submission, and anxiety-like behaviors on 36 ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. Females were exposed to graded psychosocial stress, established by an intrinsic female dominance hierarchy, where subordinate animals receive high amounts of harassment. Our data show that E2 dose-dependently increased sexual motivation and male-affiliation in dominant (e.g. low-stress) females, while subordinate females showed no positive effects of E2, even at higher doses. In addition, contact aggression was attenuated in dominant females, while non-contact aggression was attenuated in both dominant and middle-ranking females. These results suggest that the stress-induced attenuation of E2's activational effects on sexual behavior and affiliation with males may not be overcome with higher doses of E2. Furthermore, the observed behavioral consequences of psychosocial stress and E2 dose may be dependent on the behaviors of all the females in the social-group, and better resolution on these effects depends on isolating treatment to individuals within the group to minimize alterations in social-group interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of primary cell cultures to measure the late effects in the skins of rhesus monkeys irradiated with protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.; Lett, J. T.

    Previous pilot investigations of the uses of primary cell cultures to study late damage in stem cells of the skin of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit and the rhesus monkey /1-3/, have been extended to individual monkeys exposed to 55 MeV protons. Protons of this energy have a larger range in tissue of (~2.6 cm) than the 32 MeV protons (~0.9 cm) to which the animals in our earlier studies had been exposed. Although the primary emphases in the current studies were improvement and simplification in the techniques and logistics of transportation of biopsies to a central analytical facility, comparison of the quantitative measurements obtained thus far for survival of stem cells in the skins from animals irradiated 21 years ago reveals that the effects of both proton energies are similar.

  4. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  5. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task: II. Effects of atropine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Castro, C A

    1997-08-01

    Nonhuman primates display both a primacy and a recency effect when trained on a 6-item serial probe recognition task. The author has previously shown that in the rhesus monkey, diazepam (3.2 mg/kg im) interferes with the memory processes that mediate the recency effect without affecting those memory processes involved in the primacy effect (C. A. Castro, 1995). This study assessed the effects of atropine sulfate (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/kg im) on the primacy and recency effects in these same monkeys. Opposite the effects of diazepam, atropine disrupted the primacy component of the serial position curve and had no measurable effect on the recency component. In addition, the 2 highest doses of atropine disrupted accuracy on the nonmatching probe trials, whereas all 3 doses of atropine resulted in increased response latencies. These reports indicate that the primacy and recency effects in the nonhuman primate can be pharmacologically dissociated.

  6. Comparison of kidney weight and volume to selected anatomical parameters in the adult female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hill, L R; Hess, K R; Stephens, L C; Tinkey, P T; Price, R E

    1999-04-01

    In this study, the normal distribution of renal weight and volume was determined and the correlation between the weight and volume and various skeletal measurements taken from radiographs and at necropsy was assessed. Values from 136 female monkeys with complete data (including all bone, radiographic, and kidney measurements) were analyzed. The mean kidney weight was 13 g with a standard deviation (SD) of 2 g. The mean kidney volume was 12 ml, SD 2 ml. The estimation of kidney weight and volume from bone length, age, or body weight was not reliable according to statistical analysis of our data. We did find that all apparently normal adult female rhesus monkeys typically have similar sized kidneys. This information is useful in that it reduces concerns about consistency in experimental subjects.

  7. The stoichiometry of protection against soman and VX toxicity in monkeys pretreated with human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Raveh, L; Grauer, E; Grunwald, J; Cohen, E; Ashani, Y

    1997-07-01

    Bioscavengers of organophophates (OP) have been examined as potential substitutes for the currently approved drug treatment against OP toxicity. The present work was designed to assess the ability of butyrylcholinesterase, purified from human serum (HuBChE), to prevent the toxicity induced by soman and VX in rhesus monkeys. The consistency of the data across species was then evaluated as the basis for the extrapolation of the data to humans. The average mean residence time of the enzyme in the circulation of monkeys following an intravenous loading was 34 hr. High bioavailability of HuBChE in blood (>80%) was demonstrated after intramuscular injection. A molar ratio of HuBChE:OP approximately 1.2 protected against an i.v. bolus injection of 2.1 x LD50 VX, while a ratio of 0.62 was sufficient to protect monkeys against an i.v. dose of 3.3 x LD50 of soman, with no additional postexposure therapy. A remarkable protection was also seen against soman-induced behavioral deficits detected in the performance of a spatial discrimination task. The consistency of the results across several species offers a reliable prediction of both the stoichiometry of the scavenging and the extent of prophylaxis with HuBChE against nerve agent toxicity in humans.

  8. Characterization of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of a NOP Receptor Agonist Ro 64-6198 in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zelenock, Kathy A.; Lindsey, Angela M.; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C.; Prinssen, Eric P.; Wichmann, Jürgen; Woods, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP) agonists have been reported to produce antinociceptive effects in rhesus monkeys with comparable efficacy to μ-opioid receptor (MOP) agonists, but without their limiting side effects. There are also known to be species differences between rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs) in the behavioral effects of NOP agonists. The aims of this study were the following: 1) to determine if the NOP agonist Ro 64-6198 could be trained as a discriminative stimulus; 2) to evaluate its pharmacological selectivity as a discriminative stimulus; and 3) to establish the order of potency with which Ro 64-6198 produces discriminative stimulus effects compared with analgesic effects in NHPs. Two groups of rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate either fentanyl or Ro 64-6198 from vehicle. Four monkeys were trained in the warm-water tail-withdrawal procedure to measure antinociception. Ro 64-6198 produced discriminative stimulus effects that were blocked by the NOP antagonist J-113397 and not by naltrexone. The discriminative stimulus effects of Ro 64-6198 partially generalized to diazepam, but not to fentanyl, SNC 80, ketocyclazocine, buprenorphine, phencyclidine, or chlorpromazine. Fentanyl produced stimulus effects that were blocked by naltrexone and not by J-113397, and Ro 64-6198 did not produce fentanyl-appropriate responding in fentanyl-trained animals. In measures of antinociception, fentanyl, but not Ro 64-6198, produced dose-dependent increases in tail-withdrawal latency. Together, these results demonstrate that Ro 64-6198 produced stimulus effects in monkeys that are distinct from other opioid receptor agonists, but may be somewhat similar to diazepam. In contrast to previous findings, Ro 64-6198 did not produce antinociception in the majority of animals tested even at doses considerably greater than those that produced discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:26801398

  9. Twelve-month evaluation of rhesus monkey dams and infants after relaxin (hRlx-2) infusion in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Golub, M S; Galiher, N J; Working, P K; Greenspan, A

    1996-01-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys received daily i.v. infusions of chemically synthesized human relaxin (hRlx-2) (0.1 mg/kg/day N = 6, 2.0 mg/kg/day N = 6, vehicle control N = 7) from the onset of cervical softening to delivery (0 to 14 infusions) to simulate potential therapeutic use of this agent for cervical ripening. Reproductive fitness of dams was evaluated during the next breeding season, and infants were studied through 12 months of age. Birth weight and size, neonatal heart rate and body temperature and neurobehavioral status were not influenced by intrauterine relaxin exposure. Neonatal muscle tone was greater and responsiveness was lower in the hRlx-2 treated infants than in controls. No group differences were seen in infant postnatal growth, maturation or incidence of health problems. Maternal endpoints including uterine involution, resumption of menses, conception rate, and pregnancy outcome were similar across groups. Systemic exposure of rhesus monkeys to relatively high levels of hRlx-2 in late pregnancy did not have apparent long term effects for the measures evaluated under conditions of the experiment. Conclusions concerning adverse effects are limited by the small sample size.

  10. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Reed F.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Yellayi, Srikanth; Solomon, Jeffrey; Bohannon, Jordan K.; Janosko, Krisztina B.; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt; Blaney, Joseph E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2015-07-15

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log{sub 10} PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease.

  11. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Reed F.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.

    2015-07-15

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log{submore » 10} PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease.« less

  12. Mucosal trafficking of vector-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes following vaccination of rhesus monkeys with adenovirus serotype 5.

    PubMed

    Masek-Hammerman, Katherine; Li, Hualin; Liu, Jinyan; Abbink, Peter; La Porte, Annalena; O'Brien, Kara L; Whitney, James B; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G; Barouch, Dan H

    2010-10-01

    Post hoc analysis of the phase 2b Step study evaluating a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5)-based HIV-1 vaccine candidate suggested a potential increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in subjects who were baseline Ad5 seropositive and uncircumcised. These concerns had a profound impact on the HIV-1 vaccine development field, although the mechanism underlying this observation remains unknown. It has been hypothesized that rAd5 vaccination of baseline Ad5-seropositive individuals may have resulted in anamnestic, vector-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes that could have trafficked to mucosal sites and served as increased targets for HIV-1 infection. Here we show that Ad5-specific CD4(+) T lymphocyte responses at mucosal sites following rAd5-Gag/Pol/Nef vaccination were comparable in rhesus monkeys with and without baseline Ad5 immunity. Moreover, the total cellular inflammatory infiltrates and the CD3(+), CD4(+), HLA-DR(+), Ki67(+), and langerin(+) cellular subpopulations in colorectal and foreskin mucosa were similar in both groups. Thus, no greater trafficking of Ad5-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes to mucosal target sites was observed following rAd5 vaccination of rhesus monkeys with baseline Ad5 immunity. These findings from this nonhuman primate model provide evidence against the hypothesis that recruitment of vector-specific target cells to mucosal sites led to increased HIV-1 acquisition in Ad5-seropositive, uncircumcised vaccinees in the Step study.

  13. Microtubule and chromatin dynamics during fertilization and early development in rhesus monkeys, and regulation by intracellular calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, G J; Simerly, C; Zoran, S S; Funte, L R; Schatten, G

    1996-08-01

    To explore primate fertilization, oocytes and zygotes from fertile rhesus monkeys were imaged throughout fertilization, polyspermy, and artificial activation using confocal microscopy for microtubules and DNA, as well as ratiometric computer-enhanced video microscopy for intracellular calcium. Unfertilized oocytes displayed microtubules only in the radially oriented meiotic spindles. At insemination, a large calcium transient was followed by a series of smaller oscillations, and sperm astral microtubules had assembled from the sperm centrosome by 2.5 h after transient onset. This aster enlarged, and later duplicated, as the pronuclei converged near the cortex. Pronuclear apposition was prevented by microtubule inhibitors. At mitotic prophase, microtubules ensheathed both sets of condensing chromosomes. At metaphase, the spindle was barrel-shaped and eccentrically positioned with two small asters at the pole with the sperm tail. Microtubules emanating from the telophase spindle interacted with the adjacent cortex and displaced the spindle toward the cell center as first cytokinesis ensued. During polyspermy, each sperm nucleated an aster, and the frequency of calcium oscillations increased. Activation resulted initially in disarrayed microtubules that eventually organized into functional mitotic spindles. These kinetic results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys accomplish fertilization in a fashion nearly identical to that of humans and are, therefore, ideal models in which to investigate cytoskeletal events during human reproduction.

  14. Radial distribution of tocopherols in rhesus monkey retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, D V; Adler, A J; Snodderly, D M

    1996-01-01

    To map vitamin E as a function of distance from the foveal center in the primate retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid. Eyecups from rhesus monkeys were dissected with circular trephines so that the innermost disc, centered on the fovea, was in the center of a series of concentric rings. Two different types of dissection were performed. For one type, the authors used circular trephines with diameters of 1, 4, 8, and 10 mm (1,4-D), whereas for the other type the diameters were 2, 5, 8, and sometimes 10 mm (2,5-D). When possible, the neural retina was separated from the RPE-choroid. Tissues were analyzed for vitamin E, retinyl palmitate, and protein. Surface area, volume, and protein were used as indexes of the amount of tissue analyzed. Distributions of vitamin E in neural retina were dependent on the tissue metric used and type of dissection performed. However, regardless of the tissue metric used, the central 1-mm disc of the 1,4-D was, on average, higher in vitamin E content than was the central 2-mm disc of the 2,5-D. This was particularly true when volume was the tissue metric. From the average values of vitamin E in a series of concentric discs, a composite plot of the vitamin E concentration in the neural retina was generated that took into consideration both types of dissection. That plot displayed a local maximum in the fovea and then precipitously declined to a minimum in the region between 0.5 and 1.0 mm eccentricity (near the foveal crest); at greater eccentricities, the vitamin E concentration rose to a value similar to that in the fovea, i.e., the composite plot indicated that vitamin E has a V-shaped distribution in the central neural retina. Vitamin E distribution in the RPE-choroid, with surface area as the tissue metric, also was measured. For this tissue, the foveal region displayed a local maximum. By combining the results of two different types of dissection, the authors found that in the neural retina, vitamin E displayed a

  15. Dexamethasone or interleukin-10 blocks interleukin-1beta-induced uterine contractions in pregnant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sadowsky, Drew W; Novy, Miles J; Witkin, Steven S; Gravett, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with the immune modulators dexamethasone or interleukin-10 prevents interleukin-1beta-induced uterine contractions in a nonhuman primate model. Thirteen chronically instrumented rhesus monkeys at 135 +/- 1 days of gestation (term, 167 days) received one of three interventions: (1) intra-amniotic interleukin-1beta (10 microg) infusion with maternal dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) intravenously every 6 hours for 1 day before interleukin-1beta and for 2 days thereafter (n = 4), (2) intra-amniotic interleukin-1beta infusion with maternal interleukin-10 (25 microg/kg) given intravenously and 100 microg interleukin-10 given intra-amniotically before the interleukin-1beta and continued every 8 hours for 3 days (n = 5), and (3) intra-amniotic interleukin-1beta administered alone (n = 5). Uterine activity was monitored continuously and quantified as the hourly contraction area (millimeters of mercury times seconds per hour) in all groups until delivery. Amniotic fluid was sampled for leukocyte counts and assayed for prostaglandins E(2) and F(2)alpha, cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by specific assays. Maternal and fetal blood were assayed for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and estradiol. Interleukin-1beta infusion in the absence of immune modulators resulted in an increase in uterine activity and amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and leukocytes. Dexamethasone and interleukin-10 treatment significantly reduced interleukin-1beta-induced uterine contractility (P <.05) and amniotic fluid prostaglandins (P <.05) but not interleukin-8 or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Amniotic fluid interleukin-6 and maternal and fetal cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and estradiol concentrations were reduced by dexamethasone (P <.05), whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and

  16. Radiolabeling Human Peripheral Blood Stem Cells for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging in Young Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tarantal, Alice F.; Lee, C. Chang I.; Kukis, David L.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    These studies focused on a new radiolabeling technique with copper (64Cu) and zirconium (89Zr) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using a CD45 antibody. Synthesis of 64Cu-CD45 and 89Zr-CD45 immunoconjugates was performed and the evaluation of the potential toxicity of radiolabeling human peripheral blood stem cells (hPBSC) was assessed in vitro (viability, population doubling times, colony forming units). hPBSC viability was maintained as the dose of 64Cu-TETA-CD45 increased from 0 (92%) to 160 µCi/mL (76%, p>0.05). Radiolabeling efficiency was not significantly increased with concentrations of 64Cu-TETA-CD45 >20 µCi/mL (p>0.50). Toxicity affecting both growth and colony formation was observed with hPBSC radiolabeled with ≥40 µCi/mL (p<0.05). For 89Zr, there were no significant differences in viability (p>0.05), and a trend towards increased radiolabeling efficiency was noted as the dose of 89Zr-Df-CD45 increased, with a greater level of radiolabeling with 160 µCi/mL compared to 0–40 µCi/mL (p<0.05). A greater than 2,000 fold-increase in the level of 89Zr-Df-CD45 labeling efficiency was observed when compared to 64Cu-TETA-CD45. Similar to 64Cu-TETA-CD45, toxicity was noted when hPBSC were radiolabeled with ≥40 µCi/mL (p<0.05) (growth, colony formation). Taken together, 20 µCi/mL resulted in the highest level of radiolabeling efficiency without altering cell function. Young rhesus monkeys that had been transplanted prenatally with 25×106 hPBSC expressing firefly luciferase were assessed with bioluminescence imaging (BLI), then 0.3 mCi of 89Zr-Df-CD45, which showed the best radiolabeling efficiency, was injected intravenously for PET imaging. Results suggest that 89Zr-Df-CD45 was able to identify engrafted hPBSC in the same locations identified by BLI, although the background was high. PMID:24098579

  17. Circadian force and EMG activity in hindlimb muscles of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Wichayanuparp, S.; Recktenwald, M. R.; Roy, R. R.; McCall, G.; Day, M. K.; Washburn, D.; Fanton, J. W.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Continuous intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), tibialis anterior (TA), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of Rhesus during normal cage activity throughout 24-h periods and also during treadmill locomotion. Daily levels of MG tendon force and EMG activity were obtained from five monkeys with partial datasets from three other animals. Activity levels correlated with the light-dark cycle with peak activities in most muscles occurring between 08:00 and 10:00. The lowest levels of activity generally occurred between 22:00 and 02:00. Daily EMG integrals ranged from 19 mV/s in one TA muscle to 3339 mV/s in one Sol muscle: average values were 1245 (Sol), 90 (MG), 65 (TA), and 209 (VL) mV/s. The average Sol EMG amplitude per 24-h period was 14 microV, compared with 246 microV for a short burst of locomotion. Mean EMG amplitudes for the Sol, MG, TA, and VL during active periods were 102, 18, 20, and 33 microV, respectively. EMG amplitudes that approximated recruitment of all fibers within a muscle occurred for 5-40 s/day in all muscles. The duration of daily activation was greatest in the Sol [151 +/- 45 (SE) min] and shortest in the TA (61 +/- 19 min). The results show that even a "postural" muscle such as the Sol was active for only approximately 9% of the day, whereas less active muscles were active for approximately 4% of the day. MG tendon forces were generally very low, consistent with the MG EMG data but occasionally reached levels close to estimates of the maximum force generating potential of the muscle. The Sol and TA activities were mutually exclusive, except at very low levels, suggesting very little coactivation of these antagonistic muscles. In contrast, the MG activity usually accompanied Sol activity suggesting that the MG was rarely used in the absence of Sol activation. The results clearly demonstrate a wide range of activation levels among muscles of the same animal as well as among different

  18. The effects of intervertebral disc degeneration combined with osteoporosis on vascularization and microarchitecture of the endplate in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rui; Wei, Fuxin; Wang, Le; Cui, Shangbin; Chen, Ningning; Liu, Shaoyu; Zou, Xuenong

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of osteoporosis on the microarchitecture and vascularization of the endplate in rhesus monkeys with or without intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration using micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT), and to further analyze the correlation between osteoporosis and IVD degeneration. Twelve rhesus monkeys were randomly divided into the ovariectomy (OVX, n = 6) and the sham group (n = 6). The subchondral bone adjacent to the lumbar IVDs (from L4/5 to L6/7) of each monkey was randomly injected with 4 ml pingyangmycin (PYM) solution (1.5 mg/ml, PYM), or 4 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as vehicle treatment, or exteriorized but not injected anything as control (Cntrl). Degenerative and osteoporotic processes were evaluated at different time points. Micro-CT and histology were performed to analyze microarchitecture, calcification area and vascularization of the endplate. OVX resulted in significant decrease of bone mineral density (BMD). PYM injection induced progressively IVD degeneration, which was more progressive when combined with OVX. There was a negative correlation between BMD and Pfirrmann grade in the subgroups with PYM injection. The micro-CT analysis showed the combination of osteoporosis and IVD degeneration led to more calcification of endplate than any one thereof. The decrease of vascular volume percent in the endplate of the OVX-PYM subgroup was significantly greater than that in the Sham-PYM subgroup, both of which showed significant less vascularization compared to the other subgroups. In conclusion the osteoporosis could accumulate the calcification and decrease the vascularization in the endplates adjacent to the degenerated IVDs, which subsequently exacerbated degeneration of the degenerated IVDs.

  19. Bone growth in juvenile rhesus monkeys is influenced by 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and interactions between 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Bulleri, Alicia M.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Sherwood, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Male rhesus monkeys received a therapeutic oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine daily from 1 to 3 years of age. Puberty is typically initiated between 2 and 3 years of age in male rhesus and reproductive maturity is reached at 4 years. The study group was genotyped for polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes that affect serotonin neurotransmission. Growth was assessed with morphometrics at 4 month intervals and radiographs of long bones were taken at 12 month intervals to evaluate skeletal growth and maturation. No effects of fluoxetine, or MAOA or SERT genotype were found for growth during the first year of the study. Linear growth began to slow during the second year of the study and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) long polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) polymorphism effects with drug interactions emerged. Monkeys with two SERT 5HTTLPR L alleles (LL, putative greater transcription) had 25–39% less long bone growth, depending on the bone, than monkeys with one S and one L allele (SL). More advanced skeletal maturity was also seen in the LL group, suggesting earlier onset of puberty. An interaction between 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and fluoxetine was identified for femur and tibia growth; the 5HTTLPR effect was seen in controls (40% less growth for LL) but not in the fluoxetine treated group (10% less growth for LL). A role for serotonin in peripubertal skeletal growth and maturation has not previously been investigated but may be relevant to treatment of children with SSRIs. PMID:26067181

  20. Relationship between discriminative stimulus effects and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels of intramuscular methamphetamine in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Smith, Douglas A; Kisor, David F; Poklis, Justin L

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a globally abused drug that is metabolized to amphetamine, which also produces abuse-related behavioral effects. However, the contributing role of methamphetamine metabolism to amphetamine in methamphetamine's abuse-related subjective effects is unknown. This preclinical study was designed to determine 1) the relationship between plasma methamphetamine levels and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects and 2) the contribution of the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys. Adult male rhesus monkeys (n=3) were trained to discriminate 0.18mg/kg intramuscular (+)-methamphetamine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Time course of saline, (+)-methamphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg), and (+)-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg) discriminative stimulus effects were determined. Parallel pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in the same monkeys to determine plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration and amphetamine levels after amphetamine administration for correlation with behavior in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine produced full, ≥90%, methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects. Amphetamine displayed a slightly, but significantly, longer duration of action than methamphetamine in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine behavioral effects were related to methamphetamine and amphetamine plasma levels by a clockwise hysteresis loop indicating acute tolerance had developed to the discriminative stimulus effects. Furthermore, amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration were absent when methamphetamine stimulus effects were greatest and peaked when methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects returned to saline-like levels. Overall, these results demonstrate the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine does not contribute to

  1. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  2. Effects of U-75875, a peptidomimetic inhibitor of retroviral proteases, on simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L N; Soike, K F; Murphey-Corb, M; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Kakuk, T J; Thaisrivongs, S; Vidmar, T J; Ruwart, M J; Davio, S R

    1994-01-01

    U-75875 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteases and blocks Gag-Pol protein processing and viral maturation and replication in vitro. Rhesus monkeys were treated with vehicle alone or with formulated U-75875 at doses of 7 or 20 mg/kg of body weight per day for 26 days by continuous intravenous infusion beginning 6 h prior to intravenous inoculation with 10 monkey 50% infectious doses of SIV Delta B670, and the monkeys were monitored until death. The effects of treatment on the level of SIV p26 antigenemia, the infectious virus titer in serum, and the level of proviral DNA in blood mononuclear cells evaluated by PCR were assessed. SIV infection of the controls resulted in an initial viral antigenemia that began 5 to 10 days postinoculation (p.i.), reached peak values on days 10 to 14 p.i., and lasted for more than 15 days. Proviral DNA was detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 7 to 11 days p.i., reached the mean peak level by 11 days p.i., and remained at high levels through day 24 p.i. Infectious virus was detected in serum from all of the infected controls by 24 days p.i. Treatment with U-75875 for 26 days resulted in a dose-related delay in the day of the peak level of antigenemia (P = 0.034). The level of proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 11 days p.i. was significantly decreased in a dose-related fashion in the treated monkeys ( P rhesus monkeys and resulted in an inhibitory effect of SIV in vivo. PMID:7522427

  3. Effect of marginal maternal zinc intake on zinc absorption and growth of 3-month-old infant rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.K.; Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Golub, M.S.; Hendrickx, A.G.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1990-09-01

    One compensatory mechanism for marginal zinc intake may be through an enhanced absorption of zinc. Such a compensatory mechanism could be of value to the neonate, as poor zinc nutriture during early life has severe consequences on growth and development. We studied the uptake of zinc by 3-month-old infant rhesus monkeys born to dams fed control diets 100 micrograms of zinc per gram of diet or zinc-restricted diets (4 micrograms of zinc per gram of diet). Zinc uptake/retention was studied by feeding 3-month-old infant monkeys that had fasted an infant formula containing zinc 65 by gavage. Whole body radioactivity was counted immediately after intubation and on days 10 and 17 after intubation. Regardless of dietary group, 65-zinc retention was high, ranging from 33% to 71% of the dose fed to the monkeys. There were no significant differences between the two dietary groups in the percentage of zinc retention at days 10 and 17. Independent of the dietary group, there was no correlation between plasma zinc and zinc absorption. A positive correlation was found between weight gain and zinc retention in the marginal zinc infants, while a negative correlation between weight gain and zinc retention was observed in the control infants. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying growth may be different in infants born to dams fed control vs marginal zinc diets.

  4. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust primacy and recency in memory for lists from small, but not large, image sets

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of primacy and recency produces a U-shaped serial position curve typical of memory for lists. In humans, primacy is often thought to result from rehearsal, but there is little evidence for rehearsal in nonhumans. To further evaluate the possibility that rehearsal contributes to primacy in monkeys, we compared memory for lists of familiar stimuli (which may be easier to rehearse) to memory for unfamiliar stimuli (which are likely difficult to rehearse). Six rhesus monkeys saw lists of five images drawn from either large, medium, or small image sets. After presentation of each list, memory for one item was assessed using a serial probe recognition test. Across four experiments, we found robust primacy and recency with lists drawn from small and medium, but not large, image sets. This finding is consistent with the idea that familiar items are easier to rehearse and that rehearsal contributes to primacy, warranting further study of the possibility of rehearsal in monkeys. However, alternative interpretations are also viable and are discussed. PMID:20035843

  5. Transplantation of cultured rhesus monkey vascular endothelial cells to allogeneic cornea concomitant with stripping of Descemet's membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin; Wu, Min; Sun, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenjia; Hu, Zhulin; Liu, Hai

    2015-08-01

    In cases of damaged corneal endothelium cells (CECs) of the eye, transplantation of cultured vascular endothelial cells (VECs) may be a viable method to restore transparency. To evaluate the viability of replacing damaged primate CECs with cultured allogeneic VECs. Rhesus monkey VECs (RMVECs) were cultured and proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in vitro. RMs of the experimental group (n = 6) underwent manual Descemettt membrane stripping with transplantation of RMVECs labeled with BrdU; those in the control group received manual Descemetnt membrane stripping without transplantation. Postoperative evaluations included the transparency and appearance of the corneal graft; distribution and ultrastructural changes of RMVECs on the inner surface of the cornea using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistological identification of BrdU. At 90 days postsurgery, the corneal grafts of the monkeys in the experimental group retained better transparency than those of the controls, without corneal neovascularization or bullous keratopathy. A layer of cells with positive BrdU staining was found on the posterior surface of the treated corneas in the experimental group, while there was no VEC structure in corneal grafts from the monkeys of the control group. RMVECs can grow on the posterior surface of the cornea without Descemet's membrane. Cultured and transplanted RMVECs appeared similar in ultrastructure. VECs can provide a barrier to maintain corneal dehydration and transparency to some extent.

  6. Transplantation of cultured rhesus monkey vascular endothelial cells to allogeneic cornea concomitant with stripping of Descemet's membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin; Wu, Min; Sun, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenjia; Hu, Zhulin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Context: In cases of damaged corneal endothelium cells (CECs) of the eye, transplantation of cultured vascular endothelial cells (VECs) may be a viable method to restore transparency. Aims: To evaluate the viability of replacing damaged primate CECs with cultured allogeneic VECs. Subjects and Methods: Rhesus monkey VECs (RMVECs) were cultured and proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in vitro. RMs of the experimental group (n = 6) underwent manual Descemettt membrane stripping with transplantation of RMVECs labeled with BrdU; those in the control group received manual Descemetnt membrane stripping without transplantation. Postoperative evaluations included the transparency and appearance of the corneal graft; distribution and ultrastructural changes of RMVECs on the inner surface of the cornea using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistological identification of BrdU. Results: At 90 days postsurgery, the corneal grafts of the monkeys in the experimental group retained better transparency than those of the controls, without corneal neovascularization or bullous keratopathy. A layer of cells with positive BrdU staining was found on the posterior surface of the treated corneas in the experimental group, while there was no VEC structure in corneal grafts from the monkeys of the control group. Conclusions: RMVECs can grow on the posterior surface of the cornea without Descemet's membrane. Cultured and transplanted RMVECs appeared similar in ultrastructure. VECs can provide a barrier to maintain corneal dehydration and transparency to some extent. PMID:26576525

  7. Electrical activity of sensory pathways in female and male geriatric Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and its relation to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Contreras, A; Hernández-Arciga, U; Poblano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-Godínez, B; Mendoza-Cuevas, G I; Toledo-Pérez, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, A; González-Puertos, V Y; Konigsberg, M

    2018-01-01

    Synapses loss during aging has been related to decreased neuronal excitability and reduced electrophysiological activity in the nervous system, as well as to increased brain damage. Those physiological and biochemical alterations have been related to the oxidative stress increase associated with old age. The main substrate of lipid peroxidation (LPX) in the central and peripheral nervous systems are the myelin sheaths, and their damage generates a delayed nerve conduction velocity. However, studies in which the neural conduction velocity is related to changes in the redox state are still lacking. Therefore, our aim was to correlate the sensory neural pathways delay in healthy geriatric Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with the oxidative stress associated with physiological aging. Twenty-four monkeys were divided into four groups according to age and gender. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory evoked potentials were obtained. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity, as well as LPX, were determined from blood samples. Our results showed significant differences between the older and younger age groups in all neural generators of the different sensory pathways evaluated, along with an increase in LPX and the antioxidant enzymatic activities. It suggests that, even though the enzymatic activity was found to be higher in older monkeys, probably as a compensatory effect, it was not enough to avoid LPX damage and the declined electric activity associated with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. I. Plasma cannabinoid and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations and clinical chemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Slikker, W; Paule, M G; Ali, S F; Scallet, A C; Bailey, J R

    1991-08-01

    This report is the first in a series about a large multidisciplinary study designed to determine whether chronic marijuana (MJ) smoke exposure results in residual behavioral and/or neuropathological alterations in the rhesus monkey. Prior to the initiation of a year of chronic MJ smoke exposure, 64 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys were trained for 1 year to perform five operant behavioral tasks and then divided, according to their performance in these tasks, into four exposure groups (n = 15-16/group): (1) a high dose (HI) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one standard MJ cigarette; (2) a low dose (LO) group, exposed on weekend days only to the smoke of a standard MJ cigarette; (3) an extracted MJ cigarette (EX) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one ethanol-extracted MJ cigarette; and (4) a sham group (SH), exposed 7 days/week to sham exposure conditions. Daily exposures for 1 year were accomplished using a mask that covered the subjects' nose and mouth. Average body weights (initially 3.7 +/- 0.5 kg, mean +/- SD) and rates of weight gain (approximately 0.1 kg/month) were the same for all groups throughout the entire experiment. During the first week of exposure, plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in the HI group were 59 +/- 7 (mean +/- SE) and 5.5 +/- 1.5 ng/ml, respectively, 45 min after MJ smoke administration and did not change significantly at similar times after exposure throughout the remainder of the year. Whole blood carboxyhemoglobin levels increased to approximately 13% 1 min after exposure to smoke in either the MJ or the EX groups. Comparison of blood chemistry and hematology values before, during, and after exposure indicated no differences for most parameters. During exposure, lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were depressed in the HI group compared to in the SH group. During exposure, aspartate aminotransferase was elevated for both the HI and EX groups

  9. African Green Monkey TRIM5α Restriction in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Rhesus Macaque Effector CD4 T Cells Enhances Their Survival and Antiviral Function

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sumiti; Trivett, Matthew T.; Ayala, Victor I.; Ohlen, Claes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of xenogeneic TRIM5α proteins can restrict infection in various retrovirus/host cell pairings. Previously, we have shown that African green monkey TRIM5α (AgmTRIM5α) potently restricts both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239) replication in a transformed human T-cell line (L. V. Coren, et al., Retrovirology 12:11, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-015-0137-9). To assess AgmTRIM5α restriction in primary cells, we transduced AgmTRIM5α into primary rhesus macaque CD4 T cells and infected them with SIVmac239. Experiments with T-cell clones revealed that AgmTRIM5α could reproducibly restrict SIVmac239 replication, and that this restriction synergizes with an intrinsic resistance to infection present in some CD4 T-cell clones. AgmTRIM5α transduction of virus-specific CD4 T-cell clones increased and prolonged their ability to suppress SIV spread in CD4 target cells. This increased antiviral function was strongly linked to decreased viral replication in the AgmTRIM5α-expressing effectors, consistent with restriction preventing the virus-induced cytopathogenicity that disables effector function. Taken together, our data show that AgmTRIM5α restriction, although not absolute, reduces SIV replication in primary rhesus CD4 T cells which, in turn, increases their antiviral function. These results support prior in vivo data indicating that the contribution of virus-specific CD4 T-cell effectors to viral control is limited due to infection. IMPORTANCE The potential of effector CD4 T cells to immunologically modulate SIV/HIV infection likely is limited by their susceptibility to infection and subsequent inactivation or elimination. Here, we show that AgmTRIM5α expression inhibits SIV spread in primary effector CD4 T cells in vitro. Importantly, protection of effector CD4 T cells by AgmTRIM5α markedly enhanced their antiviral function by delaying SIV infection, thereby extending

  10. Topographic and age-related changes of the retinal epithelium and Bruch’s membrane of rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gouras, P; Ivert, L; Neuringer, M; Mattison, JA

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine structural differences in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and Bruch’s membrane of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as a function of topography and age. Methods The retinas of two old (24 and 26 years old) and two young (1 and 6 years old) female monkeys were examined by light, fluorescence and electron microscopy at the macula, equator and ora serrata. Results All monkeys lacked fluorescence and lipofuscin granules in the RPE at the ora serrata where photoreceptors are absent. The equator and macula showed intense fluorescence and many lipofuscin granules in the RPE of the old but not the young monkeys. At the ora, the RPE contained many dense round melanin granules throughout the cell. At the equator and macula, melanin granules were more apical, less frequent and often elongated. Mitochondria were clustered at the basal side of the RPE cell near infolds of the plasma membrane. Both mitochondria and infolds tended to increase toward the macula. In all regions, the basal lamina of the RPE did not penetrate the extracellular space adjacent to infolds. The elastin layer of Bruch’s membrane was wide at the ora and equator and thin at the macula. In the old monkeys, drusen were found at all retinal regions between the basal lamina and the internal collagen layer of Bruch’s membrane. They were often membrane bound with a basal lamina and contained material resembling structures in the RPE. Severe drusenoid-like degeneration was found at the ora serrata of the oldest monkey. Conclusions Lack of fluorescence and lipofuscin in the RPE at the ora serrata, where photoreceptors are absent, confirms that RPE fluorescence depends on outer segment phagocytosis. Mitochondrial clustering indicates that the basal side of the RPE cell uses most energy and this becomes maximal at the macula. The presence of age-related degenerative changes and drusen at all retinal locations in the older monkeys, even at the ora where RPE lipofuscin was absent

  11. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on cognition in rhesus monkeys with a chronic cocaine self-administration history.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine use is associated with impaired cognitive function, which may negatively impact treatment outcomes. One pharmacological strategy to improve cognition involves nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. However, the effects of chronic cocaine exposure on nAChR distribution and function have not been characterized. Thus, one goal of this study was to examine nAChR availability in rhesus monkeys with an extensive cocaine self-administration history (n = 4; ~6 years, mean intake, 1463 mg/kg) compared to age-matched cocaine-naive control monkeys (n = 5). Using [¹¹C]-nicotine and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, cocaine-experienced monkeys showed significantly higher receptor availability in the hippocampus compared to cocaine-naive monkeys. A second goal was to examine the effects of nAChR agonists on multiple domains of cognitive performance in these same monkeys. For these studies, working memory was assessed using a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task, associative learning and behavioral flexibility using stimulus discrimination and reversal learning tasks. When administered acutely, the nonselective high-efficacy agonist nicotine, the low-efficacy α4β2* subtype-selective agonist varenicline and the high-efficacy α7 subtype-selective agonist, PNU-282987 significantly improved DMS performance in both cocaine-naive and cocaine-experienced monkeys. Individual doses of nicotine and varenicline that engendered maximum cognitive enhancing effects on working memory did not affect discrimination or reversal learning, while PNU-282987 disrupted reversal learning in the cocaine-naive monkeys. These findings indicate that a cocaine self-administration history influenced nAChR distribution and the effects of nAChR agonists on cognitive performance, including a reduced sensitivity to the disrupting effects on reversal learning. The cognitive enhancing effects of nAChR agonists may be beneficial in combination with behavioral treatments for

  12. Change Detection by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, L. Caitlin; Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Two monkeys learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4×4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons, showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer to other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. PMID:22428982

  13. Radiation-Released Histamine in the Rhesus Monkey as Modified by Mast Cell Depletion and Antihistamine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    monkeys were measured after a 4000-rad dose of mixed gamma-neutron radiation. All animals were pretreated with aminoguanidine to retard histamine...complete mast cell histamine release. The following experiments were conducted: Experiment 1. Two monkeys were given aminoguanidine (10 mg/kg) in...antagonist, chlorpheniramine ’ (3 mg/kg), 30 minutes before irradiation. Experiment 3. Seven monkeys were given aminoguanidine and 30 minutes later the

  14. Effects of quetiapine treatment on cocaine self-administration and behavioral indices of sleep in adult rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Brutcher, Robert E; Nader, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical literature suggests a link between substance abuse and sleep disturbances. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has shown efficacy in treating sleep disturbances, with clinical studies showing promise for quetiapine as a treatment for cocaine abuse. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of quetiapine on cocaine self-administration and behavioral indices of sleep in monkeys. Seven adult male rhesus monkeys, fitted with Actical® activity monitors, were trained to respond under a choice paradigm of food (1.0-g pellets) and cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg per injection) presentation. First, monkeys received acute pretreatment (45 min) with quetiapine (25-75 mg, p.o.) prior to choice sessions; three cocaine doses were studied in combination with quetiapine. Next, the effect of chronic (14-16 days) quetiapine treatment (25-250 mg, p.o., BID) was examined in combination with the lowest preferred cocaine dose (≥80 % cocaine choice). Behavioral indices of sleep, based on activity measures obtained during lights-out, were recorded throughout the study. Acute quetiapine decreased cocaine choice in four of the seven monkeys. Chronic quetiapine treatment resulted in initial decreases in cocaine choice, but tolerance developed to these effects. Acute doses of quetiapine did not improve sleep efficiency the following night nor did chronic quetiapine. The first night after discontinuing quetiapine treatment resulted in significant decreases in sleep efficiency and increases in nighttime activity. These findings do not offer support for the use of quetiapine as a monotherapy for treatment of cocaine abuse nor as an adjunct therapy to treat sleep disturbances associated with stimulant abuse.

  15. Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. )

    1991-01-01

    N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

  16. Effects of amphetamine, morphine, and CP 55, 940 on Go/No-Go task performance in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2015-08-01

    In humans, impulsivity measured as false alarms in a Go/No-Go task is reportedly decreased by amphetamine and is not affected by oxycodone and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. To model these findings in animals, three rhesus monkeys were trained to perform a food-reinforced Go/No-Go task. In this task, amphetamine was found to decrease false alarms (i.e. responding during No-Go trials), but only at doses that also decreased hits (i.e. responding during Go trials). Morphine generally decreased hits but not false alarms. The cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55, 940 decreased both false alarms and hits, but only at doses that also decreased the number of trials completed. Additional studies in animals and humans are necessary to delineate the conditions under which amphetamine and other psychoactive drugs affect impulsivity in Go/No-Go tasks.

  17. Note on hand use in the manipulation of joysticks by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    MacNeilage et al. (1987) have proposed that nonhuman primate handedness may be contingent on the specific task requirements, with visual-spatial tasks yielding left-hand preferences and fine-motor tasks producing right-hand preferences. This study reports hand preferences in the manipulation of joysticks by 2 rhesus monkeys and 3 chimpanzees. Reach data were also collected for comparison with preference data for manipulation of the joystick. The data indicated that all 5 subjects demonstrated significant right-hand preferences in manipulating the joystick. In contrast, no significant hand preferences were found for the reach data. Reaction-time data also indicated that the right hand could perform a perceptual-motor task better than the left hand in all 5 subjects. Overall, the data indicate that reach tasks may not be sensitive enough measures to produce reliable hand preferences, whereas tasks that assess fine-motor control produce significant hand preferences.

  18. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  19. Behavioural and hormonal responses of male rhesus monkeys introduced to females in the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, I S; Rose, R M; Gordon, T P

    1977-08-01

    Six adult male rhesus monkeys were introduced individually to an all-female group for 10 days during the mating season. The initial aggressive responses of the females were rapidly replaced by positive social behaviour, and each male achieved alpha status and had access to social and sexual partners. A repetition of this paradigm in the non-breeding season produced significantly more female aggression, and no male attained high rank or engaged in sexual or other social behaviour. Male testosterone levels rose following introduction to the females in both seasons, but were significantly higher during the breeding season. Hormonal levels following removal from the females suggest a complex interplay between social, sexual and seasonal variables and recent social experiences. The differences in female social behaviour with newly introduced males, as a function of season, suggest an explanation for the seasonal limitation of male troop transfers.

  20. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Fitts, R H; Romatowski, J G; Blaser, C; De La Cruz, L; Gettelman, G J; Widrick, J J

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  1. Cortisol concentrations in the milk of rhesus monkey mothers are associated with confident temperament in sons, but not daughters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Erin C; Hinde, Katie; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

    2011-01-01

    One pathway by which infant mammals gain information about their environment is through ingestion of milk. We assessed the relationship between stress-induced cortisol concentrations in milk, maternal and offspring plasma, and offspring temperament in rhesus monkeys. Milk was collected from mothers after a brief separation from their infants at 3-4 months postpartum, and blood was drawn at this time for both mothers and infants. Offspring temperament was measured at the end of a 25-hr assessment. Cortisol concentrations in milk were in a range comparable to those found in saliva, and were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels. Mothers of males had higher cortisol concentrations in milk than did mothers of females, and cortisol concentrations in maternal milk were related to a Confident temperament factor in sons, but not daughters. This study provides the first evidence that naturally occurring variation in endogenous glucocorticoid concentrations in milk are associated with infant temperament. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cortisol Concentrations in the Milk of Rhesus Monkey Mothers are Associated with Confident Temperament in Sons, but not Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Erin; Hinde, Katie; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2011-01-01

    One pathway by which infant mammals gain information about their environment is through ingestion of milk. We assessed the relationship between stress-induced cortisol concentrations in milk, maternal and offspring plasma, and offspring temperament in rhesus monkeys. Milk was collected from mothers after a brief separation from their infants at 3–4 months postpartum, and blood was drawn at this time for both mothers and infants. Offspring temperament was measured at the end of a 25-hour assessment. Cortisol concentrations in milk were in a range comparable to those found in saliva, and were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels. Mothers of males had higher cortisol concentrations in milk than did mothers of females, and cortisol concentrations in maternal milk were related to a Confident temperament factor in sons, but not daughters. This study provides the first evidence that naturally occurring variation in endogenous glucocorticoid concentrations in milk are associated with infant temperament. PMID:20730788

  3. Soluble Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus gp350 Protects against Infection and Reduces Viral Loads in Animals that Become Infected with Virus after Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sashihara, Junji; Hoshino, Yo; Bowman, J. Jason; Krogmann, Tammy; Burbelo, Peter D.; Coffield, V. McNeil; Kamrud, Kurt; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human lymphocryptovirus that is associated with several malignancies. Elevated EBV DNA in the blood is observed in transplant recipients prior to, and at the time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; thus, a vaccine that either prevents EBV infection or lowers the viral load might reduce certain EBV malignancies. Two major approaches have been suggested for an EBV vaccine- immunization with either EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350) or EBV latency proteins (e.g. EBV nuclear antigens [EBNAs]). No comparative trials, however, have been performed. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) encodes a homolog for each gene in EBV and infection of monkeys reproduces the clinical, immunologic, and virologic features of both acute and latent EBV infection. We vaccinated rhesus monkeys at 0, 4 and 12 weeks with (a) soluble rhesus LCV gp350, (b) virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing rhesus LCV gp350, (c) VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, EBNA-3A, and EBNA-3B, or (d) PBS. Animals vaccinated with soluble gp350 produced higher levels of antibody to the glycoprotein than those vaccinated with VRPs expressing gp350. Animals vaccinated with VRPs expressing EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B developed LCV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to these proteins, while VRPs expressing gp350 did not induce detectable T cell immunity to gp350. After challenge with rhesus LCV, animals vaccinated with soluble rhesus LCV gp350 had the best level of protection against infection based on seroconversion, viral DNA, and viral RNA in the blood after challenge. Surprisingly, animals vaccinated with gp350 that became infected had the lowest LCV DNA loads in the blood at 23 months after challenge. These studies indicate that gp350 is critical for both protection against infection with rhesus LCV and for reducing the viral load in animals that become infected after challenge. Our results suggest that additional trials with soluble EBV gp350 alone, or in combination with other EBV

  4. Axonal sprouting of a brainstem-spinal pathway after estrogen administration in the adult female rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Vanderhorst, Veronique G J M; Terasawa, Ei; Ralston, Henry J

    2002-12-02

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is located in the caudal medulla oblongata and contains premotor neurons that project to motoneuronal cell groups in the brainstem and spinal cord. NRA projections to the lumbosacral cord are species specific and might be involved in mating behavior. In the female cat, this behavior is estrogen dependent, and estrogen induces axonal sprouting in the NRA-lumbosacral pathway. Because female receptive behavior in primates is not fully dependent on estrogen, the question arises as to whether the capacity of estrogen-induced sprouting is preserved in primates. The effect of estrogen was studied on the NRA-lumbosacral projection with the use of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase as a tracer in six adult ovariectomized rhesus monkeys with or without estrogen priming (three controls and three treated with 20 microg/day of estradiol benzoate subcutaneously for 14 days). Light microscopy showed that the density of arborizing labeled NRA axons in the lumbosacral cord was greater in estrogen-treated than in control animals. Ultrastructurally, labeled NRA terminal profiles were quantified in motoneuron pools that supply muscles of the abdominal wall, axial, and pelvic floor. After estrogen treatment, the average number of labeled terminal profiles per area of the abdominal wall, axial, and pelvic floor motoneuron pool increased 1.5-, 3.3-, and 2.8-fold, respectively. In the estrogen-treated cases, 8.9% of labeled terminal profiles showed characteristics of growth cones. In controls, such profiles were rarely observed. The results showed that estrogen induces axonal sprouting in a brainstem-spinal pathway in the adult female rhesus monkey. These findings supported the concept that the NRA-lumbosacral pathway may be involved in sexual behavior. Moreover, they demonstrated that a long descending brainstem-spinal tract in adult nonhuman primates retains the capacity for axonal sprouting. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. [18F]Fluoroazabenzoxazoles as potential amyloid plaque PET tracers: synthesis and in vivo evaluation in rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Eric D; Sanabria-Bohórquez, Sandra; Fan, Hong; Zeng, Zhizhen; Gammage, Linda; Miller, Patricia; O'Malley, Stacey; Connolly, Brett; Mulhearn, James; Harrison, Scott T; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C; Williams, David L; Hargreaves, Richard J; Sur, Cyrille; Cook, Jacquelynn J

    2011-11-01

    An (18)F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for amyloid plaque is desirable for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, particularly to enable preventative treatment once effective therapeutics are available. Similarly, such a tracer would be useful as a biomarker for enrollment of patients in clinical trials for evaluation of antiamyloid therapeutics. Furthermore, changes in the level of plaque burden as quantified by an amyloid plaque PET tracer may provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of amyloid-targeted therapeutics. This work describes our approach to evaluate and select a candidate PET tracer for in vivo quantification of human amyloid plaque. Ligands were evaluated for their in vitro binding to human amyloid plaques, lipophilicity and predicted blood-brain barrier permeability. Candidates with favorable in vitro properties were radiolabeled with (18)F and evaluated in vivo. Baseline PET scans in rhesus monkey were conducted to evaluate the regional distribution and kinetics of each tracer using tracer kinetic modeling methods. High binding potential in cerebral white matter and cortical grey matter was considered an unfavorable feature of the candidate tracers. [(18)F]MK-3328 showed the most favorable combination of low in vivo binding potential in white matter and cortical grey matter in rhesus monkeys, low lipophilicity (Log D=2.91) and high affinity for human amyloid plaques (IC(50)=10.5±1.3 nM). [(18)F]MK-3328 was identified as a promising PET tracer for in vivo quantification of amyloid plaques, and further evaluation in humans is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine versus food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (N = 3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1 g) and intravenous cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/hr, intravenous) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24-hr saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32-1.8 mg/kg, intramuscular, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine versus food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 hr following termination of 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatment, despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/hr, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence, as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of 14-day treatment with the schedule III anorectic phendimetrazine on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-08-01

    The clinical utility of monoamine releasers such as phenmetrazine or d-amphetamine as candidate agonist medications for cocaine dependence is hindered by their high abuse liability. Phendimetrazine is a clinically available schedule III anorectic that functions as a prodrug for phenmetrazine and thus may have lower abuse liability. This study determined the effects of continuous 14-day treatment with phendimetrazine on cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys (N=4). Responding was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule). Cocaine choice dose-effect curves were determined daily before and during 14-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with saline or (+)-phendimetrazine (0.32-1.0mg/kg/h). Effects of 14-day treatment with (+)-phenmetrazine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h; N=5) and d-amphetamine (0.032-0.1mg/kg/h; N=6) were also examined for comparison. During saline treatment, food was primarily chosen during availability of low cocaine doses (0, 0.0032, and 0.01 mg/kg/injection), and cocaine was primarily chosen during availability of higher cocaine doses (0.032 and 0.1mg/kg/injection). Phendimetrazine initially decreased overall responding without significantly altering cocaine choice. Over the course of 14 days, tolerance developed to rate decreasing effects, and phendimetrazine dose-dependently decreased cocaine choice (significant at 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine). Phenmetrazine and d-amphetamine produced qualitatively similar effects. These results demonstrate that phendimetrazine can produce significant, though modest, reductions in cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys. Phendimetrazine may be especially suitable as a candidate medication for human studies because of its schedule III clinical availability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Placental transfer and metabolism of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-17 beta and estradiol-17 beta in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.; Newport, D.; Lipe, G.W.; Hill, D.E.

    1982-11-01

    The synthetic estrogen component of many oral contraceptives, 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-17 beta (EE2) and the naturally occurring estrogen, estradiol-17 beta (E2) were studied in four pregnant rhesus monkeys (71% term: 108-121 days gestational age). Under ketamine anesthesia, catheters were implanted in the maternal femoral artery and fetal interplacental artery. After simultaneous i.v. administration of (/sup 3/H)EE2-(/sup 14/C)E2 to the maternal animal, serial blood samples were drawn from both mother and fetus. The estrogens and metabolites were identified and quantified by the comigration of radioactivity with reference standards in several high-performance liquid chromatography systems and subsequent selective enzyme hydrolysis of the conjugates. Only estrone (E1), E1 sulfate, EE2 and EE2-3 sulfate were observed in the fetal circulation, whereas the major radiolabeled compounds in the maternal circulation consisted of the above plus E2, E1 glucuronide and EE2-3 glucuronide. In order to determine whether the placenta could convert E2 to its metabolite E1, the placentas of three term rhesus monkeys were perfused in situ via the umbilical artery with 120 ml (15 ml/min) of Hanks' balanced salt solution (pH 7.4) containing (/sup 3/H)E2. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of umbilical vein samples revealed that 96% of the E2 was metabolized to E1. These studies indicate that the placenta can metabolize the potent naturally occurring estrogen E2 to the less potent E1. In contrast, the synthetic estrogen EE2 does not undergo this placental metabolic conversion and thus enters the fetal circulation as the parent compound.

  9. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Negus, S. Stevens; Poklis, Justin L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys. For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine vs. food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (n=3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1g) and intravenous cocaine (0 – 0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1 – 1.0 mg/kg/h, IV) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24 h saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32 – 1.8 mg/kg, IM, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32 mg/kg/h nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine vs. food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 h following termination of 0.32 mg/kg/h nicotine treatment despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/h, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs. PMID:26098473

  10. Effects of 14-day treatment with the schedule III anorectic phendimetrazine on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S. Stevens

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical utility of monoamine releasers such as phenmetrazine or d-amphetamine as candidate agonist medications for cocaine dependence is hindered by their high abuse liability. Phendimetrazine is a clinically available schedule III anorectic that functions as a prodrug for phenmetrazine and thus may have lower abuse liability. This study determined the effects of continuous 14-day treatment with phendimetrazine on cocaine- vs.- food choice in rhesus monkeys (N=4). Methods Responding was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule). Cocaine choice dose-effect curves were determined daily before and during 14-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with saline or (+)-phendimetrazine (0.32 – 1.0 mg/kg/h). Effects of 14-day treatment with (+)-phenmetrazine (0.1 – 0.32 mg/kg/h; N=5) and d-amphetamine (0.032 – 0.1 mg/kg/h; N=6) were also examined for comparison. Results During saline treatment, food was primarily chosen during availability of low cocaine doses (0, 0.0032, and 0.01 mg/kg/injection), and cocaine was primarily chosen during availability of higher cocaine doses (0.032 and 0.1 mg/kg/injection). Phendimetrazine initially decreased overall responding without significantly altering cocaine choice. Over the course of 14 days, tolerance developed to rate decreasing effects, and phendimetrazine dose-dependently decreased cocaine choice (significant at 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine). Phenmetrazine and d-amphetamine produced qualitatively similar effects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that phendimetrazine can produce significant, though modest, reductions in cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys. Phendimetrazine may be especially suitable as a candidate medication for human studies because of its schedule III clinical availability. PMID:23726979

  11. SURGICAL INTERVENTION AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES: I. CENTRIPETAL CILIARY BODY, CAPSULE AND LENS MOVEMENT IN RHESUS MONKEYS OF VARYING AGE

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Mary Ann; Mcdonald, Jared P.; James, Rebecca J.; Heatley, Gregg A.; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine how surgically altering the normal relationship between the lens and the ciliary body in rhesus monkeys affects centripetal ciliary body and lens movement. Methods In 18 rhesus monkey eyes (aged 6–27 years), accommodation was induced before and after surgery by electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (E–W) nucleus. Accommodative amplitude was measured by coincidence refractometry. Goniovideography was performed before and after intra- and extra-capsular lens extraction (ICLE, ECLE) and anterior regional zonulolysis. Centripetal lens/capsule movements, centripetal ciliary process (CP) movements, and circumlental space were measured by computerized image analysis of the goniovideography images. Results Centripetal accommodative CP and capsule movement increased in velocity and amplitude post-ECLE compared to pre-ECLE regardless of age (n=5). The presence of the lens substance retarded capsule movement by ~21% in the young eyes and by ~62% in the older eyes. Post-ICLE compared to pre-ICLE centripetal accommodative CP movement was dampened in all eyes in which the anterior vitreous was disturbed (n=7), but not in eyes in which the anterior vitreous was left intact (n=2). Following anterior regional zonulolysis (n=4), lens position shifted toward the lysed quadrant during accommodation. Conclusions The presence of the lens substance, capsule zonular attachments, and Wiegers ligament may play a role in centripetal CP movement. The capsule is still capable of centripetal movement in the older eye (although at a reduced capacity) and may have the ability to produce ~6 diopters of accommodation in the presence of a normal young crystalline lens or a similar surrogate. PMID:18552393

  12. Three-dimensional organization of otolith-ocular reflexes in rhesus monkeys. III. Responses To translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) properties of the translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes (translational VORs) during lateral and fore-aft oscillations in complete darkness were studied in rhesus monkeys at frequencies between 0.16 and 25 Hz. In addition, constant velocity off-vertical axis rotations extended the frequency range to 0.02 Hz. During lateral motion, horizontal responses were in phase with linear velocity in the frequency range of 2-10 Hz. At both lower and higher frequencies, phase lags were introduced. Torsional response phase changed more than 180 degrees in the tested frequency range such that torsional eye movements, which could be regarded as compensatory to "an apparent roll tilt" at the lowest frequencies, became anticompensatory at all frequencies above approximately 1 Hz. These results suggest two functionally different frequency bandwidths for the translational VORs. In the low-frequency spectrum (<<0.5 Hz), horizontal responses compensatory to translation are small and high-pass-filtered whereas torsional response sensitivity is relatively frequency independent. At higher frequencies however, both horizontal and torsional response sensitivity and phase exhibit a similar frequency dependence, suggesting a common role during head translation. During up-down motion, vertical responses were in phase with translational velocity at 3-5 Hz but phase leads progressively increased for lower frequencies (>90 degrees at frequencies <0.2 Hz). No consistent dependence on static head orientation was observed for the vertical response components during up-down motion and the horizontal and torsional response components during lateral translation. The frequency response characteristics of the translational VORs were fitted by "periphery/brain stem" functions that related the linear acceleration input, transduced by primary otolith afferents, to the velocity signals providing the input to the velocity-to-position neural integrator and the oculomotor plant. The

  13. Body Weight Impact on Puberty: Effects of High-Calorie Diet on Puberty Onset in Female Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Joseph R.; Keen, Kim L.; Shiel, Nicholas A.; Colman, Ricki J.; Capuano, Saverio V.

    2012-01-01

    Secular trends toward a declining age at puberty onset with correlated changes in body weight have been reported in economically advanced countries. This has been attributed to excess calorie intake along with reduced physical activity in children. However, because the timing of puberty in humans is also influenced by other factors, such as genetic traits, living conditions, geographical location, and environmental chemicals, it is difficult to distinguish the effect of diet and body size from other factors in a human population. Here we report that feeding juvenile female rhesus monkeys born and raised at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center with a high-calorie diet results in acceleration of body growth and precocious menarche. The monkeys fed a high-calorie diet also had an elevated body mass index. The most significant treatment effects on circulating hormones were increased leptin and IGF-I levels throughout the experiment. The findings of this study suggest the importance of close monitoring of juvenile feeding behaviors as an important intervention to reduce the prevalence of precocious development and metabolic diseases in adulthood. PMID:22315448

  14. Pioglitazone improves insulin action and normalizes menstrual cycles in a majority of prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rao; Bruns, Cristin M.; Bird, Ian M.; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Goodfriend, Theodore L.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To determine whether pioglitazone will improve menstrual cyclicity in a fetal programming model for polycystic ovary syndrome. BASIC PROCEDURES Eight prenatally androgenized (PA) and 5 control female rhesus monkeys of similar age, body weight and body mass index received an oral placebo daily for 6–7 months followed, after at least 90 days, by daily oral dosing with pioglitazone (3mg/kg) for an additional 6–7 months. Blood was sampled thrice weekly to monitor ovulatory function, and a variety of endocrine challenges were performed to quantify changes in ovarian, gonadotropin and glucoregulatory function. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS Pioglitazone normalized menstrual cycles in 5 out of 8 (62%) PA females (pioglitazone responsive; PioRESP). Pioglitazone increased serum 17α-hydroxyprogesterone responses to an hCG injection in PioRESP PA females, while diminishing serum progesterone, and increasing DHEA and estradiol responses to hCG in PioRESP PA and all normal females. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance plays a mechanistic role in maintaining anovulation in a majority of PA female monkeys. PMID:17306503

  15. Challenges to Maternal Wellbeing during Pregnancy Impact Temperament, Attention, and Neuromotor Responses in the Infant Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Christopher L.; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Crispen, Heather R.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schneider, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The relative maturity, alertness, and reactivity of an infant at birth are sensitive indices of the neonate’s health, the quality of the pregnancy, and the mother’s wellbeing. Even when fetal growth and gestation length have been normal, the maturing fetus can still be adversely impacted by both physical events and psychological challenges to the mother during the prenatal period. The following research evaluated 413 rhesus monkeys from 7 different types of pregnancies to determine which conditions significantly influenced the behavioral responsiveness and state of the young infant. A standardized test battery modeled after the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale for human newborns was employed. The largest impairments in orientation and increases in infant emotional reactivity were seen when female monkeys drank alcohol, even though consumed at only moderate levels during part of the pregnancy. The infants’ ability to focus and attend to visual and auditory cues was also affected when the gravid female’s adrenal hormones were transiently elevated for 2 weeks by ACTH administration. In addition, responses to tactile and vestibular stimulation were altered by both this ACTH treatment and psychological disturbance during gestation. Conversely, a 2-day course of antenatal corticosteroids 1 month before term resulted in infants with lower motor activity and reactivity. These findings highlight several pregnancy conditions that can affect a young infant’s neurobehavioral status, even when otherwise healthy, and demonstrate that alterations or deficits are specific to the type of insult experienced by the mother and fetus. PMID:20882585

  16. Preservation of memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes in breast milk of lactating rhesus monkeys during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Permar, Sallie R; Kang, Helen H; Carville, Angela; Wilks, Andrew B; Mansfield, Keith G; Rao, Srinivas S; Letvin, Norman L

    2010-01-15

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with a massive depletion of memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the gastrointestinal tract. To define the dynamics of the CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations in breast milk during acute HIV or SIV infection, lymphocyte populations were monitored in blood and milk of 4 Mamu-A*01(+) rhesus monkeys after SIVmac251 inoculation. Strikingly, although the CD4(+) T lymphocytes in blood were depleted during the peak of viremia, the milk CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts remained unchanged, despite active virus replication in the breast milk compartment. Moreover, CD4(+) memory T lymphocytes were preserved in breast milk during acute infection. CD4(+) T lymphocytes in breast milk and other mucosal compartments of uninfected monkeys were similar in their memory phenotype, activation status, and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 expression. Interestingly, the number and proportion of effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes in milk were increased during acute SIV infection, suggesting effective control of virus-mediated CD4(+) T lymphocyte destruction in the breast milk compartment.

  17. Comparison of the effects of methamphetamine, bupropion and methylphenidate on the self-administration of methamphetamine by rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Charles W.; Gilman, Joanne P.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; McCann, David J.; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of methadone as a treatment for opioid abuse and nicotine preparations as treatments for tobacco smoking has led to an interest in developing a similar strategy for treating psychostimulant abuse. The current study investigated the effects of three such potential therapies on i.v. methamphetamine self-administration (1 - 30 µg/kg/injection) in rhesus monkeys. When given as a pre-session i.m. injection, a high dose of methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) decreased i.v. methamphetamine self-administration but did not affect responding for a food reinforcer during the same sessions. However, the dose of i.m. methamphetamine required to reduce i.v. methamphetamine self-administration exceeded the cumulative amount taken during a typical self-administration session, and pretreatment with a low dose of methamphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) actually increased self-administration in some monkeys at the lower self-administration dose. Like pretreatment with methamphetamine, pretreatment with bupropion (3.2 mg/kg) decreased methamphetamine self-administration but did not affect responding for food. Pretreatment with methylphenidate (0.56 mg/kg) did not significantly alter methamphetamine self-administration. These results suggest that some agonist-like agents can decrease methamphetamine self-administration. Although the most robust effects occurred with a high dose of methamphetamine, safety and abuse liability considerations suggest that bupropion should also be considered for further evaluation as a methamphetamine addiction treatment. PMID:21341918

  18. Challenges to maternal wellbeing during pregnancy impact temperament, attention, and neuromotor responses in the infant rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R; Crispen, Heather R; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schneider, Mary L

    2010-11-01

    The relative maturity, alertness, and reactivity of an infant at birth are sensitive indices of the neonate's health, the quality of the pregnancy, and the mother's wellbeing. Even when fetal growth and gestation length have been normal, the maturing fetus can still be adversely impacted by both physical events and psychological challenges to the mother during the prenatal period. The following research evaluated 413 rhesus monkeys from 7 different types of pregnancies to determine which conditions significantly influenced the behavioral responsiveness and state of the young infant. A standardized test battery modeled after the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale for human newborns was employed. The largest impairments in orientation and increases in infant emotional reactivity were seen when female monkeys drank alcohol, even though consumed at only moderate levels during part of the pregnancy. The infants' ability to focus and attend to visual and auditory cues was also affected when the gravid female's adrenal hormones were transiently elevated for 2 weeks by ACTH administration. In addition, responses to tactile and vestibular stimulation were altered by both this ACTH treatment and psychological disturbance during gestation. Conversely, a 2-day course of antenatal corticosteroids 1 month before term resulted in infants with lower motor activity and reactivity. These findings highlight several pregnancy conditions that can affect a young infant's neurobehavioral status, even when otherwise healthy, and demonstrate that alterations or deficits are specific to the type of insult experienced by the mother and fetus. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of a novel fentanyl derivative on drug discrimination and learning in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, L R; Moerschbaecher, J M; Bagley, J R; Brockunier, L L; France, C P

    1999-10-01

    Three monkeys discriminated 1.78 mg/kg of mirfentanil while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Two mirfentanil derivatives, OHM3295 and OHM10579, substituted for mirfentanil in all subjects. However, other drugs produced variable effects among monkeys; for example, mu and kappa opioid agonists and clonidine substituted for mirfentanil on some occasions in two monkeys. Cocaine, amphetamine, and ketamine did not substitute in any subject. Opioid antagonists did not attenuate the effects of mirfentanil. In monkeys responding under a repeated acquisition and performance procedure, errors increased only during the acquisition phase at doses of mirfentanil that decreased response rates. Thus, unlike fentanyl, the discriminative stimulus effects of mirfentanil do not appear to be mediated exclusively through opioid receptors. Finally, mirfentanil does not appear to disrupt complex behavioral processes.

  20. Category learning in rhesus monkeys: a study of the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) tasks.

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Minda, John Paul; Washburn, David A

    2004-09-01

    In influential research, R. N. Shepard, C. I. Hovland, and H. M. Jenkins (1961) surveyed humans' categorization abilities using tasks based in rules, exclusive-or (XOR) relations, and exemplar memorization. Humans' performance was poorly predicted by cue-conditioning or stimulus-generalization theories, causing Shepard et al. to describe it in terms of hypothesis selection and rule application that were possibly supported by verbal mediation. The authors of the current article surveyed monkeys' categorization abilities similarly. Monkeys, like humans, found category tasks with a single relevant dimension the easiest and perceptually chaotic tasks requiring exemplar memorization the most difficult. Monkeys, unlike humans, found tasks based in XOR relations very difficult. The authors discuss the character and basis of the species difference in categorization and consider whether monkeys are the generalization-based cognitive system that humans are not. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  1. Discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil in untreated and in diazepam-treated rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1999-10-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine agonists can have adverse effects (e.g., development of dependence), thereby limiting their clinical usefulness. The goal of the current study was to examine the discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil in untreated and diazepam-treated monkeys to determine whether this type of procedure could be used to examine benzodiazepine dependence. Flumazenil (0.32 mg/kg s.c.) was established as a discriminative stimulus in eight monkeys receiving 5.6 mg/kg/day of diazepam (p.o.); four responded under a fixed ratio (FR)5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination (SST) and four responded under a FR5 schedule of food presentation. For comparison, 1.0 mg/kg flumazenil (s.c.) was established as a discriminative stimulus in four untreated monkeys responding under a FR5 schedule of SST. Flumazenil dose-dependently increased responding on the flumazenil-appropriate lever in all monkeys. In diazepam-treated monkeys, Ro 15-4513, ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate and bretazenil substituted for flumazenil with pentylenetetrazole substituting in some monkeys; other drugs failed to substitute for flumazenil. Acute administration of 10.0 mg/kg diazepam (s.c.) shifted the flumazenil dose-effect curve threefold to the right of the control dose-effect curve. Temporary suspension of diazepam treatment produced a time-related increase in flumazenil-lever responding that was reversed by diazepam. In untreated monkeys, midazolam substituted for flumazenil, with other drugs, including those with primary mechanisms of action at non-gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors, substituting in some monkeys. Ro 15-4513 did not substitute in any untreated monkey. The flumazenil discriminative stimulus appears to be pharmacologically selective in treated monkeys with only negative and low efficacy positive modulators substituting for flumazenil; in contrast, a variety of drugs substitute for flumazenil in untreated monkeys. This apparent difference in selectivity suggests

  2. Polymorphisms in the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify the consequences of social status on metabolic health in female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Jarrell, Holly; Hoffman, Jackie B.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Berga, Sarah; Kinkead, Becky; Wilson, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals vary substantially in their vulnerability to physical and psychosocial stressors. The causes of such variation in susceptibility to stress are poorly understood, but are thought to relate in part to genetic factors. The present study evaluated the extent to which polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin reuptake transporter (5HTTLPR or SERT) modulated physiologic responses to the imposition of psychosocial stress (social reorganization and subordinate social status) in female rhesus monkeys. Forty females, drawn from the middle ranking genealogies of several large social groups, were reorganized into eight groups containing 5 monkeys each; four groups were comprised entirely of animals homogeneous for the long promoter variant in the SERT gene (l/l), while the other four groups had monkeys with at least one allele of the short promoter variant (l/s or s/s). Females were sequentially introduced into these new groups in random order and dominance ranks were established within several days. During the ensuing 6 weeks, dominant monkeys exhibited elevated rates of aggression while subordinates displayed high rates of submission. Notably, females with the s-variant SERT genotype, collapsed across social status positions, exhibited the highest overall rates of both aggression and submission. Although neither social status nor SERT genotype influenced morning cortisol concentrations, glucocorticoid negative feedback was reduced significantly in subordinate compared to dominant females irrespective of genotype. All animals lost weight and abdominal fat across the experiment. However, decreases were greatest in subordinates, regardless of genotype, and least in dominant females with the l/l genotype. Serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, and ghrelin decreased significantly during the group formation process, effects that were independent of genotype or social status. In contrast, social status and genotype interacted to influence changes in serum

  3. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, David C; Struve, Melanie F; Gross, Elizabeth A; Wong, Brian A; Howroyd, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    Background Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmonary responses induced by manganese remains incomplete. The primary objective of this study was to characterize histologic changes in the monkey respiratory tract following manganese inhalation. Methods Subchronic (6 hr/day, 5 days/week) inhalation exposure of young male rhesus monkeys to manganese sulfate was performed. One cohort of monkeys (n = 4–6 animals/exposure concentration) was exposed to air or manganese sulfate at 0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days. Another eight monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days and held for 45 or 90 days before evaluation. A second cohort (n = 4 monkeys per time point) was exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 and evaluated after 15 or 33 exposure days. Evaluations included measurement of lung manganese concentrations and evaluation of respiratory histologic changes. Tissue manganese concentrations were compared for the exposure and control groups by tests for homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison. Histopathological findings were evaluated using a Pearson's Chi-Square test. Results Animals exposed to manganese sulfate at ≥0.3 mg Mn/m3 for 65 days had increased lung manganese concentrations. Exposure to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for ≥15 exposure days resulted in increased lung manganese concentrations, mild subacute bronchiolitis, alveolar duct inflammation, and proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Bronchiolitis and alveolar duct inflammatory changes were absent 45 days post-exposure, suggesting that these lesions are reversible upon cessation of subchronic high-dose manganese exposure. Conclusion High-dose subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation is associated with increased

  4. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants’ neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001). HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01), and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02). Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02) and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05) and less consolable (p=0.08) in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s)=0.43, p=0.03) and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s)=-0.41, p=0.04). Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in