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Sample records for protecting rb-e2f-1 complex

  1. Haploinsufficiency of an RB-E2F1-Condensin II complex leads to aberrant replication and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Coschi, Courtney H; Ishak, Charles A; Gallo, David; Marshall, Aren; Talluri, Srikanth; Wang, Jianxin; Cecchini, Matthew J; Martens, Alison L; Percy, Vanessa; Welch, Ian; Boutros, Paul C; Brown, Grant W; Dick, Frederick A

    2014-07-01

    Genome instability is a characteristic of malignant cells; however, evidence for its contribution to tumorigenesis has been enigmatic. In this study, we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein, E2F1, and Condensin II localize to discrete genomic locations including major satellite repeats at pericentromeres. In the absence of this complex, aberrant replication ensues followed by defective chromosome segregation in mitosis. Surprisingly, loss of even one copy of the retinoblastoma gene reduced recruitment of Condensin II to pericentromeres and caused this phenotype. Using cancer genome data and gene-targeted mice, we demonstrate that mutation of one copy of RB1 is associated with chromosome copy-number variation in cancer. Our study connects DNA replication and chromosome structure defects with aneuploidy through a dosage-sensitive complex at pericentromeric repeats. Genome instability is inherent to most cancers and is the basis for selective killing of cancer cells by genotoxic therapeutics. In this report, we demonstrate that instability can be caused by loss of a single allele of the retinoblastoma gene that prevents proper replication and condensation of pericentromeric chromosomal regions, leading to elevated levels of aneuploidy in cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Deregulation of Rb-E2F1 Axis Causes Chromosomal Instability by Engaging the Transactivation Function of Cdc20–Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Somsubhra; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Dey, Sanjib; Roychoudhury, Anirban; Ganguly, Abira; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2014-01-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors regulates genes involved in various aspects of the cell cycle. Beyond the well-documented role in G1/S transition, mitotic regulation by E2F has also been reported. Proper mitotic progression is monitored by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The SAC ensures bipolar separation of chromosomes and thus prevents aneuploidy. There are limited reports on the regulation of the SAC by E2F. Our previous work identified the SAC protein Cdc20 as a novel transcriptional regulator of the mitotic ubiquitin carrier protein UbcH10. However, none of the Cdc20 transcription complex proteins have any known DNA binding domain. Here we show that an E2F1-DP1 heterodimer is involved in recruitment of the Cdc20 transcription complex to the UBCH10 promoter and in transactivation of the gene. We further show that inactivation of Rb can facilitate this transactivation process. Moreover, this E2F1-mediated regulation of UbcH10 influences mitotic progression. Deregulation of this pathway results in premature anaphase, chromosomal abnormalities, and aneuploidy. We conclude that excess E2F1 due to Rb inactivation recruits the complex of Cdc20 and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (Cdc20-APC/C) to deregulate the expression of UBCH10, leading to chromosomal instability in cancer cells. PMID:25368385

  3. The RB-E2F1 Pathway Regulates Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Martin, Vanesa; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Johnson, David G.; Alonso, Marta; White, Erin; Xu, Jing; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Shinojima, Naoki; Fueyo, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a protective mechanism that renders cells viable in stressful conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that this cellular process is also a tumor suppressor pathway. Previous studies showed that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI) induce autophagy. Whether retinoblastoma protein (RB), a key tumor suppressor and downstream target of CDKIs, induces autophagy is not clear. Here, we show that RB triggers autophagy and that the RB activators p16INK4a and p27/kip1 induce autophagy in an RB-dependent manner. RB binding to E2 transcription factor (E2F) is required for autophagy induction and E2F1 antagonizes RB-induced autophagy, leading to apoptosis. Downregulation of E2F1 in cells results in high levels of autophagy. Our findings indicate that RB induces autophagy by repressing E2F1 activity. We speculate that this newly discovered aspect of RB function is relevant to cancer development and therapy. PMID:20807803

  4. The zinc finger transcription factor ZFHX1A is linked to cell proliferation by Rb-E2F1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqing; Costantino, Mary E; Montoya-Durango, Diego; Higashi, Yujiro; Darling, Douglas S; Dean, Douglas C

    2007-11-15

    ZFHX1A is expressed in proliferating cells in the developing embryo, and in the present study we provide evidence that its expression is confined to proliferating cells through dependence on the Rb (retinoblastoma protein) family/E2F cell cycle pathway. Mutation of the Rb or E2F1 genes lead to induction of ZFHX1A mRNA, implying that the Rb-E2F1 repressor complex is important for repression of ZFHX1A. This repression is associated with recruitment of an E2F-Rb-histone deacetylase repressor complex to the promoter. A dominant-negative form of E2F1 inhibited ZFHX1A expression in p16INK4a- cells where Rb is constitutively hyperphosphorylated and inactive, suggesting that E2F can contribute to ZFHX1A transactivation in the absence of functional Rb. ZFHX1A is an E-box-binding transcription factor whose binding sites overlap with those bound by Snail1 and 2, and ZFHX1B/SIP1 (leading to at least partially overlapping function; for example, each of the proteins can repress E-cadherin expression). We found that expression of Snail1 and ZFHX1B/SIP1 is also regulated by E2Fs, but in contrast with ZFHX1A this regulation is Rb-family-independent. Snail2 expression was unaffected by either E2F or the Rb family. We propose that the differential effects of the Rb family/E2F pathway on expression of these E-box-binding proteins are important in maintaining their distinct patterns (and thus distinct functions) during embryogenesis.

  5. Rb/E2F1 Regulates the Innate Immune Receptor Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taura, Manabu; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Komatsu, Kensei; Miyakita, Rui; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Kudo, Eriko; Kariya, Ryusho; Goto, Hiroki; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Chiaki; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes regulate the antiviral host defense through molecular mechanisms that are not yet well explored. Here, we show that the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma (Rb) protein positively regulates Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, the sensing receptor for viral double-stranded RNA and poly(I·C). TLR3 expression was lower in Rb knockout (Rb−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in mammalian epithelial cells transfected with Rb small-interfering RNA (siRNA) than in control cells. Consequently, induction of cytokines interleukin-8 and beta interferon after poly(I·C) stimulation was impaired in Rb−/− MEF and Rb siRNA-transfected cells compared to controls. TLR3 promoter analysis showed that Rb modulates the transcription factor E2F1, which directly binds to the proximal promoter of TLR3. Exogenous addition of E2F1 decreased TLR3 promoter activity, while Rb dose dependently curbed the effect of E2F1. Interestingly, poly(I·C) increased the Rb expression, and the poly(I·C)-induced TLR3 expression was impaired in Rb-depleted cells, suggesting the importance of Rb in TLR3 induction by poly(I·C). Together, these data indicated that E2F1 suppresses TLR3 transcription, but during immune stimulation, Rb is upregulated to block the inhibitory effect of E2F1 on TLR3, highlighting a role of Rb-E2F1 axis in the innate immune response in epithelial cells. PMID:22310660

  6. Gestational diabetes leads to down-regulation of CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway genes in pancreatic islets of rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Zahra; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Saeidi, Mohsen; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The link between a hyperglycemic intrauterine environment and the development of diabetes later in life has been observed in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon are still not clear. Reduced β-cells mass is a determinant in the development of diabetes (type 1 and type 2 diabetes). Some recent studies have provided evidence that the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 regulatory pathway is involved in β-cells proliferation. Therefore, we postulated that GDM exposure impacts the offspring’s β-cells by disruption in the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar rats were randomly allocated in control and diabetic group. The experimental group received 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) on day zero of gestation. After delivery, diabetic offspring of GDM mothers and control dams at the age of 15 week were randomly scarified and pancreases were harvested. Langerhans islets of diabetic and control groups were digested by collagenase digestion technique. After RNA extraction, we investigated the expressions of the kir 6.2 and CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: GDM reduced the expression of CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway genes in Langerhans islets cells of offspring. CDK4, pRB and E2F1 pathway genes were downregulated in diabetic islets by 51%, 35% and 84%, respectively. Also, the expression of Kir 6.2 was significantly decreased in diabetic islets by 88%. Conclusion: We suggest that the effect of gestational diabetes on offspring’s β-cells may be primarily caused by the suppression of CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway. PMID:28293391

  7. Cancer complexity and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2014-07-01

    Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain.

  8. Evolutionary complexity for protection of critical assets.

    SciTech Connect

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Chandross, Michael Evan

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a one-year LDRD project, 'Evolutionary Complexity for Protection of Critical Assets.' A brief introduction is given to the topics of genetic algorithms and genetic programming, followed by a discussion of relevant results obtained during the project's research, and finally the conclusions drawn from those results. The focus is on using genetic programming to evolve solutions for relatively simple algebraic equations as a prototype application for evolving complexity in computer codes. The results were obtained using the lil-gp genetic program, a C code for evolving solutions to user-defined problems and functions. These results suggest that genetic programs are not well-suited to evolving complexity for critical asset protection because they cannot efficiently evolve solutions to complex problems, and introduce unacceptable performance penalties into solutions for simple ones.

  9. Applying Complexity Theory to Risk in Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Irene; Hassett, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the application of complexity theory to risk assessment in child protection practice, and how it may help to give a better understanding of risk in relation to protecting vulnerable children. Within the last 20 years increasing use has been made of the term complexity within the natural sciences. In recent times, some of the…

  10. Applying Complexity Theory to Risk in Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Irene; Hassett, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the application of complexity theory to risk assessment in child protection practice, and how it may help to give a better understanding of risk in relation to protecting vulnerable children. Within the last 20 years increasing use has been made of the term complexity within the natural sciences. In recent times, some of the…

  11. [Problems of protecting complex inventions in the field of microbiology].

    PubMed

    Korovkin, V I

    1978-01-01

    Some problems are discussed which are connected with the protection of inventions in the field of microbiology when the invention is complex. The rights of the author are determined when a method and a product are to be protected at the same time. The additional juridical protection of a microbial strain is not necessary. The complex protection of a microbial strain and the method of its utilization is recommended in certain cases since it might prevent conflicts which arise upon the parallel juridical protection of a strain and the method of its utilization.

  12. Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H.; Betzen, G.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.

  13. Physical protection technologies for the reconfigured weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was a memtier of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfigaration. New and improved S&S concepts, approaches and technologies were needed to support both new and upgraded facilities. Physical protection technologies used in these facilities were to use proven state-of-the-art systems in such areas as image processing, alarm communications and display, entry control, contraband detection, intrusion detection and video assessment, access delay, automation and robotics, and various insider protection systems. Factors considered in the selection of these technologies were protection against the design basis threat, reducing S&S life-cycle costs, automation of S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, increasing the amount of delay to an outsider adversary and having reliable and maintainable systems. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical protection technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

  14. Protection of cooled blades of complex internal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glamiche, P.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of general protection of cooled blades of complex internal structure was solved by a method called SF technique which makes possible the protection of both external and internal surfaces, as well as those of the orifices of cooling air, whatever their diameter. The SF method is most often applied in the case of pack process, at controlled or high activity; it can be of use on previously uncoated parts, but also on pieces already coated by a thermochemical, chemical or PVD method. The respective thickness of external and internal coatings may be precisely predetermined, no parasitic particle being liable to remain inside the parts after application of the protecting treatment. Results obtained to date by application of this method are illustrated by the presentation and examination of a various selection of advanced turbo engines.

  15. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

    DOE PAGES

    Bury, Charles S.; McGeehan, John E.; Antson, Alfred A.; ...

    2016-04-26

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. We developed a methodology whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3–25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98more » Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein–DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the largetrpRNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. In addition, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density.« less

  16. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Bury, Charles S.; McGeehan, John E.; Antson, Alfred A.; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2016-04-26

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. We developed a methodology whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3–25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein–DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the largetrpRNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. In addition, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density.

  17. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Bury, Charles S; McGeehan, John E; Antson, Alfred A; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B; Garman, Elspeth F

    2016-05-01

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. Here, a methodology has been developed whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3-25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein-DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the large trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. Additionally, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density.

  18. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  19. Exploring the complexity of the mechanism of cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, N.G.; Lawson, K.M.; Beavers, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The present understanding of the mechanism of cathodic protection is too simplistic to explain when, why, and under what conditions corrosion is mitigated for a buried pipeline. This paper presents a general framework which attempts to explain why cathodic protection is achieved and what factors are critical in determining the ability of cathodic protection to mitigate corrosion. It is speculated that the changes in the ``near-surface`` environment due to the reduction processes on the cathodically protected steel surface play a significant role in mitigating corrosion and in defining the level of polarization achieved. This is accomplished by contributing a concentration polarization term to the overall level of polarization. Furthermore, the concentration polarization term explains many field related observations not easily explained by activation polarization and mixed potential theory. 32 refs.

  20. Managing the Process of Protection Level Assessment of the Complex Organization and Technical Industrial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlov, A. P.; Averchenkov, V. I.; Rytov, M. Yu; Eryomenko, V. T.

    2017-01-01

    The article is concerned with mathematical simulation of protection level assessment of complex organizational and technical systems of industrial enterprises by creating automated system, which main functions are: information security (IS) audit, forming of the enterprise threats model, recommendations concerning creation of the information protection system, a set of organizational-administrative documentation.

  1. Highly durable photochromic radical complexes having no steric protections of radicals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoichi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Mutoh, Katsuya; Abe, Jiro

    2017-04-21

    Steric protection groups are usually necessary for stable radicals. However, here, we developed novel photochromic radical complexes which generate sterically unprotected imidazolyl and phenoxyl radicals upon UV light irradiation based on the phenoxyl-imidazolyl radical complex (PIC) framework. These photochromic compounds show excellent durability against repeated irradiation of intense nanosecond laser pulses even in polar protic solvents, such as ethanol.

  2. Immune complex-based vaccine for pig protection against parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Roić, B; Cajavec, S; Ergotić, N; Lipej, Z; Madić, J; Lojkić, M; Pokrić, B

    2006-02-01

    The insoluble immune complexes (ICs) were prepared under the conditions of double immunodiffusion in gel, using the suspension of the ultrasound treated PK-15 cell-line infected with porcine parvovirus (PPV) containing both viral particles and viral proteins, as well as pig or rabbit anti-PPV polyclonal immune sera. The immunodiffusion performed in an agarose gel allows only viral subunits with a molecular mass equal to or less than 1000 kDa, rather than the viral particles, to diffuse through the gel and reach the point where the immunoprecipitate is to be formed. The immunoprecipitation under the conditions of the diffusion ensures the optimal, i.e. equimolar ratio of both immunoprecipitating components, antibody/antigen in the IC. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Western blot analyses showed the ICs were composed of two proteins, a protein in which molecular mass corresponded to the VP2 of the PPV and a protein with a molecular mass of the IgG. This suggests that the ICs are mainly composed of the VP2 antigen and IgG class antibodies. The potency of the IC-vaccines prepared in the form of a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion was compared with that of a commercially available, inactivated oil vaccine. The vaccination of gilts, 6 weeks before mating, with the IC containing allogeneic pig antibodies, resulted in the development of high and long-lasting anti-PPV antibody titres, similar to those generated by the licenced vaccine (P > 0.01). The content of the virus material administered by the IC was twice lower than that in the licenced vaccine. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed in the gilts during the period of the trial with the IC vaccine. The number of viable piglets per litter varied between 9 and 12 and no signs of the PPV infection were detected. Rabbits were used as one of the alternative laboratory animal models accepted for the testing of the vaccine against the PPV. The rabbit humoral immune response

  3. Iron-scytonemin complexes: DFT calculations on new UV protectants for terrestrial cyanobacteria and astrobiological implications.

    PubMed

    Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G M

    2010-09-01

    Cyanobacterial colonies produce the radiation-protectant biomolecule scytonemin as part of their response strategy for survival in environmentally stressed conditions in hot and cold deserts. These colonies frequently use sandstone rocks as host matrices for subsurface colonization, which is accompanied by a zone of depletion of iron and transportation of iron compounds to the mineral surface. It is suggested that an iron-scytonemin complex could feature in this survival strategy and facilitate the movement of iron through the rock. Calculations were carried out on several hypothetical iron-scytonemin complexes to evaluate the most stable structure energetically and examine the effect of the complexation of the biomolecule upon the electronic absorption characteristics of the radiation-protectant species. The implications for extraterrestrial planetary detection and analytical monitoring of an iron-scytonemin complex are assessed.

  4. Preparation, stability, and photoreactivity of thiolato ruthenium polypyridyl complexes: Can cysteine derivatives protect ruthenium-based anticancer complexes?

    PubMed

    van Rixel, Vincent H S; Busemann, Anja; Göttle, Adrien J; Bonnet, Sylvestre

    2015-09-01

    Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes may act as light-activatable anticancer prodrugs provided that they are protected by well-coordinated ligands that i) prevent coordination of other biomolecules to the metal center in the dark and ii) can be removed by visible light irradiation. In this paper, the use of monodentate thiol ligands RSH as light-cleavable protecting groups for the ruthenium complex [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(OH2)](PF6)2 ([1](PF6)2; tpy=2,2';6',2″-terpyridine, bpy=2,2'-bypyridine), is investigated. The reaction of [1](2+) with RSH=H2Cys (L-cysteine), H2Acys (N-acetyl-L-cysteine), and HAcysMe (N-acetyl-L-cysteine methyl ester), is studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Coordination of the monodentate thiol ligands to the ruthenium complex takes place upon heating to 353 K, but full conversion to the protected complex [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(SR)]PF6 is only possible when a large excess of ligand is used. Isolation and characterization of the two new thiolato complexes [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(κS-HCys)]PF6 ([2]PF6) and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(κS-HAcys)]PF6 ([3]PF6) is reported. [3]PF6 shows a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer absorption band that is red shifted (λmax=492 nm in water) compared to its methionine analogue [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(κS-HAmet)](Cl)2 ([5](Cl)2, λmax=452 nm; HAmet=N-acetyl-methionine). In the dark the thiolate ligand coordinated to ruthenium is oxidized even by traces of oxygen, which first leads to the sulfenato, sulfinato, and disulfide ruthenium complexes, and finally to the formation of the aqua complex [1](2+). [3]PF6 showed slow photosubstitution of the thiolate ligand by water under blue light irradiation, together with faster photooxidation of the thiolate ligand compared to dark conditions. The use of thiol vs. thioether monodentate ligands is discussed for the protection of anticancer ruthenium-based prodrugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient protection of strained alkynes from click reaction via complexation with copper.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Suguru; Hatakeyama, Yasutomo; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Takamitsu

    2014-10-01

    A transient protection method of cyclooctynes from a click reaction with an azide through 1:1 complexation with a cationic copper(I) salt is reported. The application of the method to a cyclooctyne bearing a terminal alkyne enabled the selective copper-catalyzed click conjugation with an azide at the terminal alkyne moiety, which made cyclooctyne derivatives readily accessible.

  6. Astrocyte-specific overexpression of Nrf2 protects striatal neurons from mitochondrial complex II inhibition.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Vargas, Marcelo R; Johnson, Delinda A; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is known to regulate a variety of cytoprotective genes through the antioxidant response element (ARE). This endogenous response is one of the major pathways by which cells are protected from xenobiotic or innate oxidative insults. Furthermore, in neural systems, astrocyte-specific activation of Nrf2 is known to protect neurons. In previous work, our laboratory found that Nrf2 protects from intrastriatal injections of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. Here, we extend these results to show that multiple methods of astrocyte-specific Nrf2 overexpression provide protection from neurotoxicity in vivo. GFAP-Nrf2 transgenic mice are significantly more resistant to malonate lesioning. This outcome is associated with an increased basal resistance, but more so, an enhanced Nrf2 response to lesioning that attenuated the ensuing neurotoxicity. Furthermore, striatal transplantation of neuroprogenitor cells overexpressing Nrf2 that differentiate into astrocytes after grafting also significantly reduced malonate toxicity. Overall, these data establish that enhanced astrocytic Nrf2 response and Nrf2 preconditioning are both sufficient to protect from acute lesions from mitochondrial complex II inhibition.

  7. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Nrf2 Protects Striatal Neurons from Mitochondrial Complex II Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Marcus J.; Vargas, Marcelo R.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is known to regulate a variety of cytoprotective genes through the antioxidant response element (ARE). This endogenous response is one of the major pathways by which cells are protected from xenobiotic or innate oxidative insults. Furthermore, in neural systems, astrocyte-specific activation of Nrf2 is known to protect neurons. In previous work, our laboratory found that Nrf2 protects from intrastriatal injections of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. Here, we extend these results to show that multiple methods of astrocyte-specific Nrf2 overexpression provide protection from neurotoxicity in vivo. GFAP-Nrf2 transgenic mice are significantly more resistant to malonate lesioning. This outcome is associated with an increased basal resistance, but more so, an enhanced Nrf2 response to lesioning that attenuated the ensuing neurotoxicity. Furthermore, striatal transplantation of neuroprogenitor cells overexpressing Nrf2 that differentiate into astrocytes after grafting also significantly reduced malonate toxicity. Overall, these data establish that enhanced astrocytic Nrf2 response and Nrf2 preconditioning are both sufficient to protect from acute lesions from mitochondrial complex II inhibition. PMID:20211941

  8. Iron-Scytonemin Complexes: DFT Calculations on New UV Protectants for Terrestrial Cyanobacteria and Astrobiological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2010-09-01

    Cyanobacterial colonies produce the radiation-protectant biomolecule scytonemin as part of their response strategy for survival in environmentally stressed conditions in hot and cold deserts. These colonies frequently use sandstone rocks as host matrices for subsurface colonization, which is accompanied by a zone of depletion of iron and transportation of iron compounds to the mineral surface. It is suggested that an iron-scytonemin complex could feature in this survival strategy and facilitate the movement of iron through the rock. Calculations were as host matrices for subsurface colonization, which is accompanied by a zone of depletion of iron and transportation of iron compounds to the mineral surface. It is suggested that an iron-scytonemin complex could feature in this survival strategy and facilitate the movement of iron through the rock. Calculations were carried out on several hypothetical iron-scytonemin complexes to evaluate the most stable structure energetically and examine the effect of the complexation of the biomolecule upon the electronic absorption characteristics of the radiation-protectant species. The implications for extraterrestrial planetary detection and analytical monitoring of an iron-scytonemin complex are assessed.

  9. Histological study on the protective role of vitamin B complex on the cerebellum of diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Eltony, Sohair A

    2016-08-01

    Disorder in cerebellar structure was reported in diabetes mellitus. B vitamins are involved in many significant metabolic processes within the brain. To detect the protective role of vitamin B complex on the histological structure of the cerebellum of experimentally induced diabetic rat. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Group I: normal vehicle control (n=6). Group II: streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n=12), which was equally divided into two subgroups; IIA (diabetic vehicle control), IIB (diabetic vitamin B complex-treated): streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin B complex (1mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Specimens from the cerebellum were processed for light and electron microscopy. In vitamin B complex treated group, the histological changes in Purkinje cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were improved compared with the diabetic non-treated group. The white matter revealed intact myelinated axons. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and caspase-3 expression reduced. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression revealed less activated astroglia. The number of Purkinje cells/mm(2) significantly increased. While, the number of GFAP positive astrocytes/mm(2) significantly decreased. In addition, the blood glucose level was reduced. Vitamin B complex protected the cerebellum from the histological changes which occurred in STZ- induced diabetic rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protection from mitochondrial complex II inhibition in vitro and in vivo by Nrf2-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Jakel, Rebekah J; Johnson, Delinda A; Chan, Kaimin; Kan, Yuet Wai; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-04

    Complex II inhibitors 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) and malonate cause striatal damage reminiscent of Huntington's disease and have been shown to involve oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Because nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent transcriptional activation by means of the antioxidant response element is known to coordinate the up-regulation of cytoprotective genes involved in combating oxidative stress, we investigated the significance of Nrf2 in complex II-induced toxicity. We found that Nrf2-deficient cells and Nrf2 knockout mice are significantly more vulnerable to malonate and 3NP and demonstrate increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated transcription mediated by astrocytes. Furthermore, ARE preactivation by means of intrastriatal transplantation of Nrf2-overexpressing astrocytes before lesioning conferred dramatic protection against complex II inhibition. These observations implicate Nrf2 as an essential inducible factor in the protection against complex II inhibitor-mediated neurotoxicity. These data also introduce Nrf2-mediated ARE transcription as a potential target of preventative therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease.

  11. Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

  12. FANCI-FANCD2 stabilizes the RAD51-DNA complex by binding RAD51 and protects the 5'-DNA end.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koichi; Shimomuki, Mayo; Katsuki, Yoko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Wataru; Ishiai, Masamichi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-12-15

    The FANCI-FANCD2 (I-D) complex is considered to work with RAD51 to protect the damaged DNA in the stalled replication fork. However, the means by which this DNA protection is accomplished have remained elusive. In the present study, we found that the I-D complex directly binds to RAD51, and stabilizes the RAD51-DNA filament. Unexpectedly, the DNA binding activity of FANCI, but not FANCD2, is explicitly required for the I-D complex-mediated RAD51-DNA filament stabilization. The RAD51 filament stabilized by the I-D complex actually protects the DNA end from nucleolytic degradation by an FA-associated nuclease, FAN1. This DNA end protection is not observed with the RAD51 mutant from FANCR patient cells. These results clearly answer the currently enigmatic question of how RAD51 functions with the I-D complex to prevent genomic instability at the stalled replication fork.

  13. Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Mendillo, Marc L; Zhao, Jinghui; Carette, Jan E; Merrill, Parker H; Cikes, Domagoj; Varadarajan, Malini; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Penninger, Josef M; Goldberg, Alfred L; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans.

  14. Architecture of the botulinum neurotoxin complex: a molecular machine for protection and delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kwok-Ho; Jin, Rongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely poisonous protein toxins that cause the fatal paralytic disease botulism. They are naturally produced in bacteria with several nontoxic neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs) and together they form a progenitor toxin complex (PTC), the largest bacterial toxin complex known. In foodborne botulism, the PTC functions as a molecular machine that helps BoNT breach the host defense in the gut. Here, we discuss the substantial recent advance in elucidating the atomic structures and assembly of the 14-subunit PTC, including structures of BoNT and four NAPs. These structural studies shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which BoNT is protected against the acidic environment and proteolytic destruction in the gastrointestinal tract, and how it is delivered across the intestinal epithelial barrier. PMID:25889616

  15. Selective transformations of complex molecules are enabled by aptameric protective groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Andreas A.; Marcozzi, Alessio; Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Emerging trends in drug discovery are prompting a renewed interest in natural products as a source of chemical diversity and lead structures. However, owing to the structural complexity of many natural compounds, the synthesis of derivatives is not easily realized. Here, we demonstrate a conceptually new approach using oligonucleotides as aptameric protective groups. These block several functionalities by non-covalent interactions in a complex molecule and enable the highly chemo- and regioselective derivatization (>99%) of natural antibiotics in a single synthetic step with excellent conversions of up to 83%. This technique reveals an important structure-activity relationship in neamine-based antibiotics and should help both to accelerate the discovery of new biologically active structures and to avoid potentially costly and cumbersome synthetic routes.

  16. The protective effect of copper complexes against gastric mucosal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, M A; Nassar, A Y; Abou el-Ela, S H; Metwally, T H; Nafady, A M

    1993-09-14

    The study examines the anti-ulcer activity of Cu(I)-(nicotinic acid)2Cl [CuCl(HNA)2]. A dose of 8 mg (23 mumol) of complex/kg body mass was suspended in 0.25% Tween-80 in saline solution and administered intragastrically to male Wistar albino rats which had developed gastric ulcers as a result of pyloric ligation (Shay-rat model). Another group of animals received 5 mg (25 mumol)/kg body mass of the copper-glycinate complex Cu(II)(glycinate)2 [Cu(II)(Gly)2]. Both protected as shown by reduction in the ulcer index, inhibition of gastric perforation and death. Significant increases in gastric juice volume and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gastric mucosa and blood plasma were found with both copper complexes, while the gastric juice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content was significantly decreased in the Cu(II)(Gly)2-treated group, it was significantly increased in the gastric mucosa of the CuCl(HNA)2-treated group. The copper complex-treated animals, especially those which received Cu(II)(Gly)2 had a marked fall in thromboxane A2 (TXA2) levels. These results suggest that intragastric administration of either CuCl(HNA)2 or Cu(II)(Gly)2 produced anti-ulcerogenic activity, with different modes of action.

  17. Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MDP: A Deinococcus Mn2+-Decapeptide Complex Protects Mice from Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Paridhi; Gayen, Manoshi; Smith, Joan T; Gaidamakova, Elena K; Matrosova, Vera Y; Grichenko, Olga; Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara; Daly, Michael J; Kiang, Juliann G; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2016-01-01

    The radioprotective capacity of a rationally-designed Mn2+-decapeptide complex (MDP), based on Mn antioxidants in the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, was investigated in a mouse model of radiation injury. MDP was previously reported to be extraordinarily radioprotective of proteins in the setting of vaccine development. The peptide-component (DEHGTAVMLK) of MDP applied here was selected from a group of synthetic peptides screened in vitro for their ability to protect cultured human cells and purified enzymes from extreme damage caused by ionizing radiation (IR). We show that the peptides accumulated in Jurkat T-cells and protected them from 100 Gy. MDP preserved the activity of T4 DNA ligase exposed to 60,000 Gy. In vivo, MDP was nontoxic and protected B6D2F1/J (female) mice from acute radiation syndrome. All irradiated mice treated with MDP survived exposure to 9.5 Gy (LD70/30) in comparison to the untreated mice, which displayed 63% lethality after 30 days. Our results show that MDP provides early protection of white blood cells, and attenuates IR-induced damage to bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells via G-CSF and GM-CSF modulation. Moreover, MDP mediated the immunomodulation of several cytokine concentrations in serum including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-10 during early recovery. Our results present the necessary prelude for future efforts towards clinical application of MDP as a promising IR countermeasure. Further investigation of MDP as a pre-exposure prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic in radiotherapy and radiation emergencies is warranted.

  19. MDP: A Deinococcus Mn2+-Decapeptide Complex Protects Mice from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joan T.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Grichenko, Olga; Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara; Daly, Michael J.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2016-01-01

    The radioprotective capacity of a rationally-designed Mn2+-decapeptide complex (MDP), based on Mn antioxidants in the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, was investigated in a mouse model of radiation injury. MDP was previously reported to be extraordinarily radioprotective of proteins in the setting of vaccine development. The peptide-component (DEHGTAVMLK) of MDP applied here was selected from a group of synthetic peptides screened in vitro for their ability to protect cultured human cells and purified enzymes from extreme damage caused by ionizing radiation (IR). We show that the peptides accumulated in Jurkat T-cells and protected them from 100 Gy. MDP preserved the activity of T4 DNA ligase exposed to 60,000 Gy. In vivo, MDP was nontoxic and protected B6D2F1/J (female) mice from acute radiation syndrome. All irradiated mice treated with MDP survived exposure to 9.5 Gy (LD70/30) in comparison to the untreated mice, which displayed 63% lethality after 30 days. Our results show that MDP provides early protection of white blood cells, and attenuates IR-induced damage to bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells via G-CSF and GM-CSF modulation. Moreover, MDP mediated the immunomodulation of several cytokine concentrations in serum including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-10 during early recovery. Our results present the necessary prelude for future efforts towards clinical application of MDP as a promising IR countermeasure. Further investigation of MDP as a pre-exposure prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic in radiotherapy and radiation emergencies is warranted. PMID:27500529

  20. Dogfish M4 lactate dehydrogenase: reversible inactivation by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and complete protection in complexes that mimic the active ternary complex.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S S; Engel, P C

    1975-01-01

    Dogfish M4 lactate dehydrogenase, like the corresponding pig enzyme, is inactivated by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate through modification of a single essential lysine residue. The activity is completely protected in the complexes E-NAD+-oxalate, E-NADH-oxamate and E-(NAD+-pyruvate adduct), but only partially protected in E-NAD+, E-NADH, E-NAD+-oxamate and E-NADH-oxalate. PMID:175780

  1. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Danher; Hevey, Michael; Juompan, Laure Y.; Trubey, Charles M.; Raja, Nicholas U.; Deitz, Stephen B.; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Luo Min; Yu Hong; Swain, Benjamin M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Dong, John Y. . E-mail: dongj@genphar.com

    2006-09-30

    The Marburg virus (MARV), an African filovirus closely related to the Ebola virus, causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, treatment of disease is only supportive, and no vaccines are available to prevent spread of MARV infections. In order to address this need, we have developed and characterized a novel recombinant vaccine that utilizes a single complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine (cAdVax) to overexpress a MARV glycoprotein (GP) fusion protein derived from the Musoke and Ci67 strains of MARV. Vaccination with the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine led to efficient production of MARV-specific antibodies in both mice and guinea pigs. Significantly, guinea pigs vaccinated with at least 5 x 10{sup 7} pfu of cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine were 100% protected against lethal challenges by the Musoke, Ci67 and Ravn strains of MARV, making it a vaccine with trivalent protective efficacy. Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV.

  2. Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Mendillo, Marc L; Zhao, Jinghui; Carette, Jan E; Merrill, Parker H; Cikes, Domagoj; Varadarajan, Malini; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Penninger, Josef M; Goldberg, Alfred L; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08467.001 PMID:26327695

  3. Morphological characterisation of complex powder used for protective coatings for geothermal plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csaki, I.; Karlsdottir, S. N.; Buzaianu, A.; Serghiuta, S.; Popescu, G.; Motoiu, V. A.; Ragnarstottir, K. R.; Guðlaugsson, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to review the morphological characteristics, microstructures, physical and chemical properties of two complex composite powders: Ni18Cr5Si2B and Ni21Cr11Al2.5Y. These powders will be used as an option for coating geothermal turbine blades to prevent corrosion. The corrosion process in the steam turbine results in damages being recognized as the leading cause of reduced availability in geothermal power plants and is depends on temperature, mechanical and vaporous carryover of impurities and water treatment. Thermal spraying is a suitable technique for coating layers with wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore this technique could be successfully used in geothermal applications for obtaining coatings layers from new complex composite powders protecting the turbine blades from corrosions and good control of steam chemistry. The composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy to provide detailed information about composites morphological modifications. The results obtained after morphological evaluation are encouraging for using these composite powders as an option for coating geothermal components using thermal spraying technique.

  4. Calculating the Lightning Protection System Downconductors' Grounding Resistance at Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.

    2012-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. Nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each downconductor is connected to a 7.62-meter-radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced, 6-meter-long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and aboveground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bonded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple directions around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall-of-potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the grounding impedance of the downconductors, an Earth Ground Clamp (EGC) (a stakeless device for measuring grounding impedance) and an Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model of the LPS are used. The EGC is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor, and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding resistance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the EGC measurements.

  5. Glutaredoxin 2 Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Apoptosis by Protecting Complex I Activity in the Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongli; Xing, Kuiyi; Lou, Marjorie F.

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) belongs to the oxidoreductase family and is an isozyme of glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) present in the mitochondria, however its function is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential anti-apoptotic function of Grx2 by examining its ability to protect complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system using human lens epithelial cells as a model. We found that cells treated with 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 h exhibited decreased viability and became apoptotic with corresponding Bax up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation, caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial cytochrome c leakage. Grx2 over-expression (OE) could protect cells against H2O2-induced damage while Grx2 knockdown (KD) showed the opposite effect. Under the same conditions, H2O2 treatment caused 50% inactivation of complex I activity in control cells (vector only), 75% in Grx2 KD cells but only 20% in Grx2 OE cells. This antiapoptotic function of Grx2 is specific as rotenone, a complex I specific inhibitor, could block this Grx2-mediated protection of complex I activity. Immunoprecipitation study also revealed that Grx2 co-precipitated with complex I in the mitochondrial lysate. Thus, the mechanism of Grx2 protection against H2O2-induced apoptosis is likely associated with its ability to preserve complex I. PMID:20547138

  6. Building, characterising and catalytic activity testing of Co-C-protected amino acid complexes covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, G.; Timár, Z.; Csendes, Z.; Bajnóczi, É. G.; Carlson, S.; Canton, S. E.; Bagi, L.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2015-06-01

    Co-C-protected amino acid (C-protected L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine and L-cystine) complexes were covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica gel, and the materials thus obtained were structurally characterised by mid/far IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. The superoxide dismutase-like activities of the substances were determined via the Beauchamp-Fridovich test reaction. It was found that covalent grafting and the preparation of the anchored complexes were successful in most cases. The coordinating groups varied upon changing the conditions of the syntheses. All materials displayed catalytic activity, although catalytic activities differed widely.

  7. Antimicrobial ruthenium complex coating on the surface of titanium alloy. High efficiency anticorrosion protection of ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    El-Gamel, Nadia E A; Fekry, Amany M

    2015-08-01

    A ruthenium complex was prepared and structurally characterized using various techniques. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of ruthenium complex were evaluated. High significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was recorded. Minor cytotoxicity records were reported at the highest concentration level using MTT assay. The influence of Cu(II), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Ru(III) metal ions of salen Schiff base on the corrosion resistance of Ti-alloy in 0.5M HCl was studied. In vitro corrosion resistance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and confirmed by surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. Both impedance and phase angle maximum (θ(max)) values were at maximum in the case of the ruthenium complex with promising antibacterial and antifungal activities. The surface film created by the ruthenium complex was highly resistant against attack or deterioration by bacteria. The EIS study showed high impedance values for the ruthenium complex with increasing exposure time up to 8 days. SEM images showed uniform distribution and adsorption of Ru(III) ions on Ti-alloy surface. The ruthenium complex, as a model of organic-inorganic hybrid complex, offered new prospects with desired properties in industrial and medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin is required to protect transactivator–promoter complexes from destabilization by the proteasomal ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Chase T.; Kodadek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mono-ubiquitylation of a transactivator is known to promote transcriptional activation of certain transactivator proteins. For the Sacchromyces cerevisiae transactivator, GAL4, attachment of mono-ubiquitin prevents destabilization of the DNA–transactivator complex by the ATPases of the 26S proteasome. This inhibition of destabilization depends on the arrangement of ubiquitin; a chain of ubiquitin tetramers linked through lysine 48 did not display the same protective effect as mono-ubiquitin. This led to an investigation into the properties of ubiquitin that may be responsible for this difference in activity between the different forms. We demonstrate the ubiquitin tetramers linked through lysine 63 do protect from proteasomal-mediated destabilization. In addition, we show that the mutating the isoleucine residue at position 44 interferes with proteasomal interaction in vitro and will abolish the protective activity in vivo. Together, these data implicate the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin as required to protect transactivators from destabilization by the proteasomal ATPases. PMID:19939937

  9. Copper(II)–human amylin complex protects pancreatic cells from amylin toxicity†‡

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elizabeth C.; Ha, Emmeline; Singh, Sanghamitra; Legesse, Linda; Ahmad, Sana; Karnaukhova, Elena; Donaldson, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    of metal-catalyzed ROS by human amylin and copper’s anti-aggregative and anti-apoptotic properties suggest a novel and protective role for the copper–amylin complex. PMID:23793354

  10. Live simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine correlate of protection: immune complex-inhibitory Fc receptor interactions that reduce target cell availability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony J; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Shang, Liang; Reilly, Cavan S; Southern, Peter J; Perkey, Katherine E; Duan, Lijie; Kohler, Heinz; Müller, Sybille; Robinson, James; Carlis, John V; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

    2014-09-15

    Principles to guide design of an effective vaccine against HIV are greatly needed, particularly to protect women in the pandemic's epicenter in Africa. We have been seeking these principles by identifying correlates of the robust protection associated with SIVmac239Δnef vaccination in the SIV-rhesus macaque animal model of HIV-1 transmission to women. We identified one correlate of SIVmac239Δnef protection against vaginal challenge as a resident mucosal system for SIV-gp41 trimer Ab production and neonatal FcR-mediated concentration of these Abs on the path of virus entry to inhibit establishment of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. In this study, we identify blocking CD4(+) T cell recruitment to thereby inhibit local expansion of infected founder populations as a second correlate of protection. Virus-specific immune complex interactions with the inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor in the epithelium lining the cervix initiate expression of genes that block recruitment of target cells to fuel local expansion. Immune complex-FcγRIIb receptor interactions at mucosal frontlines to dampen the innate immune response to vaginal challenge could be a potentially general mechanism for the mucosal immune system to sense and modulate the response to a previously encountered pathogen. Designing vaccines to provide protection without eliciting these transmission-promoting innate responses could contribute to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  11. Live SIV vaccine correlate of protection: immune complex-inhibitory Fc receptor interactions that reduce target cell availability

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anthony J; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Shang, Liang; Reilly, Cavan S.; Southern, Peter J.; Perkey, Katherine E.; Duan, Lijie; Kohler, Heinz; Muller, Sybille; Robinson, James; Carlis, John V.; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R. Paul; Haase, Ashley T.

    2014-01-01

    Principles to guide design of an effective vaccine against HIV are greatly needed, particularly to protect women in the pandemic’s epicentre in Africa. We have been seeking these principles by identifying correlates of the robust protection associated with SIVmac239Δnef vaccination in the SIV-rhesus macaque animal model of HIV-1 transmission to women. We have identified one correlate of SIVmac239Δnef protection against vaginal challenge as a resident mucosal system for SIV-gp41 trimer antibody production and neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated concentration of these antibodies on the path of virus entry to inhibit establishment of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. Here we identify as a second protection correlate, blocking CD4+ T cell recruitment to inhibit local expansion of infected founder populations. Virus-specific immune complex interactions with the inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor in the epithelium lining the cervix initiate expression of genes that block recruitment of target cells to fuel local expansion. Immune complex-FcγRIIb receptor interactions at mucosal frontlines to dampen the innate immune response to vaginal challenge could be a potentially general mechanism for the mucosal immune system to sense and modulate the response to a previously encountered pathogen. Designing vaccines to provide protection without eliciting these transmission-promoting innate responses could contribute to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25143442

  12. Contributions by Wave Propagation Laboratory to EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) complex-terrain model-development project. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) participated in the Environmental Protection Agency's Complex Terrain Model Development Project, whose objective is development of numerical air-quality models valid in complex terrain. Particular attention was given to impaction of elevated plumes on high terrain during stable (nocturnal) conditions. WPL operated a plume-mapping lidar, acoustic sounders (some with Doppler capability), sonic anemometers, a tethered sonde, and crosswind optical anemometers. Measurements were usually displayed in real time for experimental guidance and later processed with quality assurance for quantitative analysis. A synopsis of data acquisition and archiving is given for each experiment, including a review of the results of scientific analyses already completed.

  13. Failure of a protective major histocompatibility complex class II molecule to delete autoreactive T cells in autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Slattery, R M; Miller, J F; Heath, W R; Charlton, B

    1993-11-15

    The association of major histocompatibility complex genes with autoimmune diseases is firmly established, but the mechanisms by which these genes confer resistance or susceptibility remain controversial. The controversy extends to the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse that develops disease similar to human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The transgenic incorporation of certain class II major histocompatibility complex genes protects NOD mice from diabetes, and clonal deletion or functional silencing of autoreactive T cells has been proposed as the mechanism by which these molecules provide protection. We show that neither thymic deletion nor anergy of autoreactive T cells occurs in NOD mice transgenic for I-Ak. Autoreactive T cells are present, functional, and can transfer diabetes to appropriate NOD-recipient mice.

  14. A novel neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson's disease using a viral noncoding RNA that protects mitochondrial complex I activity.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wei-Li; Poole, Emma; Fletcher, Michael; Karniely, Sharon; Tyers, Pam; Wills, Mark; Barker, Roger A; Sinclair, John H

    2012-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. The etiology of this cell loss is unknown, but it involves abnormalities in mitochondrial function. In this study, we have demonstrated that the administration of a novel noncoding p137 RNA, derived from the human cytomegaloviral β2.7 transcript, can prevent and rescue dopaminergic cell death in vitro and in animal models of PD by protecting mitochondrial Complex I activity. Furthermore, as this p137 RNA is fused to a rabies virus glycoprotein peptide that facilitates delivery of RNA across the blood-brain barrier, such protection can be achieved through a peripheral intravenous administration of this agent after the initiation of a dopaminergic lesion. This approach has major implications for the potential treatment of PD, especially given that this novel agent could have the same protective effect on all diseased neurons affected as part of this disease process, not just the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway.

  15. Chemical Activation in Blood Serum and Human Cell Culture: Improved Ruthenium Complex for Catalytic Uncaging of Alloc-Protected Amines.

    PubMed

    Völker, Timo; Meggers, Eric

    2017-06-19

    Chemical (as opposed to light-induced) activation of caged molecules is a rapidly advancing approach to trigger biological processes. We previously introduced the ruthenium-catalyzed release of allyloxycarbonyl (alloc)-protected amines in human cells. A restriction of this and all other methods is the limited lifetime of the catalyst, thus hampering meaningful applications. In this study, we addressed this problem with the development of a new generation of ruthenium complexes for the uncaging of alloc-protected amines with superior catalytic activity. Under biologically relevant conditions, we achieved a turnover number >300, a reaction rate of 580 m(-1)  s(-1) , and we observed high activity in blood serum. Furthermore, alloc-protected doxorubicin, as an anticancer prodrug, could be activated in human cell culture and induced apoptosis with a single low dose (1 μm) of the new catalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Vaccination of mice with a Yop translocon complex elicits antibodies that are protective against infection with F1- Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Maya I; Noel, Betty L; Rampersaud, Ryan; Mena, Patricio; Benach, Jorge L; Bliska, James B

    2008-11-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, secretes several proteins important for pathogenesis or host protection. The F1 protein forms a capsule on the bacterial cell surface and is a well-characterized protective antigen but is not essential for virulence. A type III secretion system that is essential for virulence exports Yop proteins, which function as antiphagocytic or anti-inflammatory factors. Yop effectors (e.g., YopE) are delivered across the host cell plasma membrane by a translocon, composed of YopB and YopD. Complexes of YopB, YopD, and YopE (BDE) secreted by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were purified by affinity chromatography and used as immunogens to determine if antibodies to the translocon could provide protection against Y. pestis in mice. Mice vaccinated with BDE generated high-titer immunoglobulin G antibodies specific for BDE, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, and were protected against lethal intravenous challenge with F1(-) but not F1(+) Y. pestis. Mice passively immunized with anti-BDE serum were protected from lethal challenge with F1(-) Y. pestis. The YopB protein or a complex of YopB and YopD (BD) was purified and determined by vaccination to be immunogenic in mice. Mice actively vaccinated with BD or passively vaccinated with anti-BD serum were protected against lethal challenge with F1(-) Y. pestis. These results indicate that anti-translocon antibodies can be used as immunotherapy to treat infections by F1(-) Y. pestis.

  17. Preserving immunogenicity of lethally irradiated viral and bacterial vaccine epitopes using a radio- protective Mn2+-Peptide complex from Deinococcus.

    PubMed

    Gaidamakova, Elena K; Myles, Ian A; McDaniel, Dennis P; Fowler, Cedar J; Valdez, Patricia A; Naik, Shruti; Gayen, Manoshi; Gupta, Paridhi; Sharma, Anuj; Glass, Pamela J; Maheshwari, Radha K; Datta, Sandip K; Daly, Michael J

    2012-07-19

    Although pathogen inactivation by γ-radiation is an attractive approach for whole-organism vaccine development, radiation doses required to ensure sterility also destroy immunogenic protein epitopes needed to mount protective immune responses. We demonstrate the use of a reconstituted manganous peptide complex from the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans to protect protein epitopes from radiation-induced damage and uncouple it from genome damage and organism killing. The Mn(2+) complex preserved antigenic structures in aqueous preparations of bacteriophage lambda, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and Staphylococcus aureus during supralethal irradiation (25-40 kGy). An irradiated vaccine elicited both antibody and Th17 responses, and induced B and T cell-dependent protection against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in mice. Structural integrity of viruses and bacteria are shown to be preserved at radiation doses far above those which abolish infectivity. This approach could expedite vaccine production for emerging and established pathogens for which no protective vaccines exist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resveratrol protects against experimental induced Reye's syndrome by prohibition of oxidative stress and restoration of complex I activity.

    PubMed

    Abdin, Amany; Sarhan, Naglaa

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol could provide protection against Reye's syndrome induced by 4-pentenoic acid in Wistar albino rats. Compared with rats with untreated Reye's syndrome, 1 h pretreatment by low dose resveratrol (10 mg/kg by oral gavage) resulted in marked amelioration in liver functions in the form of significant decrease in serum transaminases (AST, ALT) and plasma ammonia levels, shortening of prothrombin time, and increase in serum albumin levels. In addition, resveratrol prohibited oxidative stress markers, as indicated by a significant increase in GSH and decrease in MDA, with restoration of complex I activity in liver tissues. The classical histopathological presentation in Reye's syndrome of microvesicular steatosis by light microscope and mitochondria distortion by electron microscope has been improved by resveratrol pretreatment. The efficient protection by resveratrol was determined by normalization in serum levels of AST and albumin, as well as complex I activity, GSH, and MDA. In conclusion, pretreatment by resveratrol in low doses could protect against Reye's syndrome partially via prohibition of oxidative stress and restoration of complex I activity. This may provide the opportunity to reconsider aspirin therapy for infants and young children. However, the verification of such results in clinical practice remains a challenge.

  19. A Framework For Analyzing And Mitigating The Vulnerabilities Of Complex Systems Via Attack And Protection Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Forrest, et al. in [FoH00, HoF00], Harmar, et al. in [HaL00, HaW02], and Williams , et al. [WiA01]. The main difference is the use of RNA as a memory...and Robert Bennington. “Extending the Schematic Protection Model to Verify the Safety of a System Using Attack and Protection Trees,” Under review...by IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. Kenneth Edge, George Dalton, Richard Raines, and Robert Mills. “Analyzing Network

  20. Cationic Lipid/DNA Complex-Adjuvanted Influenza A Virus Vaccination Induces Robust Cross-Protective Immunity▿

    PubMed Central

    Hong, David K.; Chang, Stella; Botham, Crystal M.; Giffon, Thierry D.; Fairman, Jeffery; Lewis, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a negative-strand segmented RNA virus in which antigenically distinct viral subtypes are defined by the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) major viral surface proteins. An ideal inactivated vaccine for influenza A virus would induce not only highly robust strain-specific humoral and T-cell immune responses but also cross-protective immunity in which an immune response to antigens from a particular viral subtype (e.g., H3N2) would protect against other viral subtypes (e.g., H1N1). Cross-protective immunity would help limit outbreaks from newly emerging antigenically novel strains. Here, we show in mice that the addition of cationic lipid/noncoding DNA complexes (CLDC) as adjuvant to whole inactivated influenza A virus vaccine induces significantly more robust adaptive immune responses both in quantity and quality than aluminum hydroxide (alum), which is currently the most widely used adjuvant in clinical human vaccination. CLDC-adjuvanted vaccine induced higher total influenza virus-specific IgG, particularly for the IgG2a/c subclass. Higher levels of multicytokine-producing influenza virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were induced by CLDC-adjuvanted vaccine than with alum-adjuvanted vaccine. Importantly, CLDC-adjuvanted vaccine provided significant cross-protection from either a sublethal or lethal influenza A viral challenge with a different subtype than that used for vaccination. This superior cross-protection afforded by the CLDC adjuvant required CD8 T-cell recognition of viral peptides presented by classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins. Together, these results suggest that CLDC has particular promise for vaccine strategies in which T cells play an important role and may offer new opportunities for more effective control of human influenza epidemics and pandemics by inactivated influenza virus vaccine. PMID:20943978

  1. Protective effects of HV-P411 complex against D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Kim, Seok-Joo; Kim, Hyo-Yeon; Cho, Soon Hyun; Kim, Kyung Nam; Lee, Sin Gu; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the hepatoprotective effect of the HV-P411 complex, an herbal extract mixture from the seeds of Vitis vinifera, Schisandra chinensis and Taraxacum officinale, against D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatitis. Hepatotoxicity was induced by D-GalN (700 mg/kg, i.p.), and the HV-P411 complex was administered orally 48, 24, and 2 h before and 6 h after D-GalN injection. Increases in serum aminotransferase activity and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in hepatic glutathione content were attenuated by the HV-P411 complex 24 h after D-GalN treatment. The HV-P411 complex attenuated the increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 level and cyclooxygenase-2 protein production and their mRNA expressions, while increases in serum IL-10 level and heme oxygenase-1 protein production and their mRNA expressions were augmented by the HV-P411 complex. The increased translocation of nuclear factor-κB and c-Jun phosphorylation were attenuated by treatment with the HV-P411 complex. Our results suggest that the HV-P411 complex prevents D-GalN-induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.

  2. Protective effect of polysaccharide-protein complex from a polypore mushroom, Phellinus rimosus against radiation-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jini; Panicker, Sudheesh Narayana; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces severe oxidative stress in the body resulting an imbalance in prooxidant and antioxidant status in the cell. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of polysaccharide protein complex (PPC-Pr) isolated from the mushroom Phellinus rimosus against the oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation. PPC-Pr complex was isolated from the aqueous extracts of P. rimosus. The complex was administered to Swiss albino mice at a concentration of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 5 days consecutively and exposed to 4 Gy of gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 1 day after irradiation and the antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase as well as lipid peroxidation were evaluated in both liver and brain tissues to evaluate oxidative stress. Amifostine, a standard radioprotective agent, was used as a positive control. In vitro DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay. Survival studies were also carried out to determine the protective role of PPC-Pr against radiation-induced delayed oxidative stress. PPC-Pr treatment enhanced the declined levels of antioxidants and comet parameters to a significant level, indicating its antioxidant as well as DNA protecting potential. Significant increase in the survival rate of animals was also observed in irradiated animals treated with PPC-Pr complex. The results were comparable to the standard drug amifostine. The results indicate profound effects of PPC-Pr against radiation-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest potential therapeutic use of PPC-Pr in radiotherapy.

  3. Implementation of a complex of measures to fulfill the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamidullina, Natalia; Novikova, Nataliya; Deshevaya, Elena; Orlov, Oleg; Guridov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Dmitry; Zaytseva, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The major purpose of the planetary protection program in the ExoMars-2016 mission is to forestall Mars contamination by terrestrial microorganisms. Since Martian descent module is not intended for biological experiments, ExoMars-2016 mission falls under COSPAR category IVa. Within the joint project co-sponsored by ESA and Roscosmos the European side holds full responsibility for ensuring a prescribed level of SC microbiological purity, while the Russian side is charged with compliance of the launch services provided on Baikonur technical complex with the planetary protection requirements that is, specifically, prevention of SC recontamination. To this end, a complex of measures was executed to control microbial contamination of cosmodrome facilities on the prescribed level which included: - regular decontamination of clean rooms using an effective disinfectant and impulse ultraviolet radiation that created favorable conditions for reliable functioning of the ESA clean tent, - replacement of airline filters in the Thermal Conditioning Unit (TCU) air duct for SC conditioning with pure air. The results of microbiological tests performed in the period of 2015 - 2016 lead to the conclusion that the Baikonur clean rooms (ISO class 8), TCU air ducts and Air Thermal Control System (ATCS) at launch site are ready for the launch campaign and that the Russian side fulfilled the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission.

  4. FANCI-FANCD2 stabilizes the RAD51-DNA complex by binding RAD51 and protects the 5′-DNA end

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Koichi; Shimomuki, Mayo; Katsuki, Yoko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Wataru; Ishiai, Masamichi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The FANCI-FANCD2 (I-D) complex is considered to work with RAD51 to protect the damaged DNA in the stalled replication fork. However, the means by which this DNA protection is accomplished have remained elusive. In the present study, we found that the I-D complex directly binds to RAD51, and stabilizes the RAD51-DNA filament. Unexpectedly, the DNA binding activity of FANCI, but not FANCD2, is explicitly required for the I-D complex-mediated RAD51-DNA filament stabilization. The RAD51 filament stabilized by the I-D complex actually protects the DNA end from nucleolytic degradation by an FA-associated nuclease, FAN1. This DNA end protection is not observed with the RAD51 mutant from FANCR patient cells. These results clearly answer the currently enigmatic question of how RAD51 functions with the I-D complex to prevent genomic instability at the stalled replication fork. PMID:27694619

  5. Assessment of Spatial Unevenness of Road Accidents Severity as Instrument of Preventive Protection from Emergency Situations in Road Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2016-08-01

    Emergency situations in road complex are road traffic accidents (RA) with severe consequences. These are incidents connected with the death and injury of large number of people. The most common reasons for this are the collision of three or more cars, the collision of buses with trains at railroad crossings, the fall of the buses in the mountain gorge, and other similar cases. Is it possible to predict such events? How to build a preventive protection against such emergencies? We have to understand that emergencies in a road complex are qualitative expression of the quantitative processes that characterize the general state of road safety in the region. In this regard, at the level of state monitoring of emergency situations it is important to understand in general - in which region the situation is more complicated and in which is more favorable. This knowledge helps to more efficiently reallocate resources intended to solve the problems of road safety provision. The consequence of this is improvement of the quality of preventive protection from the emergencies in the road complex. The article presents quantitative values of severity of accidents in the Russian Federation regions and the Pareto chart distribution of cumulates of the accident severity for the Russian Federation. On the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial non-uniformity of the accident severity results it offers two important recommendations, implementation of which will alleviate the issue of formation of emergency situations in the road of the Russian Federation on the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial nonuniformity of the accident severity results.

  6. Structure of an Antibody in Complex with Its Mucin Domain Linear Epitope That Is Protective against Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Olal, Daniel; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bale, Shridhar; Halfmann, Peter; Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; King, Liam B.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Dye, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody 14G7 is protective against lethal Ebola virus challenge and recognizes a distinct linear epitope in the prominent mucin-like domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein GP. The structure of 14G7 in complex with its linear peptide epitope has now been determined to 2.8 Å. The structure shows that this GP sequence forms a tandem β-hairpin structure that binds deeply into a cleft in the antibody-combining site. A key threonine at the apex of one turn is critical for antibody interaction and is conserved among all Ebola viruses. This work provides further insight into the mechanism of protection by antibodies that target the protruding, highly accessible mucin-like domain of Ebola virus and the structural framework for understanding and characterizing candidate immunotherapeutics. PMID:22171276

  7. [The health protection of Italian workers abroad: complex and varied but still guaranteed].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Luigi; Corfiati, Marisa; Cassano, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The employment contracts for Italian working abroad are legally different. So many national laws, European Union (EU) directives and regulations should be applied concerning health and safety at work. This paper is aimed to clarify these features, focusing on their impact on workers' health surveillance. For originally transnational contracts the law applicable is chosen by the parties but in compliance with minimum standards of workers' health protection. An authorization by Italian Labour Minister is also needed for employment in non-EU countries requiring minimum protection conditions. Italian legislation is applied to temporary work abroad. Long-lasting or permanent abroad transfer is regulated as originally transnational work. Workers posted in a EU country should receive the same protection ensured by laws, regulations, collective agreements or arbitrations to resident workers. Health surveillance of workers hired or transferred to work abroad is performed by a occupational physician (OP) operating in the foreign country. Temporary abroad workers undergo health surveillance by the Italian OP. The workplace inspection could be conducted by the OP through audiovisual electronic systems, reserving the on-site visit to particular situations. The host employer is responsible for health surveillance of posted workers entrusted to a local OP.

  8. CD11b is protective in complement-mediated immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessy J; Chaves, Lee D; Chang, Anthony; Jacob, Alexander; Ritchie, Maria; Quigg, Richard J

    2015-05-01

    In chronic serum sickness, glomerular immune complexes form, yet C57BL/6 mice do not develop glomerulonephritis unless complement factor H (CfH) is absent, indicating the relevance of complement regulation. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b) and Fcγ receptors on leukocytes, and CfH on platelets, can bind immune complexes. Here we induced immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in CfH(-/-) mice chimeric for wild-type, CfH(-/-), CD11b(-/-), or FcRγ(-/-) bone marrow stem cells. Glomerulonephritis was worse in CD11b(-/-) chimeras compared with all others, whereas disease in FcRγ(-/-) and wild-type chimeras was comparable. Disease tracked strongly with humoral immune responses, but not glomerular immune complex deposits. Interstitial inflammation with M1 macrophages strongly correlated with glomerulonephritis scores. CD11b(-/-) chimeras had significantly more M1 macrophages and CD4(+) T cells. The renal dendritic cell populations originating from bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells were similar in all experimental groups. CD11b(+) cells bearing colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor were present in kidneys, including CD11b(-/-) chimeras; these cells correlated negatively with glomerulonephritis scores. Thus, experimental immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis is associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages and CD4(+) T cells in kidneys and functional renal insufficiency. Hence, CD11b on mononuclear cells is instrumental in generating an anti-inflammatory response in the inflamed kidney.

  9. Liposome-Antigen-Nucleic Acid Complexes Protect Mice from Lethal Challenge with Western and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Aaron T.; Schountz, Tony; Toth, Ann M.; Rico, Amber B.; Jarvis, Donald L.; Powers, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause significant disease in animals and humans. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), two New World alphaviruses, can cause fatal encephalitis, and EEEV is a select agent of concern in biodefense. However, we have no antiviral therapies against alphaviral disease, and current vaccine strategies target only a single alphavirus species. In an effort to develop new tools for a broader response to outbreaks, we designed and tested a novel alphavirus vaccine comprised of cationic lipid nucleic acid complexes (CLNCs) and the ectodomain of WEEV E1 protein (E1ecto). Interestingly, we found that the CLNC component, alone, had therapeutic efficacy, as it increased survival of CD-1 mice following lethal WEEV infection. Immunization with the CLNC-WEEV E1ecto mixture (lipid-antigen-nucleic acid complexes [LANACs]) using a prime-boost regimen provided 100% protection in mice challenged with WEEV subcutaneously, intranasally, or via mosquito. Mice immunized with LANACs mounted a strong humoral immune response but did not produce neutralizing antibodies. Passive transfer of serum from LANAC E1ecto-immunized mice to nonimmune CD-1 mice conferred protection against WEEV challenge, indicating that antibody is sufficient for protection. In addition, the LANAC E1ecto immunization protocol significantly increased survival of mice following intranasal or subcutaneous challenge with EEEV. In summary, our LANAC formulation has therapeutic potential and is an effective vaccine strategy that offers protection against two distinct species of alphavirus irrespective of the route of infection. We discuss plausible mechanisms as well the potential utility of our LANAC formulation as a pan-alphavirus vaccine. PMID:24257615

  10. Role of mitochondrial complex I and protective effect of CoQ10 supplementation in propofol induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Christian; Moruzzi, Noah; Volta, Francesco; Faccioli, Laura; Gerdes, Jantje; Mondardini, Maria Cristina; Fato, Romana

    2016-08-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is an anaesthetic widely used for human sedation. Due to its intrinsic antioxidant properties, rapid induction of anaesthesia and fast recovery, it is employed in paediatric anaesthesia and in the intensive care of premature infants. Recent studies have pointed out that exposure to anaesthesia in the early stage of life might be responsible of long-lasting cognitive impairment. The apoptotic neurodegeneration induced by general anaesthetics (GA) involves mitochondrial impairment due to the inhibition of the OXPHOS machinery. In the present work, we aim to identify the main mitochondrial respiratory chain target of propofol toxicity and to evaluate the possible protective effect of CoQ10 supplementation. The propofol effect on the mitochondrial functionality was assayed in isolated mitochondria and in two cell lines (HeLa and T67) by measuring oxygen consumption rate. The protective effect of CoQ10 was assessed by measuring cells viability, NADH-oxidase activity and ATP/ADP ratio in cells treated with propofol. Our results show that propofol reduces cellular oxygen consumption rate acting mainly on mitochondrial Complex I. The kinetic analysis of Complex I inhibition indicates that propofol interferes with the Q module acting as a non-competitive inhibitor with higher affinity for the free form of the enzyme. Cells supplemented with CoQ10 are more resistant to propofol toxicity. Propofol exposure induces cellular damages due to mitochondrial impairment. The site of propofol inhibition on Complex I is the Q module. CoQ10 supplementation protects cells against the loss of energy suggesting its possible therapeutic role to minimizing the detrimental effects of general anaesthesia.

  11. A novel complex I inhibitor protects against hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Nobutoshi; Robertson, Ian M; Hamza, Shereen M; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn M; Sung, Miranda M; Masson, Grant; Beker, Donna L; Dyck, Jason R B

    2017-03-01

    Since left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the susceptibility for the development of other cardiac conditions, pharmacotherapy that mitigates pathological cardiac remodeling may prove to be beneficial in patients with LVH. Previous work has shown that the activation of the energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can inhibit some of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in LVH. Of interest, metformin activates AMPK through its inhibition of mitochondrial complex I in the electron transport chain and can prevent LVH induced by pressure overload. However, metformin has additional cellular effects unrelated to AMPK activation, raising questions about whether mitochondrial complex I inhibition is sufficient to reduce LVH. Herein, we characterize the cardiac effects of a novel compound (R118), which is a more potent complex I inhibitor than metformin and is thus used at a much lower concentration. We show that R118 activates AMPK in the cardiomyocyte, inhibits multiple signaling pathways involved in LVH, and prevents Gq protein-coupled receptor agonist-induced prohypertrophic signaling. We also show that in vivo administration of R118 prevents LVH in a mouse model of hypertension, suggesting that R118 can directly modulate the response of the cardiomyocyte to stress. Of importance, we also show that while R118 treatment prevents adaptive remodelling in response to elevated afterload, it does so without compromising systolic function, improves myocardial energetics, and prevents a decline in diastolic function in hypertensive mice. Taken together, our data suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I may be worthy of future investigation for the treatment of LVH.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by R118 reduces left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and improves myocardial energetics as well as diastolic function without compromising systolic function. Together, these effects demonstrate the therapeutic potential of

  12. Calculating the Lightning Protection System Downconductors' Grounding Resistance at Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos; Mata, Angel

    2011-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulation installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. Nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each downconductor is connected to a 7.62-meter-radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced. 6-meter-1ong vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping. enclosures, raceways. and. cable trays. within 7.62 meters of. counterpoise, to be bonded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways and cable trays that run in multiple directions around LC39B.

  13. The (oxalato)aluminate complex as an antimicrobial substance protecting the "shiro" of Tricholoma matsutake from soil micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Katsutoshi; Shiro, Misao; Okura, Ryuki; Oizumi, Kazuya; Fujita, Toru; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Tanaka, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Muneyoshi; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete, forms ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densiflora as the host tree. Its fruiting body, "matsutake" in Japanese, is an edible and highly prized mushroom, and it grows in a circle called a fairy ring. Beneath the fairy ring of T. matsutake, a whitish mycelium-soil aggregated zone, called "shiro" in Japanese, develops. The front of the shiro, an active mycorrhizal zone, functions to gather nutrients from the soil and roots to nourish the fairy ring. Bacteria and sporulating fungi decrease from the shiro front, whereas they increase inside and outside the shiro front. Ohara demonstrated that the shiro front exhibited antimicrobial activity, but the antimicrobial substance has remained unidentified for 50 years. We have identified the antimicrobial substance as the (oxalato)aluminate complex, known as a reaction product of oxalic acid and aluminum phosphate to release soluble phosphorus. The complex protects the shiro from micro-organisms, and contributes to its development.

  14. Parkin is a component of an SCF-like ubiquitin ligase complex and protects postmitotic neurons from kainate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Staropoli, John F; McDermott, Caroline; Martinat, Cécile; Schulman, Brenda; Demireva, Elena; Abeliovich, Asa

    2003-03-06

    Mutations in parkin, which encodes a RING domain protein associated with ubiquitin ligase activity, lead to autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease characterized by midbrain dopamine neuron loss. Here we show that parkin functions in a multiprotein ubiquitin ligase complex that includes the F-box/WD repeat protein hSel-10 and Cullin-1. HSel-10 serves to target the parkin ubiquitin ligase activity to cyclin E, an hSel-10-interacting protein previously implicated in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. Consistent with the notion that cyclin E is a substrate of the parkin ubiquitin ligase complex, parkin deficiency potentiates the accumulation of cyclin E in cultured postmitotic neurons exposed to the glutamatergic excitotoxin kainate and promotes their apoptosis. Furthermore, parkin overexpression attenuates the accumulation of cyclin E in toxin-treated primary neurons, including midbrain dopamine neurons, and protects them from apoptosis.

  15. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  16. Multiple Sclerosis: Are Protective Immune Mechanisms Compromised by a Complex Infectious Background?

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Bernd; Grange, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The immunological background of multiple sclerosis (MS) manifests as an altered reactivity against a diverse range of infections, particularly with the Epstein-Barr virus. Although this could be only an epiphenomenon of a more generalised dysfunction of the immune system in MS, it is also possible that a complex infectious background forms the basis of a specific immune dysregulation finally causing the disease. It is thus suggested that the complex infectious background bears the key for an understanding of the immune pathogenesis of the disease. It appears probable that improved standards of hygiene cause regulatory defects in the immune system, allowing the abnormal expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) genes. On the basis of epidemiological observations we describe how a failure of expansion or an eclipse of a subfraction of self-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells mediating immune repair, and a deleterious mode of action of HERV gene products, could underlie the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:21197482

  17. Critical Infrastructures as Complex Systems: A Multi-level Protection Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assogna, Pierluigi; Bertocchi, Glauco; Dicarlo, Antonio; Milicchio, Franco; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Scorzelli, Giorgio; Vicentino, Michele; Zollo, Roberto

    This paper describes a security platform as a complex system of holonic communities, that are hierarchically organized, but self-reconfigurable when some of them are detached or cannot otherwise operate. Furthermore, every possible subset of holons may work autonomously, while maintaining self-conscience of its own mission, action lines and goals. Each holonic unit, either elementary or composite, retains some capabilities for sensing (perception), transmissive apparatus (communication), computational processes (elaboration), authentication/authorization (information security), support for data exchange (visualization & interaction), actuators (mission), ambient representation (geometric reasoning), knowledge representation (logic reasoning), situation representation and forecasting (simulation), intelligent feedback (command & control). The higher the organizational level of the holonic unit, the more complex and sophisticated each of its characteristic features.

  18. Perspiration Poisoning of Protective Clothing Materials. Part II. Mathematical Model for a Complex Adsorption Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    long-time objective of the grant that funded this research is to remedy this "poisoning" problem; therefore, the modeling work considersthe different...chni-al ewt MATERIALS. "THEMATICAL MODEL FORE"ORMING RPoRT E A COMPLEX ADSORF 1ION .ED-.--L 7- --AU .LO - -/- 8. CONTRACT QR GRATNUMBER(.) J...AREA & WORK 14qITUMBERS Department of Chemical Engineering North Carolina State University % 62105A Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 - TI62105AH8 102107 I

  19. Ellagic acid protects against arsenic toxicity in isolated rat mitochondria possibly through the maintaining of complex II.

    PubMed

    Keshtzar, E; Khodayar, M J; Javadipour, M; Ghaffari, M A; Bolduc, D L; Rezaei, M

    2016-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to many health problems including diabetes and cancer. In the present study, we assessed the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) against toxicity induced by arsenic in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential decline were assayed using dichlorofluorescein diacetate and rhodamine 123, respectively, and dehydrogenase activity obtained by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide conversion assay. Arsenic increased ROS levels and mitochondrial dysfunction, which led to a reduction in mitochondrial total dehydrogenase activity. Mitochondria pretreated with EA exposed to arsenic at various concentrations led to a reversal of ROS production and mitochondrial damage. Our results showed that mitochondria were significantly affected when exposed to arsenic, which resulted in excessive ROS production and mitochondrial membrane disruption. Pretreatment with EA, reduced ROS amounts, mitochondrial damage, and restored total dehydrogenase activity specifically associated with mitochondrial complex II. EA protective characteristics may be accomplished particularly throughout the mitochondrial maintenance either directly by its antioxidant property or indirectly through its maintaining of complex II. These findings also suggest a potential role for EA in treating or preventing mitochondria associated disorders.

  20. Structure of the DNA-SspC Complex: Implications for DNA Packaging, Protection, and Repair in Bacterial Spores

    PubMed Central

    Frenkiel-Krispin, Daphna; Sack, Rinat; Englander, Joseph; Shimoni, Eyal; Eisenstein, Miriam; Bullitt, Esther; Horowitz-Scherer, Rachel; Hayes, Christopher S.; Setlow, Peter; Minsky, Abraham; Wolf, Sharon Grayer

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial spores have long been recognized as the sturdiest known life forms on earth, revealing extraordinary resistance to a broad range of environmental assaults. A family of highly conserved spore-specific DNA-binding proteins, termed α/β-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), plays a major role in mediating spore resistance. The mechanism by which these proteins exert their protective activity remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of structural data on the DNA-SASP complex. By using cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the helical complex formed between DNA and SspC, a characteristic member of the α/β-type SASP family. The protein is found to fully coat the DNA, forming distinct protruding domains, and to modify DNA structure such that it adopts a 3.2-nm pitch. The protruding SspC motifs allow for interdigitation of adjacent DNA-SspC filaments into a tightly packed assembly of nucleoprotein helices. By effectively sequestering DNA molecules, this dense assembly of filaments is proposed to enhance and complement DNA protection obtained by DNA saturation with the α/β-type SASP. PMID:15150240

  1. Nitric Oxide Induces Cardiac Protection by Preventing Extracellular Matrix Degradation through the Complex Caveolin-3/EMMPRIN in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Irene; Castejon, Borja; Martin, Ana M.; Saura, Marta; Reventun-Torralba, Paula; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Extracellular Matrix degradation by nitric oxide (NO) induces cardiac protection against coronary ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Glycosylation of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates enzymatic activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the heart, although the mechanisms leading to EMMPRIN glycosylation are poorly understood. We sought to determine if NO may induce cardiac protection by preventing glycosylation of EMMPRIN in a mouse model of IR. Here we found that Caveolin-3 binds to low glycosylated EMMPRIN (LG-EMMPRIN) in cardiac cells and in the hearts of healthy mice, whereas IR disrupted the complex in nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) knockout (KO) mice. By contrast, the binding was partially restored when mice were fed with an NO donor (DEA-NO) in the drinking water, showing a significant reduction on infarct size (NOS2KO: 34.6±5 vs NOS2KO+DEA-NO: 20.7±9), in expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and cardiac performance was improved (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). NOS2KO: 31±4 vs NOS2KO+DEA-NO: 46±6). The role of Caveolin-3/EMMPRIN in NO-mediated cardiac protection was further assayed in Caveolin-3 KO mice, showing no significant improvement on infarct size (Caveolin-3 KO: 34.8±3 vs Caveolin-3 KO+DEA-NO:33.7±5), or in the expression of MMPs, suggesting that stabilization of the complex Caveolin-3/LG-EMMPRIN may play a significant role in the cardioprotective effect of NO against IR. PMID:27649573

  2. Nitric Oxide Induces Cardiac Protection by Preventing Extracellular Matrix Degradation through the Complex Caveolin-3/EMMPRIN in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Irene; Castejon, Borja; Martin, Ana M; Saura, Marta; Reventun-Torralba, Paula; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Zaragoza, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Extracellular Matrix degradation by nitric oxide (NO) induces cardiac protection against coronary ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Glycosylation of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates enzymatic activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the heart, although the mechanisms leading to EMMPRIN glycosylation are poorly understood. We sought to determine if NO may induce cardiac protection by preventing glycosylation of EMMPRIN in a mouse model of IR. Here we found that Caveolin-3 binds to low glycosylated EMMPRIN (LG-EMMPRIN) in cardiac cells and in the hearts of healthy mice, whereas IR disrupted the complex in nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) knockout (KO) mice. By contrast, the binding was partially restored when mice were fed with an NO donor (DEA-NO) in the drinking water, showing a significant reduction on infarct size (NOS2KO: 34.6±5 vs NOS2KO+DEA-NO: 20.7±9), in expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and cardiac performance was improved (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). NOS2KO: 31±4 vs NOS2KO+DEA-NO: 46±6). The role of Caveolin-3/EMMPRIN in NO-mediated cardiac protection was further assayed in Caveolin-3 KO mice, showing no significant improvement on infarct size (Caveolin-3 KO: 34.8±3 vs Caveolin-3 KO+DEA-NO:33.7±5), or in the expression of MMPs, suggesting that stabilization of the complex Caveolin-3/LG-EMMPRIN may play a significant role in the cardioprotective effect of NO against IR.

  3. CD11b is protective in complement-mediated immune complex glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jessy J; Chaves, Lee D; Chang, Anthony; Jacob, Alexander; Ritchie, Maria; Quigg, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    In chronic serum sickness, glomerular immune complexes form, yet C57BL/6 mice do not develop glomerulonephritis unless complement factor H (CfH) is absent, indicating the relevance of complement regulation. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b) and Fcγ receptors on leukocytes, and CfH on platelets, can bind immune complexes. Here we induced immune complex–mediated glomerulonephritis in CfH−/− mice chimeric for wild-type, CfH−/−, CD11b−/−, or FcRγ−/− bone marrow stem cells. Glomerulonephritis was worse in CD11b−/− chimeras compared with all others, whereas disease in FcRγ−/− and wild-type chimeras was comparable. Disease tracked strongly with humoral immune responses, but not glomerular immune complex deposits. Interstitial inflammation with M1 macrophages strongly correlated with glomerulonephritis scores. CD11b−/− chimeras had significantly more M1 macrophages and CD4+ T cells. The renal dendritic cell populations originating from bone marrow–derived CD11c+ cells were similar in all experimental groups. CD11b+ cells bearing colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor were present in kidneys, including CD11b−/− chimeras; these cells correlated negatively with glomerulonephritis scores. Thus, experimental immune complex–mediated glomerulonephritis is associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages and CD4+ T cells in kidneys and functional renal insufficiency. Hence, CD11b on mononuclear cells is instrumental in generating an anti-inflammatory response in the inflamed kidney. PMID:25565310

  4. Thiourea protects against copper-induced oxidative damage by formation of a redox-inactive thiourea-copper complex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Antholine, William E; Frei, Balz

    2002-06-15

    Although thiourea has been used widely to study the role of hydroxyl radicals in metal-mediated biological damage, it is not a specific hydroxyl radical scavenger and may also exert antioxidant effects unrelated to hydroxyl radical scavenging. Thus, we investigated the effects of thiourea on copper-induced oxidative damage to bovine serum albumin (1 mg/ml) in three different copper-containing systems: Cu(II)/ascorbate, Cu(II)/H(2)O(2), and Cu(II)/H(2)O(2)/ascorbate [Cu(II), 0.1 mM; ascorbate, 1 mM; H(2)O(2), 1 mM]. Oxidative damage to albumin was measured as protein carbonyl formation. Thiourea (0.1-10 mM) provided marked and dose-dependent protection against protein oxidation in all three copper-containing systems. In contrast, only minor protection was observed with dimethyl sulfoxide and mannitol, even at concentrations as high as 100 mM. Strong protection was also observed with dimethylthiourea, but not with urea or dimethylurea. Thiourea also significantly inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate, and competed effectively with histidine and 1,10-phenanthroline for binding of cuprous, but not cupric, copper, as demonstrated by both UV-visible and low temperature electron spin resonance measurements. We conclude that the protection by thiourea against copper-mediated protein oxidation is not through scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, but rather through the chelation of cuprous copper and the formation of a redox-inactive thiourea-copper complex.

  5. Butyrylcholinesterase for protection from organophosphorus poisons; catalytic complexities and hysteretic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a promiscuous enzyme that displays complex kinetic behavior. It is toxicologically important because it detoxifies organophosphorus poisons (OP) by making a covalent bond with the OP. The OP and the butyrylcholinesterase are both inactivated in the process. Inactivation of butyrylcholinesterase has no adverse effects. However inactivation of acetylcholinesterase in nerve synapses can be lethal. OP-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase can be reactivated with oximes provided the OP has not aged. Strategies for preventing the toxicity of OP include a) treatment with an OP scavenger, b) reaction of nonaged enzyme with oximes, c) reactivation of aged enzyme, d) slowing down aging with peripheral site ligands, and e) design of mutants that rapidly hydrolyze OP. Option (a) has progressed through phase I clinical trials with human butyrylcholinesterase. Option (b) is in routine clinical use. The others are at the basic research level. Butyrylcholinesterase displays complex kinetic behavior including activation by positively charged esters, ability to hydrolyze amides, and a lag time (hysteresis) preceding hydrolysis of benzoylcholine and N-methyl indoxyl acetate. Mass spectrometry has identified new OP binding motifs on tyrosine and lysine in proteins that have no active site serine. It is proposed, but not yet proven, that low dose exposure involves OP modification of proteins that have no active site serine. PMID:20004171

  6. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters.

  7. Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lianpan; Song, Jian; Lu, Xishan; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Musyoki, Abednego Moki; Cheng, Huijun; Zhang, Yanfang; Yuan, Yuan; Song, Hao; Haywood, Joel; Xiao, Haixia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2016-05-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a current global public health concern. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein is responsible for virus entry and represents a major target of neutralizing antibodies for other flaviviruses. Here, we report the structures of ZIKV E protein at 2.0 Å and in complex with a flavivirus broadly neutralizing murine antibody 2A10G6 at 3.0 Å. ZIKV-E resembles all the known flavivirus E structures but contains a unique, positively charged patch adjacent to the fusion loop region of the juxtaposed monomer, which may influence host attachment. The ZIKV-E-2A10G6 complex structure reveals antibody recognition of a highly conserved fusion loop. 2A10G6 binds to ZIKV-E with high affinity in vitro and neutralizes currently circulating ZIKV strains in vitro and in mice. The E protein fusion loop epitope represents a potential candidate for therapeutic antibodies against ZIKV.

  8. Development of an opsonin inhibition assay for evaluation of complex polysaccharide protective epitopes.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Tessie; Luo, Shengyuan; Manger, Walt; Herber, Wayne; Schofield, Tim; Tan, Charles; Newman, Kathy; Sadoff, Jerald; Donnelly, John; Cross, Alan

    2006-03-10

    The induction of opsonic antibodies directed against capsular polysaccharides (Ps) is an important mechanism by which immunization protects against the development of invasive pneumococcal (Pn) infection. In preparing Pn vaccines, it is necessary to compare different manufacturing lots of capsular Ps, or to compare oligosaccharides used for conjugate vaccines with native capsular Ps, in order to insure that important epitopes of the Ps are maintained. We have developed an opsonic-antibody inhibition assay (OIA) to compare the functional epitopes of different capsular Ps preparations in vitro. Components of the OIA are primary neutrophils, rabbit complement (C'), and type-specific antibody (Ab). After conditions for optimal opsonic killing were determined for each Pn serotype, anti-Pn Ab was pre-incubated with different dilutions of purified capsular Ps, then added to the OIA mix. Plotting the % bacteria killed versus Ps concentration (log transformed) yielded a linear curve that was used to quantify the concentration of capsular Ps which inhibited the bacteria killing by 50% (IC50). The IC50 was determined for 8 Pn Ps types. These ranged between 6 ng/ml for type 6B and 1268 ng/ml for type 23F. Importantly OIA curves were statistically identical for two different manufacturing lots of capsular Ps for the 8 Pn Ps types. We conclude that differences among capsular Ps used for Pn vaccines could be detected with an OIA assay and these differences may predict the ability of Ps preparations to induce functionally active antibody when formulated into vaccines.

  9. Effect of Metals in Biomimetic Dimetal Complexes on Affinity and Gas-Phase Protection of Phosphate Esters.

    PubMed

    Svane, Simon; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; McKenzie, Christine J; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-07-21

    Although the biomimetic dimetal complex [LGa2(OH)2(H2O)2](3+) [L = 2,6-bis((N,N'-bis(2-picolyl)amino)methyl)-4-tertbutylphenolate] provides efficient protection against phosphate loss in phosphopeptides upon collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS), the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we explored the mechanism in detail and investigated the selective binding to phosphate groups in solution. Dimetal complexes containing combinations of Ga(3+), In(3+), Fe(3+), Co(3+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and V(2+) were reacted with HPO4(2-), phosphoserine, and a phosphopeptide (FQpSEEQQQTEDELQDK, abbreviated "βcas") and studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), CID MS/MS, and density functional theory (DFT). Ka for HPO4(2-) binding scaled with the metal charge and was 35-fold larger for [LGa2(OH)2(H2O)2](3+) (3.08 ± 0.31 × 10(6) M(-1)) than for [LZn2(HCOO)2](+). CID MS/MS of [LGa2(βcas)](n+) revealed protection against phosphate detachment (<3% of the total ion intensity). Phosphate detachment from βcas was 22-40% and increased to 42-71% when bound to dimetal complexes of lower charge than {LGa2}(5+). CID data suggests that facile metal-phosphate dissociation is associated with proton transfer from the intermediate oxazoline ring formed in the phosphopeptide to the metal-phosphate complex. The observed phosphate stabilization was attributed to a significant reduction in the gas-phase basicity (GB) of the phosphate group when bound to {LGa2}(5+)/{LIn2}(5+) complex cores. Absence of proton transfer results in formation of an ion-zwitterion intermediate with a greater dissociation threshold. This hypothesis is supported by DFT calculations for [LGa2(PO4)](2+), [LGaZn(PO4)](+), [LZn2(PO4)], and 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxazoline showing that [LGa2(PO4)](2+) is the only compound with a substantial lower GB (321 kJ/mol less) than 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxazoline.

  10. Acid-base control of hemilabile proton-responsive protecting devices in dimolybdenum, thiolate-bridged complexes.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Alan; Vénec, David; Le Roy, Christine; Pétillon, François Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean

    2014-02-17

    Dimolybdenum thiolate-bridged complexes [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-SCH2CH2E)] (E = O (2) or NH (4)) with a proton-dependent protecting device have been synthesized by reaction of [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-Cl)2] (1) with SCH2CH2EH. The reactivity of the resultant quadruply bridged complexes with acid was investigated in the absence and in the presence of a potential ligand (N2, MeCN, RNC). While the protonation of complexes 2 and 4 under N2 in dichloromethane produced only the oxidized derivatives instead of the desired diazenido compound, ligand binding was observed in MeCN or in the presence of RNC (R = t-Bu, Xyl). Whereas acetonitrile loss from [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-SCH2CH2OH)(MeCN)2](+) (8(+)) prevented the isolation and characterization of this species, the t-BuNC analogue (6(+)) could be characterized by an X-ray crystal structure. The electrochemistry of 2 and 2(+) was investigated in CH2Cl2 and in MeCN, both in the absence and in the presence of acid. While the addition of HBF4·Et2O to a dichloromethane solution of 2 only produced 2(+) (and presumably H2), 8(+) was the major product of the protonation in MeCN.

  11. The Uve1 Endonuclease Is Regulated by the White Collar Complex to Protect Cryptococcus neoformans from UV Damage

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Surbhi; Idnurm, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans uses the Bwc1-Bwc2 photoreceptor complex to regulate mating in response to light, virulence and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. How the complex controls these functions is unclear. Here, we identify and characterize a gene in Cryptococcus, UVE1, whose mutation leads to a UV hypersensitive phenotype. The homologous gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease acting in the UVDE-dependent excision repair (UVER) pathway. C. neoformans UVE1 complements a S. pombe uvde knockout strain. UVE1 is photoregulated in a Bwc1-dependent manner in Cryptococcus, and in Neurospora crassa and Phycomyces blakesleeanus that are species that represent two other major lineages in the fungi. Overexpression of UVE1 in bwc1 mutants rescues their UV sensitivity phenotype and gel mobility shift experiments show binding of Bwc2 to the UVE1 promoter, indicating that UVE1 is a direct downstream target for the Bwc1-Bwc2 complex. Uve1-GFP fusions localize to the mitochondria. Repair of UV-induced damage to the mitochondria is delayed in the uve1 mutant strain. Thus, in C. neoformans UVE1 is a key gene regulated in response to light that is responsible for tolerance to UV stress for protection of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:24039606

  12. Soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex nanogels: folic acid loading, protection, and controlled delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuzhe; Yao, Ping

    2013-07-09

    In this study, we developed a facile approach to produce nanogels via self-assembly of folic acid, soy protein, and soy polysaccharide. High-pressure homogenization was introduced to break down the original aggregates of soy protein, which benefits the binding of soy protein with soy polysaccharide and folic acid at pH 4.0. After a heat treatment that causes the soy protein denaturation and gelation, folic acid-loaded soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex nanogels were fabricated. The nanogels have a polysaccharide surface that makes the nanogels dispersible in acidic conditions where folic acid is insoluble and soy protein forms precipitates after heating. More importantly, the protein and polysaccharide can inhibit the reactions between dissolved oxygen and folic acid during UV irradiation. After the preparation and storage of the nanogels in the presence of heat, oxygen, and light in acidic conditions, most of the folic acid molecules in the nanogels remain in their natural structure and can be released rapidly at neutral pH, that is, in the intestine. Because most food and beverages are acidic, the nanogels are a suitable delivery system of folic acid in food and beverages.

  13. Protection of Metal Artifacts with the Formation of Metal–Oxalates Complexes by Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal–oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L−1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal–oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archeological and modern metal artifacts. The production of copper oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archeological and modern). The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal–oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. On silver, a co-precipitation of copper and silver oxalates occurred. As this greenish patina would not be acceptable on silver objects, silver reduction was explored as a tarnishing remediation. First experiments showed the transformation of silver nitrate into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown extracellular mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artifacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals. PMID:22291684

  14. Host-protective effect of circulating pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and complex formation with neutrophil extracellular traps

    PubMed Central

    Daigo, Kenji; Hamakubo, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor which is classified as a long-pentraxin in the pentraxin family. It is known to play an important role in innate immunity, inflammatory regulation, and female fertility. PTX3 is synthesized by specific cells, primarily in response to inflammatory signals. Among these various cells, neutrophils have a unique PTX3 production system. Neutrophils store PTX3 in neutrophil-specific granules and then the stored PTX3 is released and localizes in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although certain NET components have been identified, such as histones and anti-microbial proteins, the detailed mechanisms by which NETs localize, as well as capture and kill microbes, have not been fully elucidated. PTX3 is a candidate diagnostic marker of infection and vascular damage. In severe infectious diseases such as sepsis, the circulating PTX3 concentration increases greatly (up to 100 ng/mL, i.e., up to 100-fold of the normal level). Even though it is clearly implied that PTX3 plays a protective role in sepsis and certain other disorders, the detailed mechanisms by which it does so remain unclear. A proteomic study of PTX3 ligands in septic patients revealed that PTX3 forms a complex with certain NET component proteins. This suggests a role for PTX3 in which it facilitates the efficiency of anti-microbial protein pathogen clearance by interacting with both pathogens and anti-microbial proteins. We discuss the possible relationships between PTX3 and NET component proteins in the host protection afforded by the innate immune response. The PTX3 complex has the potential to be a highly useful diagnostic marker of sepsis and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23248627

  15. Protection against lethal measles virus infection in mice by immune-stimulating complexes containing the hemagglutinin or fusion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Varsanyi, T M; Morein, B; Löve, A; Norrby, E

    1987-01-01

    The importance of each of the two surface glycoproteins of measles virus in active and passive immunization was examined in mice. Infected-cell lysates were depleted of either the hemagglutinin (H) or fusion (F) glycoprotein by using multiple cycles of immunoaffinity chromatography. The products were used to prepare immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms) containing either F or H glycoprotein. Such complexes are highly immunogenic, possibly as a result of effective presentation of viral proteins to the immune system [B. Morein, B. Sundquist, S. Höglund, K. Dalsgaard, and A. Osterhaus, Nature (London) 308:457-460, 1984]. Groups of 3-week-old BALB/c mice were inoculated with the iscom preparations. All animals developed hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies, whereas only sera of animals immunized with the iscoms containing the H glycoprotein had hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies. Sera from animals immunized with the H or F preparation only precipitated the homologous glycoprotein in radioimmune precipitation assays. The immunized animals were challenged with a lethal dose of the hamster neurotropic variant of measles virus. Of the 7-week-old animals in the nonimmunized control group, 50% died within 10 days after challenge. No animals in the immunized groups showed symptoms of disease throughout the observation period of 3 months. Passive administration of anti-H monoclonal antibodies gave full protection against the 100% lethal acute infection with the hamster neurotropic variant of measles virus in newborn mice, whereas anti-F monoclonal antibodies failed to protect the animals. This study emphasizes that both H and F glycoproteins need to be considered in the development of measles virus subunit vaccines. Images PMID:2960833

  16. Photo-damage protective effect of two facial products, containing a unique complex of Dead Sea minerals and Himalayan actives.

    PubMed

    Wineman, Eitan; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Soroka, Yoram; Cohen, Dror; Schlippe, Gerrit; Voss, Werner; Brenner, Sarah; Milner, Yoram; Hai, Noam; Ma'or, Zeevi

    2012-09-01

    Skin appearance is badly affected when exposed to solar UV rays, which encourage physiological and structural cutaneous alterations that eventually lead to skin photo-damage. To test the capability of two facial preparations, extreme day cream (EXD) and extreme night treatment (EXN), containing a unique complex of Dead Sea water and three Himalayan extracts, to antagonize biological effects induced by photo-damage. Pieces of organ cultures of human skin were used as a model to assess the biological effects of UVB irradiation and the protective effect of topical application of two Extreme preparations. Skin pieces were analyzed for mitochondrial activity by MTT assay, for apoptosis by caspase 3 assay, and for cytokine secretion by solid phase ELISA. Human subjects were tested to evaluate the effect of Extreme preparations on skin wrinkle depth using PRIMOS and skin hydration by a corneometer. UVB irradiation induced cell apoptosis in the epidermis of skin organ cultures and increased their pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis α (TNFα) secretion. Topical applications of both preparations significantly attenuated all these effects. Furthermore, in human subjects, a reduction in wrinkle depth and an elevation in the intense skin moisture were observed. The observations clearly show that EXD and EXN preparations have protective anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that can attenuate biological effects of skin photo-damage. Topical application of the preparations improves skin appearance by reducing its wrinkles depth and increasing its moisturizing impact. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules protect motor neurons from astrocyte-induced toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Song, SungWon; Miranda, Carlos J; Braun, Lyndsey; Meyer, Kathrin; Frakes, Ashley E; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Likhite, Shibi; Bevan, Adam K; Foust, Kevin D; McConnell, Michael J; Walker, Christopher M; Kaspar, Brian K

    2016-04-01

    Astrocytes isolated from individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are toxic to motor neurons (MNs) and play a non-cell autonomous role in disease pathogenesis. The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of MNs to cell death remain unclear. Here we report that astrocytes derived from either mice bearing mutations in genes associated with ALS or human subjects with ALS reduce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules on MNs; reduced MHCI expression makes these MNs susceptible to astrocyte-induced cell death. Increasing MHCI expression on MNs increases survival and motor performance in a mouse model of ALS and protects MNs against astrocyte toxicity. Overexpression of a single MHCI molecule, HLA-F, protects human MNs from ALS astrocyte-mediated toxicity, whereas knockdown of its receptor, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL2, on human astrocytes results in enhanced MN death. Thus, our data indicate that, in ALS, loss of MHCI expression on MNs renders them more vulnerable to astrocyte-mediated toxicity.

  18. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  19. Permethrin-treated chaddars and top-sheets: appropriate technology for protection against malaria in Afghanistan and other complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Rowland, M; Durrani, N; Hewitt, S; Mohammed, N; Bouma, M; Carneiro, I; Rozendaal, J; Schapira, A

    1999-01-01

    Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) provide excellent protection against malaria; however, they have a number of shortcomings that are particularly evident in politically unstable countries or countries at war: not everyone at risk can necessarily afford a net, nets may be difficult to obtain or import, nets may not be suitable for migrants or refugees sleeping under tents or plastic shelter. There is a need to develop cheaper, locally appropriate alternatives for the most impoverished and for victims of complex emergencies. Afghan women, in common with many Muslim peoples of Asia, wear a veil or wrap known as a chaddar to cover the head and upper body. This cloth doubles as a sheet at night, when they are used by both sexes. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken in which 10% of the families of an Afghan refugee camp (population 3950) in north-western Pakistan had their chaddars and top-sheets treated with permethrin insecticide at a dosage of 1 g/m2 while a further 10% had their chaddars treated with placebo formulation. Malaria episodes were recorded by passive case detection at the camp's health centre. From August to November the odds of having a falciparum or vivax malaria episode were reduced by 64% in children aged 0-10 years and by 38% in refugees aged < 20 years in the group using permethrin-treated chaddars and top-sheets. Incidence in refugees over 20 years of age was not significantly reduced. The cost of the permethrin treatment per person protected (US$0.17) was similar to that for treating bednets (and cost only 10-20% of the price of a new bednet). An entomological study simulating real-life conditions indicated that host-seeking mosquitoes were up to 70% less successful at feeding on men sleeping under treated chaddars and some were killed by the insecticide. Permethrin-treated top-sheets and blankets should provide appropriate and effective protection from malaria in complex emergencies. In Islamic and non-Islamic countries in Asia

  20. Protective effects of the complex between manganese porphyrins and catalase-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugates against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Tomochika; Asayama, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Taiji; Owada, Shigeru; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2009-04-02

    The complex between manganese (Mn) porphyrins and catalase-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugates has been designed for the protective effect against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. The resulting Mn-porphyrin/catalase-PEG complex with dual enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enhanced the blood circulation. The spin reduction rate in the rats treated with the Mn-porphyrin/catalase-PEG complex was significantly higher than that in the untreated rats and almost equal to that in the sham group rats. Furthermore, the Mn-porphyrin/catalase-PEG complex significantly decreased the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. These results suggest that the Mn-porphyrin/catalase-PEG complex exhibited the antioxidative activity to protect hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.

  1. Evaluation of Grounding Impedance of a Complex Lightning Protective System Using Earth Ground Clamp Measurements and ATP Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, Angel G.

    2010-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. A total of nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long, on average) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each of the nine downconductors is connected to a 7.62-meter radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced 6-meter long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bounded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple direction around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall of potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the downconductors grounding impedance, an Earth Ground Clamp (a stakeless grounding resistance measuring device) and a LPS Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model are used. The Earth Ground Clamp is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding impedance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the Earth Ground Clamp measurements.

  2. Dietary nitrate increases arginine availability and protects mitochondrial complex I and energetics in the hypoxic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Ashmore, Tom; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Branco-Price, Cristina; West, James A; Cowburn, Andrew S; Heather, Lisa C; Griffin, Julian L; Johnson, Randall S; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure is associated with impaired cardiac energetics in humans and altered mitochondrial function, with suppressed complex I-supported respiration, in rat heart. This response might limit reactive oxygen species generation, but at the cost of impaired electron transport chain (ETC) activity. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves mitochondrial efficiency and can promote tissue oxygenation by enhancing blood flow. We therefore hypothesised that ETC dysfunction, impaired energetics and oxidative damage in the hearts of rats exposed to chronic hypoxia could be alleviated by sustained administration of a moderate dose of dietary nitrate. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were given water supplemented with 0.7 mmol l−1 NaCl (as control) or 0.7 mmol l−1 NaNO3, elevating plasma nitrate levels by 80%, and were exposed to 13% O2 (hypoxia) or normoxia (n = 10 per group) for 14 days. Respiration rates, ETC protein levels, mitochondrial density, ATP content and protein carbonylation were measured in cardiac muscle. Complex I respiration rates and protein levels were 33% lower in hypoxic/NaCl rats compared with normoxic/NaCl controls. Protein carbonylation was 65% higher in hearts of hypoxic rats compared with controls, indicating increased oxidative stress, whilst ATP levels were 62% lower. Respiration rates, complex I protein and activity, protein carbonylation and ATP levels were all fully protected in the hearts of nitrate-supplemented hypoxic rats. Both in normoxia and hypoxia, dietary nitrate suppressed cardiac arginase expression and activity and markedly elevated cardiac l-arginine concentrations, unmasking a novel mechanism of action by which nitrate enhances tissue NO bioavailability. Dietary nitrate therefore alleviates metabolic abnormalities in the hypoxic heart, improving myocardial energetics. PMID:25172947

  3. Phase Retrieval from Modulus Using Homeomorphic Signal Processing and the Complex Cepstrum: An Algorithm for Lightning Protection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G A

    2004-06-08

    In general, the Phase Retrieval from Modulus problem is very difficult. In this report, we solve the difficult, but somewhat more tractable case in which we constrain the solution to a minimum phase reconstruction. We exploit the real-and imaginary part sufficiency properties of the Fourier and Hilbert Transforms of causal sequences to develop an algorithm for reconstructing spectral phase given only spectral modulus. The algorithm uses homeomorphic signal processing methods with the complex cepstrum. The formal problem of interest is: Given measurements of only the modulus {vert_bar}H(k){vert_bar} (no phase) of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a real, finite-length, stable, causal time domain signal h(n), compute a minimum phase reconstruction {cflx h}(n) of the signal. Then compute the phase of {cflx h}(n) using a DFT, and exploit the result as an estimate of the phase of h(n). The development of the algorithm is quite involved, but the final algorithm and its implementation are very simple. This work was motivated by a Phase Retrieval from Modulus Problem that arose in LLNL Defense Sciences Engineering Division (DSED) projects in lightning protection for buildings. The measurements are limited to modulus-only spectra from a spectrum analyzer. However, it is desired to perform system identification on the building to compute impulse responses and transfer functions that describe the amount of lightning energy that will be transferred from the outside of the building to the inside. This calculation requires knowledge of the entire signals (both modulus and phase). The algorithm and software described in this report are proposed as an approach to phase retrieval that can be used for programmatic needs. This report presents a brief tutorial description of the mathematical problem and the derivation of the phase retrieval algorithm. The efficacy of the theory is demonstrated using simulated signals that meet the assumptions of the algorithm. We see that for

  4. Structures of synthetic O-antigen fragments from serotype 2a Shigella flexneri in complex with a protective monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Vulliez-Le Normand, B.; Saul, F. A.; Phalipon, A.; Bélot, F.; Guerreiro, C.; Mulard, L. A.; Bentley, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-LPS IgG mAb F22-4, raised against Shigella flexneri serotype 2a bacteria, protects against homologous, but not heterologous, challenge in an experimental animal model. We report the crystal structures of complexes formed between Fab F22-4 and two synthetic oligosaccharides, a decasaccharide and a pentadecasaccharide that were previously shown to be both immunogenic and antigenic mimics of the S. flexneri serotype 2a O-antigen. F22-4 binds to an epitope contained within two consecutive 2a serotype pentasaccharide repeat units (RU). Six sugar residues from a contiguous nine-residue segment make direct contacts with the antibody, including the nonreducing rhamnose and both branching glucosyl residues from the two RUs. The glucosyl residue, whose position of attachment to the tetrasaccharide backbone of the RU defines the serotype 2a O-antigen, is critical for recognition by F22-4. Although the complete decasaccharide is visible in the electron density maps, the last four pentadecasaccharide residues from the reducing end, which do not contact the antibody, could not be traced. Although considerable mobility in the free oligosaccharides can thus be expected, the conformational similarity between the individual RUs, both within and between the two complexes, suggests that short-range transient ordering to a helical conformation might occur in solution. Although the observed epitope includes the terminal nonreducing residue, binding to internal epitopes within the polysaccharide chain is not precluded. Our results have implications for vaccine development because they suggest that a minimum of two RUs of synthetic serotype 2a oligosaccharide is required for optimal mimicry of O-Ag epitopes. PMID:18621718

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by the NOX2 Complex in Monocytes Protect Mice from Bacterial Infections1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    Pizzolla, Angela; Hultqvist, Malin; Nilson, Bo; Grimm, Melissa J.; Eneljung, Tove; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Verdrengh, Margareta; Kelkka, Tiina; Gjertsson, Inger; Segal, Brahm H.; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. CGD results from defective production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytes caused by mutations in genes encoding the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex subunits. Mice with a spontaneous mutation in Ncf1, which encodes the NCF1 (p47phox) subunit of NOX2, have defective phagocyte NOX2 activity. These mice occasionally develop local spontaneous infections by Staphylococcus xylosus or by the common CGD pathogen S. aureus. Ncf1 mutant mice were more susceptible to systemic challenge with these bacteria than wild type mice. Transgenic Ncf1 mutant mice harboring wild type Ncf1 gene under the human CD68 promoter (MN+ mice) gained the expression of NCF1 and functional NOX2 activity specifically in monocyte/macrophages, although minimal NOX2 activity was detected also in some CD11b+Ly6G+ cells defined as neutrophils. MN+ mice did not develop spontaneous infection and were more resistant to administered staphylococcal infections compared to MN− mice. Most strikingly, MN+ mice survived after administered Burkholderia cepacia, an opportunistic pathogen in CGD patients, whereas MN− mice died. Thus, monocyte/macrophage expression of functional NCF1 protected against spontaneous and administered bacterial infections. PMID:22491245

  6. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Agnieszka; Fol, Marek; Rahman, Moshiur; Stokes, Karen Y; Florence, Jon M; Leskov, Igor L; Khoretonenko, Mikhail V; Matthay, Michael A; Liu, Kathleen D; Calfee, Carolyn S; Tvinnereim, Amy; Rosenfield, Gabriel R; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2014-09-15

    Previous observations made by our laboratory indicate that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of local inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have shown that there is cross talk between FcγRIIa and TLR4 in alveolar neutrophils from patients with ALI/ARDS and that Btk mediates the molecular cooperation between these two receptors. To study the function of Btk in vivo we have developed a unique two-hit model of ALI: LPS/immune complex (IC)-induced ALI. Furthermore, we conjugated F(ab)2 fragments of anti-neutrophil antibodies (Ly6G1A8) with specific siRNA for Btk to silence Btk specifically in alveolar neutrophils. It should be stressed that we are the first group to perform noninvasive transfections of neutrophils, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our present findings indicate that silencing Btk in alveolar neutrophils has a dramatic protective effect in mice with LPS/IC-induced ALI, and that Btk regulates neutrophil survival and clearance of apoptotic neutrophils in this model. In conclusion, we put forward a hypothesis that Btk-targeted neutrophil specific therapy is a valid goal of research geared toward restoring homeostasis in lungs of patients with ALI/ARDS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Agnieszka; Fol, Marek; Rahman, Moshiur; Stokes, Karen Y.; Florence, Jon M.; Leskov, Igor L.; Khoretonenko, Mikhail V.; Matthay, Michael A.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Tvinnereim, Amy; Rosenfield, Gabriel R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous observations made by our laboratory indicate that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of local inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have shown that there is cross talk between FcγRIIa and TLR4 in alveolar neutrophils from patients with ALI/ARDS and that Btk mediates the molecular cooperation between these two receptors. To study the function of Btk in vivo we have developed a unique two-hit model of ALI: LPS/immune complex (IC)-induced ALI. Furthermore, we conjugated F(ab)2 fragments of anti-neutrophil antibodies (Ly6G1A8) with specific siRNA for Btk to silence Btk specifically in alveolar neutrophils. It should be stressed that we are the first group to perform noninvasive transfections of neutrophils, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our present findings indicate that silencing Btk in alveolar neutrophils has a dramatic protective effect in mice with LPS/IC-induced ALI, and that Btk regulates neutrophil survival and clearance of apoptotic neutrophils in this model. In conclusion, we put forward a hypothesis that Btk-targeted neutrophil specific therapy is a valid goal of research geared toward restoring homeostasis in lungs of patients with ALI/ARDS. PMID:25085625

  8. Shock attenuation of various protective devices for prevention of fall-related injuries of the forearm/hand complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Alian, Ali M; Morris, William S; Lee, Young-Hwa

    2006-04-01

    Attenuation of the peak impact force is essential in any protective devices for prevention of fall-related injuries. Common wrist guards have limited effectiveness because of the multifaceted nature of wrist injury mechanisms, and other modalities may provide enhanced shock-absorbing functions. Controlled laboratory study. A free-fall device was constructed using a mechanical surrogate to simulate falling impact. At 4 different falling heights, 5 different hand conditions were tested: bare hand, a generic-brand wrist guard, a Sorbothane glove, an air cell, and an air bladder condition. The impact force from the ground and the transmitted impact force to the forearm/hand complex were simultaneously measured. The falling height and hand condition significantly modulated the impact responses. The padded conditions always had significantly smaller peak impact forces compared with the bare-hand condition. The wrist guard became ineffective in impact force attenuation beyond the falling height of 51 cm. On the other hand, the air bladder condition maintained less than 45% of the peak impact force of the bare-hand condition and remained below the critical value, whereas other conditions were all ineffective. It was reconfirmed that common wrist guard design could provide limited impact force attenuation, whereas damped pneumatic springs would provide substantially enhanced shock-absorbing functions. A wrist guard incorporating volar padding with the pneumatic spring design principle might be more effective at preventing injuries than are currently available designs.

  9. [Monosaccharide and fatty acid composition of exopolymer complex of bacteria-destructors of the protective coating of gas pipeline].

    PubMed

    Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Boretskaia, M A; Iumyna, Iu M; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

    2012-01-01

    Monosaccharide and fatty acid composition of the exopolymer complex (EPC) of heterotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes 109, Pseudomonas sp. T/2, Rhodococcus erythropolis 102--destructors of the protective coating Polyken 980-25 has been studied. It is shown that qualitative and quantitative composition of EPC components changes depending on the model of bacteria growth. Arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose are dominating saccharides. Xylose has been revealed only under conditions of the biofilm form of growth of all the studied bacteria; ribose only in the biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. T/2. The fatty acid composition of EPC contains saturated and unsaturated acids with 12-19 carbon atoms. Hexadecanoic acid (C 16:0) acid which content in the biofilm and plankton conditions is from 24.9 to 32.4% prevailed in the spectrum of fatty acids of EPC bacteria. Unsaturated fatty acids: hexadecanoic (C 16:1) and octadecenoic (C 18:1) ones have been revealed only in the biofilm of bacteria-destructors of the coating.

  10. Vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex subunit A28 is a target of neutralizing and protective antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gretchen E.; Sisler, Jerry R.; Chandran, Dev; Moss, Bernard

    2008-10-25

    The vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex (EFC) is comprised of at least eight transmembrane proteins that are conserved in all poxviruses. However, neither the physical structure of the EFC nor the immunogenicity of the individual components has been determined. We prepared soluble forms of two EFC components, A28 and H2, by replacing the transmembrane domain with a signal peptide and adding a polyhistidine tail. The proteins were expressed by baculoviruses, secreted from insect cells, purified by affinity chromatography and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. The antibodies recognized the viral proteins but only the antibody to recombinant A28 bound intact virions and neutralized infectivity. Analyses with a set of overlapping peptides revealed a neutralizing epitope between residues 73 and 92 of A28. Passive immunization of mice with IgG purified from the anti-A28 serum provided partial protection against a vaccinia virus intranasal challenge, whereas IgG from the anti-H2 serum did not.

  11. Protective cellular immunity against P. falciparum malaria merozoites is associated with a different P7 and P8 residue orientation in the MHC-peptide-TCR complex.

    PubMed

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Salazar, Luz Mary; Cifuentes, Gladys; Lozano, Jose Manuel; Delgado, Gabriela; Rivera, Zuly; Rosas, Jaiver; Vargas, Luis E

    2006-02-01

    Developing a logical and rational methodology for obtaining vaccines, especially against the main parasite causing human malaria (P. falciparum), consists of blocking receptor-ligand interactions. Conserved peptides derived from proteins involved in invasion and having high red blood cell binding ability have thus been identified. Immunization studies using Aotus monkeys have revealed that these peptides were neither immunogenic nor protection inducing. When modified in their critical binding residues, previously identified by Glycine scanning, some of these peptides were immunogenic and non-protection inducers; others induced short-lived antibodies whilst a few were both immunogenic and protection inducing. However, very few of these modified high activity binding peptides (HABPs) reproducibly induced protection without inducing antibody production, but with high cytokine liberation, suggesting that cellular mechanisms had been activated in the protection process. The three-dimensional structure of these peptides inducing protection without producing antibodies was determined by 1H-NMR. Their HLA-DRbeta1* molecule binding ability was also determined to ascertain association between their 3D structure and ability to bind to Major Histocompatibility Complex Class-II molecules (MHC-II). 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis and structure calculations clearly showed that these modified HABPs inducing protective cellular immune responses (but not producing antibodies against malaria) adopted special structural configuration to fit into the MHC II-peptide-TCR complex. A different orientation for P7 and P8 TCR contacting residues was clearly recognized when comparing their structure with modified peptides, which induced high antibody titers and protection, suggesting that these residues are involved in activating the immune system associated with antibody production and protection.

  12. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense.

  13. Chrysobalanus icaco L. fruits inhibit NADPH oxidase complex and protect DNA against doxorubicin-induced damage in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Marques, Marcella Camargo; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando; Pires Bianchi, Maria Lourdes; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni Mara; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2016-01-01

    Chrysobalanus icaco L. is an underexplored plant found in tropical areas around the globe. Currently, there is no apparent information regarding the effects C. icaco fruits may exert in vivo or potential role in health promotion. This study aimed at providing evidence regarding the in vivo influence of this fruit on antigenotoxicity, antimutagenicity, and oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d C. icaco fruit for 14 d. Doxorubicin (DXR, 15 mg/kg bw, ip) was used for DNA damaging and as an oxidant to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Genomic instability was assessed by the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test, while antioxidant activity was determined by oxidative burst of neutrophils. Chrysobalanus icaco fruit polyphenols were quantified and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The concentrations of 19 chemical elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Significant amounts of polyphenols, magnesium, and selenium were found in C. icaco fruit. This fruit displayed in vivo antioxidant activity against DXR-induced damage in rat peripheral blood neutrophils, antigenotoxicity in peripheral blood cells, and antimutagenicity in bone-marrow cells and peripheral blood cells. Correlation analyses between endpoints examined indicated that the mechanism underlying chemopreventive actions of C. icaco fruit was attributed to inhibition of NADPH oxidase complex manifested as low levels of DNA damage in animals exposed to DXR. Data indicate that phytochemicals and minerals in C. icaco fruit protect DNA against damage in vivo associated with their antioxidant properties.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Russkikh, I. M.; Seleznev, E. N.; Tashlykov, O. L. Shcheklein, S. E.

    2015-12-15

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported.

  15. Child Protective Services: Complex Challenges Require New Strategies. Report to the to the Honorable Nydia Velazquez, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    At the request of the U.S. House of Representatives, this study identified problems confronting child protective service (CPS) units, which affect the system's capacity to protect children from abuse and neglect. State and local responses to these problems, and opportunities for the federal government to assist in improving the system's capacity…

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russkikh, I. M.; Seleznev, E. N.; Tashlykov, O. L.; Shcheklein, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported.

  17. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its protection by quercetin via a coenzyme Q-like action.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian; Lopez-Alarcón, Camilo; Aliaga, Margarita E; Speisky, Hernán

    2012-07-30

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the development of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A major objective of the present study was to investigate whether in vitro the NSAIDs, aspirin, indomethacin, diclofenac, piroxicam and ibuprofen, which feature different chemical structures, are able to inhibit mitochondrial complex I. All NSAIDs were effective inhibitors when added both, directly to mitochondria isolated from rat duodenum epithelium (50 μM) or to Caco-2 cells (250 μM). In the former system, complex I inhibition was concentration-dependent and susceptible to competition and reversion by the addition of coenzyme Q (32.5-520 μM). Based on reports suggesting a potential gastro-protective activity of quercetin, the ability of this flavonoid to protect isolated mitochondria against NSAIDs-induced complex I inhibition was evaluated. Low micromolar concentrations of quercetin (1-20 μM) protected against such inhibition, in a concentration dependent manner. In the case of aspirin, quercetin (5 μM) increased the IC50 by 10-fold. In addition, the present study shows that quercetin (5-10 μM) can behave as a "coenzyme Q-mimetic" molecule, allowing a normal electron flow along the whole electron transporting chain (complexes I, II, III and IV). The exposed findings reveal that complex I inhibition is a common deleterious effect of NSAIDs at the mitochondrial level, and that such effect is, for all tested agents, susceptible to be prevented by quercetin. Data provided here supports the contention that the protective action of quercetin resides on its, here for first time-shown, ability to behave as a coenzyme Q-like molecule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related changes in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and in utrophin are not correlated with intrinsic laryngeal muscles protection in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Renato; Pertille, Adriana; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

    2011-12-01

    In this study we investigate whether dystrophic intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILM) from aged mdx mice show alterations in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components.Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses of beta-sarcoglycan, beta-dystroglycan, and utrophin showed that aged ILM had a similar pattern of changes in aged affected muscles (diaphragm and limb), suggesting that aging leads to changes in utrophin and DGC proteins in dystrophic ILM that cannot be correlated with their protection from dystrophic change.

  19. Malaria protection in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I antigens: essential role of innate immunity, including γδT cells

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Tachikawa, Saoko; Kanda, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Tomiyama-Miyaji, Chikako; Li, Changchun; Watanabe, Hisami; Sekikawa, Hiroho; Abo, Toru

    2007-01-01

    It is still controversial whether malaria protection is mediated by conventional immunity associated with T and B cells or by innate immunity associated with extrathymic T cells and autoantibody-producing B cells. Given this situation, it is important to examine the mechanism of malaria protection in β2-microglobulin-deficient (β2m(–/–)) mice. These mice lack major histocompatibility complex class I and CD1d antigens, which results in the absence of CD8+ T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells. When C57BL/6 and β2m(–/–) mice were injected with parasitized (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) erythrocytes, both survived from the infection and showed a similar level of parasitaemia. The major expanding T cells were NK1.1– αβΤ-cell receptorint cells in both mice. The difference was a compensatory expansion of NK and γδT cells in β2m(–/–) mice, and an elimination experiment showed that these lymphocytes were critical for protection in these mice. These results suggest that malaria protection might be events of the innate immunity associated with multiple subsets with autoreactivity. CD8+ T and NKT cells may be partially related to this protection. PMID:17916163

  20. The histone-fold complex MHF is remodeled by FANCM to recognize branched DNA and protect genome stability.

    PubMed

    Fox, David; Yan, Zhijiang; Ling, Chen; Zhao, Ye; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Yang, Wei; Wang, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    Histone-fold proteins typically assemble in multiprotein complexes to bind duplex DNA. However, one histone-fold complex, MHF, associates with Fanconi anemia (FA) protein FANCM to form a branched DNA remodeling complex that senses and repairs stalled replication forks and activates FA DNA damage response network. How the FANCM-MHF complex recognizes branched DNA is unclear. Here, we solved the crystal structure of MHF and its complex with the MHF-interaction domain (referred to as MID) of FANCM, and performed structure-guided mutagenesis. We found that the MID-MHF complex consists of one histone H3-H4-like MHF heterotetramer wrapped by a single polypeptide of MID. We identified a zinc atom-liganding structure at the central interface between MID and MHF that is critical for stabilization of the complex. Notably, the DNA-binding surface of MHF was altered by MID in both electrostatic charges and allosteric conformation. This leads to a switch in the DNA-binding preference - from duplex DNA by MHF alone, to branched DNA by the MID-MHF complex. Mutations that disrupt either the composite DNA-binding surface or the protein-protein interface of the MID-MHF complex impaired activation of the FA network and genome stability. Our data provide the structural basis of how FANCM and MHF work together to recognize branched DNA, and suggest a novel mechanism by which histone-fold complexes can be remodeled by their partners to bind special DNA structures generated during DNA metabolism.

  1. The guanidinium group as a key part of water-soluble polymer carriers for siRNA complexation and protection against degradation.

    PubMed

    Tabujew, Ilja; Freidel, Christoph; Krieg, Bettina; Helm, Mark; Koynov, Kaloian; Müllen, Klaus; Peneva, Kalina

    2014-07-01

    Here, the preparation of a novel block copolymer consisting of a statistical copolymer N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-s-N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide and a short terminal 3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide block is reported. This polymer structure forms neutral but water-soluble nanosized complexes with siRNA. The siRNA block copolymer complexes are first analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and their size is determined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The protective properties of the polymer against RNA degradation are investigated by treating the siRNA block copolymer complexes with RNase V1. Heparin competition assays confirm the efficient release of the cargo in vitro. In addition, the utilization of microscale thermophoresis is demonstrated for the determination of the binding strength between a fluorescently labeled polyanion and a polymer molecule.

  2. Effects of novel vaccine/adjuvant complexes on the protective immunity against Eimeria acervulina and transcriptome profiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the ability of two novel adjuvant formulations, QCDC (Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol) and QCDCR (QCDC/Bay R1005), in combination with a recombinant profilin vaccine, to modulate host protective immunity and to alter gene expression during experimental avian coccidiosis. Vac...

  3. The use of a GIS to compare the land areas captured by very basic and complex wellhead protection area models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) can be used in public health programs to better understand humans and their interactions with their environment. The Washington State Department of Health (WSDOH) estimates that over 65 percent of its citizens rely on groundwater as a source of drinking water, with some counties approaching 100 percent. In an effort to focus on groundwater protection, the department has recognized the delineation of wellhead protection areas in Whatcom County, Washington, as a proactive method for protecting the land areas around public water supply wells. At present, WSDOH accepts four methods for the delineation of these areas: 1) the calculated-fixed-radius (CFR) method, 2) the analytical method, 3) hydrogeologic mapping, and 4) the numerical flow/transport model. The objective of the study reported here was to utilize a GIS to compare the very basic CFR method with other methods in the following separate pairs for water systems in Whatcom County: CFR versus analytical method, CFR versus hydrogeologic mapping, and CFR versus numerical flow/transport modeling. Analytical, hydrogeologic, and numerical models are generally considered to be superior to the CFR model. The GIS overlay comparisons in the study, however, showed the CFR method having land capture areas that were most similar to those delineated by the more advanced hydrogeologic method and least similar to those delineated by the less advanced analytical method. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year overall comparison averages show that the CFR and hydrogeologic overlays were the most similar in each of the three study comparison areas. Similarly, the analytical method had the least similar overlays in each of the three study areas. This research further clarifies the usefulness of GIS in applying the CFR model around public supply wells for initial wellhead protection measures, especially for smaller water systems with limited funds or for larger systems as an interim protection measure. These

  4. Administration of zinc complex of acetylsalicylic acid after the onset of myocardial injury protects the heart by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Atmanli, Ayhan; Radovits, Tamás; Li, Shiliang; Hegedüs, Peter; Ruppert, Mihály; Brlecic, Paige; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that the pre-treatment of rats with zinc and acetylsalicylic acid complex in the form of bis(aspirinato)zinc(II) [Zn(ASA)2] is superior to acetylsalicylic acid in protecting the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Herein, we hypothesized that Zn(ASA)2 treatment after the onset of an acute myocardial injury could protect the heart. The rats were treated with a vehicle or Zn(ASA)2 after an isoproterenol injection. Isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage [inflammatory infiltration into myocardial tissue, DNA-strand breakage evidenced by TUNEL-assay, increased 11-dehydro thromboxane (TX)B2-levels, elevated ST-segment, widened QRS complex and prolonged QT-interval] was prevented by the Zn(ASA)2 treatment. In isoproterenol-treated rats, load-independent left ventricular contractility parameters were significantly improved after Zn(ASA)2. Furthermore, Zn(ASA)2 significantly increased the myocardial mRNA-expression of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-4 and decreased the level of Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase. Postconditioning with Zn(ASA)2 protects the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Its mechanisms of action might involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory prostanoids and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Preparation of an isocyano-beta-diketone via its metal complexes, by use of metal ions as protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixun; Maverick, Andrew W

    2009-11-16

    A ligand containing isocyanide and beta-diketone functional groups, 3-(4-isocyanophenyl)-2,4-pentanedione (HacphNC), and several of its metal complexes have been prepared. The free isocyano-beta-diketone could not be prepared by dehydration of the analogous formamide, HacphNHCHO, because of the reactivity of its beta-diketone moiety. Instead, the metal complexes Al(acphNC)(3), Fe(acphNC)(3), Cu(acphNC)(2), and Zn(acphNC)(2) were synthesized by dehydration of the formamido-beta-diketonate complexes Al(acphNHCHO)(3), Fe(acphNHCHO)(3), Cu(acphNHCHO)(2), and Zn(acphNHCHO)(2). The free isocyano-beta-diketone, HacphNC, can be liberated from its Al and Fe complexes by treatment with oxalate (C(2)O(4)(2-)) and HC(2)O(4)(-). In addition to these O-bound complexes, C(N)-bound complexes can be prepared by the reaction of either Al(acphNC)(3) or HacphNC with Au(I). X-ray analyses of HacphNC, Al(acphNC)(3), (HacphNC)AuCl, Cu(acphNHCHO)(2), trans-Zn(acphNHCHO)(2)(H(2)O)(2), and two other intermediates are also reported.

  6. Protection of Nonhuman Primates Against Two Species of Ebola Virus Infection With a Single Complex Adenovirus Vector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    filoviruses are believed to transmit from person to person mainly through contact with bodily fluids from infected patients. However, recent studies of...Ebola outbreaks in wild apes have suggested that there could be other modes of transmission, including aerosol (2, 36). Studies in nonhuman primates...the study presented here, we further tested the protective efficacy of the CAdVax-based EBO7 vaccine in macaques by comparing aerosol to parenteral

  7. Multiple Asparagine Deamidation of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Causes Charge Isoforms Whose Complexity Correlates with Reduced Biological Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 1 ...FEB 2007 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multiple asparagine deamidation of Bacillus anthracis protective

  8. A sensitive aptasensor for colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on the protective effect of ATP-aptamer complexes on unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuan; Qi, Liang; Lv, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Ting; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most direct source of energy in organisms. This study is the first to demonstrate that ATP-aptamer complexes provide greater protection for unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against salt-induced aggregation than either aptamer or ATP alone. This protective effect was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurement, and fluorescence polarization techniques. Utilizing controlled particle aggregation/dispersion as a gauge, a sensitive and selective aptasensor for colorimetric detection of ATP was developed using ATP-binding aptamers as the identification element and unmodified AuNPs as the probe. This aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship between the absorbance and the logarithm concentration of ATP within a 50-1000 nM range. ATP analogs such as guanosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate resulted in little or no interference in the determination of ATP.

  9. A complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine against Rift Valley fever virus protects mice against lethal infection in the presence of preexisting vector immunity.

    PubMed

    Holman, David H; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Wang, Danher; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Harr, Mary-Katherine; Luo, Min; Maher, Ellen M; Holbrook, Michael R; Dong, John Y

    2009-11-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been cited as a potential biological-weapon threat due to the serious and fatal disease it causes in humans and animals and the fact that this mosquito-borne virus can be lethal in an aerosolized form. Current human and veterinary vaccines against RVFV, however, are outdated, inefficient, and unsafe. We have incorporated the RVFV glycoprotein genes into a nonreplicating complex adenovirus (CAdVax) vector platform to develop a novel RVFV vaccine. Mice vaccinated with the CAdVax-based vaccine produced potent humoral immune responses and were protected against lethal RVFV infection. Additionally, protection was elicited in mice despite preexisting immunity to the adenovirus vector.

  10. TYK2 Protein-Coding Variants Protect against Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autoimmunity, with No Evidence of Major Pleiotropic Effects on Non-Autoimmune Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Dorothée; Bastarache, Lisa; Liao, Katherine P.; Graham, Robert R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Cui, Jing; Lee, Annette; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Franke, Barbara; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mariette, Xavier; Richard-Miceli, Corrine; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Crusius, J. Bart A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Kurreeman, Fina; Mikuls, Ted R.; Okada, Yukinori; Stahl, Eli A.; Larson, David E.; Deluca, Tracie L.; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Ortmann, Ward; Cagan, Andrew; Gainer, Vivian; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kohane, Isaac; Murphy, Shawn N.; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Worthington, Jane; Mardis, Elaine R.; Seldin, Michael F.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Denny, Joshua C.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples), Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples) and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples) to demonstrate that three protein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2) independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3x10-21), A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2x10-9), and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6x10-7). Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6x10-18), and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V) may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Pomnibus = 0.005). Finally, in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR) in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25849893

  11. Development of quercetin-phospholipid complex to improve the bioavailability and protection effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Meiyu; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gu, Liqiang; Hu, Gaosheng; Chen, Xiaohui; Jia, Jingming

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin (QT) is a natural flavonoid with various biological activities and pharmacological actions. However, the bioavailability of QT is relatively low due to its low solubility which severely limits its use. In this study, we intended to improve the bioavailability of QT by preparing quercetin-phospholipid complex (QT-PC) and investigate the protective effect of QT-PC against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The physicochemical properties of QT-PC were characterized in terms of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and water/n-octanol solubility. FTIR, DSC and XRPD data confirmed the formation of QT-PC. The water solubility of QT was improved significantly in the prepared complex, indicating its increased hydrophilicity. Oral bioavailability of QT and QT-PC was evaluated in SD rats, and the plasma QT was estimated by HPLC-MS. QT-PC exhibited higher Cmax (1.58±0.11 vs. 0.67±0.08μg/mL), increased AUC0-∞ (8.60±1.25 vs. 2.41±0.51mg/Lh) and t1/2z (7.76±1.09 vs. 4.81±0.87h) when compared to free QT. The greater absorption of QT-PC group suggested the improved bioavailability. Moreover, biochemical changes and histopathological observations revealed that QT-PC provided better protection to rat liver than free QT at the same dose. Thus, phospholipid complexation might be one of the suitable approaches to improve the oral bioavailability of QT and obtain better protective effects against CCl4 induced acute liver damage in SD rats than free QT at the same dose level.

  12. TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Dorothée; Bastarache, Lisa; Liao, Katherine P; Graham, Robert R; Fulton, Robert S; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Cui, Jing; Lee, Annette; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel M; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke J H; Franke, Barbara; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Mariette, Xavier; Richard-Miceli, Corrine; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P; Crusius, J Bart A; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Kurreeman, Fina; Mikuls, Ted R; Okada, Yukinori; Stahl, Eli A; Larson, David E; Deluca, Tracie L; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina C; Fulton, Lucinda L; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Bhangale, Tushar R; Ortmann, Ward; Cagan, Andrew; Gainer, Vivian; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Kohane, Isaac; Murphy, Shawn N; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Worthington, Jane; Mardis, Elaine R; Seldin, Michael F; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Denny, Joshua C; Plenge, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples), Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples) and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples) to demonstrate that three protein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2) independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3 x 10(-21)), A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2 x 10(-9)), and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6 x 10(-7)). Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6 x 10(-18)), and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V) may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; P(omnibus) = 0.005). Finally, in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR) in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  13. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY 2009 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspection events conducted on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2007 through 2009; it documents well maintenance and plugging and abandonment activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2006); and provides summary tables of well inspection events, well maintenance events, and well plugging and abandonment events during the reference time period.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and electrochemical properties of sterically protected molybdenum trihydride redox pairs: a paramagnetic "stretched" dihydrogen complex?

    PubMed

    Baya, Miguel; Houghton, Jennifer; Daran, Jean-Claude; Poli, Rinaldo; Male, Louise; Albinati, Alberto; Gutman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Complexes [MoCp(#)(PMe(3))(2)H(3)] (Cp(#)=1,2,4-C(5)H(2)tBu(3), 2 a; C(5)HiPr(4), 2 b) have been synthesized from the corresponding compounds [MoCp(#)Cl(4)] (1 a, 1 b) and fully characterized, including by X-ray crystallography and by a neutron diffraction study for 2 a. Protonation of 2 a led to complex [Mo(1,2,4-C(5)H(2)tBu(3))(PMe(3))(2)H(4)](+) (3 a) in THF and to [Mo(1,2,4-C(5)H(2)tBu(3))(PMe(3))(2)(MeCN)H(2)](+) (4 a) in MeCN. Complex 4 b analogously derives from protonation of 2 b in MeCN, whereas the tetrahydride complex 3 b is unstable. One-electron oxidation of 2 a and 2 b by [FeCp(2)]PF(6) produces the EPR-active 17-electron complexes 2 a(+) and 2 b(+). The former is thermally more stable than the latter and could be crystallographically characterized as the PF(6) (-) salt by X-ray diffraction, providing evidence for the presence of a stretched dihydrogen ligand (H...H=1.36(6) angstroms). Controlled thermal decomposition of 2 a(+) yielded the product of H(2) elimination, the 15-electron monohydride complex [Mo(1,2,4-C(5)H(2)tBu(3))(PMe(3))(2)H]PF(6) (5 a), which was characterized by X-ray crystallography and by EPR spectroscopy at liquid He temperature. The compound establishes an equilibrium with the solvent adduct in THF. An electrochemical study by cyclic voltammetry provides further evidence for a rapid H(2) elimination process from the 17-electron complexes. In contrast to the previously investigated [MoCp*(dppe)H(3)](+) system (dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane; Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl), the decomposition of 2 a(+) by H(2) substitution with a solvent molecule appears to follow a dissociative pathway in MeCN.

  15. Protective activity of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract against chemically induced complex genomic alterations in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; de Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Pedersini, Larissa Wölfle; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; da Silva, Juliana; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2013-09-15

    Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, has been widely used in traditional medicine as an herbal medicament for therapeutic purposes. The study aimed at assessing the protective activity of Cynara scolymus leaf extract (LE) against DNA lesions induced by the alkylating agent ethylmethnesulphonate (EMS) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). The ability of C. scolymus L. LE to modulate the mutagenicity of EMS was examined using the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay in three antigenotoxic protocols, pre- post- and simultaneous treatments. In the pre-treatment, C. scolymus L. LE reduced the frequencies of MNi and NBUDs induced by EMS in the lower concentration. In contrast, at the highest concentration (5 mg/ml) artichoke enhanced the frequency of MNi, potentiating EMS genotoxicity. In the simultaneous treatment only the induction of MNi was repressed by the exposure of cells to C. scolymus L. LE. No modification in genotoxicity was observed in LE post-treatment. The results obtained in this study suggest that lower concentrations of artichoke prevent chemically induced genomic damage in mammalian cells. In this context, the protective activity of C. scolymus L. could be associated to its constitutive antioxidants compounds.

  16. Prefoldin Subunits Are Protected from Ubiquitin-Proteasome System-mediated Degradation by Forming Complex with Other Constituent Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Makoto; Tashiro, Erika; Kitaura, Hirotake; Maita, Hiroshi; Suto, Hiroo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The molecular chaperone prefoldin (PFD) is a complex comprised of six different subunits, PFD1-PFD6, and delivers newly synthesized unfolded proteins to cytosolic chaperonin TRiC/CCT to facilitate the folding of proteins. PFD subunits also have functions different from the function of the PFD complex. We previously identified MM-1α/PFD5 as a novel c-Myc-binding protein and found that MM-1α suppresses transformation activity of c-Myc. However, it remains unclear how cells regulate protein levels of individual subunits and what mechanisms alter the ratio of their activities between subunits and their complex. In this study, we found that knockdown of one subunit decreased protein levels of other subunits and that transfection of five subunits other than MM-1α into cells increased the level of endogenous MM-1α. We also found that treatment of cells with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, increased the level of transfected/overexpressed MM-1α but not that of endogenous MM-1α, indicating that overexpressed MM-1α, but not endogenous MM-1α, was degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Experiments using other PFD subunits showed that the UPS degraded a monomer of PFD subunits, though extents of degradation varied among subunits. Furthermore, the level of one subunit was increased after co-transfection with the respective subunit, indicating that there are specific combinations between subunits to be stabilized. These results suggest mutual regulation of protein levels among PFD subunits and show how individual subunits form the PFD complex without degradation. PMID:21478150

  17. Prefoldin subunits are protected from ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation by forming complex with other constituent subunits.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Makoto; Tashiro, Erika; Kitaura, Hirotake; Maita, Hiroshi; Suto, Hiroo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2011-06-03

    The molecular chaperone prefoldin (PFD) is a complex comprised of six different subunits, PFD1-PFD6, and delivers newly synthesized unfolded proteins to cytosolic chaperonin TRiC/CCT to facilitate the folding of proteins. PFD subunits also have functions different from the function of the PFD complex. We previously identified MM-1α/PFD5 as a novel c-Myc-binding protein and found that MM-1α suppresses transformation activity of c-Myc. However, it remains unclear how cells regulate protein levels of individual subunits and what mechanisms alter the ratio of their activities between subunits and their complex. In this study, we found that knockdown of one subunit decreased protein levels of other subunits and that transfection of five subunits other than MM-1α into cells increased the level of endogenous MM-1α. We also found that treatment of cells with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, increased the level of transfected/overexpressed MM-1α but not that of endogenous MM-1α, indicating that overexpressed MM-1α, but not endogenous MM-1α, was degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Experiments using other PFD subunits showed that the UPS degraded a monomer of PFD subunits, though extents of degradation varied among subunits. Furthermore, the level of one subunit was increased after co-transfection with the respective subunit, indicating that there are specific combinations between subunits to be stabilized. These results suggest mutual regulation of protein levels among PFD subunits and show how individual subunits form the PFD complex without degradation.

  18. A density functional investigation of thiolate-protected bimetal PdAu(24)(SR)(18)(z) clusters: doping the superatom complex.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Katarzyna A; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Akola, Jaakko; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2009-09-07

    Structure, electronic properties, optical absorption and charging properties of methylthiolate-protected bimetal PdAu(24)(SR)(18)(z) (R = Me) clusters with various charge states (-3 complex Au(25)(SR)(18)((-1)) [J. Akola, M. Walter, H. Häkkinen and H. Grönbeck, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 3756]. The atomic structure of this all-gold complex can be written in a "divide-and-protect" way [H. Häkkinen, M. Walter and H. Grönbeck, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006, 110, 9927] as Au(13)[Au(2)(SR)(3)](6)((-1)) where 6 v-shaped Au(2)(SR)(3) ligands protect the close-to-icosahedral Au(13) core and where eight delocalized metal electrons, derived from Au(6s) electrons, comprise a stable closed-shell 1S(2)1P(6)"superatom" configuration in the core. We show that the di-anion PdAu(24)(SR)(18)((-2)) is a corresponding eight-electron closed-shell species whereas the clusters PdAu(24)(SR)(18)(z), -1 protect" structure motif is robust with respect to replacing the Au by Pd at the center of the core, at the surface of the core or in one of the protecting Au(2)(SR)(3) ligands. However, optical absorption and the HOMO-LUMO and electrochemical gaps depend sensitively on the site of the doping Pd atom, which may turn out be useful for assigning the structure of PdAu(24)(SR)(18) from experimental data.

  19. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 Ωm and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ρ < 180 Ωm. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  20. CeO2 NPs, toxic or protective to phytoplankton? Charge of nanoparticles and cell wall as factors which cause changes in cell complexity.

    PubMed

    Sendra, M; Yeste, P M; Moreno-Garrido, I; Gatica, J M; Blasco, J

    2017-07-15

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are well-known for their catalytic properties and antioxidant potential. Recent uses in therapy are based on the Ce(+3) ions released by CeO2 NPs. Reactions involving redox cycles between Ce(+3) and Ce(+4) oxidation stage seem to promote scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus protecting cells from oxygen damage. However, the internalization of CeO2 NPs and release of Ce(+3) could be responsible for a toxic effect on cells. The literature reports controversial results on the toxicity of CeO2 NPs to phytoplankton. Therefore, we have tested the potential toxic effect of two CeO2 NPs (with positive and negative zeta potential) and bulk CeO2 (at 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 200mg·L(-1)) on three species of microalgae from different environments: marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), marine chlorophyte (Nannochloris atomus) and freshwater chlorophyte (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) over 72h in batch cultures. Responses measured in the microalgae population are: growth, chlorophyll a, cell size, cell complexity, percentage of ROS, and percentage of cell membrane damage. Positive zeta potential CeO2 NPs provoked greater cell complexity (up to 78, 172 and 23 times more cell complexity than in controls found for C. reinhardtii, P. tricornutum and N. atomus respectively) than negative zeta potential CeO2 NPs. The SSC signal detected by flow cytometry measured increases of particles entering cells, and this is related to cell viability and levels of intracellular ROS (correlation between SSC and percentage of ROS of 0.72 and 0.97 found for C. reinhardtii and P. tricornutum). When increased cellular complexity over controls is between 2 and 6 times greater, CeO2 (in bulk or nanoparticulate form) seems to protect against ROS. When increased cellular complexity is from 7 to 23 times greater, CeO2 does not provoke toxic responses; however, when increased cellular complexity over controls is very high, from 61 to 172 times, increased ROS production

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  2. Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve: Protecting the World's Oldest Complex Macrofossils at a Newly Inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Jack

    2017-04-01

    The late Ediacaran rocks of the Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve, Newfoundland, record the oldest known assemblage of large, complex fossils anywhere. These fossils represent the transition in the history of life on earth to large, architecturally complex organisms, following nearly three billion years of a microbially-dominated world. In July 2016, the Reserve was inscribed on World Heritage List. Inscription has led to increased geotourism demands on the locality, a consequence welcomed by the local community who wish to develop the economy. This is potentially at odds with the interests of Government and Researchers whose inclination is often to prohibit all activity that may adversely impact a site. This presentation will outline several approaches being used to quantitatively measure potential historic and current damage to the Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve from geotourism activity, as well as natural events. Technologies such as LiDAR scanning, photogrammetry, and time lapse cameras are compared and contrasted for their suitability to monitor the integrity of fossil sites. Footwear erosion of fossil surfaces remains a concern of policy makers at the Reserve; experimental work to test the benefits of various footwear erosion reduction protocols is discussed. The legislative and management framework for the Reserve is reviewed, and the importance of building academic-community-government relationships examined. The benefits of geoconservation are shared by all in society - as such the importance of presenting geoconservation research outcomes in ways specifically tailored to local communities and policy makes is highlighted.

  3. The mitochondria permeability transition pore complex in the brain with interacting proteins - promising targets for protection in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Azarashvili, Tamara; Stricker, Rolf; Reiser, Georg

    2010-06-01

    Mitochondria increasingly attract attention as control points within the mechanisms of neuronal death. Mitochondria play a central role in swinging the balance in favor of either survival or death of brain tissue. Cell death in vertebrates proceeds mostly via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Permeability transition pore (PTP) development in mitochondria is a decisive stage of apoptosis. Therefore, regulation of the permeability of both outer and inner mitochondrial membranes helps to induce neuroprotection. Through PTP control, mitochondria can to a large degree manage the intracellular calcium homeostasis, and thus control the potent death cascade initiated by excess calcium. Here we summarize the evidence for the role of mitochondria in brain cell death. We describe the involvement of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO; previously called peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), and of two new mitochondrial proteins, that is, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) and p42(IP4) (also designated centaurin alpha1; ADAP 1), in the control of the PTP. Furthermore, ligands of TSPO, as well as substrates of CNP, are possible modulators of PTP function. This scenario of control and regulation of PTP function might provide multiple important targets, which are suitable for developing protective strategies for neurons and non-neuronal brain cells in therapies of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  5. Protection against tuberculosis by a single intranasal administration of DNA-hsp65 vaccine complexed with cationic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Rosada, Rogério S; Torre, Lucimara Gaziola de la; Frantz, Fabiani G; Trombone, Ana PF; Zárate-Bladés, Carlos R; Fonseca, Denise M; Souza, Patrícia RM; Brandão, Izaíra T; Masson, Ana P; Soares, Édson G; Ramos, Simone G; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Silva, Célio L; Santana, Maria HA; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete AM

    2008-01-01

    Background The greatest challenges in vaccine development include optimization of DNA vaccines for use in humans, creation of effective single-dose vaccines, development of delivery systems that do not involve live viruses, and the identification of effective new adjuvants. Herein, we describe a novel, simple technique for efficiently vaccinating mice against tuberculosis (TB). Our technique consists of a single-dose, genetic vaccine formulation of DNA-hsp65 complexed with cationic liposomes and administered intranasally. Results We developed a novel and non-toxic formulation of cationic liposomes, in which the DNA-hsp65 vaccine was entrapped (ENTR-hsp65) or complexed (COMP-hsp65), and used to immunize mice by intramuscular or intranasal routes. Although both liposome formulations induced a typical Th1 pattern of immune response, the intramuscular route of delivery did not reduce the number of bacilli. However, a single intranasal immunization with COMP-hsp65, carrying as few as 25 μg of plasmid DNA, leads to a remarkable reduction of the amount of bacilli in lungs. These effects were accompanied by increasing levels of IFN-γ and lung parenchyma preservation, results similar to those found in mice vaccinated intramuscularly four times with naked DNA-hsp65 (total of 400 μg). Conclusion Our objective was to overcome the significant obstacles currently facing DNA vaccine development. Our results in the mouse TB model showed that a single intranasal dose of COMP-hsp65 elicited a cellular immune response that was as strong as that induced by four intramuscular doses of naked-DNA. This formulation allowed a 16-fold reduction in the amount of DNA administered. Moreover, we demonstrated that this vaccine is safe, biocompatible, stable, and easily manufactured at a low cost. We believe that this strategy can be applied to human vaccines to TB in a single dose or in prime-boost protocols, leading to a tremendous impact on the control of this infectious disease. PMID

  6. Supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex does not protect against insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Improper eating habits such as high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets are responsible for metabolic changes resulting in impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and ultimately diabetes. Although the essentiality of trivalent chromium for humans has been recently questioned by researchers, pharmacological dosages of this element can improve insulin sensitivity in experimental animals and diabetic subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the preventive potential of the supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) in rats fed a high-fat diet. The experiment was conducted on 32 male Wistar rats divided into four groups and fed the following diets: the control (C, AIN-93G), high-fat diets (HF, 40% energy from fat), and a high-fat diet supplemented with CrProp at dosages of 10 and 50 mg Cr/kg diet (HF + Cr10 and HF + Cr50, respectively). After 8 weeks, high-fat feeding led to an increased body mass, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, a decreased serum urea concentration, accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes, and increased renal Fe and splenic Cu contents. Supplementary CrProp in both dosages did not alleviate these changes but increased renal Cr content and normalized splenic Cu content in high-fat-fed rats. Supplementary CrProp does not prevent the development of insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  7. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M and O) subcontractor for DOE.

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY2012 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspections completed by the GWPP on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2010 through 2012. In addition, this report also documents well inspections performed under the Y-12 Water Resources Restoration Program, which is administered by URS|CH2M Oak Ridge (UCOR). This report documents well maintenance activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2009); and provides summary tables of well inspections and well maintenance activities during the reference time period.

  9. Host-derived, pore-forming toxin–like protein and trefoil factor complex protects the host against microbial infection

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yang; Yan, Chao; Guo, Xiaolong; Zhou, Kaifeng; Li, Sheng’an; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the bacterial β-pore–forming toxin superfamily. Surprisingly, numerous aerolysin-like proteins exist in vertebrates, but their biological functions are unknown. βγ-CAT, a complex of an aerolysin-like protein subunit (two βγ-crystallin domains followed by an aerolysin pore-forming domain) and two trefoil factor subunits, has been identified in frogs (Bombina maxima) skin secretions. Here, we report the rich expression of this protein, in the frog blood and immune-related tissues, and the induction of its presence in peritoneal lavage by bacterial challenge. This phenomena raises the possibility of its involvement in antimicrobial infection. When βγ-CAT was administrated in a peritoneal infection model, it greatly accelerated bacterial clearance and increased the survival rate of both frogs and mice. Meanwhile, accelerated Interleukin-1β release and enhanced local leukocyte recruitments were determined, which may partially explain the robust and effective antimicrobial responses observed. The release of interleukin-1β was potently triggered by βγ-CAT from the frog peritoneal cells and murine macrophages in vitro. βγ-CAT was rapidly endocytosed and translocated to lysosomes, where it formed high molecular mass SDS-stable oligomers (>170 kDa). Lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B release were detected, which may explain the activation of caspase-1 inflammasome and subsequent interleukin-1β maturation and release. To our knowledge, these results provide the first functional evidence of the ability of a host-derived aerolysin-like protein to counter microbial infection by eliciting rapid and effective host innate immune responses. The findings will also largely help to elucidate the possible involvement and action mechanisms of aerolysin-like proteins and/or trefoil factors widely existing in vertebrates in the host defense against pathogens. PMID:24733922

  10. Host-derived, pore-forming toxin-like protein and trefoil factor complex protects the host against microbial infection.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Yan, Chao; Guo, Xiaolong; Zhou, Kaifeng; Li, Sheng'an; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-05-06

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the bacterial β-pore-forming toxin superfamily. Surprisingly, numerous aerolysin-like proteins exist in vertebrates, but their biological functions are unknown. βγ-CAT, a complex of an aerolysin-like protein subunit (two βγ-crystallin domains followed by an aerolysin pore-forming domain) and two trefoil factor subunits, has been identified in frogs (Bombina maxima) skin secretions. Here, we report the rich expression of this protein, in the frog blood and immune-related tissues, and the induction of its presence in peritoneal lavage by bacterial challenge. This phenomena raises the possibility of its involvement in antimicrobial infection. When βγ-CAT was administrated in a peritoneal infection model, it greatly accelerated bacterial clearance and increased the survival rate of both frogs and mice. Meanwhile, accelerated Interleukin-1β release and enhanced local leukocyte recruitments were determined, which may partially explain the robust and effective antimicrobial responses observed. The release of interleukin-1β was potently triggered by βγ-CAT from the frog peritoneal cells and murine macrophages in vitro. βγ-CAT was rapidly endocytosed and translocated to lysosomes, where it formed high molecular mass SDS-stable oligomers (>170 kDa). Lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B release were detected, which may explain the activation of caspase-1 inflammasome and subsequent interleukin-1β maturation and release. To our knowledge, these results provide the first functional evidence of the ability of a host-derived aerolysin-like protein to counter microbial infection by eliciting rapid and effective host innate immune responses. The findings will also largely help to elucidate the possible involvement and action mechanisms of aerolysin-like proteins and/or trefoil factors widely existing in vertebrates in the host defense against pathogens.

  11. Linocin and OmpW Are Involved in Attachment of the Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Lung Epithelial Cells and Protect Mice against Infection.

    PubMed

    McClean, Siobhán; Healy, Marc E; Collins, Cassandra; Carberry, Stephen; O'Shaughnessy, Luke; Dennehy, Ruth; Adams, Áine; Kennelly, Helen; Corbett, Jennifer M; Carty, Fiona; Cahill, Laura A; Callaghan, Máire; English, Karen; Mahon, Bernard P; Doyle, Sean; Shinoy, Minu

    2016-05-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) cause chronic opportunistic lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), resulting in a gradual lung function decline and, ultimately, patient death. The Bcc is a complex of 20 species and is rarely eradicated once a patient is colonized; therefore, vaccination may represent a better therapeutic option. We developed a new proteomics approach to identify bacterial proteins that are involved in the attachment of Bcc bacteria to lung epithelial cells. Fourteen proteins were reproducibly identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from four Bcc strains representative of two Bcc species: Burkholderia cenocepacia, the most virulent, and B. multivorans, the most frequently acquired. Seven proteins were identified in both species, but only two were common to all four strains, linocin and OmpW. Both proteins were selected based on previously reported data on these proteins in other species. Escherichia coli strains expressing recombinant linocin and OmpW showed enhanced attachment (4.2- and 3.9-fold) to lung cells compared to the control, confirming that both proteins are involved in host cell attachment. Immunoproteomic analysis using serum from Bcc-colonized CF patients confirmed that both proteins elicit potent humoral responses in vivo Mice immunized with either recombinant linocin or OmpW were protected from B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans challenge. Both antigens induced potent antigen-specific antibody responses and stimulated strong cytokine responses. In conclusion, our approach identified adhesins that induced excellent protection against two Bcc species and are promising vaccine candidates for a multisubunit vaccine. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of our proteomics approach to identify potent antigens against other difficult pathogens.

  12. Linocin and OmpW Are Involved in Attachment of the Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Lung Epithelial Cells and Protect Mice against Infection

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marc E.; Collins, Cassandra; Carberry, Stephen; O'Shaughnessy, Luke; Dennehy, Ruth; Adams, Áine; Kennelly, Helen; Corbett, Jennifer M.; Carty, Fiona; Cahill, Laura A.; Callaghan, Máire; English, Karen; Mahon, Bernard P.; Doyle, Sean; Shinoy, Minu

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) cause chronic opportunistic lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), resulting in a gradual lung function decline and, ultimately, patient death. The Bcc is a complex of 20 species and is rarely eradicated once a patient is colonized; therefore, vaccination may represent a better therapeutic option. We developed a new proteomics approach to identify bacterial proteins that are involved in the attachment of Bcc bacteria to lung epithelial cells. Fourteen proteins were reproducibly identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from four Bcc strains representative of two Bcc species: Burkholderia cenocepacia, the most virulent, and B. multivorans, the most frequently acquired. Seven proteins were identified in both species, but only two were common to all four strains, linocin and OmpW. Both proteins were selected based on previously reported data on these proteins in other species. Escherichia coli strains expressing recombinant linocin and OmpW showed enhanced attachment (4.2- and 3.9-fold) to lung cells compared to the control, confirming that both proteins are involved in host cell attachment. Immunoproteomic analysis using serum from Bcc-colonized CF patients confirmed that both proteins elicit potent humoral responses in vivo. Mice immunized with either recombinant linocin or OmpW were protected from B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans challenge. Both antigens induced potent antigen-specific antibody responses and stimulated strong cytokine responses. In conclusion, our approach identified adhesins that induced excellent protection against two Bcc species and are promising vaccine candidates for a multisubunit vaccine. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of our proteomics approach to identify potent antigens against other difficult pathogens. PMID:26902727

  13. Evolution and Conservation on Top of the World: Phylogeography of the Marbled Water Frog (Telmatobius marmoratus Species Complex; Anura, Telmatobiidae) in Protected Areas of Chile.

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Pedro F; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carla; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo F; Muñoz-Ramírez, Carlos; Sallaberry, Michel; Fibla, Pablo; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    The Andean Altiplano has served as a complex setting throughout its history, driving dynamic processes of diversification in several taxa. We investigated phylogeographic processes in the Telmatobius marmoratus species complex occurring in this region by studying the geographic patterns of genetic variability, genealogies, and historical migration, using the cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene as a marker. DNA sequences from Telmatobius gigas and Telmatobius culeus, Bolivian species with an uncertain taxonomic status, were also included. Additionally, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity (PD) represented within Chilean protected areas and the complementary contribution from unprotected populations. Phylogenetic reconstructions from 148 cyt-b sequences revealed 4 main clades, one of which corresponded to T. culeus. T. gigas was part of T. marmoratus clade indicating paraphyletic relationships. Haplotypes from Chilean and Bolivian sites were not reciprocally monophyletic. Geographic distribution of lineages, spatial Bayesian analysis, and migration patterns indicated that T. marmoratus displays a weaker geographic structure than expected based on habitat distribution and physiological requirements. Demographic and statistical phylogeography analyses pointed out to a scenario of recent population expansion and high connectivity events of a more recent age than the post Last Glacial Maximum, probably associated to more humid events in Altiplano. PD of T. marmoratus populations within protected areas represents 55.6% of the total estimated PD. The unprotected populations that would contribute the most to PD are Caquena and Quebe (21%). Recent evolutionary processes and paleoclimatic changes, potentially driving shifts in habitat connectivity levels and population sizes, could explain the phylogeographic patterns recovered herein. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Liquid-liquid-solid microextraction based on membrane-protected molecularly imprinted polymer fiber for trace analysis of triazines in complex aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Wang, Yangyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke

    2009-11-20

    A novel liquid-liquid-solid microextraction (LLSME) technique based on porous membrane-protected molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated silica fiber has been developed. In this technique, a MIP-coated silica fiber was protected with a length of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane which was filled with water-immiscible organic phase. Subsequently the whole device was immersed into aqueous sample for extraction. The LLSME technique was a three-phase microextraction approach. The target analytes were firstly extracted from the aqueous sample through a few microliters of organic phase residing in the pores and lumen of the membrane, and were then finally extracted onto the MIP fiber. A terbutylazine MIP-coated silica fiber was adopted as an example to demonstrate the feasibility of the novel LLSME method. The extraction parameters such as the organic solvent, extraction and desorption time were investigated. Comparison of the LLSME technique was made with molecularly imprinted polymer based solid-phase microextraction (MIP-SPME) and hollow fiber membrane-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), respectively. The LLSME, integrating the advantages of high selectivity of MIP-SPME and enrichment and sample cleanup capability of the HF-LPME into a single device, is a promising sample preparation method for complex samples. Moreover, the new technique overcomes the problem of disturbance from water when the MIP-SPME fiber was exposed directly to aqueous samples. Applications to analysis of triazine herbicides in sludge water, watermelon, milk and urine samples were evaluated to access the real sample application of the LLSME method by coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Low limits of detection (0.006-0.02 microg L(-1)), satisfactory recoveries and good repeatability for real sample (RSD 1.2-9.6%, n = 5) were obtained. The method was demonstrated to be a fast, selective and sensitive pretreatment method for trace analysis of triazines

  15. Protective effect of bicarbonate against extraction of the extrinsic proteins of the water-oxidizing complex from Photosystem II membrane fragments.

    PubMed

    Pobeguts, Olga V; Smolova, Tatiana N; Zastrizhnaya, Olga M; Klimov, Vyacheslav V

    2007-06-01

    A protective effect of bicarbonate (BC) against extraction of the extrinsic proteins, predominantly the Mn-stabilizing protein (PsbO protein), during treatment of Photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragment from pea with 2 M urea, and at low pH (using incubation in 0.2 M glycine-HCl buffer, pH 3.5 or 0.5 M citrate buffer, pH 4.0-4.5) was detected. It was shown that the extraction of the proteins with Mw 24 kDa (PsbP protein) and 18 kDa (PsbQ protein) by the use of highly concentrated solutions of NaCl does not depend on the presence of BC in the medium. An optimal concentration of BC at which it produces the maximum protecting effect was shown to be between 1 mM and 10 mM. The addition of formate did not influence the protein extraction but it reduced the stabilizing effect of BC. Independence of the stabilizing effect on the presence of the functionally active Mn within the water-oxidizing complex indicates that the protecting effect of BC is not related to its interaction with Mn ions. The fact that there is a preferable sensitivity of the PsbO protein to the absence of BC in the medium during all the treatments makes it possible to suggest that either BC interacts directly with the PsbO protein or it binds to some other sites within PS II and this binding facilitates the preservation of the native structure of this protein.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C protects prostate cancer cells from oxidative stress by the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 and AKT-1.

    PubMed

    Muders, Michael H; Zhang, Heyu; Wang, Enfeng; Tindall, Donald J; Datta, Kaustubh

    2009-08-01

    Recurrence and subsequent metastatic transformation of cancer develops from a subset of malignant cells, which show the ability to resist stress and to adopt to a changing microenvironment. These tumor cells have distinctly different growth factor pathways and antiapoptotic responses compared with the vast majority of cancer cells. Long-term therapeutic success can only be achieved by identifying and targeting factors and signaling cascades that help these cells survive during stress. Both microarray and immunohistochemical analysis on human prostate cancer tissue samples have shown an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in metastatic prostate cancer. We have discovered that VEGF-C acts directly on prostate cancer cells to protect them against oxidative stress. VEGF-C increased the survival of prostate cancer cells during hydrogen peroxide stress by the activation of AKT-1/protein kinase Balpha. This activation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 and was not observed in the absence of oxidative stress. Finally, the transmembrane nontyrosine kinase receptor neuropilin-2 was found to be essential for the VEGF-C-mediated AKT-1 activation. Indeed, our findings suggest a novel and distinct function of VEGF-C in protecting cancer cells from stress-induced cell death, thereby facilitating cancer recurrence and metastasis. This is distinctly different from the known function of VEGF-C in inducing lymphangiogenesis.

  17. Electroacupuncture protects against ischemic stroke by reducing autophagosome formation and inhibiting autophagy through the mTORC1-ULK1 complex-Beclin1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEILIN; SHANG, GUANHAO; YANG, SHANLI; HUANG, JIA; XUE, XIEHUA; LIN, YUNJIAO; ZHENG, YI; WANG, XIAN; WANG, LULU; LIN, RUHUI; TAO, JING; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study by our group, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) activates the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. There is considerable evidence that the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in autophagy following ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine whether EA exerts a neuroprotective effect through mTORC1-mediated autophagy following ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our results revealed that EA at the LI11 and ST36 acupoints attenuated motor dysfunction, improved neurological deficit outcomes and decreased the infarct volumes. The number of autophagosomes, autolysosomes and lysosomes was decreased following treatment with EA. Simultaneously, the levels of the autophagosome membrane maker, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (LC3B)II/I, Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), autophagy related gene 13 Atg13) and Beclin1 (ser14) were decreased, whereas mTORC1 expression was increased in the peri-infarct cortex. These results suggest that EA protects against ischemic stroke through the inhibition of autophagosome formation and autophagy, which is mediated through the mTORC1-ULK complex-Beclin1 pathway. PMID:26647915

  18. Auto-assembly of nanometer thick, water soluble layers of plasmid DNA complexed with diamines and basic amino acids on graphite: Greatest DNA protection is obtained with arginine.

    PubMed

    Khalil, T T; Boulanouar, O; Heintz, O; Fromm, M

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the ability of diamines as well as basic amino acids to condense DNA onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite with minimum damage after re-dissolution in water. Based on a bibliographic survey we briefly summarize DNA binding properties with diamines as compared to basic amino acids. Thus, solutions of DNA complexed with these linkers were drop-cast in order to deposit ultra-thin layers on the surface of HOPG in the absence or presence of Tris buffer. Atomic Force Microscopy analyses showed that, at a fixed ligand-DNA mixing ratio of 16, the mean thickness of the layers can be statistically predicted to lie in the range 0-50nm with a maximum standard deviation ±6nm, using a simple linear law depending on the DNA concentration. The morphology of the layers appears to be ligand-dependent. While the layers containing diamines present holes, those formed in the presence of basic amino acids, except for lysine, are much more compact and dense. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements provide compositional information indicating that, compared to the maximum number of DNA sites to which the ligands may bind, the basic amino acids Arg and His are present in large excess. Conservation of the supercoiled topology of the DNA plasmids was studied after recovery of the complex layers in water. Remarkably, arginine has the best protection capabilities whether Tris was present or not in the initial solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC; Environmental Compliance Department Environment, Safety, and Health Division Y-12 National Security Complex

    2004-03-31

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (BWXT Y12 S/RID) regarding the implementation of a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility. Additionally, this plan is a ''living'' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP, and an overview of ongoing Y-12 groundwater monitoring activities. Section 3 describes the key elements of the GWPP management strategy. Organizational roles and responsibilities of GWPP personnel are outlined in Section 4. Section 5 presents an overview of the GWPP project plans for applicable programmatic elements. Section 6 lists the reports, plans, and documents that are referenced for technical and administrative details.

  20. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan For The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2009-09-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12 LLC (hereafter referenced as B&W Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. B&W Y-12 is a new corporate name, assumed in January 2007, for the company formerly known as BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., hereafter referenced as BWXT. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A Environmental Protection Program (hereafter referenced as DOE O 450.1A), which emphasize a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility through implementation of groundwater surveillance monitoring. Additionally, this plan addresses the relevant and applicable GWPP elements and goals described in the DOE O 450.1A technical guidance documents issued in June 2004 (DOE 2004) and May 2005 (DOE 2005). This GWPP management plan is a 'living' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP

  1. Suppressors of Superoxide-H2O2 Production at Site IQ of Mitochondrial Complex I Protect against Stem Cell Hyperplasia and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin D; Goncalves, Renata L S; Orr, Adam L; Vargas, Leonardo; Gerencser, Akos A; Borch Jensen, Martin; Wang, Yves T; Melov, Simon; Turk, Carolina N; Matzen, Jason T; Dardov, Victoria J; Petrassi, H Michael; Meeusen, Shelly L; Perevoshchikova, Irina V; Jasper, Heinrich; Brookes, Paul S; Ainscow, Edward K

    2016-10-11

    Using high-throughput screening we identified small molecules that suppress superoxide and/or H2O2 production during reverse electron transport through mitochondrial respiratory complex I (site IQ) without affecting oxidative phosphorylation (suppressors of site IQ electron leak, "S1QELs"). S1QELs diminished endogenous oxidative damage in primary astrocytes cultured at ambient or low oxygen tension, showing that site IQ is a normal contributor to mitochondrial superoxide-H2O2 production in cells. They diminished stem cell hyperplasia in Drosophila intestine in vivo and caspase activation in a cardiomyocyte cell model driven by endoplasmic reticulum stress, showing that superoxide-H2O2 production by site IQ is involved in cellular stress signaling. They protected against ischemia-reperfusion injury in perfused mouse heart, showing directly that superoxide-H2O2 production by site IQ is a major contributor to this pathology. S1QELs are tools for assessing the contribution of site IQ to cell physiology and pathology and have great potential as therapeutic leads.

  2. Ten weeks of infection with a tissue-invasive helminth protects against local immune complex-mediated inflammation, but not cutaneous type I hypersensitivity, in previously sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Holly; Killoran, Kristin E.; Mitre, Blima K.; Morris, C. Paul; Kim, So-Young; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect chronic helminth infection has on allergic disease in mice previously sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA). 10 weeks of infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis reduced immunological markers of type I hypersensitivity, including OVA-specific IgE, basophil activation, and mast cell degranulation. Despite these reductions, there was no protection against immediate clinical hypersensitivity following intradermal OVA challenge. However, late phase ear swelling, due to type III hypersensitivity, was significantly reduced in chronically infected animals. Levels of total IgG2a, OVA-specific IgG2a, and OVA-specific IgG1 were reduced in the setting of infection. These reductions were likely due to increased antibody catabolism as ELISPOT assays demonstrated that infected animals do not have suppressed antibody production. Ear histology 24 hours after challenge showed infected animals have reduced cellular infiltration in the ear, with significant decreases in numbers of neutrophils and macrophages. Consistent with this, infected animals had less neutrophil-specific chemokines CXCL-1 and CXCL-2 in the ear following challenge. Additionally, in vitro stimulation with immune-complexes resulted in significantly less CXCL-1 and CXCL-2 production by eosinophils from chronically infected mice. Expression of FcγRI was also significantly reduced on eosinophils from infected animals. These data indicate that chronic filarial infection suppresses eosinophilic responses to antibody-mediated activation and has the potential to be used as a therapeutic for pre-existing hypersensitivity diseases. PMID:26324775

  3. Naringin and Sertraline Ameliorate Doxorubicin-Induced Behavioral Deficits Through Modulation of Serotonin Level and Mitochondrial Complexes Protection Pathway in Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Mohit; Jangra, Ashok; Mishra, Murli; Sharma, Yogita; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Ghosh, Pinaki; Kumar, Vikas; Vohora, Divya; Khanam, Razia

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of naringin (NR) alone as well as its combination with sertraline (SRT) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies. DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) administration caused behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and monoamines alteration in male Wistar rats. NR (50 and 100 mg/kg; i.p.) and SRT (5 mg/kg; i.p.) treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as evident from elevated plus maze (EPM) and modified forced swimming test (mFST), respectively. NR treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced raised plasma corticosterone (CORT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the hippocampus (HC). Furthermore, we found that combination of NR and SRT regimen ameliorated DOX-induced behavioral anomalies through modulation of the 5-HT level and mitochondrial complexes protection pathway along with alleviation of oxidative stress in the HC region. Therefore, NR treatment alone or in combination with SRT could be beneficial against DOX-induced neurotoxicity.

  4. The structural basis of the Tle4-Tli4 complex reveals the self-protection mechanism of H2-T6SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Defen; Zheng, Youshi; Liao, Naishun; Wei, Ling; Xu, Bo; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2014-12-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has recently been demonstrated to mediate interbacterial competition and to discriminate between self and nonself. T6SS(+) bacteria employ toxic effectors to inhibit rival cells and concurrently use effector cognate immunity proteins to protect their sibling cells. The effector and immunity pairs (E-I pairs) endow the bacteria with a great advantage in niche competition. Tle4-Tli4 (PA1510-PA1509) is a newly identified E-I pair that is controlled by H2-T6SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tle4 exhibits phospholipase activity, which destroys the cell membrane of rival cells, and the periplasm-located Tli4 in donor cells eliminates this toxic effect of Tle4. In this paper, the structure of the Tle4-Tli4 complex is reported at 1.75 Å resolution. Tle4 consists of two domains: a conserved α/β-hydrolase domain and an unusual cap domain in which two lid regions (lid1 and lid2) display a closed conformation that buries the catalytic triad in a deep funnel. Tli4 also displays a two-domain structure, in which a large lobe and a small lobe form a crab claw-like conformation. Tli4 uses this crab claw to grasp the cap domain of Tle4, especially the lid2 region, which prevents the interfacial activation of Tle4 and thus causes enzymatic dysfunction of Tle4 in sister cells.

  5. Nitrosothiol Formation and Protection against Fenton Chemistry by Nitric Oxide-induced Dinitrosyliron Complex Formation from Anoxia-initiated Cellular Chelatable Iron Increase*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K.; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R.; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2014-01-01

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with •NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged •NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief •NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1–2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief •NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of •NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of •NO. PMID:24891512

  6. Nitrosothiol formation and protection against Fenton chemistry by nitric oxide-induced dinitrosyliron complex formation from anoxia-initiated cellular chelatable iron increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R; Lancaster, Jack R

    2014-07-18

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with (•)NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged (•)NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief (•)NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1-2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief (•)NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of (•)NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of (•)NO. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. A protective role of cumulus cells after short-term exposure of rat cumulus cell-oocyte complexes to lifestyle or environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Campen, Kelly A; McNatty, Kenneth P; Pitman, Janet L

    2017-04-01

    Ovarian follicular fluid provides a potential reservoir for exogenous compounds that may adversely affect oocyte quality. This study examined the effects of common lifestyle and environmental contaminants, namely bisphenol-A (BPA), caffeine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), nicotine and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on gap junction genes (Gja1, Gja4) and proteins (GJA1), glucose metabolism genes (Gfpt1, Pfkp) and oocyte growth factor genes (Bmp15, Gdf9), as well as gap junction transfer rate, in rat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). In vitro exposure to MDMA and THC accelerated the timing of meiotic resumption and all contaminants altered either gap junction gene expression (BPA, caffeine, MDMA and THC) or transfer rate (BPA and nicotine). In vitro exposure of COCs to MDMA also altered glucose metabolism genes. Overall, oocyte-derived genes were largely unaffected following exposure to any contaminant. In summary, the impact of short-term exposure to lifestyle and environmental contaminants on oocyte function may be diminished due to protective properties of cumulus cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan For Groundwater Monitoring Wells At The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan describes the technical approach that is implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well. Under this approach, wells granted "active" status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling, whereas wells granted "inactive" status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP. Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans. This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes.

  9. SmgGDS is a transient nucleolar protein that protects cells from nucleolar stress and promotes the cell cycle by regulating DREAM complex gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gonyo, P; Bergom, C; Brandt, A C; Tsaih, S-W; Sun, Y; Bigley, T M; Lorimer, E L; Terhune, S S; Rui, H; Flister, M J; Long, R M; Williams, C L

    2017-08-14

    The chaperone protein and guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS (RAP1GDS1) is a key promoter of cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. SmgGDS undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, suggesting that it has both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions that promote cancer. Previous studies indicate that SmgGDS binds cytoplasmic small GTPases and promotes their trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, little is known about the functions of SmgGDS in the nucleus, or how these nuclear functions might benefit cancer cells. Here we show unique nuclear localization and regulation of gene transcription pathways by SmgGDS. Strikingly, SmgGDS depletion significantly reduces expression of over 600 gene products that are targets of the DREAM complex, which is a transcription factor complex that regulates expression of proteins controlling the cell cycle. The cell cycle regulators E2F1, MYC, MYBL2 (B-Myb) and FOXM1 are among the DREAM targets that are diminished by SmgGDS depletion. E2F1 is well known to promote G1 cell cycle progression, and the loss of E2F1 in SmgGDS-depleted cells provides an explanation for previous reports that SmgGDS depletion characteristically causes a G1 cell cycle arrest. We show that SmgGDS localizes in nucleoli, and that RNAi-mediated depletion of SmgGDS in cancer cells disrupts nucleolar morphology, signifying nucleolar stress. We show that nucleolar SmgGDS interacts with the RNA polymerase I transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF). The RNAi-mediated depletion of UBF diminishes nucleolar localization of SmgGDS and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of SmgGDS, indicating that nucleolar sequestration of SmgGDS by UBF stabilizes SmgGDS protein. The ability of SmgGDS to interact with UBF and localize in the nucleolus is diminished by expressing DiRas1 or DiRas2, which are small GTPases that bind SmgGDS and act as tumor suppressors. Taken together, our results support a novel nuclear role for SmgGDS in protecting malignant

  10. [A new reality in the field of penitentiary medicine: the Complex Protected Medicine Structure of the ASL Rome B. Initial report of our working sanitary care].

    PubMed

    Zippi, M; Aloisio, P; Corbi, S; Scocchera, F; Fierro, A

    2007-01-01

    The continuous demand for sanitary care from the imprisoned patients to the general public hospitals has carried to the creation of dedicated structures like the Complex Protected Medicine Structure (SCMP) at the Hospital Sandro Pertini of Rome. Aim of this study was to present the preliminary epidemiologic-clinical data gathered from July 26th 2006 to March 1st, 2006 in our SCMP. This study is based on an observational retrospective protocol. Patients characteristics included sex, age, alcohol, smoke and drug abuse, serology for viral hepatitis and AIDS, and treatment with benzodiazepine. The records of 200 consecutive patients (18 F, 182 M; median age 46 years; range: 20-84 years), attending our Unit were analyzed retrospectively. Out of these patients, 40 (20%) were foreigners, 43 (21.5%) alcohol abusers, and 141 (70.5%) smokers. Forty-eight patients (24%) had a recent or last history of drug addiction (heroin and/or cocaine). The HIV antibodies have been assayed only on 28 patients, turning out positive in 10 (35.71%). Twenty-five patients were positive for HBsAg (12.5%) and 57 (28.5%) for HCV. A consumption of benzodiazepine (BZD) was present in 71 (35.5%) of the patients. The essential elements of medical attendance of our structure are described in the article. We present the initial report of our working experience. The present data are in keeping with previous studies of the literature. We hope that our experience coul be extended to all italian Countries.

  11. Expanding the scope of strained-alkyne chemistry: a protection-deprotection strategy via the formation of a dicobalt-hexacarbonyl complex.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Pierangelo; Romagnoli, Tommaso; Barbon, Stephanie M; Price, Jacquelyn T; Keir, Jennifer; Gilroy, Joe B; Workentin, Mark S

    2015-04-18

    A protection-deprotection strategy for strained alkynes used for bioorthogonal chemistry is reported. A strained alkyne can be protected with dicobalt-octacarbonyl and we demonstrate for the first time that a strained alkyne can be re-formed and isolated under mild reaction conditions for further bioorthogonal reactivity. The protection-deprotection strategy herein reported will expand the versatility of strained alkynes for the preparation of substrates in chemical biology and materials applications.

  12. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  13. Glycosylation of a Capsule-Like Complex (CLC) by Francisella novicida Is Required for Virulence and Partial Protective Immunity in Mice

    DOE PAGES

    Freudenberger Catanzaro, Kelly C.; Champion, Anna E.; Mohapatra, Nrusingh; ...

    2017-05-30

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the etiologic agent of tularemia. F. tularensis may appear encapsulated when examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which is due to production of an extracellular capsule-like complex (CLC) when the bacterium is grown under specific environmental conditions. Deletion of two glycosylation genes in the live vaccine strain (LVS) results in loss of apparent CLC and attenuation of LVS in mice. In contrast, F. novicida, which is also highly virulent for mice, is reported to be non-encapsulated. But, the F. novicida genome contains a putative polysaccharide locus with homology to the CLC glycosylation locusmore » in F. tularensis. Following daily subculture of F. novicida in Chamberlain’s defined medium, an electron dense material surrounding F. novicida, similar to the F. tularensis CLC, was evident. Extraction with urea effectively removed the CLC, and compositional analysis indicated the extract contained galactose, glucose, mannose, and multiple proteins, similar to those found in the F. tularensis CLC. The same glycosylation genes deleted in LVS were targeted for deletion in F. novicida by allelic exchange using the same mutagenesis vector used for mutagenesis of LVS. In contrast, this mutation also resulted in the loss of five additional genes immediately upstream of the targeted mutation (all within the glycosylation locus), resulting in strain F. novicida 11212–1218. The subcultured mutant F. novicida 11212–1218 was CLC-deficient and the CLC contained significantly less carbohydrate than the subcultured parent strain. The mutant was severely attenuated in BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally, as determined by the lower number of F. novicida 11212–1218 recovered in tissues compared to the parent, and by clearance of the mutant by 10–14 days post-challenge. Mice immunized intranasally with F. novicida 11212–1218 were partially protected against challenge with the parent, produced

  14. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan For Groundwater Monitoring Wells At The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted 'active' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted 'inactive' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on

  15. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued.

  16. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P < 0.05). The activity of T-AOC((0.43 ± 0.04) U/mg) and MMP (12.09 ± 1.56) were lower than the control group ((0.48 ± 0.04 U/mg, (16.08 ± 3.12) )(t values were 2.06 and 2.28, P < 0.05). Gavage intervention with sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P < 0.05). The activity of T-AOC ((0.49 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.54 ± 0.04) U/mg), T-SOD ((61.07 ± 2.79), (55.95 ± 2.39), (60.26 ± 6.02) U/mg) and the level of MMP ((17.17 ± 2.52), (18.24 ± 2.54), (18.21 ± 3.65)) were higher than in the high-fat group ((0.43 ± 0.04) U/mg,(47.22 ± 2.43) U/mg,(12.09 ± 1.56)) (tT-AOC values were -2.36, -4.83 and -4.30; tT-SOD values were -6.37, -4.71 and -5

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 which provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater sampling (Section 3.0), whereas well granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also determines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 4.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 5.0). This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure 1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on the

  19. Protecting Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loepp, Susan; Wootters, William K.

    2006-09-01

    For many everyday transmissions, it is essential to protect digital information from noise or eavesdropping. This undergraduate introduction to error correction and cryptography is unique in devoting several chapters to quantum cryptography and quantum computing, thus providing a context in which ideas from mathematics and physics meet. By covering such topics as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm, this text informs the reader about current thinking in quantum information theory and encourages an appreciation of the connections between mathematics and science.Of particular interest are the potential impacts of quantum physics:(i) a quantum computer, if built, could crack our currently used public-key cryptosystems; and (ii) quantum cryptography promises to provide an alternative to these cryptosystems, basing its security on the laws of nature rather than on computational complexity. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed, but students should have a basic knowledge of complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Accessible to readers familiar with matrix algebra, vector spaces and complex numbers First undergraduate text to cover cryptography, error-correction, and quantum computation together Features exercises designed to enhance understanding, including a number of computational problems, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521534765

  20. Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Martin, Alison; Haddad, Eid E; King, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    Worldwide, Newcastle disease (ND) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live ND vaccines that typically induce protection against virulent field viruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an antigen-antibody complex (AAC) ND vaccine delivered in ovo. Commercial maternal antibody-positive broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) were vaccinated in ovo with an AAC vaccine composed of live B1-LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) complexed with NDV-specific antiserum, and then they were challenged at weekly intervals after hatch. Challenge viruses included three exotic ND disease (END) viruses: the neurotropic strain Texas GB NDV-92-01 (TxGB) and two viscerotropic isolates, one isolate from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California (California 2002 isolate S212676 [CA]) and the other isolate from a 1997 END outbreak in South Korea (South Korea 94-147 [SK]). Results demonstrate that maternal antibody was able to provide approximately 50% protection in either vaccinated or control chickens at 7 days of age after TxGB challenge. However, with challenge at > or = 14 days, most control birds died, whereas all AAC-vaccinated birds were protected. Challenge with the CA or SK viruses in chickens at 28 days of age resulted in 100% protection of vaccinated birds, whereas all control birds died. In addition, AAC-vaccinated birds displayed decreased incidence of viral shedding in oral and cloacal swabs than control birds. Antibody titers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinated chickens, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, than in nonvaccinated controls. Together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of AAC vaccines delivered in ovo to protect commercial poultry.

  1. Bovine leukocyte antigen major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3*2703 and DRB3*1501 alleles are associated with variation in levels of protection against Theileria parva challenge following immunization with the sporozoite p67 antigen.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Luyai, Anthony; Rowlands, G John; Sales, Jill; Musoke, Anthony J; Morzaria, Subash P; McKeever, Declan J

    2004-05-01

    Initial laboratory trials of an experimental subunit vaccine against Theileria parva based on the 67-kDa major sporozoite surface antigen revealed a range of responses to challenge. We have analyzed convergence in seven sets of monozygotic twins which suggests that genetic factors may have an influence in determining the degree of protection provided by p67 immunization. In addition, we have examined whether allelic diversity at major histocompatibility complex class II loci influences protection. Analysis of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 diversity in 201 animals identified significant associations with vaccine success (DRB3*2703; P = 0.027) and vaccine failure (DRB3*1501; P = 0.013). Furthermore, DRB3*2703 was associated with the likelihood of immunized animals showing little to no clinical signs of disease following challenge. We discuss the acquired and innate immune mechanisms that may be behind the associations described here.

  2. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist or N-acetylcysteine combined with omeprazol protect against mitochondrial complex II inhibition in a rat model of gastritis.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Petronilho, Fabricia C; Araújo, João H; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Cardoso, Mariane R; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2011-03-01

    The pathophysiology of gastritis involves an imbalance between gastric acid attack and mucosal defence. In addition, the gastric mucosal injury results in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Several studies have shown the association of mitochondrial disorders with gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity in the stomach of rats with gastritis induced by indomethacin (IDM) and treated with omeprazole (OM), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095. Adult male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 7 days with OM, NAC, RC-3095, combination of OM plus RC-3095, OM plus NAC and water (control). The animals were then submitted to fasting for 24 hr; IDM was administered. The rats were killed 6 hr later, and the stomachs were used for evaluation of macroscopic damage and respiratory chain activity. Our results showed that complex I and IV activities were not affected by administration of IDM. On the other hand, complex II and III activities were inhibited. In addition, OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC did not reverse complex II activity inhibition. However, the complex III activity inhibition was reversed only with the combined use of OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC. Our results are in agreement with previous studies indicating mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal tract disease and we suggest that GRPR antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy in gastritis.

  3. Protection by uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid and DT-diaphorase against the cytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons isolated from a complex coal gasification condensate.

    PubMed

    Swanson, M S; Haugen, D A; Reilly, C A; Stamoudis, V C

    1986-06-30

    The cytotoxicities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) subclasses isolated from a complex organic mixture (coal gasification condensate) were studied in vitro in Chinese hamster ovary cells, in the presence of rat liver microsomes from animals pretreated with Aroclor. Toxicity was enhanced by microsomal metabolism and was inversely related to aromatic ring number. Rat liver cytosol, semipurified DT-diaphorase, and uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreased the cytotoxicity of a variety of PAH mixtures and representative PAH, as well as individual PAH metabolites. The results indicate that the in vitro toxicity of complex PAH mixtures is caused primarily by hydroxy-PAH and quinone metabolites of the predominant, nonmutagenic two- and three-ring PAHs.

  4. Inhibition of Calpains Protects Mn-Induced Neurotransmitter release disorders in Synaptosomes from Mice: Involvement of SNARE Complex and Synaptic Vesicle Fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Xu, Bin; Ma, Zhuo; Liu, Chang; Deng, Yu; Liu, Wei; Xu, Zhao-Fa

    2017-06-16

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) could disrupt neurotransmitter release via influencing the formation of SNARE complex, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. A previous study demonstrated that SNAP-25 is one of substrate of calpains. The current study investigated whether calpains were involved in Mn-induced disorder of SNARE complex. After mice were treated with Mn for 24 days, Mn deposition increased significantly in basal nuclei in Mn-treated and calpeptin pre-treated groups. Behaviorally, less time spent in the center of the area and decreased average velocity significantly in an open field test after 24 days of Mn exposure. With the increase in MnCl2 dosage, intracellular Ca(2+) increased significantly, but pretreatment with calpeptin caused a dose-dependent decrease in calpains activity. There were fragments of N-terminal of SNAP-25 protein appearance in Mn-treated groups, but it is decreased with pretreatment of calpeptin. FM1-43-labeled synaptic vesicles also provided evidence that the treatment with Mn resulted in increasing first and then decreasing, which was consistent with Glu release and the 80 kDa protein levels of SNARE complexes. In summary, Mn induced the disorder of neurotransmitter release through influencing the formation of SNARE complex via cleaving SNAP-25 by overactivation of calpains in vivo.

  5. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  6. Evolution and complexity of government policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in Thailand – the unsolved challenges

    PubMed Central

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Prakongsai, Phusit; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-01-01

    Background Of the 65 million residents in Thailand, >1.5 million are undocumented/illegal migrants from neighboring countries. Despite several policies being launched to improve access to care for these migrants, policy implementation has always faced numerous challenges. This study aimed to investigate the policy makers’ views on the challenges of implementing policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in light of the dynamics of all of the migrant policies in Thailand. Methods This study used a qualitative approach. Data were collected by document review, from related laws/regulations concerning migration policy over the past 40 years, and from in-depth interviews with seven key policy-level officials. Thematic analysis was applied. Results Three critical themes emerged, namely, national security, economic necessity, and health protection. The national security discourse played a dominant role from the early 1900s up to the 1980s as Thailand attempted to defend itself from the threats of colonialism and communism. The economic boom of the 1990s created a pronounced labor shortage, which required a large migrant labor force to drive the growing economy. The first significant attempt to protect the health of migrants materialized in the early 2000s, after Thailand achieved universal health coverage. During that period, public insurance for undocumented/illegal migrants was introduced. The insurance used premium-based financing. However, the majority of migrants remained uninsured. Recently, the government attempted to overhaul the entire migrant registry system by introducing a new measure, namely the One Stop Service. In principle, the One Stop Service aimed to integrate the functions of all responsible authorities, but several challenges still remained; these included ambiguous policy messages and the slow progress of the nationality verification process. Conclusion The root causes of the challenges in migrant health policy are incoherent

  7. Cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) adjuvant enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of a pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Libo; Liu, Feng; Fairman, Jeffery; Hong, David K; Lewis, David B; Monath, Thomas; Warner, John F; Belser, Jessica A; Patel, Jenish; Hancock, Kathy; Katz, Jacqueline M; Lu, Xiuhua

    2012-01-05

    The development of pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 vaccines that confer both antigen-sparing and cross-clade protection are a high priority given the limited worldwide capacity for influenza vaccine production, and the antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of circulating H5N1 viruses. The inclusion of potent adjuvants in vaccine formulations may achieve both of these aims. Here we show that the addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) to a clade 1-derived H5N1 split vaccine induced significantly higher virus-specific antibody than unadjuvanted formulations, with a >30-fold dose-sparing effect and induction of increased antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in mice. All mice that received one dose of adjuvanted vaccine and subsequent H5N1 viral challenges exhibited mild illness, lower lung viral titers, undetectable spleen and brain viral titers, and 100% survival after either homologous clade 1 or heterologous clade 2 H5N1 viral challenges, whereas unadjuvanted vaccine recipients showed significantly increased weight loss, viral titers, and mortality. The protective immunity induced by JVRS-100 adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine was shown to last for over one year without significant waning. Thus, JVRS-100 adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine elicited enhanced humoral and T-cell responses, dose-sparing, and cross-clade protection in mice. CLDC holds promise as an adjuvant for human pre-pandemic inactivated H5N1 vaccines.

  8. A cationic liposome-DNA complexes adjuvant (JVRS-100) enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of pre-pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Xiangjie; Fairman, Jeffery; Lewis, David B; Katz, Jacqueline M; Levine, Min; Tumpey, Terrence M; Lu, Xiuhua

    2016-05-01

    Influenza A (H5N1) viruses continue to pose a public health threat. As inactivated H5N1 vaccines are poorly immunogenic, adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccine in humans. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy in ferrets of a clade 2.2-derived vaccine with addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC). After the first vaccination, significantly higher levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were detected in ferrets immunized with adjuvanted vaccine compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. Following a second dose of adjuvanted vaccine, HAI antibody titers of ≥ 40 were detected against viruses from multiple H5N1 clades. HAI antibodies against newly isolated H5N2 and H5N8 viruses were also augmented by JVRS-100. Ferrets were challenged with a heterologous H5N1 virus. All ferrets that received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine exhibited mild illness, significantly reduced nasal wash virus titers and protection from lethal challenge. In contrast, ferrets that received unadjuvanted vaccine showed greater weight loss, high viral titers and 3 of 6 animals succumbed to the lethal challenge. Our results indicate that the addition of JVRS-100 to H5N1 vaccine enhanced immunogenicity and cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus disease in ferrets. JVRS-100 warrants further investigation as a potential adjuvant for influenza vaccines.

  9. Geophysical survey of Neovolcanic complexes in the first protection zone of the Sliač Spa and the Baková jama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašiaková, Mariana; Gajdoš, Vojtech; Bučová, Jana; Dérerová, Jana; Straka, Adam; Hlavˇnová, Petra; Brixová, Bibiana

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of the survey in the 1st protection zone area of the Sliač Spa and the Baková jama was to clarify the geological-tectonical structure. The vertical electric sounding (VES) technique was selected as the main geophysical survey method. Additionally, the soil radon emanometry was carried out to verify tectonic lines' presence. The outcrop of Pre-Tertiary basement was discovered in the form of small isolated island. No tectonic line was identified based on the evaluation of profile radon concentration. The results of geoelectrical measurements are presented in 8 geological-geophysical crosssections. The results and the tectonic lines' courses interpreted by the VES method are drawn in the map of new indications. The isoline maps and 3D model of Pre-Tertiary basement were constructed.

  10. Interaction of a functionalized complex of the flavonoid hesperetin with the AhR pathway and CYP1A1 expression: involvement in its protective effects against benzo[a]pyrene-induced oxidative stress in human skin.

    PubMed

    Melchini, Antonietta; Catania, Stefania; Stancanelli, Rossana; Tommasini, Silvana; Costa, Chiara

    2011-10-01

    Skin cancer pathogenesis is partially associated to the oxidative stress conditions induced by environmentally carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The protective effects against BaP-induced oxidative stress of the flavonoid hesperetin as a complex with the 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE/HP-β-CyD) have been evaluated using an ex vivo human skin model. Human healthy skin has been pre-treated with the functionalized complex HE/HP-β-CyD (0.5-50 μM) before BaP (5 μM) application simulating occupational and environmental exposure. Oxidative stress was evaluated in terms of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction, protein peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Additionally, it has been investigated whether the potential protective effects of HE/HP-β-CyD may be correlated to the interaction with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. A significant protection by HE/HP-β-CyD against the BaP-induced increase in ROS and carbonyl compound production, as well as reduction in tissue viability, has been observed (p<0.001). Results obtained showed that HE/HP-β-CyD was also able to reduce BaP-induced AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression (p<0.001). Experimental evidences provided from this study suggest significant preventive properties of HE/HP-β-CyD in the toxicity caused by environmental carcinogens such as PAHs. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  11. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    SciTech Connect

    Holzemer, Michael J.; Hart, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  12. Genome Protection by the 9-1-1 Complex Subunit HUS1 Requires Clamp Formation, DNA Contacts, and ATR Signaling-independent Effector Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pei Xin; Patel, Darshil R.; Poisson, Kelsey E.; Basuita, Manpreet; Tsai, Charlton; Lyndaker, Amy M.; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Lu, A-Lien; Weiss, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The RAD9A-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric clamp that promotes checkpoint signaling and repair at DNA damage sites. In this study, we elucidated HUS1 functional residues that drive clamp assembly, DNA interactions, and downstream effector functions. First, we mapped a HUS1-RAD9A interface residue that was critical for 9-1-1 assembly and DNA loading. Next, we identified multiple positively charged residues in the inner ring of HUS1 that were crucial for genotoxin-induced 9-1-1 chromatin localization and ATR signaling. Finally, we found two hydrophobic pockets on the HUS1 outer surface that were important for cell survival after DNA damage. Interestingly, these pockets were not required for 9-1-1 chromatin localization or ATR-mediated CHK1 activation but were necessary for interactions between HUS1 and its binding partner MYH, suggesting that they serve as interaction domains for the recruitment and coordination of downstream effectors at damage sites. Together, these results indicate that, once properly loaded onto damaged DNA, the 9-1-1 complex executes multiple, separable functions that promote genome maintenance. PMID:25911100

  13. Genome Protection by the 9-1-1 Complex Subunit HUS1 Requires Clamp Formation, DNA Contacts, and ATR Signaling-independent Effector Functions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei Xin; Patel, Darshil R; Poisson, Kelsey E; Basuita, Manpreet; Tsai, Charlton; Lyndaker, Amy M; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Lu, A-Lien; Weiss, Robert S

    2015-06-12

    The RAD9A-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric clamp that promotes checkpoint signaling and repair at DNA damage sites. In this study, we elucidated HUS1 functional residues that drive clamp assembly, DNA interactions, and downstream effector functions. First, we mapped a HUS1-RAD9A interface residue that was critical for 9-1-1 assembly and DNA loading. Next, we identified multiple positively charged residues in the inner ring of HUS1 that were crucial for genotoxin-induced 9-1-1 chromatin localization and ATR signaling. Finally, we found two hydrophobic pockets on the HUS1 outer surface that were important for cell survival after DNA damage. Interestingly, these pockets were not required for 9-1-1 chromatin localization or ATR-mediated CHK1 activation but were necessary for interactions between HUS1 and its binding partner MYH, suggesting that they serve as interaction domains for the recruitment and coordination of downstream effectors at damage sites. Together, these results indicate that, once properly loaded onto damaged DNA, the 9-1-1 complex executes multiple, separable functions that promote genome maintenance.

  14. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > NEI for Kids > Protective Eyewear All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  15. Serum amyloid A protein forms a complex with a fragment of apolipoprotein A-I in the domestic blue fox: a protective mechanism against AA amyloidosis?

    PubMed

    Elisen, Ellen Johanne; Bruun, Cathrine Foyn; Nordstoga, Knut; Husby, Gunnar; Sletten, Knut

    2004-09-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of protein AA-type of amyloidosis varies among animal species. As reactive AA-type of amyloidosis has never been detected in the blue fox, we obtained acute phase sera to search for amyloid-protective elements. The purified SAA fraction was characterized by mass and sequence analyses to disclose any unique domains in the amino acid sequence. The data revealed an SAA protein with heterogeneities in several positions, and showed the typical insertion between positions 69 and 70. By comparing the amino acid sequence with that from other mammals, no unique sequence could be observed. However, a C-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was found attached to the SAA. The amino acid sequence of the ApoA-I fragment revealed a partially blocked and ragged N-terminus. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of ApoA-I with that from the dog showed that the ApoA-I fragment started about position 190, had an intact C-terminus, and showed an identical sequence in all positions, except one. Based on the data, we suggest an interaction of the C-terminal fragment of ApoA-I with the SAA protein that inhibits the AA fibrillogenesis in the blue fox.

  16. Treatment of Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis-Infected Mice with a Combination of a Palladacycle Complex and Heat-Killed Propionibacterium acnes Triggers Protective Cellular Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Paladi, Carolina S.; da Silva, Danielle A. M.; Motta, Priscila D.; Garcia, Daniel M.; Teixeira, Daniela; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M.; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara L.

    2017-01-01

    Palladacycle complex DPPE 1.2 was previously reported to inhibit the in vitro and in vivo infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of DPPE 1.2, in association with heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes, on L. (L.) amazonensis infection in two mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, and to evaluate the immune responses of the treated animals. Foot lesions of L. (L.) amazonensis-infected mice were injected with DPPE 1.2 alone, or associated with P. acnes as an adjuvant. Analysis of T-cell populations in the treated mice and in untreated controls was performed by FACS. Detection of IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes was carried out by an ELISPOT assay and active TGF-β was measured by means of a double-sandwich ELISA test. The treatment with DPPE 1.2 resulted in a significant reduction of foot lesion sizes and parasite burdens in both mouse strains, and the lowest parasite burden was found in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. Mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone displayed a significant increase of TCD4+ and TCD8+ lymphocytes and IFN-γ secretion which were significantly higher in animals treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. A significant reduction of active TGF-β was observed in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone or associated with P. acnes. Moreover, DPPE 1.2 associated to P. acnes was non-toxic to treated animals. The destruction of L. (L.) amazonensis by DPPE 1.2 was followed by host inflammatory responses which were exacerbated when the palladacycle complex was associated with P. acnes. PMID:28321209

  17. Treatment of Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis-Infected Mice with a Combination of a Palladacycle Complex and Heat-Killed Propionibacterium acnes Triggers Protective Cellular Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Paladi, Carolina S; da Silva, Danielle A M; Motta, Priscila D; Garcia, Daniel M; Teixeira, Daniela; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara L

    2017-01-01

    Palladacycle complex DPPE 1.2 was previously reported to inhibit the in vitro and in vivo infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of DPPE 1.2, in association with heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes, on L. (L.) amazonensis infection in two mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, and to evaluate the immune responses of the treated animals. Foot lesions of L. (L.) amazonensis-infected mice were injected with DPPE 1.2 alone, or associated with P. acnes as an adjuvant. Analysis of T-cell populations in the treated mice and in untreated controls was performed by FACS. Detection of IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes was carried out by an ELISPOT assay and active TGF-β was measured by means of a double-sandwich ELISA test. The treatment with DPPE 1.2 resulted in a significant reduction of foot lesion sizes and parasite burdens in both mouse strains, and the lowest parasite burden was found in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. Mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone displayed a significant increase of TCD4(+) and TCD8(+) lymphocytes and IFN-γ secretion which were significantly higher in animals treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. A significant reduction of active TGF-β was observed in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone or associated with P. acnes. Moreover, DPPE 1.2 associated to P. acnes was non-toxic to treated animals. The destruction of L. (L.) amazonensis by DPPE 1.2 was followed by host inflammatory responses which were exacerbated when the palladacycle complex was associated with P. acnes.

  18. A novel homogeneous immunoassay for anthrax detection based on the AlphaLISA method: detection of B. anthracis spores and protective antigen (PA) in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Mechaly, Adva; Cohen, Noam; Weiss, Shay; Zahavy, Eran

    2013-05-01

    Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay (AlphaLISA) technology is an energy-transfer-based assay, utilizing singlet oxygen as an energy donor to a fluorescent acceptor. The long singlet oxygen migration distance allows the energy transfer mechanism to go up to ~200 nm, facilitating flexible and sensitive homogeneous immunoassays. While soluble protein detection using AlphaLISA was previously described, the detection of particles such as bacteria and viruses was not reported. In this work, we show for the first time the implementation of the AlphaLISA technology for the detection of a particulate antigen, i.e., Bacillus anthracis spores. Here, we show that an efficient particle immunoassay requires a high acceptor-to-donor ratio (>4:1). The results suggested that the high acceptor/donor ratio is required to avoid donor aggregation ("islands") on the spore surface, hence facilitating donor/acceptor interaction. The developed assay enabled the detection of 10(6) spores/mL spiked in PBS. We also demonstrate the development of a highly sensitive AlphaLISA assay for the detection of the main toxin component of anthrax, protective antigen (PA). The assay enabled the detection of 10 and 100 pg/mL PA in buffer and spiked naïve rabbit sera, respectively, and was successfully implemented in sera of anthrax-infected rabbits. To summarize, this study demonstrates that AlphaLISA enables detection of anthrax spores and toxin, utilizing short homogeneous assays. Moreover, it is shown for the first time that this technology facilitates the detection of particulate entities and might be suitable for the detection of other bacteria or viruses.

  19. Pharmacological activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reduces statin-mediated upregulation of FOXO gene targets and protects against statin myopathy in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Joanne E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Glaves, Philip D; Martin, Elizabeth A; Davies, Wendy J; Westwood, F Russell; Sidaway, James E; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2012-12-15

    We previously reported that statin myopathy is associated with impaired carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in fast-twitch rodent skeletal muscle, which we hypothesised occurred as a result of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) gene transcription. Upregulation of FOXO gene targets known to regulate proteasomal and lysosomal muscle protein breakdown was also evident. We hypothesised that increasing CHO oxidation in vivo, using the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), would blunt activation of FOXO gene targets and reduce statin myopathy. Female Wistar Hanover rats were dosed daily for 12 days (oral gavage) with either vehicle (control, 0.5% w/v hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose 0.1% w/v polysorbate-80; n = 9), 88 mg( )kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin (n = 8), 88 mg( )kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin + 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DCA (n = 9) or 88 mg kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin + 40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DCA (n = 9). Compared with control, simvastatin reduced body mass gain and food intake, increased muscle fibre necrosis, plasma creatine kinase levels, muscle PDK4, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and cathepsin-L mRNA expression, increased PDK4 protein expression, and proteasome and cathepsin-L activity, and reduced muscle PDC activity. Simvastatin with DCA maintained body mass gain and food intake, abrogated the myopathy, decreased muscle PDK4 mRNA and protein, MAFbx and cathepsin-L mRNA, increased activity of PDC and reduced proteasome activity compared with simvastatin. PDC activation abolished statin myopathy in rodent skeletal muscle, which occurred at least in part via inhibition of FOXO-mediated transcription of genes regulating muscle CHO utilisation and protein breakdown.

  20. The Bordetella pertussis Type III Secretion System Tip Complex Protein Bsp22 Is Not a Protective Antigen and Fails To Elicit Serum Antibody Responses during Infection of Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarino Romero, Rodrigo; Bibova, Ilona; Cerny, Ondrej; Vecerek, Branislav; Wald, Tomas; Benada, Oldrich; Zavadilova, Jana; Sebo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bordetellae employs a self-associating tip complex protein Bsp22. This protein is immunogenic during infections by Bordetella bronchiseptica and could be used as a protective antigen to immunize mice against B. bronchiseptica challenge. Since low-passage clinical isolates of the human pathogen Bordetella pertussis produce a highly homologous Bsp22 protein (97% homology), we examined its vaccine and diagnostic potential. No Bsp22-specific antibodies were, however, detected in serum samples from 36 patients with clinically and serologically confirmed whooping cough disease (pertussis syndrome). Moreover, although the induction of Bsp22 secretion by the laboratory-adapted 18323 strain in the course of mice lung infection was observed, the B. pertussis 18323-infected mice did not mount any detectable serum antibody response against Bsp22. Furthermore, immunization with recombinant Bsp22 protein yielded induction of high Bsp22-specific serum antibody titers but did not protect mice against an intranasal challenge with B. pertussis 18323. Unlike for B. bronchiseptica, hence, the Bsp22 protein is nonimmunogenic, and/or the serum antibody response to it is suppressed, during B. pertussis infections of humans and mice. PMID:23690400

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 from sampling locations in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this monitoring data evaluation report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 -- General Environmental Protection Program -- that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater in areas that are, or could be, impacted by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants from Y-12 facilities are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  2. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex class I and class II alleles may confer susceptibility to or protection against morphea: findings from the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort.

    PubMed

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank C; Reveille, John D

    2014-11-01

    To determine the HLA class I and class II alleles of the human major histocompatibility complex showing an association with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort, using a nested case-control association study. Patients with morphea were identified from the MAC cohort, and matched controls were obtained from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and from the Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA class II genotyping and single-strand conformational polymorphism typing were performed to identify HLA-A, B, and C alleles. Associations between HLA class I and class II alleles and morphea, as well as its subphenotypes, were determined. Two hundred eleven patients with morphea and 726 matched controls were available for HLA class I typing, and 158 patients with morphea and 1,008 matched controls were available for HLA class II typing. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-4.0, P = 0.002), and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among the class I alleles (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.5, P = 0.001). Comparison of the risk allele profile in this cohort with the risk alleles previously identified in patients with systemic sclerosis, determined using the same methods and same control population, revealed one allele in common, DRB*04:04. These results demonstrate that specific HLA class I and class II alleles are associated with morphea and are also likely to be associated with generalized and linear subtypes of morphea. The morphea-associated alleles are different from those found in scleroderma, suggesting that morphea is immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population-based studies have

  4. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the sections. Supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B.

  6. An Important Role for Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Restricted T Cells, and a Limited Role for Gamma Interferon, in Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Holterman, Ai-Xuan; Rogers, Kathleen; Edelmann, Kurt; Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence; Wilson, Christopher B.

    1999-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) inhibits major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in infected cells and does so much more efficiently in human cells than in murine cells. Given this difference, if MHC class I-restricted T cells do not play an important role in protection of mice from HSV, an important role for these cells in humans would be unlikely. However, the contribution of MHC class I-restricted T cells to the control of HSV infection in mice remains unclear. Further, the mechanisms by which these cells may act to control infection, particularly in the nervous system, are not well understood, though a role for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) has been proposed. To address the roles of MHC class I and of IFN-γ, C57BL/6 mice deficient in MHC class I expression (β2 microglobulin knockout [β2KO] mice), in IFN-γ expression (IFN-γKO mice), or in both (IFN-γKO/β2KO mice) were infected with HSV by footpad inoculation. β2KO mice were markedly compromised in their ability to control infection, as indicated by increased lethality and higher concentrations of virus in the feet and spinal ganglia. In contrast, IFN-γ appeared to play at most a limited role in viral clearance. The results suggest that MHC class I-restricted T cells play an important role in protection of mice against neuroinvasive HSV infection and do so largely by mechanisms other than the production of IFN-γ. PMID:9971787

  7. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  8. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  9. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An airplane's wingtip tank is being struck by simulated lightning in a test conducted by Lightning Technologies, Inc., a firm specializing in design features to protect aircraft from the hazard of electrical phenomena. Much of the technology employed in tests originated in NASA - sponsored studies focusing on effects of lightning on aircraft structures, electrical systems, and fuel tanks, and on means of protecting against hazardous effects.

  10. Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in the investment effort, concave, convex, logistic, can increase incrementally, or can be subject to budget constraints. Contest success functions (e.g., ratio and difference forms) determine the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the relative investments of the defender and attackers on each target, and on characteristics of the contest. Targets can be in parallel, in series, interlinked, interdependent or independent. The defender minimises the expected damage plus the defence expenditures. Each attacker maximises the expected damage minus the attack expenditures. The number of free choice variables equals the number of agents times the number of targets, or lower if there are budget constraints. Each agent is interested in how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Alternative optimisation programmes are discussed, together with repeated games, dynamic games and incomplete information. An example is provided for illustration.

  11. Probing the topography of the photosystem II oxygen evolving complex: PsbO is required for efficient calcium protection of the manganese cluster against dark-inhibition by an artificial reductant.

    PubMed

    Popelkova, Hana; Boswell, Nicholas; Yocum, Charles

    2011-12-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) manganese-stabilizing protein (PsbO) is known to be the essential PSII extrinsic subunit for stabilization and retention of the Mn and Cl(-) cofactors in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of PSII, but its function relative to Ca(2+) is less clear. To obtain a better insight into the relationship, if any, between PsbO and Ca(2+) binding in the OEC, samples with altered PsbO-PSII binding properties were probed for their potential to promote the ability of Ca(2+) to protect the Mn cluster against dark-inhibition by an exogenous artificial reductant, N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine. In the absence of the PsbP and PsbQ extrinsic subunits, Ca(2+) and its surrogates (Sr(2+), Cd(2+)) shield Mn atoms from inhibitory reduction (Kuntzleman et al., Phys Chem Chem Phys 6:4897, 2004). The results presented here show that PsbO exhibits a positive effect on Ca(2+) binding in the OEC by facilitating the ability of the metal to prevent inhibition of activity by the reductant. The data presented here suggest that PsbO may have a role in the formation of the OEC-associated Ca(2+) binding site by promoting the equilibrium between bound and free Ca(2+) that favors the bound metal.

  12. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  13. Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  14. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  15. Structures protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

  16. Ozone Layer Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to EPA's ozone layer protection web ...

  17. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  18. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  19. Sirt1 regulates glial progenitor proliferation and regeneration in white matter after neonatal brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Jablonska, Beata; Gierdalski, Marcin; Chew, Li-Jin; Hawley, Teresa; Catron, Mackenzie; Lichauco, Arturo; Cabrera-Luque, Juan; Yuen, Tracy; Rowitch, David; Gallo, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative processes in brain pathologies require the production of distinct neural cell populations from endogenous progenitor cells. We have previously demonstrated that oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation is crucial for oligodendrocyte (OL) regeneration in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia (HX) that reproduces diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) of premature infants. Here we identify the histone deacetylase Sirt1 as a Cdk2 regulator in OPC proliferation and response to HX. HX enhances Sirt1 and Sirt1/Cdk2 complex formation through HIF1α activation. Sirt1 deacetylates retinoblastoma (Rb) in the Rb/E2F1 complex, leading to dissociation of E2F1 and enhanced OPC proliferation. Sirt1 knockdown in culture and its targeted ablation in vivo suppresses basal and HX-induced OPC proliferation. Inhibition of Sirt1 also promotes OPC differentiation after HX. Our results indicate that Sirt1 is an essential regulator of OPC proliferation and OL regeneration after neonatal brain injury. Therefore, enhancing Sirt1 activity may promote OL recovery after DWMI. PMID:27991597

  20. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  1. Protecting Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  2. Integrative Analysis Reveals the Transcriptional Collaboration between EZH2 and E2F1 in the Regulation of Cancer-Related Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Xu, Kexin; He, Housheng H; Zang, Chongzhi; Chen, Chen-Hao; Chen, Yiwen; Qin, Qian; Wang, Su; Wang, Chenfei; Hu, Shengen; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry; Brown, Myles; Liu, X Shirley

    2016-02-01

    Overexpression of EZH2 is frequently linked to the advanced and metastatic stage of cancers. The mechanisms of its oncogenic function can be context specific, and may vary depending on the protein complexes that EZH2 interacts with. To identify novel transcriptional collaborators of EZH2 in cancers, a computational approach was developed that integrates protein-DNA binding data, cell perturbation gene expression data, and compendiums of tumor expression profiles. This holistic approach identified E2F1, a known mediator of the Rb tumor suppressor, as a transcriptional collaborator of EZH2 in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Subsequent analysis and experimental validation found EZH2 and E2F1 cobind to a subset of chromatin sites lacking H3K27 trimethylation, and activate genes that are critical for prostate cancer progression. The collaboration of EZH2 and E2F1 in transcriptional regulation is also observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines, where activation of the transcriptional network is concordant with the cellular response to the EZH2 inhibitor. The direct collaboration between EZH2 and Rb/E2F1 pathway provides an innovative mechanism underlying the cascade of tumor progression, and lays the foundation for the development of new anticancer targets/strategies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Integrative Analysis Reveals the Transcriptional Collaboration between EZH2 and E2F1 in the Regulation of Cancer-related Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    He, Housheng H.; Zang, Chongzhi; Chen, Chen-Hao; Chen, Yiwen; Qin, Qian; Wang, Su; Wang, Chenfei; Hu, Shengen; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry; Brown, Myles; Liu, X. Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of EZH2 is frequently linked to the advanced and metastatic stage of cancers. The mechanisms of its oncogenic function can be context specific, and may vary depending on the protein complexes that EZH2 interacts with. To identify novel transcriptional collaborators of EZH2 in cancers, a computational approach was developed that integrates protein-DNA binding data, cell perturbation gene expression data, and compendiums of tumor expression profiles. This holistic approach identified E2F1, a known mediator of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor, as a transcriptional collaborator of EZH2 in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Subsequent analysis and experimental validation found EZH2 and E2F1 co-bind to a subset of chromatin sites lacking H3K27 trimethylation, and activate genes that are critical for prostate cancer progression. The collaboration of EZH2 and E2F1 in transcriptional regulation is also observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines, where activation of the transcriptional network is concordant with the cellular response to the EZH2 inhibitor. Implications The direct collaboration between EZH2 and Rb/E2F1 pathway provides an innovative mechanism underlying the cascade of tumor progression, and lays the foundation for the development of new anticancer targets/strategies. PMID:26659825

  4. Uncovering the role of APC-Cdh1 in generating the dynamics of S-phase onset.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xi; Srividhya, Jeyaraman; De Luca, Thomas; Lee, Ju-Hyong E; Pomerening, Joseph R

    2014-02-01

    Cdh1, a coactivator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), is a potential tumor suppressor. Cdh1 ablation promotes precocious S-phase entry, but it was unclear how this affects DNA replication dynamics while contributing to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. We find that Cdh1 depletion causes early S-phase onset in conjunction with increase in Rb/E2F1-mediated cyclin E1 expression, but reduced levels of cyclin E1 protein promote this transition. We hypothesize that this is due to a weakened cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI)-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 positive-feedback loop, normally generated by APC-Cdh1-mediated proteolysis of Skp2. Indeed, Cdh1 depletion increases Skp2 abundance while diminishing levels of the CKI p27. This lowers the level of cyclin E1 needed for S-phase entry and delays cyclin E1 proteolysis during S-phase progression while corresponding to slowed replication fork movement and reduced frequency of termination events. In summary, using both experimental and computational approaches, we show that APC-Cdh1 establishes a stimulus-response relationship that promotes S phase by ensuring that proper levels of p27 accumulate during G1 phase, and defects in its activation accelerate the timing of S-phase onset while prolonging its progression.

  5. Cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pfalser, I.L.; Brannan, M.S.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a cathodic protection system for protecting a metallic structure in contact with the earth from corrosion. It comprises at least one electrically conductive member positioned in a borehole in the earth which is defined by an earthen sidewall: a quantity of a particulate mixture of a clay and a carbonaceous solid which at least partially fills the borehole around the at least one conductive member such that the mixture contacts the earthen sidewall and the at least one conductive member, wherein the mixture has a clay to carbonaceous solid weight ratio of at least about 0.1:1; means for applying a DC electrical voltage to the metallic structure and the at least one conductive member such that the metallic structure is at a negative polarity and the at least one conductive member is at a positive polarity, whereby a current is established between the metallic structure and the at least one conductive member through the earth and the mixture.

  6. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  7. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Treesearch

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  8. A small peptide (CEL-1000) derived from the beta-chain of the human major histocompatibility complex class II molecule induces complete protection against malaria in an antigen-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Charoenvit, Yupin; Brice, Gary T; Bacon, David; Majam, Victoria; Williams, Jackie; Abot, Esteban; Ganeshan, Harini; Sedegah, Martha; Doolan, Denise L; Carucci, Daniel J; Zimmerman, Daniel H

    2004-07-01

    CEL-1000 (DGQEEKAGVVSTGLIGGG) is a novel potential preventative and therapeutic agent. We report that CEL-1000 confers a high degree of protection against Plasmodium sporozoite challenge in a murine model of malaria, as shown by the total absence of blood stage infection following challenge with 100 sporozoites (100% protection) and by a substantial reduction (400-fold) of liver stage parasite RNA following challenge with 50,000 sporozoites. CEL-1000 protection was demonstrated in A/J (H-2(a)) and C3H/HeJ (H-2(k)) mice but not in BALB/c (H-2(d)) or CAF1 (A/J x BALB/c F(1) hybrid) mice. In CEL-1000-treated and protected mice, high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in serum and elevated frequencies of hepatic and splenic CD4+ IFN-gamma-positive T cells were detected 24 h after administration of an additional dose of CEL-1000. Treatment of A/J mice that received CEL-1000 with antibodies against IFN-gamma just prior to challenge abolished the protection, and a similar treatment with antibodies against CD4+ T cells partially reduced the level of protection, while treatment with control antibodies or antibodies specific for interleukin-12 (IL-12), CD8+ T cells, or NK cells had no effect. Our data establish that the protection induced by CEL-1000 is dependent on IFN-gamma and is partially dependent on CD4+ T cells but is independent of CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and IL-12 at the effector phase and does not induce a detectable antibody response.

  9. Manifolds and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

    During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

  10. Protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry: influence on stereoselectivity of glycosylations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2010-10-20

    Saccharides are polyhydroxy compounds, and their synthesis requires complex protecting group manipulations. Protecting groups are usually used to temporarily mask a functional group which may interfere with a certain reaction, but protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry do more than protecting groups usually do. Particularly, protecting groups can participate in reactions directly or indirectly, thus affecting the stereochemical outcomes, which is important for synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in protecting groups influencing stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions, including participating protecting groups, and conformation-constraining protecting groups in general.

  11. Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...

  12. A Small Peptide (CEL-1000) Derived from the Beta-Chain of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule Induces Complete Protection Against Malaria in an Antigen-Independent Manner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    mice by conjugates of HGP -30 (peptide analog of HIV-1SF2 p17) and peptide seg- ments of human -2-microglobulin or MHC II chain. Vaccine 19:4750– 4759. VOL. 48, 2004 CEL-1000-INDUCED PROTECTION AGAINST MALARIA 2463

  13. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-06

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption.

  14. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lukavsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    The physical protection in Czechoslovakia/CSSR is understood as one of the basic conditions for the safe utilization of nuclear energy. From this point of view, the physical protection measures are part of the nuclear safety requirements. The Nuclear Safety law is the basic legal document for the physical protection area. In CSSR a very tight connection between the physical protection system and the State System of Accountancy for and Control of Nulcear Material/SSAC is also established. Combining regulatory activities in the field of nuclear safety, accountancy for and control of nuclear materials and physical protection into one complex system enables the minimization of unauthorized removal of nuclear material. This minimizes the possibility of sabotage and also implements effective protection against both inside and external threats. The physical protection is a very important complementary measure to the other ones which assure low risks from the technical and human failures.

  15. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  16. Tick-borne Langat/mosquito-borne dengue flavivirus chimera, a candidate live attenuated vaccine for protection against disease caused by members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex: evaluation in rhesus monkeys and in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Pletnev, A G; Bray, M; Hanley, K A; Speicher, J; Elkins, R

    2001-09-01

    Langat virus (LGT), strain TP21, a naturally avirulent tick-borne flavivirus, was used to construct a chimeric candidate virus vaccine which contained LGT genes for premembrane (preM) and envelope (E) glycoprotein and all other sequences derived from dengue type 4 virus (DEN4). The live virus vaccine was developed to provide resistance to the highly virulent, closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that share protective E epitopes among themselves and with LGT. Toward that end the chimera, initially recovered in mosquito cells, was adapted to grow to high titer in qualified simian Vero cells. When inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.), the Vero cell-adapted LGT TP21/DEN4 chimera remained completely attenuated for SCID mice. Significantly, the chimera protected immunocompetent mice against the most virulent tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Subsequently, rhesus monkeys were immunized in groups of 4 with 10(5) or 10(7) PFU of LGT strain TP21, with 10(5) PFU of DEN4, or with 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) PFU of the chimera. Each of the monkeys inoculated with DEN4 or LGT TP21 became viremic, and the duration of viremia ranged from 1 to 5 days. In contrast, viremia was detected in only 1 of 12 monkeys inoculated with the LGT TP21/DEN4 chimera; in this instance the level of viremia was at the limit of detection. All monkeys immunized with the chimera or LGT TP21 virus developed a moderate to high level of neutralizing antibodies against LGT TP21 as well as TBEV and were completely protected against subsequent LGT TP21 challenge, whereas monkeys previously immunized with DEN4 virus became viremic when challenged with LGT TP21. These observations suggest that the chimera is attenuated, immunogenic, and able to induce a protective immune response. Furthermore, passive transfer of serum from monkeys immunized with chimera conferred significant protection to mice subsequently challenged with 100 i.p. 50% lethal doses of the highly virulent TBEV. The issue of transmissibility of

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; Hamza, Reham Z; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-25

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and (1)H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M(2+)-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]⋅nH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram+ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and 1H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M2+-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram - ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram + ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  19. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  20. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  1. Cytoplasmic Viral Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    den Boon, Johan A.; Diaz, Arturo; Ahlquist, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm compartmentalize their genome replication and transcription in organelle-like structures that enhance replication efficiency and protection from host defenses. In particular, recent studies with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses have further elucidated the ultrastructure of membrane-bounded RNA replication complexes and their close coordination with virion assembly and budding. The structure, function and assembly of some positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes have parallels and potential evolutionary links with the replicative cores of double-strand RNA virus and retrovirus virions, and more general similarities with the replication factories of cytoplasmic DNA viruses. PMID:20638644

  2. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  3. Source Water Protection Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  4. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  5. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  6. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  7. Developing A Radiation Protection Hub.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Nolan E

    2017-02-01

    The Where are the Radiation Professionals (WARP)? statement issued by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements estimates that in 10 y, there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low-volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic, and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education, and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore, the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs, and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational, and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national laboratories, 4-y degree institutions, technical colleges, and other partners.

  8. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-03-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, {open_quotes}what to protect against whom.{close_quotes} The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given.

  9. Chiral N,N'-Dioxide-Scandium(III) Complex-Catalyzed Asymmetric Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reaction of ortho-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohols with C3-Substituted N-Protected Indoles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianfeng; Lin, Lili; Dai, Li; Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2016-12-12

    The first Lewis acid catalyzed asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of ortho-hydroxybenzyl alcohols with C3-substituted indoles is described. A chiral N,N'-dioxide Sc(OTf)3 complex served not only to promote formation of ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) in situ but also induced the asymmetry of the reaction. This methodology enables a novel activation of ortho-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, thus affording the desired chiral diarylindol-2-ylmethanes in up to 99 % yield and 99 % ee. A range of functional groups were also tolerated under the mild reaction conditions. Moreover, this strategy gives concise access to enantioenriched indole-fused benzoxocines.

  10. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complexes. 721.8657 Section 721.8657 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance..., hydroxy oleate propionate complexes (PMN P-99-0026) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  16. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively.

  17. Anti-hyperglycemic Effect of Long-Term Bis(hinokitiolato)zinc Complex ([Zn(hkt)2]) Ingestion on Insulin Resistance and Pancreatic Islet Cells Protection in Type 2 Diabetic KK-A(y) Mice.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Shintani, Michiko; Kamoshida, Shingo; Kajiwara, Naemi; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a trace element with anti-diabetes mellitus (anti-DM) effects. Zn complexes exhibit stronger insulin-like activity than Zn ions. Bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex ([Zn(hkt)2]) was recently reported to be a potent anti-DM candidate. We examined the effects of [Zn(hkt)2] on insulin resistance and pancreatic islet cells through in vivo long-term ingestion studies. In an in vivo study, we performed 4-month long-term [Zn(hkt)2] administration experiments in KK-A(y) mice as a type 2 DM animal model. Ingestion of [Zn(hkt)2] resulted in lower blood glucose levels compared with the non-treated KK-A(y) mice (control group). Additionally, [Zn(hkt)2] treatment decreased plasma insulin concentration compared with that of the non-treated KK-A(y) group. [Zn(hkt)2] treatment resulted in a significant suppression of islet cell enlargement and a significantly decreased number of insulin-positive cells compared with the non-treated KK-A(y) control group. The [Zn(hkt)2] treatment group showed the increasing tendency in the amount of Zn levels in peripheral organs; liver, muscle, adipose, and pancreas, compared with the non-treated KK-A(y) control group. However, the Zn level in the pancreas of the [Zn(hkt)2] treatment group did not show the significant increase compared with the non-treated KK-A(y) control group. This accumulation of Zn in pancreas suggested that [Zn(hkt)2] mainly effects on the peripheral tissue, and [Zn(hkt)2] has the less effect on the pancreas directly. Thus, we concluded that [Zn(hkt)2] exerted the main effect on peripheral organs by ameliorating insulin resistance.

  18. Complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  19. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  20. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  1. Developing a Radiation Protection Hub

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, Nolan E

    2017-01-01

    The WARP report issued by the NCRP study committee estimates that in ten years there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national labs, four-year degree institutes, technical colleges and other partners.

  2. Protecting human subjects in research.

    PubMed

    Orticio, Lily P

    2009-01-01

    The quest for advancing scientific knowledge through human experimentations using vulnerable groups is traced back to ancient history, when Herophilus performed vivisections on prisoners. The violation of the rights of human subjects through the 20th century led to the formulation of the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. In the United States, the most infamous was the Tuskegee public health study that resulted in the enactment of the National Research Act that authorized the creation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1974. In spite of existing federal regulations, the system of protecting human subjects is still flawed. Transparency of conflict ofinterest, clarity, and strict adherence to institutional guidelines are critical in safeguarding the rights and safety of human subjects and the integrity of research. Education on ethics and emerging complex ethical issues, global awareness, and governmental cooperation and sanctions are important steps in addressing the inadequacies in protecting the most vulnerable populations in experimentations worldwide. Investigators must always remember that the primary safeguards of protecting human life rest in their hands.

  3. [Radiation protection in interventional cardiology].

    PubMed

    Durán, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    INTERVENTIONAL: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  5. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000447.htm Personal protective equipment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personal protective equipment is special equipment you wear to create a ...

  6. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 46

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  7. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  8. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  9. Children and sun protection.

    PubMed

    Berneburg, M; Surber, C

    2009-11-01

    Sun protection is a central measure to avoid the development of skin cancer and premature aging of the skin. In this context skin protection of children is of particular relevance since children spend a lot of time outdoors and they cannot provide themselves with sun protection measures as adults can. In addition to this sunburn reactions in childhood are particularly important in the development of melanoma skin cancer. This special situation of children with regards to sun protection has not only become aware to dermatologists but also to politicians, which is why a recent recommendation of the European Union explicitly points out the necessity of stringent sun protection of children. This review summarizes the current knowledge about sun protection of children. Underlying mechanisms of skin carcinogenesis in children, available sun protection measures as well as practical advice on daily sun protection of children are discussed.

  10. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  11. An oral versus intranasal prime/boost regimen using attenuated human rotavirus or VP2 and VP6 virus-like particles with immunostimulating complexes influences protection and antibody-secreting cell responses to rotavirus in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marli S P; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Yuan, Lijuan; Jeong, Kwang-Il; Iosef, Cristiana; Van Nguyen, Trang; Lovgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Morein, Bror; Saif, Linda J

    2010-03-01

    We determined the impact of mucosal prime/boost regimens and vaccine type (attenuated Wa human rotavirus [AttHRV] or nonreplicating Wa 2/6 rotavirus-like particles [VLP]) on protection and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses to HRV in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model. Comparisons of delivery routes for AttHRV and evaluation of nonreplicating VLP vaccines are important as alternative vaccine approaches to overcome risks associated with live oral vaccines. Groups of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs were vaccinated using combinations of oral (PO) and intranasal (IN) inoculation routes as follows: (i) 3 oral doses of AttHRV (AttHRV3xPO); (ii) AttHRV3xIN; (iii) AttHRVPO, then 2/6VLP2xIN; (iv) AttHRVIN, then 2/6VLP2xIN; and (v) mock-inoculated controls. Subsets of pigs from each group were challenged with virulent Wa HRV [P1A(8) G1] (4 weeks post-primary inoculation) to assess protection. The AttHRVPO+2/6VLP2xIN pigs had the highest protection rates against virus shedding and diarrhea (71% each); however, these rates did not differ statistically among the vaccine groups, except for the AttHRVIN+2/6VLPIN group, which had a significantly lower protection rate (17%) against diarrhea. The isotype, magnitude, and tissue distribution of ASCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The highest mean numbers of virus-specific IgG and IgA ASCs were observed pre- and postchallenge in both intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues of the AttHRVPO+2/6VLPIN group. Thus, the AttHRVPO+2/6VLPIN vaccine regimen using immunostimulating complexes (ISCOM) and multiple mucosal inductive sites, followed by AttHRV3xPO or IN regimens, were the most effective vaccine regimens, suggesting that either AttHRVPO+2/6VLPIN or AttHRV3xIN may be an alternative approach to AttHRV3xPO for inducing protective immunity against rotavirus diarrhea.

  12. [Watercourses protection and urban planning].

    PubMed

    Munafò, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The work analyses the complex relationships that link urban planning and environmental protection referring, in particular, to watercourses defence. The close interactions existing between development of human activities on territory and the hydrological cycle point out the necessity of a watershed-scale planning. This regional planning, in fact, allows both problems of protection and optimal use of hydrological resources in terms not only of punctual actions, but also of land use. In this context, the fundamental roles played by geographical and environmental information systems are shown and analysed with special regard to their importance in fostering citizens participation in decisional processes by means of an easier access to environmental data and information available to public authorities.

  13. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by…

  14. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  15. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by…

  16. Protect Children, Protect Our Future (2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    tips to avoid risks from environmental exposure at home, school, and at play. importance of promoting policies, scientific knowledge, diagnosis and treatment, education, and global efforts in protecting children.

  17. The role of terminal amino group and histidine at the fourth position in the metal ion binding of oligopeptides revisited: Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-histamine and its N-Boc protected derivative.

    PubMed

    Jancsó, Attila; Selmeczi, Katalin; Gizzi, Patrick; Nagy, Nóra V; Gajda, Tamás; Henry, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) binding properties of two pseudo tetrapeptides, N-Boc-Gly-Gly-Gly-Histamine (BGGGHa) and Gly-Gly-Gly-Histamine (GGGHa) have been investigated by pH-potentiometric titrations, UV-visible-, EPR-, NMR- and ESI-HRMS (electrospray ionization high resolution MS) spectroscopies, in order to compare the role of N-terminal amino group and imidazole moiety at the fourth position in the complex formation processes. Substantially higher stabilities were determined for the ML complexes of GGGHa, compared to those of BGGGHa, supporting the coordination of the terminal amino group and the histamine imidazole of the non-protected ligand. A dimeric Cu(2)H(-2)L(2) species, formed through the deprotonation of peptide groups of the ligands, was found in the GGGHa-copper(II) system. Deprotonation and coordination of further amide nitrogens led to CuH(-2)L and, above pH~10, CuH(-3)L. Experimental data supports a {NH(2), 2 × N(amide),N(im)} macrochelate structure in CuH(-2)L whereas a {NH(2), 3 × N(amide)} coordination environment in CuH(-3)L. The first two amide deprotonation processes were found to be strongly cooperative with nickel(II) and spectroscopic studies proved the transformation of the octahedral parent complexes to square planar, yellow, diamagnetic species, NiH(-2)L and above pH~9, NiH(-3)L. In the basic pH-range deprotonation and coordination of the amide groups also took place in the BGGGHa containing systems, leading to complexes with a {3 × N(amide),N(im)} donor set, and in parallel the re-dissolving of precipitate. Above pH~11, a further proton release from the pyrrolic NH group of the imidazole ring of BGGGHa occurred providing an additional proof for the different binding modes of the two ligands.

  18. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  19. Softball Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  20. The mononuclear nickel(II) complex bis(azido-κN)bis[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ(2) N(2) ,N(3) ]nickel(II) protects tomato from Verticillium dahliae by inhibiting fungal growth and activating plant defences.

    PubMed

    Zine, Hanane; Rifai, Lalla Aicha; Koussa, Tayeb; Bentiss, Fouad; Guesmi, Salaheddine; Laachir, Abdelhakim; Makroum, Kacem; Belfaiza, Malika; Faize, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal properties of the nickel(II) complex bis(azido-κN)bis[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ(2) N(2) ,N(3) ]nickel(II) [NiL2 (N3 )2 ] and its parental ligand 2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole were examined to evaluate their ability to protect tomato plants against Verticillium dahliae. Our main objectives were to determine their effects on the in vitro growth of the pathogen, and their aptitude for controlling verticillium wilt and activating plant defence responses in the greenhouse. NiL2 (N3 )2 exhibited in vitro an elevated inhibition of radial growth of three strains of the pathogen. According to the strain, the EC50 values ranged from 10 to 29 µg mL(-1) for NiL2 (N3 )2 . In the greenhouse, it induced an elevated protection against V. dahliae when it was applied twice as foliar sprays at 50 µg mL(-1) . It reduced the leaf alteration index by 85% and vessel browning by 96%. In addition, its protective ability was associated with the accumulation of H2 O2 and the activation of total phenolic content, as well as potentiation of the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. These results demonstrated that the coordination of the ligand with Ni associated with the azide as a coligand resulted in an improvement in its biological activity by both inhibiting the growth of V. dahliae and activating plant defence responses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  2. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  3. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING, THE MOTORPOOL, AND THE AUTOMOTIVE SHOP (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  4. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTORPOOL, AUTOMOTIVE SHOP AND FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  5. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  7. Protected Natural Areas of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solorzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    Protection of natural areas is essential to conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. Benefits and services provided by natural areas are complex, interwoven, life-sustaining, and necessary for a healthy environment and a sustainable future (Daily et al. 1997). They include clean water and air, sustainable wildlife populations and habitats, stable...

  8. Antibodies: Protective, destructive and regulatory role

    SciTech Connect

    Milgrom, F.; Abeyounis, C.J.; Albini, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers under 10 subject headings. The headings are: Production and Function of Antibodies, Protective Role of Antibodies, Antibodies to Foreign and Neoplastic Cells, Autoantibodies, Regulatory Mechanisms, Allergy, Immune Complexes, Antibodies in Pregnancy and Aging, Administration of Antibodies for Prevention and Therapy, and Abstracts of Poster Presentations.

  9. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  10. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  11. National nanotechnology partnership to protect workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    Nanotechnology is predicted to improve many aspects of human life. By 2015, it is estimated to represent 3.1 trillion in manufactured goods. Data is emerging that exposure to nanomaterials may pose a health risk to workers. If the economic promise of nanotechnology is to be achieved, ways need to be found to protect nanotechnology workers now. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct) gave the responsibility to protect workers to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) through research, standards adoption, and standards enforcement. Since 1980, adopting new occupational health standards has grown more complex. The increased complexity has greatly slowed efforts to adopt protective standards for toxic agents that are well-known to pose significant risks. The likelihood of rapidly adopting standards to protect workers from nanomaterials, whose risks are just emerging, seems even more unlikely. Use of the OSHAct's general duty clause to protect workers also seems uncertain at this time. In the interim, a national partnership led by NIOSH involving nanotech manufacturers and downstream users, workers, academic researchers, safety, and health practitioners is proposed. A National Nanotechnology Partnership would generate knowledge about the nature and the extent of worker risk, utilize that knowledge to develop risk control strategies to protect nanotechnology workers now, and provide an evidence base for NIOSH recommendations to OSHA for a nanotechnology program standard at a future date.

  12. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  13. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  14. Protected area management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Prato, Tony; Wang, Yeqiao

    2014-01-01

    Designated protected areas are diverse in scope and purpose and have expanded from Yellowstone National Park in the United States, the world’s first national park, to 157,897 parks and protected areas distributed globally. Most are publicly owned and serve multiple needs that reflect regional or national cultures. With ever-increasing threats to the integrity of protected areas, managers are turning to flexible management practices such as scenario planning and adaptive management.

  15. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  16. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  17. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  18. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  19. Sun protection with hats.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L; Cheeseman, J

    1992-07-01

    The degree of sun protection provided by various styles of hat at different anatomical sites on the head was measured using model headforms and ultraviolet-sensitive film badges. It was found that hats with a small brim, such as the flat cap favoured by elderly male photosensitive patients, provided negligible protection at all sites apart from the vertex and forehead. Peaked baseball-style caps offer good protection to the nose but are relatively ineffective at other sites on the face. Hats with a wide (greater than 7.5 cm) brim are necessary in order to provide reasonable protection factors (greater than 3) around the nose and cheeks.

  20. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  1. Protecting Qutrit Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Rong, Zhenbang; Zou, Xiangfu; Situ, Haozhen; Zhao, Lianghui

    2017-08-01

    High dimensional quantum system plays a vital role in quantum information processing. However, decoherence induced by the coupling between quantum system and environment often destroys quantum resource. In this paper, we study the dynamics and protection of qutrit quantum coherence (QC) under amplitude damping (AD) decoherence. We propose two schemes to protect QC. We find that the first scheme can not always protect QC and the second scheme has prominent advantage over the first scheme. In addition, better protection requires lower success probability (SP).

  2. Direct effects protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Protection of an aircraft and each of its various systems against the direct effects of lightning were analyzed. Components located in different sections of the aircraft were individually examined since they are likely to experience different degrees of susceptibility to lightning, and may be vulnerable to different components of the lightning flash. The basic steps to be followed in establishing lightning protection were presented by discussing the varieties of arc entry and current flow-through damage. The lightning-strike zones and lightning current environments are established, since environmental conditions in the zones are those under which specific protective measures must perform. Airworthiness regulations which apply to lightning protection are cited.

  3. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  4. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-06-30

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively.

  5. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J.; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively. PMID:19549819

  6. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sign-up for our bulletin Protect Children from Climate Change A Story of Health EBook EPA reaffirms its children's health policy Where Children Live, Learn and Play Healthy Homes Program EPA's Healthy School Environments Child care facilities Where you live - EPA's ...

  7. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  8. 4. DETAIL SHOWING PROTECTIVE BLAST WALL AND EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL SHOWING PROTECTIVE BLAST WALL AND EMERGENCY EYE-WASH AND SHOWER AREA; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28405, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. 28. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND EARTH BLAST BERM; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. 29. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND EARTH BLAST BERM; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  12. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  13. Protection and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1964

    1964-01-01

    Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…

  14. Protective Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ganime

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…

  15. Protective Garment Ensemble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Protective garment ensemble with internally-mounted environmental- control unit contains its own air supply. Alternatively, a remote-environmental control unit or an air line is attached at the umbilical quick disconnect. Unit uses liquid air that is vaporized to provide both breathing air and cooling. Totally enclosed garment protects against toxic substances.

  16. Protecting the Crown Jewels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Cecil

    1979-01-01

    The National Park Service seeks to set the standard for environmental protection in the federally-owned lands which it administers. Often pollution from sources outside park boundaries creates adverse impacts within the parks. Innovative approaches and cooperative efforts are then required to protect the parks. (RE)

  17. Protection and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1964

    1964-01-01

    Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…

  18. A Duty to Protect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James

    2009-01-01

    Asylum is a value. At its most basic, it is about the importance of protecting someone's life from persecution. The 1951 Refugee Convention seeks to achieve this--by ensuring that those people with a well-founded fear of persecution should be able to find protection within a state that has signed up to the Convention. The UK's commitments under…

  19. Protection of the Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Explores three potential sources of harrassment from whom the librarian requires protection--patrons, lower-echelon supervisors, and library administrators. Types of protection provided by library associations, the courts, unionization, librarians' professional goals, actions of progressive administrators, collective bargaining, and public and…

  20. TARDEC Occupant Protection Seat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-28

    Office of the Assistant Sec etary of the Army Installations, E ergy and Enviro ment DoD Executive Agent TARDEC Occupant Protection Seat...design worked exactly as intended. No issues were observed with the roller or EA wire. • The ability for this design to provide protection for two

  1. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  2. Protecting the Crown Jewels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Cecil

    1979-01-01

    The National Park Service seeks to set the standard for environmental protection in the federally-owned lands which it administers. Often pollution from sources outside park boundaries creates adverse impacts within the parks. Innovative approaches and cooperative efforts are then required to protect the parks. (RE)

  3. 40 CFR 725.1075 - Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burkholderia cepacia complex. 725.1075 Section 725.1075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Significant New Uses for Specific Microorganisms §...

  4. Protection of multimaterial assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, L. Zheludkevich; Silvar, Kallip; Maria, Serdechnova

    2016-01-01

    The light-weight design calls for broader utilization of multimaterial mixes (M3) in different engineering structures, especially in the transportation area. Together with joining technologies for hybrid structures, the optimization of the life cycle of such systems is an issue of prime importance. Multimaterial structures are often prone to faster degradation under service conditions because of galvanically forced electrochemical corrosion. The protection technologies traditionally used for single-material structures are not always applicable for multimaterial design because of compatibility issues and a stronger thermodynamic driving force for degradation. In this chapter different strategies for protection of multimaterials structures are briefly overviewed. The main focus is on new alternative protection systems based on combination of synergistic inhibiting mixtures introduced into protective coatings. A road map which can be followed in order to create an efficient active protection coating for hybrid structures is suggested.

  5. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation for fruit crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  6. Superconducting magnet protection system for the tokamak physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Joel H.; Chaniotakis, E.; Pillsbury, R. D., Jr.; Wang, P. W.; Citrolo, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Chaplin, M.; Hassenzahl, W. V.

    1994-07-01

    The TPX tokamak must protect 30 superconducting magnets during a complex, pulsed physics scenario. 2.0 MA plasma vertical disruptions will occur at unpredictable intervals. These should not cause quench, but will be difficult to distinguish from quench. A redundant, multiple signal protection system combines conventional voltage taps with signals from cowound conductors, pressure and flow sensors.

  7. Superconducting magnet protection system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.H.; Chaniotakis, E.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.; Wang, P.W.; Citrolo, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Chaplin, M.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1994-07-01

    The TPX tokamak must protect 30 superconducting magnets during a complex, pulsed physics scenario. 2.0 MA plasma vertical disruptions will occur at unpredictable intervals. These should not cause quench, but will be difficult to distinguish from quench. A redundant, multiple signal protection system combines conventional voltage taps with signals from cowound conductors, pressure and flow sensors.

  8. MicroRNA-155 controls RB phosphorylation in normal and malignant B lymphocytes via the noncanonical TGF-β1/SMAD5 signaling module.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Daifeng; Aguiar, Ricardo C T

    2014-01-02

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) plays pleiotropic roles in the biology of normal and malignant B lymphocytes, including the modulation of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway via the targeting of SMAD5. However, the extent of the miR-155-mediated disruption of the TGF-β1/SMAD5 axis remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we used the miR-155 knockout (KO) mouse and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines ectopically expressing miR-155. In the DLBCL models, expression of miR-155 blocked TGF-β1-mediated activation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), decreasing the abundance of the inhibitory pRB-E2F1 complex and limiting G0/G1 arrest. Genetic knockdown of SMAD5, p15, or p21 recapitulated these effects, establishing a circuitry whereby the targeting of SMAD5 by miR-155 blunts the TGF-β1-induced transcription of p15 and p21, thus sustaining RB phosphorylation and inactivity. Next, we demonstrated that SMAD5 levels are elevated in mature B lymphocytes from the miR-155 KO mice, which display a heightened sensitivity to TGF-β1 characterized by suppression of RB phosphorylation and more pronounced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Our findings suggest that a miR-155-mediated perturbation of the RB/E2F axis may play a role in DLBCL pathogenesis, and contribute to the reduced number of germinal center B cells and impaired T cell-dependent antibody response found in the miR-155 KO mice.

  9. An EBV recombinant deleted for residues 130-159 in EBNA3C can deregulate p53/Mdm2 and Cyclin D1/CDK6 which results in apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    El-Naccache, Darine W.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gamma herpes virus is associated with B-cell malignancies. EBNA-3C is critical for in vitro primary B-cell transformation. Interestingly, the N terminal domain of EBNA3C which contains residues 130–159, interacts with various cellular proteins, such as p53, Mdm2, CyclinD1/Cdk6 complex, and E2F1. In the current reverse genetics study, we deleted the residues 130-159 aa within EBNA3C open reading frame (ORF) by BACmid recombinant engineering methodology. Our experiments demonstrated that deletion of the 130-159 aa showed a reduction in cell proliferation. Also, this recombinant virus showed with higher infectivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to wild type EBV. PBMCs- infected with recombinant EBV deleted for 130-159 residues have differential expression patterns for the p53/Mdm2, CyclinD1/Cdk6 and pRb/E2F1 pathways compared to wild type EBV-infected PBMCs. PBMCs infected with recombinant virus showed increased apoptotic cell death which further resulted in activation of polymerase 1 (PARP1), an important contributor to apoptotic signaling. Interestingly, cells infected with this recombinant virus showed a dramatic decrease in chromosomal instability, indicated by the presence of increased multinucleation and micronucleation. In addition infection with recombinant virus have increased cells in G0/G1 phase and decreased cells in S-G2M phase when compared to wild type infected cells. Thus, these differences in signaling activities due to 29 amino acid residues of EBNA3C is of particular significance in deregulation of cell proliferation in EBV-infected cells. PMID:26908453

  10. Consumer Protection in HE: Complacency and Complaints, Compliance and Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that a Higher Education Bill will be lacking in the future, as promised in the 2011 White Paper on HE; and hence the regulatory framework for English HE will, for the immediate future at least, have to evolve within the law as it is rather than via new legal powers. The essential issue is how to extract the benefits of market…

  11. Consumer Protection in HE: Complacency and Complaints, Compliance and Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that a Higher Education Bill will be lacking in the future, as promised in the 2011 White Paper on HE; and hence the regulatory framework for English HE will, for the immediate future at least, have to evolve within the law as it is rather than via new legal powers. The essential issue is how to extract the benefits of market…

  12. The REST remodeling complex protects genomic integrity during embryonic neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nechiporuk, Tamilla; McGann, James; Mullendorff, Karin; Hsieh, Jenny; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas; Mandel, Gail

    2016-01-01

    The timely transition from neural progenitor to post-mitotic neuron requires down-regulation and loss of the neuronal transcriptional repressor, REST. Here, we have used mice containing a gene trap in the Rest gene, eliminating transcription from all coding exons, to remove REST prematurely from neural progenitors. We find that catastrophic DNA damage occurs during S-phase of the cell cycle, with long-term consequences including abnormal chromosome separation, apoptosis, and smaller brains. Persistent effects are evident by latent appearance of proneural glioblastoma in adult mice deleted additionally for the tumor suppressor p53 protein (p53). A previous line of mice deleted for REST in progenitors by conventional gene targeting does not exhibit these phenotypes, likely due to a remaining C-terminal peptide that still binds chromatin and recruits co-repressors. Our results suggest that REST-mediated chromatin remodeling is required in neural progenitors for proper S-phase dynamics, as part of its well-established role in repressing neuronal genes until terminal differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09584.001 PMID:26745185

  13. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  14. Semiconductor surface protection material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  15. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  16. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  17. Protected areas and poverty.

    PubMed

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice.

  18. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  19. [Brain protection by anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoto

    2006-05-01

    Many investigators have attempted to protect the brain against ischemia by reducing the cerebral metabolic rate using anesthetic agents. However, the magnitude of suppression of the cerebral metabolic rate does not correlate with neuroprotective effects of anesthetics, suggesting that other factors besides reduction in the cerebral metabolic rate contribute to the protection. Facilitation of protein synthesis, GABAergic activity, and anti-oxidant action are likely factors responsible for beneficial effects of barbiturates and propofol. Although the brain is protected during anesthesia, anesthetics cannot provide effects sufficiently enough to recover damage caused by severe ischemia. Further, no desired outcome has been reported by treatments after ischemic events.

  20. Ethics and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  1. Telomeres: protecting chromosomes against genome instability

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Karlseder, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Preface The natural ends of linear chromosomes require unique genetic and structural adaptations to facilitate the protection of genetic material. This is achieved by the sequestration of the telomeric sequence into a protective nucleoprotein cap that masks the ends from constitutive exposure to the DNA damage response (DDR). When telomeres are unmasked, genome instability arises. Balancing capping requirements with telomere replication and the enzymatic processing steps obligatory for telomere function is a complex problem. Telomeric proteins and their interacting factors create an environment at chromosome ends that inhibits DNA repair there, however, the repair machinery is essential for proper telomere function. PMID:20125188

  2. Pollinator Protection Strategic Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Developed by EPA, this ensures that pesticide risk assessments and risk management decisions use best available information and scientific methods, and full evaluation of pollinator protection when making registration decisions.

  3. [Hunting and animal protection].

    PubMed

    Herling, A W

    1993-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the handling of animals during hunting is governed more by the animal protection law than by the corresponding hunting law. Points of the animal protection law which directly affect hunting are (1) the release of wild animals, (2) the training and examination of animals concerning attacking other animals, (3) the setting of animals on other animals, and (4) the killing of vertebrates. Guiding principles for killing wild animals during hunting according to the animal protection law are formulated and discussed in relation to the traditional German understanding of hunting ethics. It can be expected that hunting will increasingly become a topic of public discussion on animal protection, in which the ethics of hunting in relation to the wild animal will be dominant.

  4. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  5. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  6. Protect Yourself: Respirators

    MedlinePlus

    ... worn whenever you are working in a hazardous atmosphere. The appropriate respi- rator will depend on the ... must not be used to protect from hazardous atmospheres. However, they may be useful in providing comfort ...

  7. Wired for Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)

  8. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  9. Oxidation Protection for Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1984-01-01

    Thin platinum film on thermocouple sheath protects non-noble-metal thermocouples from deterioration in oxygen-rich atmosphere. Coating works on nickel-alloy sheathed thermocouples otherwise destroyed by corrosion in pure oxygen at 1,000 degrees C.

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  11. Protection without Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Ricardo A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a Third World approach to transborder data flow. Suggests developing local capacities for computer power, confining data flow within borders, and providing protection for local development efforts. (PD)

  12. Flooding: Prioritizing protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    With climate change, urban development and economic growth, more assets and infrastructures will be exposed to flooding. Now research shows that investments in flood protection are globally beneficial, but have varied levels of benefit locally.

  13. Wired for Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)

  14. Protection without Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Ricardo A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a Third World approach to transborder data flow. Suggests developing local capacities for computer power, confining data flow within borders, and providing protection for local development efforts. (PD)

  15. Personal Protective Equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response personnel must wear the appropriate level of protection whenever near a hazardous release site. Level A is for the greatest exposure potential, and D is the minimum level. Examples range from totally encapsulated suits to hard hats.

  16. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  17. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  18. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  20. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  1. Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses techniques for protecting against faults in spacecraft designed and operated by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The paper addresses, more specifically, fault-protection requirements and techniques common to most JPL spacecraft (in contradistinction to unique, mission specific techniques), standard practices in the implementation of these techniques, and fault-protection software architectures. Common requirements include those to protect onboard command, data-processing, and control computers; protect against loss of Earth/spacecraft radio communication; maintain safe temperatures; and recover from power overloads. The paper describes fault-protection techniques as part of a fault-management strategy that also includes functional redundancy, redundant hardware, and autonomous monitoring of (1) the operational and health statuses of spacecraft components, (2) temperatures inside and outside the spacecraft, and (3) allocation of power. The strategy also provides for preprogrammed automated responses to anomalous conditions. In addition, the software running in almost every JPL spacecraft incorporates a general-purpose "Safe Mode" response algorithm that configures the spacecraft in a lower-power state that is safe and predictable, thereby facilitating diagnosis of more complex faults by a team of human experts on Earth.

  2. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  3. Lightweight Protective Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed garment material protects wearer from poisonous chemicals, bacteria, and radioactive particulates. Garment allows heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide to pass from inside to outside so wearer remains comfortable. Garment made of cotton fabric on which thin layer of polyacrylate rubber is deposited by calendering or spraying. Lighter and cooler than existing protective garments. Polyacrylate rubber selected for garment material because it transmits water vapor and carbon dioxide at high rates.

  4. Lightweight Protective Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed garment material protects wearer from poisonous chemicals, bacteria, and radioactive particulates. Garment allows heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide to pass from inside to outside so wearer remains comfortable. Garment made of cotton fabric on which thin layer of polyacrylate rubber is deposited by calendering or spraying. Lighter and cooler than existing protective garments. Polyacrylate rubber selected for garment material because it transmits water vapor and carbon dioxide at high rates.

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  6. Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

  7. Protection detail. Protecting against breach of electronic protected health information.

    PubMed

    Blass, Gerry; Miller, Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Covered entities need to conduct risk assessments that cover the requirements of HIPAA, HITECH and Meaningful use, and create a process for steady and consistent mitigation of known gaps and vulnerabilities based on risk. Reducing risk of vulnerabilities of unauthorized access to your ePHI can be done via safeguards and controls, plus audits and monitoring. When reducing risk is outside of a covered entities control, audits and monitoring are required in order to demonstrate due diligence. Know where your ePHI is stored, where it is at risk, and take steps now to reduce or eliminate the risk. Encrypt vulnerable locations. Encrypt sensitive data. By doing so, you will be protecting your organization by reducing risk of breach of ePHI. Finally, don't forget what is sometimes considered to be the hardest part--documenting your compliance activities in order to demonstrate evidence of due diligence in and avoid major $$$$ penalties for negligence under the HITECH Act of 2009.

  8. Pipe protection bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pipes and pipelines are being used for an ever widening range of materials, for increasing flows and in harsher applications. There is also more legal and social pressure to reduce the hazards associated with handling materials in pipes. All of this increases the demand for improved pipe reliability. Two of the major preventable causes of pipe failure are corrosion and wear. These may result from the pipe surroundings, or from the material which is carried and it is often impossible to prevent failure by the choice of pipe materials and design. However, additional pipe protection measures are available and it is these measures which are considered in this bibliography. The most common pipe protection methods are the application of coatings and the use of cathodic protection. Accordingly, much of this bibliography is devoted to these techniques. Articles dealing with other means of protecting pipes have also been included. The bibliography covers the protection of oil pipes, (both offshore and on land); water supply systems; gas distribution systems; sewer pipes; pipes for hydraulic and pneumatic transport of solids; power plant pipework; process plant pipework.

  9. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  10. Rack protection monitor

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Stanley G.

    2000-01-01

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  11. Rack Protection Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Stanley G.

    1998-10-21

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  12. Scaling issues for biodiversity protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, S.M.; Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity, in both space and time, has been important in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Moreover, this heterogeneity is hierarchical in nature. Differences occur between biomes, between landscapes. Thus, hierarchical patterns of heterogeneity are a consequence of the the complexity within ecological communities, and the maintenance of biodiversity means the preservation of this complexity. Natural landscapes are dynamic systems that exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity. However, the exploitative nature of human activity tends to simplify landscapes (Krummel et al. 1987). The challenge of preserving biodiversity in managed landscapes is to incorporate natural levels of spatial and temporal heterogeneity into management schemes. The concept of scale has emerged as an important topic among ecologists that recognize the role of heterogeneity in natural ecosystems. Subjects related to scale such as grain (level of detail) and extent (size of area or duration of time) are frequently used to determine the appropriate interpretation of ecological data. Likewise, scale is important when applying ecological principles to biodiversity protection and conservation. The scale of a conservation endeavor affects the strategy involved, realistic goals, and probability of success. For instance, the spatial extent of a reserve system may be determined, for better or worse, by biogeography, distribution of surviving populations, political boundaries, or fiscal constraints. Our objectives are to: emphasize the importance of natural patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, encourage a broader-scale perspective for conservation efforts, and illustrate the interaction between landscape-level heterogeneity and organism-based scales of resource utilization with a simulation experiment.

  13. Scaling issues for biodiversity protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, S.M.; Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O`Neill, R.V.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental heterogeneity, in both space and time, has been important in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Moreover, this heterogeneity is hierarchical in nature. Differences occur between biomes, between landscapes. Thus, hierarchical patterns of heterogeneity are a consequence of the the complexity within ecological communities, and the maintenance of biodiversity means the preservation of this complexity. Natural landscapes are dynamic systems that exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity. However, the exploitative nature of human activity tends to simplify landscapes (Krummel et al. 1987). The challenge of preserving biodiversity in managed landscapes is to incorporate natural levels of spatial and temporal heterogeneity into management schemes. The concept of scale has emerged as an important topic among ecologists that recognize the role of heterogeneity in natural ecosystems. Subjects related to scale such as grain (level of detail) and extent (size of area or duration of time) are frequently used to determine the appropriate interpretation of ecological data. Likewise, scale is important when applying ecological principles to biodiversity protection and conservation. The scale of a conservation endeavor affects the strategy involved, realistic goals, and probability of success. For instance, the spatial extent of a reserve system may be determined, for better or worse, by biogeography, distribution of surviving populations, political boundaries, or fiscal constraints. Our objectives are to: emphasize the importance of natural patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, encourage a broader-scale perspective for conservation efforts, and illustrate the interaction between landscape-level heterogeneity and organism-based scales of resource utilization with a simulation experiment.

  14. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  15. Protection against trichothecene mycotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Trichothecenes and their effects on humans have attracted national and international attention because of their reported use in warfare. This study arose out of a concern about such uses and the potential harm these substances could cause among civilian and military populations that might be exposed to them. Accordingly, this report is intended to assist in the protection not only of U.S. Armed Forces against the adverse effects of trichothecenes but also of civilian populations that may come into contact with these toxins during peace or war. The committee concentrated on the following two major objectives: (1) examination of the environmental and biological behavior of the trichothecene class of mycotoxins to determine what protective measures can be taken and (2) development of the means for optimizing the protection of human beings against the effects of trichothecenes through appropriate prophylaxes and treatments.

  16. Protected Josephson Rhombus Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew T.; Paramanandam, Joshua; Ioffe, Lev B.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the low-energy excitations in a minimalistic protected Josephson circuit which contains two basic elements (rhombi) characterized by the π periodicity of the Josephson energy. Novel design of these elements, which reduces their sensitivity to the offset charge fluctuations, has been employed. We have observed that the lifetime T1 of the first excited state of this quantum circuit in the protected regime is increased up to 70 μs, a factor of ˜100 longer than that in the unprotected state. The quality factor ω01T1 of this qubit exceeds 106. Our results are in agreement with theoretical expectations; they demonstrate the feasibility of symmetry protection in the rhombus-based qubits fabricated with existing technology.

  17. Women need legal protection.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    During a workshop in Gender Responsive Planning Sensitization, the chiefs observed that the dismissal of the Affiliation Act made it more difficult for them to protect the rights and interests of single mothers and their children. Single mothers, who are usually mistresses of married men, experience financial problems that subsequently force them to live in extremely difficult circumstances in the event of calamities such as death of the man. They have no protection under the chiefs' Authority Act. A chief in Nairobi expressed the need to form self-help groups among single mothers in order to ensure the protection of their rights and that of their children. Furthermore, the chiefs agreed to intensify educational programs for couples that emphasize responsibility within marriage.

  18. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  19. Protection against Shiga Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Dyve Lingelem, Anne Berit; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxins consist of an A-moiety and five B-moieties able to bind the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) on the cell surface. To intoxicate cells efficiently, the toxin A-moiety has to be cleaved by furin and transported retrogradely to the Golgi apparatus and to the endoplasmic reticulum. The enzymatically active part of the A-moiety is then translocated to the cytosol, where it inhibits protein synthesis and in some cell types induces apoptosis. Protection of cells can be provided either by inhibiting binding of the toxin to cells or by interfering with any of the subsequent steps required for its toxic effect. In this article we provide a brief overview of the interaction of Shiga toxins with cells, describe some compounds and conditions found to protect cells against Shiga toxins, and discuss whether they might also provide protection in animals and humans. PMID:28165371

  20. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N.

    1965-01-01

    The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

  1. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riffle and pool complexes. 230.45... Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.45 Riffle and pool complexes. (a) Steep gradient sections of streams are sometimes characterized by riffle and pool complexes. Such stream sections are recognizable by...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10104 - Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halophosphate mixed metal complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10104 Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as halophosphate mixed metal complex (PMN P-04-254) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10104 - Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halophosphate mixed metal complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10104 Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as halophosphate mixed metal complex (PMN P-04-254) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10104 - Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halophosphate mixed metal complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10104 Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as halophosphate mixed metal complex (PMN P-04-254) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10104 - Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halophosphate mixed metal complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10104 Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as halophosphate mixed metal complex (PMN P-04-254) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10104 - Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halophosphate mixed metal complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10104 Halophosphate mixed metal complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as halophosphate mixed metal complex (PMN P-04-254) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. Protection from extinction.

    PubMed

    Rescorla, Robert A

    2003-05-01

    The effect of the presence of a conditioned inhibitor on extinction of excitatory conditioning was studied in one magazine approach and three autoshaping experiments using rats and pigeons. In each case, the presence of an inhibitor reduced responding to an exciter during extinction but allowed substantial recovery of responding to that exciter when subsequently tested separately. Control stimuli with a history of being irrelevant to reinforcement or being nonreinforced had less of a protective effect. This constitutes a clear demonstration of protection from extinction, a phenomenon of substantial theoretical and applied importance.

  17. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, David A.

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  18. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  19. Protection from space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  20. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  1. Coral reef protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced the establishment on 13 November of the first U.S. zone to protect a sensitive coral reef area from potential damage by ships.The Florida Keys' Particularly Sensitive Sea Area, just one of a handful of such areas globally, has been designated by the International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. The area protects a zone of more than 3,000 square nautical miles stretching from the Biscayne National Park to the Dry Tortugas.

  2. X-Ray Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-01-01

    for example temporomandibular - joint exposures where a skin dose of 25 r or more may be obtained during a single exposure with 65 kvp, 1.5 mm aluminum...Movable barriers should not be depended upon for protection above 100 kv. 4.4. Surfaces of lead sheets at joints should be in contact, with a lap of at...equivalent of the seams is not less than the minimum requirement. (See chapter II.) *4.6. Joints between different kinds of protective materials

  3. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  4. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  5. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  6. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  7. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  8. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made great progress in addressing some major environmental problems. These successes were framed within EPA’s statutory mandates which are largely media-specific and receptor-focused and follow a segmented risk-based construct. Today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex, and new approaches are needed to achieve sustainable solutions that protect the environment and public health. Objectives: We provide an overview of environmental protection at EPA and highlight today’s environmental challenges. We provide case examples of systems approaches that consider the links between environment and human health. We offer a strategic framework for tackling challenges so EPA can continue to protect the environment and public health.Discussion: Expanded approaches will be transdisciplinary, informed by vast new sources of data, and build upon new stakeholder partnerships. A systems approach to environmental protection looks at problems holistically, includes the drivers and stressors that impact the issue and the dimensions that frame it, and integrates various types of data from health, ecological, and social sciences, with the goal of formulating sustainable solutions to environmental issues. Conclusions: The natural environment and human health are inextricably linked, and human health, well-being, and economic prosperity depend on healthy ecosystems. EPA research is leading an evolution in

  9. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system (PPS) includes the determination of the PPS objectives, the initial design of a PPS, the evaluation of the design, and probably, the redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the PPS, that is, ``what to protect against whom.`` The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control devices, communication devices, procedures, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a PPS is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the PPS objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. After the system is installed, the threat and system parameters may change with time. If they do, the analysis must be performed periodically to ensure the system objectives are still being met.

  10. Computer Room Fire Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that economic and service factors may dictate that special fire protection measures be given to computer rooms. The discussion covers emergency planning, various types of fire detection and suppression systems, and future options, with particular attention to halon and possible halon replacements. A list of suggested readings is provided.…

  11. Protectiveness, Persecution, and Powerlessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kathleen G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of family pathology from a transactional viewpoint. The thesis proposed is that family pathology is a means of protecting the family and ensuring its survival. The father, mother, and child assume and exchange the roles of the Karpman drama triangle; namely, Persecutor, Victim, and Rescuer. (Author)

  12. Electroshock protection circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heskett, H.; Meincer, J.; Inglis, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Circuit was developed to prevent accidental shock through electrodes used to test subjects as part of Skylab program. This circuit is placed between electrical apparatus and electrode that is attached to patient's body. Thus, patient is effectively protected from dangerous electrical shock that might be caused by failure in electrical apparatus.

  13. Protecting against Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    This article features an assistant professor of technology who shares his story of near disaster and offers advice for others about protecting their data. The author presents steps that can be taken to prevent unexpected events from destroying data. The author strongly recommends using backup files as a way of securing computer files and data.…

  14. Environmental Protection Careers Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational requirements of approximately 100 technical occupations directly concerned with environmental protection. Each career description is listed under its preferred title and divided into three sections. The opening section describes job duties, places of employment, and areas of…

  15. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  16. Computer Room Water Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the protection of computer rooms from water. Sources of water and potentially vulnerable areas in computer rooms are described. Water detection is then discussed, and several detection systems are detailed. Prices and manufacturers' telephone numbers for some of the systems are included. Water cleanup is also briefly considered. (MES)

  17. Fall Protection in Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Fall Protection in Construction U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3146 1998(Revised) Report Documentation...Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20210 Performing Organization Report Number OSHA 3146...compliance responsibili- ties, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because

  18. Partners in Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Karen

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) cooperative relationship regarding the development of environmental manpower programs on a State and local level is discussed. Environmental programs resulting from CETA aid are described and EPA statistics given, stating that such programs are…

  19. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  20. Respiratory protection devices.

    PubMed

    Vesley, D L

    1995-04-01

    OSHA authority and responsibility have led to the requirement that health care workers potentially exposed to patients with active tuberculosis in situations where engineering controls are not feasible for protection must utilize personal protective equipment at least equivalent to HEPA respirators. ICPs generally believe that this approach is unnecessarily conservative and imposes undue burdens on patient care. The arguments on both sides of this controversy have some merit. Reported cases of tuberculosis and skin-test conversions among health care workers since 1988 and the absence of a demonstrated safe level of exposure have led many to the conclusion that HEPA respirators are justified. On the other side, tuberculosis currently is not a major problem in some areas of the country, and many believe that less stringent personal protective devices (e.g., DM respirators) may provide protection equivalent to HEPA filters--at least in terms of preventing infection if not in terms of filtration efficiency. They believe that the lesser discomfort and lower cost associated with DM respirators justify the argument for a more flexible standard. Perhaps additional research can help to resolve the remaining controversy. Definitive answers are unlikely to surface quickly, however, and it is likely that the controversy and confusion will continue for at least awhile longer.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Protecting our science.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Noah S

    2013-10-01

    In response to a recent court decision, the Annals of Occupational Hygiene is reviewing our procedures to ensure transparency in authorship and direct and indirect conflicts of interest. These improvements are intended to help protect the integrity of the science presented in the journal.

  3. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  4. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  5. Laser eye protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ralph G.; Labo, Jack A.; Mayo, Michael W.

    1990-07-01

    Laser applications have proliferated in recent years and as to be expected their presence is no longer confined to the laboratory or places where access to their radiation can be easily controlled. One obvious application where this is so is in military operations where various devices such as laser range finders target designators and secure communications equipment elevate the risk of exposure specifically eye exposure to unacceptable levels. Although the need for eye protection in the laboratory and other controlled areas has been appreciated since the invention of the laser the use of lasers in circumstances where safety or the risk of temporary loss of vision which can not always be ensured by administrative procedures has made adequate eye protection essential. It is the critical nature of many military operations that has driven the search for eye protection against both nuclear and laser radiation. At the same time the requirement to maintain useful vision during irradiation as well as advances in laser technology have complicated the problem enormously. Pertinent aspects of the problem such as laser characteristics- -pulse width repetition rate laser wavelength tunability or agility as well as laser power or energy have been placed in perspective. In addition possible effects on vision for various exposures have been estimated as have the characteristics required of eye protective devices. Various classes of devices are discussed and advantages and disadvantages noted. 1.

  6. Critique of protective measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-04-01

    The recently proposed idea of {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Protecting a marine wonderland.

    PubMed

    Wells, S

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the condition of the Belize reef system and how the government takes the initiative to protect its wondrous beauty. The Belize reef system is located along the coast between Belize City and Punta Gorda, which is considered to be the largest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere. Despite the appearance of a remarkably empty coastline, a glance to the Maya Mountains in the west will show that most of the development is taking place in the coastal areas. The earliest attempts to protect Belize¿s reefs focused on the establishment of protected areas and from this resulted in a remarkably ambitious marine protection program. Based on an integrated coastal zone management, a Coastal Zone Management Unit was established in 1990. This program encouraged the sharing of information, contribution to the creation of feasible government policies, plans and programs, identification of technical problems and provision of advice on a variety of issues. In addition, a steering committee was established in 1993, which is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the program and ensuring inter-ministerial coordination. Furthermore, public participation is also taking place in more direct ways, particularly with fishermen and dive operators. In order to achieve self-sufficiency, the program requires financial sustainability, a sufficient national capacity for management and political will, and public support.

  8. The responsibility to protect.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  9. Maternity Protection at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  10. Multifactorial antimicrobial wood protectants

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Coleman; Carol A. Clausen

    2008-01-01

    It is unlikely that a single antimicrobial compound, whether synthetic or natural, will provide the ‘magic bullet’ for eliminating multiple biological agents affecting wood products. Development of synergistic combinations of selected compounds, especially those derived from natural sources, is recognized as a promising approach to improved wood protection. Recent...

  11. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  12. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  13. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  14. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  15. Protective coatings for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    NAGY, KATHRYN L.; CYGAN, RANDALL T.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; SELLINGER, ALAN

    2000-05-01

    The new two-layer protective coating developed for monuments constructed of limestone or marble was applied to highway cement and to tobermorite, a component of cement, and tested in batch dissolution tests. The goal was to determine the suitability of the protective coating in retarding the weathering rate of concrete construction. The two-layer coating consists of an inner layer of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) applied as a 25% solution in methanol and an outer layer of A2** sol-gel. In previous work, this product when applied to calcite powders, had resulted in a lowering of the rate of dissolution by a factor of ten and was shown through molecular modeling to bind strongly to the calcite surface, but not too strongly so as to accelerate dissolution. Batch dissolution tests at 22 C of coated and uncoated tobermorite (1.1 nm phase) and powdered cement from Gibson Blvd. in Albuquerque indicated that the coating exhibits some protective behavior, at least on short time scales. However, the data suggest that the outer layer of sol-gel dissolves in the high-pH environment of the closed system of cement plus water. Calculated binding configuration and energy of AEAPS to the tobermorite surface suggests that AEAPS is well-suited as the inner layer binder for protecting tobermorite.

  16. Complex amine-based reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, S. Yu.; Kirilina, A. V.; Sergeev, I. A.; Zezyulya, T. V.; Sokolova, E. A.; Eremina, E. V.; Timofeev, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Amines for a long time have been applied to maintaining water chemistry conditions (WCC) at power plants. However, making use of complex reagents that are the mixture of neutralizing and the filmforming amines, which may also contain other organic components, causes many disputes. This is mainly due to lack of reliable information about these components. The protective properties of any amine with regard to metal surfaces depend on several factors, which are considered in this article. The results of applying complex reagents to the protection of heating surfaces in industrial conditions and estimated behavior forecasts for various reagents under maintaining WCC on heat-recovery boilers with different thermal circuits are presented. The case of a two-drum heat-recovery boiler with in-line drums was used as an example, for which we present the calculated pH values for various brands of reagents under the same conditions. Work with different reagent brands and its analysis enabled us to derive a composition best suitable for the conditions of their practical applications in heat-recovery boilers at different pressures. Testing the new amine reagent performed at a CCPP power unit shows that this reagent is an adequate base for further development of reagents based on amine compounds. An example of testing a complex reagent is shown created with the participation of the authors within the framework the program of import substitution and its possible use is demonstrated for maintaining WCC of power-generating units of combined-cycle power plants (CCPP) and TPP. The compliance of the employed reagents with the standards of water chemistry conditions and protection of heating surfaces were assessed. The application of amine-containing reagents at power-generating units of TPP makes it possible to solve complex problems aimed at ensuring the sparing cleaning of heating surfaces from deposits and the implementation of conservation and management of water chemistry condition

  17. [Chile: social protection in health].

    PubMed

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  18. Laryngeal and respiratory protective reflexes.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, S M

    2001-12-03

    Swallowing is a complex motor behavior that relies on an interneuronal network of premotor neurons (PMNs) to organize the sequential activity of motor neurons that are active during the buccopharyngeal and esophageal phases. Swallowing PMNs are highly interconnected to multiple areas of the brain stem and the central nervous system and provide a potential anatomic substrate integration of swallowing activity with airway protective reflexes. Because these neurons have synaptic contact with both afferent inputs and motor neurons and exhibit a true central activity, they appear to constitute the swallowing central pattern generator. We studied the viscerotopic organization of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the nucleus ambiguus (NA), the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN), and the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) using cholera toxin horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP), a sensitive antegrade and retrograde tracer that effectively labels afferent terminal fields within the NTS as well as swallowing motor neurons and their dendritic fields within the NA, DMN, and XII. We used CT-HRP to provide a comprehensive description of the dendritic architecture of NA motor neurons innervating swallowing muscles. We also conducted studies using pseudorabies virus (PRV), a swine alpha-herpesvirus, to map central neural circuits after injection in the peripheral or central nervous systems. One attenuated vaccine strain, Bartha PRV, has preferential affinity for sites of afferent synaptic contact on the cell body and dendrites and a reactive gliosis that effectively isolates the infected neurons and provides a barrier to the nonspecific spread to adjacent neurons. The findings provide a basis for the central integration of swallowing and respiratory protective reflexes.

  19. Protecting our patients by protecting ourselves

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Blake; Alsabbagh, Wasem; Houle, Sherilyn; Wenger, Lisa; Church, Dana; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background: With recent expansions to scope of practice that have allowed Canadian pharmacists to play a larger role in administering influenza vaccinations to the public, it is important that pharmacists themselves meet Canadian guidelines recommending that 80% of health care professionals and 100% of vaccinators receive an annual influenza vaccination. Unvaccinated health care professionals pose an infection risk to patients they serve and are at an increased risk of infection themselves. Methods: An online, anonymous survey was sent to Ontario community pharmacists to determine whether they had received the influenza vaccination during the 2013–2014 influenza season. All significant univariate chi-square analysis respondent characteristics were included in a multivariate regression analysis model to determine predictors of vaccination status. Results: A total of 780 pharmacists completed the survey (18.1% response rate), which showed that 7 in 10 Ontario community pharmacists received the influenza vaccine. Those certified to immunize were nearly 3 times more likely to have received the influenza vaccine than those not certified (81.6% versus 61.2%, respectively). Discussion: Having 70% of Ontario community pharmacists vaccinated against influenza is both an accomplishment and an opportunity to improve vaccination rates. While similar to the influenza immunization rates of other health care professions, Ontario community pharmacists did not meet Public Health Canada’s recommendations. Comprehensive worksite programs, including promotion, education and convenient access to influenza vaccination at no cost, could increase community pharmacist influenza vaccination rates. Conclusion: The authors issue a call to arms to encourage all pharmacists to receive the influenza vaccine to protect the public and themselves. PMID:27540407

  20. [Protective glasses. Personal eye protection for professional use].

    PubMed

    Eppig, T; Speck, A; Zelzer, B; Langenbucher, A

    2014-01-01

    Several activities in the occupational environment or in leisure time implicate an increased risk of eye injuries. Many injuries could be prevented by wearing adequate eye protection devices; however, the selection of appropriate eye protection devices requires considerations of different attributes in order to achieve a maximum of protection efficiency. This article provides an overview on the three basic types of eye protection device, introduces the classification regarding optical and protective properties and gives some additional advice on the selection of protective eyewear beyond the current standard regulations.

  1. Protection Enhances Community and Habitat Stability: Evidence from a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001–2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change. PMID:24349135

  2. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  3. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, 0 and 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  4. Subsea wellhead protective enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.M.

    1980-09-02

    Method and apparatus for protecting subsea wellheads and christmas trees from damage by anchors, fishing nets, trawl boards, and other towed devices. The apparatus includes an annular, rigid protective enclosure with inner and outer walls that define a hollow annular chamber, and a plurality of bag-like containers spaced around and attached to the enclosure's outer wall. The annular chamber is in communication with the interiors of the containers by means of ports through the enclosure's outer wall, whereby when cement is pumped into the chamber it also flows into and fills the containers to form a smoothly contoured shield around the enclosure. Should an anchor or other device become fouled on this shield, the container or containers involved will break away and let the anchor continue on its way up and over the enclosure without damage to the wellhead or other well equipment.

  5. Protective Autoimmunity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. It is accompanied by an autoimmune response against ApoB100, the core protein of LDL, which manifests as CD4 T cell and antibody responses. Approach and Results To assess the role of the autoimmune response in atherosclerosis, the nature of the CD4 T cell response against ApoB100 was studied with and without vaccination with MHC-II restricted ApoB100 peptides. The immunological basis of autoimmunity in atherosclerosis is discussed in the framework of theories of adaptive immunity. Older vaccination approaches are also discussed. Vaccinating Apoe−/− mice with MHC-II restricted ApoB100 peptides reduces atheroma burden in the aorta by ~40%. The protective mechanism likely includes secretion of IL-10. Conclusion Protective autoimmunity limits atherosclerosis in mice and suggests potential for developing preventative and therapeutic vaccines for humans. PMID:26821946

  6. Force protection: today's reality.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Ron

    2004-11-11

    Most US infrastructure and major chemical manufacturing facilities as well as their supporting utility systems are inherently vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Force protection is a military and civilian term used to protect personnel and critical facilities and assets against would-be aggressors or terrorists. The war on terrorism is a 200-300-year war. Terrorist attacks on US soil could become as common-place as in the State of Israel. It is very easy to penetrate infrastructure or plants as evidenced by vulnerability assessments performed for states, cities, plants, and military facilities by Versar and others around the country. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive weapons can be readily used to attack facilities in the US. This paper will explain some of those vulnerabilities, outline the current DoD standard as it relates to vulnerability assessments, and explain how this may be used in commercial applications to deter potential aggressors.

  7. Overvoltage protection network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambra, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Electrical equipment to be protected from overvoltage is connected with a possible source of overvoltage via an input conductor. A fuse is connected in series with the input conductor. A spark gap is connected between the input conductor and ground for conducting the overvoltage current to ground and for blowing the fuse to open the circuit to the electrical equipment. A pulse attenuator network is provided between the spark gap and the electrical equipment to be protected for attenuating the pulse of energy passing through the fuse and spark gap prior to blowing of the fuse. The pulse attenuator network includes additional shunt spark gaps, series inductance, and a series connection of a twisted shielded pair of conductors having low-voltage insulation.

  8. Multifunction protective relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, J.; Yalla, M.; Kantor, J.

    1991-11-01

    Since the enactment of the National Energy Act of 1979, many private energy producers have been planning and building small generation and cogeneration facilities in order to sell power to the local utility. Many of the non-utility generators built after 1979 are connected directly to the closest utility distribution circuit. Aware of the problems associated with connecting generators in this manner, electric utilities across the country developed specifications and standards to allow safe and reliable interconnection. The report describes a malfunction protective relay which uses state-of-the-art digital signal processing procedures to accomplish the objective of providing most of the relay requirements of utility electrical interconnections. The relay has been demonstrated to be suitable for this critical application through extensive laboratory and in-service field testing. The relay, incorporating thirteen distinct protection functions affords the user the savings of the initial capital cost plus simplicity of installation and use.

  9. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  10. Mitochondrial protection by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A; Csiszar, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are thought to play important roles in mammalian aging. Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that exerts diverse antiaging activities, mimicking some of the molecular and functional effects of dietary restriction. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial protective effects of resveratrol, which could be exploited for the prevention or amelioration of age-related diseases in the elderly.

  11. Nitrite in organ protection

    PubMed Central

    Rassaf, Tienush; Ferdinandy, Peter; Schulz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged to therapeutical importance. Modulation of endogenous nitrate and nitrite levels with the subsequent S-nitros(yl)ation of the downstream signalling cascade open the way for novel cytoprotective strategies. In the following, we summarize the actual literature and give a short overview on the potential of nitrite in organ protection. PMID:23826831

  12. Cyberspace Protection and Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    applications, music or information onto our networks without approval • Encrypting sensitive but unclassified and/or mission critical information...deception in computer networks. 5. Tactical Deception for Protection Network-centric Strategic-level Deception ( NSD ) is defined as “a coordinated...Erdie presented a Naval Postgraduate School thesis, “Network-Centric Strategic-Level Deception” that covered NSD . He examined the “value of network

  13. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  14. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  15. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  16. Planetary protection: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, L.

    Planetary protection is a very wide subject because of the variety of physical conditions on individual planets and their moons. At present, we have good photographs or imagery, as well as other evidence, from most planets and from a selection of their moons. The most important factor is the presence or absence of any form of life. Material samples are available from the Moon and possibly, in the form of a few meteorites, from Mars. The danger of contamination has been recognized in the past and it became clear that some measures would have to be taken. The adoption of measures will have to be universal in mssions to planets and their moons because for an undesirablei contamination to occur, one failed measure of protection may be enough. The question is, if we can learn from experience gained in the last forty years in adopting laws, rules or unbinding recommendations for space activities. Several examples will be discussed, such as the amount of knowledge at a time when international treaties on space law were adopted, the consequences of the failed discussion at the United Nations on the definition of outer space, or of the break-up of Cosmos 954. Special attention will be devoted to the ongoing discussion of space debris in the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its relevance for planetary protection, to the general compliance with the Registration Convention and to the experience gained with the recommendation to re-orbit geostationary satellites.

  17. Planetary protection: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Planetary protection is a very wide subject because of the variety of physical conditions on individual planets and their moons. At present, we have good photographs or imagery, as well as other evidence, from most planets and from a selection of their moons. The most important factor is the presence or absence of any form of life. Material samples are available from the Moon and possibly, in the form of a few meteorites, from Mars. The danger of contamination has been recognized in the past and it became clear that some measures would have to be taken. The adoption of measures will have to be universal in missions to planets and their moons because for an undesirable contamination to occur, one failed measure of protection may be enough. The question is, if we can learn from experience gained in the last forty years in adopting laws, rules or unbinding recommendations for space activities. Several examples will be discussed, such as the amount of knowledge at a time when international treaties on space law were adopted, the consequences of the failed discussion at the United Nations on the definition of outer space, or of the break-up of Cosmos 954. Special attention will be devoted to the ongoing discussion of space debris in the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its relevance for planetary protection, to the general compliance with the Registration Convention and to the experience gained with the recommendation to re-orbit geostationary satellites.

  18. Mechanisms of protection by NHA against fungal decay

    Treesearch

    Frederick Green; William Henry; Tor Schultz

    2002-01-01

    Treating wood with the water-borne sodium salt of N'-N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (Na-NHA) protects wood against decay and termite damage. Initial testing indicated little or no inhibition of sapstain fungi, molds, or soft-rot fungi by Na-NHA, suggesting that the mechanism by which this compound protected wood was complex and not that of a broad-spectrum biocide....

  19. Topologically decoherence-protected qubits with trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Milman, P; Maineult, W; Guibal, S; Guidoni, L; Douçot, B; Ioffe, L; Coudreau, T

    2007-07-13

    We show that trapped ions can be used to simulate a highly symmetrical Hamiltonian with eigenstates naturally protected against local sources of decoherence. This Hamiltonian involves long-range coupling between particles and provides a more efficient protection than nearest neighbor models discussed in previous works. Our results open the perspective of experimentally realizing, in controlled atomic systems, complex entangled states with decoherence times up to 9 orders of magnitude longer than isolated quantum systems.

  20. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  1. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  2. LaJolla Spring Cave Complex - Meramec Caverns

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 7 is directing the potentially responsible party at a groundwater contamination Superfund site in Franklin County, Mo., to perform additional work to protect workers and visitors from potentially harmful exposures at LaJolla Springs Cave Complex

  3. Remote Navigation for Complex Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Suman-Horduna, Irina; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Ernst, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic navigation has been established as an alternative to conventional, manual catheter navigation for invasive electrophysiology interventions about a decade ago. Besides the obvious advantage of radiation protection for the operator who is positioned remotely from the patient, there are additional benefits of steering the tip of a very floppy catheter. This manuscript reviews the published evidence from simple arrhythmias in patients with normal cardiac anatomy to the most complex congenital heart disease. This progress was made possible by the introduction of improved catheters and most importantly irrigated-tip electrodes. PMID:26835041

  4. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures.

  5. Protective and risk predictors in the development of drug use.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, J; Bácskai, E

    1996-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of two dimensions of the theory of social development--vulnerability (predictors, risk factors) and protectivity--in two samples, schoolchildren aged ten to fifteen years and addictive drug users. On the basis of the Hirschi model of protective factors, they found that the most important protective factors (attachment, commitment, involvement, belief) act against substance use. A surprising finding was that among the predictors of the addicts some forms of escape from the family act against the development of drug use, that is, they can be regarded as a protective predictor. The findings of the study draw attention to the complexity of the vulnerability-protectivity relationship and to the need for further research.

  6. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, K.; Pergl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling) for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  7. Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

    Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

  8. Electronic Health Record in Italy and Personal Data Protection.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Silvio; Bellavista, Alessandro; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Zangara, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with the Italian Electronic Health Record (hereinafter EHR), recently introduced by Act 221/2012, with a specific focus on personal data protection. Privacy issues--e.g., informed consent, data processing, patients' rights and minors' will--are discussed within the framework of recent e-Health legislation, national Data Protection Code, the related Data Protection Authority pronouncements and EU law. The paper is aimed at discussing the problems arising from a complex, fragmentary and sometimes uncertain legal framework on e-Health.

  9. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  10. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  11. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  12. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  13. Turf Protecting Toxins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Points out the enthusiasm of students towards the complex chemical survival mechanism of some plants during the early stages of life. Uses allelopathic research to introduce students to conducting experimental research. Includes sample procedures, a timetable, and a sample grading sheet. (YDS)

  14. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  15. Protective Film Moves Aside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

    The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Protective Film Moves Aside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

    The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  18. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  19. Energy Absorbing Protective Shroud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a dissipating protection energy system designed to receive and safely dissipate the kinetic energy from high energy fragments. The energy dissipation system dissipates energy transferred to it by the incremental and progressive rupturing at an approximately constant force of strategically placed sacrificial stitching applied to a number of high strength straps, such as an aromatic polyimide fiber of extremely high tensile strength. Thus, the energy dissipation system provides a lightweight device for controlling and dissipating the dangerous and destructive energy stored in high strength fragments released by catastrophic failures of machinery minimizing damage to other critical components.

  20. New laser protective eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLear, Mark

    1996-04-01

    Laser technology has significantly impacted our everyday life. Lasers are now used to correct your vision, clear your arteries, and are used in the manufacturing of such diverse products as automobiles, cigarettes, and computers. Lasers are no longer a research tool looking for an application. They are now an integral part of manufacturing. In the case of Class IV lasers, this explosion in laser applications has exposed thousands of individuals to potential safety hazards including eye damage. Specific protective eyewear designed to attenuate the energy of the laser beam below the maximum permissible exposure is required for Class 3B and Class IV lasers according to laser safety standards.

  1. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  2. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  3. Gastrointestinal protectants and cathartics.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Kirsten; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with an overview of gastrointestinal cathartics and protectants and to point out possible applications for use in the horse with gastrointestinal disease. Most of the treatments described in this article have been used by the authors with apparent success; however, controlled studies with subsequent publication in the scientific literature with respect to these treatments in the horse are, for the most part, lacking. The authors view this emerging field of treatment as exciting and look forward to substantiating the efficacy of several of the treatments discussed.

  4. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  5. Exosomes and Cardiovascular Protection.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sean M; Takov, Kaloyan; Yellon, Derek M

    2017-02-01

    Most, if not all, cells of the cardiovascular system secrete small, lipid bilayer vesicles called exosomes. Despite technical challenges in their purification and analysis, exosomes from various sources have been shown to be powerfully cardioprotective. Indeed, it is possible that much of the so-called "paracrine" benefit in cardiovascular function obtained by stem cell therapy can be replicated by the injection of exosomes produced by stem cells. However, exosomes purified from plasma appear to be just as capable of activating cardioprotective pathways. We discuss the potential roles of endogenous exosomes in the cardiovascular system, how this is perturbed in cardiovascular disease, and evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents to protect the heart.

  6. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  7. Protected programs at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Many scientists and science administrators say they are disturbed by the fact that Congress “protected” funding for some National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in the fiscal year (FY) 1987 budget at a cost to other NSF programs. Especially disturbing to some was the notion that the earmarking reportedly occurred as a result of special interest lobbying efforts by their fellow scientists. The favored programs, and those that were cut back to compensate for them, were mostly related to geophysics. The protection of these programs is likely to have some impact on the size and number of grants awarded in some other areas.

  8. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  9. Radiation Protection Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorisio, C.; Roesler, S.; Urscheler, C.; Vincke, H.

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  10. Control use of data to protect privacy.

    PubMed

    Landau, Susan

    2015-01-30

    Massive data collection by businesses and governments calls into question traditional methods for protecting privacy, underpinned by two core principles: (i) notice, that there should be no data collection system whose existence is secret, and (ii) consent, that data collected for one purpose not be used for another without user permission. But notice, designated as a fundamental privacy principle in a different era, makes little sense in situations where collection consists of lots and lots of small amounts of information, whereas consent is no longer realistic, given the complexity and number of decisions that must be made. Thus, efforts to protect privacy by controlling use of data are gaining more attention. I discuss relevant technology, policy, and law, as well as some examples that can illuminate the way. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Cathodic protection system inspection 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jim; Polly, Dan

    1994-02-01

    The rectifier is the heart of an impressed current cathodic protection system. As it is subject to many adverse conditions including power surges, lightning strikes, vandalism, physical damage, and deterioration from atmospheric exposure, frequent inspections of rectifiers are vital to keeping an impressed current system operating so that it can provide nearly continuous protection of the underground, or submerged structures that are being protected.

  12. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  13. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Print Share Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of ... welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in research conducted or supported by the U.S. Department of ...

  14. National Perspectives on Data Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurow, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of different approaches to protecting personal information in Europe and the United States highlights data protection laws and agreements (international transfer of personal data, European laws, United States state and federal laws), United States and European views of privacy protection, national economic and political goals, and…

  15. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  16. Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

  17. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the second of a three-part series and particular emphasis is placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Administrative and operational control procedures have been developed, involving prior approval of health safeguards in the radioisotope user's facilities and techniques, and systematic monitoring and inspection. Where necessary, a medical follow-up of accidents and excessive radiation exposures is carried out. In 1963 more than 1600 radioisotope licences were issued. Filmmonitoring service was provided to about 15,500 isotope and x-ray workers. Semiautomatic handling procedures have been developed to meet the increasing demand for film-monitoring services. Monitoring and inspection services have been provided for x-ray workers, and a committee has been formed to develop administrative procedures for health and safety control in x-ray work. Committees have also been set up to review the health and safety aspects of the operation of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. PMID:14146856

  18. Accelerator Vacuum Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Pradip; Kothari, Ashok; Archunan, M.; Joshi, Rajan

    2012-11-01

    A new and elaborate automatic vacuum protection system using fast acting valve has been installed to avoid accidental venting of accelerator from experimental chamber side. To cover all the beam lines and to reduce the system cost, it has been installed at a common point from where all the seven beam lines originate. The signals are obtained by placing fast response pressure sensing gauges (HV SENSOR) near all the experimental stations. The closing time of the fast valve is 10 milli-second. The fast closing system protects only one vacuum line at a time. At IUAC, we have seven beam lines so one sensor was placed in each of the beam lines near experimental chamber and a multiplexer was incorporated into the fast closing system. At the time of experiment, the sensor of the active beam line is selected through the multiplexer and the Fast closing valve is interlocked with the selected sensor. As soon as the pressure sensor senses the pressure rise beyond a selected pressure, the signal is transferred and the fast valve closes within 10 to 12 millisecond.

  19. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  20. DNA/chitosan electrostatic complex.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Anaya, Lourdes Mónica; Soltero, J F Armando; Rinaudo, Marguerite

    2016-07-01

    Up to now, chitosan and DNA have been investigated for gene delivery due to chitosan advantages. It is recognized that chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable non-viral vector that does not produce immunological reactions, contrary to viral vectors. Chitosan has also been used and studied for its ability to protect DNA against nuclease degradation and to transfect DNA into several kinds of cells. In this work, high molecular weight DNA is compacted with chitosan. DNA-chitosan complex stoichiometry, net charge, dimensions, conformation and thermal stability are determined and discussed. The influence of external salt and chitosan molecular weight on the stoichiometry is also discussed. The isoelectric point of the complexes was found to be directly related to the protonation degree of chitosan. It is clearly demonstrated that the net charge of DNA-chitosan complex can be expressed in terms of the ratio [NH3(+)]/[P(-)], showing that the electrostatic interactions between DNA and chitosan are the main phenomena taking place in the solution. Compaction of DNA long chain complexed with low molar mass chitosan gives nanoparticles with an average radius around 150nm. Stable nanoparticles are obtained for a partial neutralization of phosphate ionic sites (i.e.: [NH3(+)]/[P(-)] fraction between 0.35 and 0.80).