Science.gov

Sample records for protection process optimization

  1. Design of experiments for thermal protection system process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longani, Hans R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) structures were protected from heating due to aeroshear, radiation and plume impingement by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) known as Marshall Sprayable Ablative (MSA-2). MSA-2 contains Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which due to strict environmental legislation was eliminated. MSA-2 was also classified as hazardous waste, which makes the disposal very costly. Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) replaced MSA-2, and eliminated the use of solvents by delivering the dry filler materials and the fluid resin system to a patented spray gun which utilizes Convergent Spray Technologies spray process. The selection of TPS material was based on risk assessment, performance comparisons, processing, application and cost. Design of Experiments technique was used to optimize the spraying parameters. .

  2. Protecting quantum information with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Matthew

    Quantum computation (QC) holds the promise of efficiently solving problems which are practically intractable for classical computers. However, realizing this advantage requires the precise control of a quantum information processor (QIP) and effective protection of this processor from the pernicious inuence of decoherence induced by the surrounding environment. Therefore, the ability to generate high-fidelity logical operations in the presence of environmental coupling is crucial. Methods of optimal control are applied to the field of quantum information processing, providing practical solutions for the generation of logical operations and the suppression of undesired environmental effects. The work contained in this dissertation explores important aspects of system and control design. Results obtained in this work (i) illustrate how practical QC can be greatly facilitated by optimal control theory and (ii) reveal interesting physical insights through the discovery of effective control mechanisms. A special design of the physical structure of quantum information systems is formulated which is naturally immune to certain types of decoherence and yields tremendous flexibility in the construction of logical operations for QC. A fundamental component of this design involves encoding the logical basis states of a quantum bit into multiple physical levels of the corresponding quantum system. This design also makes the QIP better suited for the interaction with ultrafast broadband laser fields used in quantum control applications. Numerical simulations demonstrate the utility of this encoding approach for thermally excited quantum systems. Optimization algorithms are developed which generate controls that protect the QIP from the effects of the environment, with or without the weak-coupling or Born approximation, and simultaneously achieve a target objective, e.g., a state-to-state transition or unitary quantum operation. For the optimal control of quantum operations, a

  3. Business process optimization for RHIOs.

    PubMed

    Soti, Praveen; Pandey, Seema

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) network entails significant changes in the business processes of participating organizations. Business process management, increased automation, process optimization, user training and end-user adoption together form the keys to success with an EHR. Redesigned processes should be mapped to benefit lines and performance indicators, and monitored continuously to identify improvement opportunities. It is important the new business work flows should match, if not exceed, the existing benchmarks for performance. Business process redesign is all the more challenging in the context of regional health information organizations (RHIOs), as the business processes of the EHR network have to be aligned with existing process flows of several organizations, each with its own preferences and specific requirements. Even so, most of the discrete individual processes have to be converged, streamlined, assimilated and optimized in the redesigned business processes. This paper proposes a methodology for business process redesign and optimization for RHIOs.

  4. Peptide Processing Is Critical for T-Cell Memory Inflation and May Be Optimized to Improve Immune Protection by CMV-Based Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Blatnik, Renata; Lee, Lian N.; Fischer, Sonja; Borkner, Lisa; Oduro, Jennifer D.; Marandu, Thomas F.; Hoppe, Stephanie; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Sonnemann, Julia K.; Meyer, Christine; Holtappels, Rafaela; Arens, Ramon; Früh, Klaus; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Riemer, Angelika B.; Cicin-Sain, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) elicits long-term T-cell immunity of unparalleled strength, which has allowed the development of highly protective CMV-based vaccine vectors. Counterintuitively, experimental vaccines encoding a single MHC-I restricted epitope offered better immune protection than those expressing entire proteins, including the same epitope. To clarify this conundrum, we generated recombinant murine CMVs (MCMVs) encoding well-characterized MHC-I epitopes at different positions within viral genes and observed strong immune responses and protection against viruses and tumor growth when the epitopes were expressed at the protein C-terminus. We used the M45-encoded conventional epitope HGIRNASFI to dissect this phenomenon at the molecular level. A recombinant MCMV expressing HGIRNASFI on the C-terminus of M45, in contrast to wild-type MCMV, enabled peptide processing by the constitutive proteasome, direct antigen presentation, and an inflation of antigen-specific effector memory cells. Consequently, our results indicate that constitutive proteasome processing of antigenic epitopes in latently infected cells is required for robust inflationary responses. This insight allows utilizing the epitope positioning in the design of CMV-based vectors as a novel strategy for enhancing their efficacy. PMID:27977791

  5. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  6. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  7. Process optimization in optical fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faehnle, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Predictable and stable fabrication processes are essential for reliable cost and quality management in optical fabrication technology. This paper reports on strategies to generate and control optimum sets of process parameters for, e.g., subaperture polishing of small optics (featuring clear apertures smaller than 2 mm). Emphasis is placed on distinguishing between machine and process optimization, demonstrating that it is possible to set up the ductile mode grinding process by means other than controlling critical depth of cut. Finally, a recently developed in situ testing technique is applied to monitor surface quality on-machine while abrasively working the surface under test enabling an online optimization of polishing processes eventually minimizing polishing time and fabrication cost.

  8. What May Visualization Processes Optimize?

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Golan, Amos

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present an abstract model of visualization and inference processes, and describe an information-theoretic measure for optimizing such processes. In order to obtain such an abstraction, we first examined six classes of workflows in data analysis and visualization, and identified four levels of typical visualization components, namely disseminative, observational, analytical and model-developmental visualization. We noticed a common phenomenon at different levels of visualization, that is, the transformation of data spaces (referred to as alphabets) usually corresponds to the reduction of maximal entropy along a workflow. Based on this observation, we establish an information-theoretic measure of cost-benefit ratio that may be used as a cost function for optimizing a data visualization process. To demonstrate the validity of this measure, we examined a number of successful visualization processes in the literature, and showed that the information-theoretic measure can mathematically explain the advantages of such processes over possible alternatives.

  9. Optimal design of solidification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.

    1991-01-01

    An optimal design algorithm is presented for the analysis of general solidification processes, and is demonstrated for the growth of GaAs crystals in a Bridgman furnace. The system is optimal in the sense that the prespecified temperature distribution in the solidifying materials is obtained to maximize product quality. The optimization uses traditional numerical programming techniques which require the evaluation of cost and constraint functions and their sensitivities. The finite element method is incorporated to analyze the crystal solidification problem, evaluate the cost and constraint functions, and compute the sensitivities. These techniques are demonstrated in the crystal growth application by determining an optimal furnace wall temperature distribution to obtain the desired temperature profile in the crystal, and hence to maximize the crystal's quality. Several numerical optimization algorithms are studied to determine the proper convergence criteria, effective 1-D search strategies, appropriate forms of the cost and constraint functions, etc. In particular, we incorporate the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of each algorithm is presented in the example problem.

  10. Unifying process control and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    2005-09-01

    About 40% of US generation is now subject to wholesale competition. To intelligently bid into these new markets, real-time prices must be aligned with real-time costs. It is time to integrate the many advanced applications, sensors, and analyzers used for control, automation, and optimization into a system that reflects process and financial objectives. The paper reports several demonstration projects in the USA revealing what is being done in the area of advanced process optimization (by Alliant Energy, American Electric Power, PacifiCorp, Detroit Edison and Tennessee Valley Authority). In addition to these projects US DOE's NETL has funded the plant environment and cost optimization system, PECOS which combines physical models, neural networks and fuzzy logic control to provide operators with least cost setpoints for controllable variables. At Dynegy Inc's Baldwin station in Illinois the DOE is subsidizing a project where real time, closed-loop IT systems will optimize combustion, soot-blowing and SCR performance as well as unit thermal performance and plant economic performance. Commercial products such as Babcock and Wilcox's Flame Doctor, continuous emissions monitoring systems and various real-time predictive monitoring systems are also available. 4 figs.

  11. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  12. Optimal Protective Hypothermia in Arrested Mammalian Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Villet, Outi M.; Ge, Ming; Sekhar, Laigam N.; Corson, Marshall A.; Tylee, Tracy S.; Fan, Lu-Ping; Yao, Lin; Zhu, Chun; Olson, Aaron K.; Buroker, Norman E.; Xu, Cheng-Su; Anderson, David L.; Soh, Yong-Kian; Wang, Elise; Chen, Shi-Han; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic hypothermia recommendations have been reported, but the information supporting them is sparse, and reveals a need for the data of target therapeutic hypothermia (TTH) from well-controlled experiments. The core temperature ≤35°C is considered as hypothermia, and 29°C is a cooling injury threshold in pig heart in vivo. Thus, an optimal protective hypothermia (OPH) should be in the range 29–35°C. This study was conducted with a pig cardiopulmonary bypass preparation to decrease the core temperature to 29–35°C range at 20 minutes before and 60 minutes during heart arrest. The left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, maximum of the first derivative of LV (dP/dtmax), cardiac power, heart rate, cardiac output, and myocardial velocity (Vmax) were recorded continuously via an LV pressure catheter and an aortic flow probe. At 20 minutes of off-pump during reperfusion after 60 minutes arrest, 17 hypothermic hearts showed that the recovery of Vmax and dP/dtmax established sigmoid curves that consisted of two plateaus: a good recovery plateau at 29–30.5°C, the function recovered to baseline level (BL) (Vmax=118.4%±3.9% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=120.7%±3.1% of BL, n=6); another poor recovery plateau at 34–35°C (Vmax=60.2%±2.8% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=28.0%±5.9% of BL, p<0.05, n=6; ), which are similar to the four normothermia arrest (37°C) hearts (Vmax=55.9%±4.8% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=24.5%±2.1% of BL, n=4). The 32–32.5°C arrest hearts showed moderate recovery (n=5). A point of inflection (around 30.5–31°C) existed at the edge of a good recovery plateau followed by a steep slope. The point presented an OPH that should be the TTH. The results are concordant with data in the mammalian hearts, suggesting that the TTH should be initiated to cool core temperature at 31°C. PMID:25514569

  13. Pinch technology/process optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Improved process efficiency is of great importance to electric utilities and their industrial customers. It enhances company profitability, thereby fostering load retention and strategic load growth. Moreover, the technical means of achieving improved efficiency can significantly impact utility load shapes. By understanding the energy use patterns and options in an industrial facility, the utility and industrial user can work together to define mutually beneficial investment and operating decisions and to clarify how the decisions might be impacted by existing or alternative energy prices. Efforts to achieve such understanding are facilitated by using pinch technology, an innovative and highly effective methodology for systematically analyzing total industrial sites. This report documents a series of twelve industrial process optimization case studies. The studies were carried out using pinch technology. '' Each study was cosponsored by the industrial site's local electric utility. The twelve studies are follows: (1) pulp and paper, (2) refinery, (3) refinery, (4) yeast, (5) soups/sauces, (6) cellulose- acetate, (7) refinery, (8) chemicals, (9) gelatin-capsules, (10) refinery, (11) brewery, (12) cereal grains.

  14. Optimized shielding for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Kim, M. H.; Schimmerling, W.

    2001-01-01

    Future deep space mission and International Space Station exposures will be dominated by the high-charge and -energy (HZE) ions of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). A few mammalian systems have been extensively tested over a broad range of ion types and energies. For example, C3H10T1/2 cells, V79 cells, and Harderian gland tumors have been described by various track-structure dependent response models. The attenuation of GCR induced biological effects depends strongly on the biological endpoint, response model used, and material composition. Optimization of space shielding is then driven by the nature of the response model and the transmission characteristics of the given material.

  15. Optimized Shielding for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Schimmerling, W.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract. Future deep space mission and International Space Station exposures will be dominated by the high-charge and -energy (HZE) ions of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). A few mammalian systems have been extensively tested over a broad range of ion types and energies. For example, C3H10T1/2 cells, V79 cells, and Harderian gland tumors have been described by various track-structure dependent response models. The attenuation of GCR induced biological effects depends strongly on the biological endpoint, response model used, and material composition. Optimization of space shielding is then driven by the nature of the response model and the transmission characteristics of the given material.

  16. Optimization in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmerman, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to look at optimization as it applies to the design process at a large aircraft company. The design process at Lockheed-Georgia is described. Some examples of the impact that optimization has had on that process are given, and then some areas that must be considered if optimization is to be successful and supportive in the total design process are indicated. Optimization must continue to be sold and this selling is best done by consistent good performance. For this good performance to occur, the future approaches must be clearly thought out so that the optimization methods solve the problems that actually occur during design. The visibility of the design process must be maintained as further developments are proposed. Careful attention must be given to the management of data in the optimization process, both for technical reasons and for administrative purposes. Finally, to satisfy program needs, provisions must be included to supply data to support program decisions, and to communicate with design processes outside of the optimization process. If designers fail to adequately consider all of these needs, the future acceptance of optimization will be impeded.

  17. Optimization of the ion implantation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczka, D.; Latuszynski, A.; Kuduk, R.; Partyka, J.

    This work is devoted to the optimization of the ion implantation process in the implanter Unimas of the Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin. The results obtained during several years of operation allow us to determine the optimal work parameters of the device [1-3].

  18. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  19. Optimization of the Processing of Mo Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tkac, Peter; Rotsch, David A.; Stepinski, Dominique; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Harvey, James; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to decrease the processing time for irradiated disks of enriched Mo for the production of 99Mo. Results are given for the dissolution of nonirradiated Mo disks, optimization of the process for large-scale dissolution of sintered disks, optimization of the removal of the main side products (Zr and Nb) from dissolved targets, and dissolution of irradiated Mo disks.

  20. Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

    2002-04-26

    This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

  1. Design Time Optimization for Hardware Watermarking Protection of HDL Designs

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, E.; Morales, D. P.; García, A.; Parrilla, L.; Todorovich, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.

    2015-01-01

    HDL-level design offers important advantages for the application of watermarking to IP cores, but its complexity also requires tools automating these watermarking algorithms. A new tool for signature distribution through combinational logic is proposed in this work. IPP@HDL, a previously proposed high-level watermarking technique, has been employed for evaluating the tool. IPP@HDL relies on spreading the bits of a digital signature at the HDL design level using combinational logic included within the original system. The development of this new tool for the signature distribution has not only extended and eased the applicability of this IPP technique, but it has also improved the signature hosting process itself. Three algorithms were studied in order to develop this automated tool. The selection of a cost function determines the best hosting solutions in terms of area and performance penalties on the IP core to protect. An 1D-DWT core and MD5 and SHA1 digital signatures were used in order to illustrate the benefits of the new tool and its optimization related to the extraction logic resources. Among the proposed algorithms, the alternative based on simulated annealing reduces the additional resources while maintaining an acceptable computation time and also saving designer effort and time. PMID:25861681

  2. Global nonlinear optimization of spacecraft protective structures design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, R. A.; Lovett, J. N., Jr.; Avans, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The global optimization of protective structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteoroid and space debris impacts is presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the space station core module configuration using the Nysmith impact predictor. Next, the equivalence and uniqueness of local and global optima is shown using properties of convexity. This analysis results in a new feasibility condition for this problem. The solution existence is then shown, followed by a comparison of optimization techniques. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is presented to determine the effects of variations in the systemic parameters on optimal design. The results show that global optimization of this problem is unique and may be achieved by a number of methods, provided the feasibility condition is satisfied. Furthermore, module structural design thicknesses and weight increase with increasing projectile velocity and diameter and decrease with increasing separation between bumper and wall for the Nysmith predictor.

  3. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected against warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found. Models of all relevant processes were created to find this optimum. The airflow profile around a cylinder with clothing-representing a dressed human body part-was modelled. This flow profile was used for calculating the agent vapour breakthrough through the clothing and for calculating the deposition of agents onto the skin (as indicators for protection). The flow profile was also used for calculating the temperature profile around the body part and the relative humidity underneath and in the clothing (as representative for physiological burden). As a result a tool was created, which can be used to identify the optimum properties of CBRN protective clothing, depending on the intended mission of the soldiers.

  4. Process optimization for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Veena; Solanki, Kusum; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alkyl ester of long chain fatty acids and is considered to leave smaller footprint on the environment. It is produced by transesterification of a fat/oil with a short chain primary alcohol like methanol or ethanol. The three routes to its preparation are: alkali catalyzed, acid catalyzed and lipase-catalyzed transesterification. This review summarizes the key patents filed over the last few decades. The chemistry used in these patents is one of the three routes mentioned above. In few patents, heterogeneous catalysts have been used for catalyzing the transesterification process. The innovations mostly concern fine-tuning of the reaction conditions, plant design to improve logistics and use of glycerol produced as a by-product during biodiesel production. There is a concern that biofuels like biodiesel cut into resources like land meant for food crop production. Life cycle studies also create doubt about there being energy efficient fuels. Judicious choices that would differ with different regions are recommended. For the next few decades till better alternatives like hydrogen become viable, biodiesel would continue to be an important "alternative fuel".

  5. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  6. Optimization of radar pulse compression processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Samuel M.; Kim, Woonkyung M.; Lee, Myung-Su

    1997-06-01

    We propose an optimal radar pulse compression technique and evaluate its performance in the presence of Doppler shift. The traditional pulse compression using Barker code increases the signal strength by transmitting a Barker coded long pulse. The received signal is then processed by an appropriate correlation processing. This Barker code radar pulse compression enhances the detection sensitivity while maintaining the range resolution of a single chip of the Barker coded long pulse. But unfortunately, the technique suffers from the addition of range sidelobes which sometimes will mask weak targets in the vicinity of larger targets. Our proposed optimal algorithm completely eliminates the sidelobes at the cost of additional processing.

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System optimized processing strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.; Boldt, A.L.; Boomer, K.D.; Galbraith, J.D.; Leach, C.E.; Waldo, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  8. The optimization of CWS grinding process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Rongzeng; Huangfu Jinghua; Huosen; Xu Zhiqian

    1997-12-31

    Since the particle size distribution of products plays a key role in coal water slurry (CWS) performance, the selection of optimum mill operating parameters is very important. In CWS preparation, how to select the crusher and how to optimize the medium size distribution of a mill are discussed in this paper. To optimize the grinding process, a modified matrix grinding model which includes the relationship between the model parameters and facility performance (power, capacity, etc.) is developed, thus making it possible to predict and optimize the grinding results according to the feed properties and facility performance.

  9. Making the optimal decision in selecting protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of employee dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered, including - Protection; - Personnel Contamination; - Cost; - Radwaste; - Comfort; - Convenience; - Logistics/Rad Material Considerations; - Reject Rate of Laundered Clothing; - Durability; - Security; - Personnel Safety including Heat Stress; - Disposition of Gloves and Booties. In addition, over the last several years there has been a trend of nuclear power plants either running trials or switching to Single Use Protective Clothing (SUPC) from traditional protective clothing. In some cases, after trial usage of SUPC, plants have chosen not to switch. In other cases after switching to SUPC for a period of time, some plants have chosen to switch back to laundering. Based on these observations, this paper reviews the 'real' drivers, issues, and interrelating factors regarding the selection and use of protective clothing throughout the nuclear industry. (authors)

  10. Optimization of thermal processing of canned mussels.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, M R; Salvadori, V O

    2011-10-01

    The design and optimization of thermal processing of solid-liquid food mixtures, such as canned mussels, requires the knowledge of the thermal history at the slowest heating point. In general, this point does not coincide with the geometrical center of the can, and the results show that it is located along the axial axis at a height that depends on the brine content. In this study, a mathematical model for the prediction of the temperature at this point was developed using the discrete transfer function approach. Transfer function coefficients were experimentally obtained, and prediction equations fitted to consider other can dimensions and sampling interval. This model was coupled with an optimization routine in order to search for different retort temperature profiles to maximize a quality index. Both constant retort temperature (CRT) and variable retort temperature (VRT; discrete step-wise and exponential) were considered. In the CRT process, the optimal retort temperature was always between 134 °C and 137 °C, and high values of thiamine retention were achieved. A significant improvement in surface quality index was obtained for optimal VRT profiles compared to optimal CRT. The optimization procedure shown in this study produces results that justify its utilization in the industry.

  11. [Imaging center - optimization of the imaging process].

    PubMed

    Busch, H-P

    2013-04-01

    Hospitals around the world are under increasing pressure to optimize the economic efficiency of treatment processes. Imaging is responsible for a great part of the success but also of the costs of treatment. In routine work an excessive supply of imaging methods leads to an "as well as" strategy up to the limit of the capacity without critical reflection. Exams that have no predictable influence on the clinical outcome are an unjustified burden for the patient. They are useless and threaten the financial situation and existence of the hospital. In recent years the focus of process optimization was exclusively on the quality and efficiency of performed single examinations. In the future critical discussion of the effectiveness of single exams in relation to the clinical outcome will be more important. Unnecessary exams can be avoided, only if in addition to the optimization of single exams (efficiency) there is an optimization strategy for the total imaging process (efficiency and effectiveness). This requires a new definition of processes (Imaging Pathway), new structures for organization (Imaging Center) and a new kind of thinking on the part of the medical staff. Motivation has to be changed from gratification of performed exams to gratification of process quality (medical quality, service quality, economics), including the avoidance of additional (unnecessary) exams.

  12. An optimal GPS data processing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.; Melbourne, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    A formula is derived to optimally combine dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) pseudorange and carrier phase data streams into a single equivalent data stream, reducing the data volume and computing time in the filtering process for parameter estimation by a factor of four. The resulting single data stream is that of carrier phase measurements with both data noise and bias uncertainty strictly defined. With this analytical formula the single stream of equivalent GPS measurements can be efficiently formed by simple numerical calculations without any degradation in data strength. The formulation for the optimally combined GPS data and their covariances are given in closed form. Carrier phase ambiguity resolution, when feasible, is improved due to the preservation of the full data strength with the optimal data combining process.

  13. On the optimization of endoreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescetti, D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is intended for undergraduates and specialists in thermodynamics and related areas. We consider and discuss the optimization of endoreversible thermodynamic processes under the condition of maximum work production. Explicit thermodynamic analyses of the solutions are carried out for the Novikov and Agrawal processes. It is shown that the efficiencies at maximum work production and maximum power output are not necessarily equal. They are for the Novikov process but not for the Agrawal process. The role of the constraints is put into evidence. The physical aspects are enhanced by the simplicity of the involved mathematics.

  14. Optimal Protection of Quantum Coherence in Noisy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyse the quantum coherence dynamics of a single qubit locally interacting with a zero-temperature reservoir. We compare the behaviors of quantum coherence in Markovian and non-Markovian regime. We find that the system coherence is transferred to the reservoir and decreases with time. In non-Markovian regime, quantum coherence exists instantaneous disappearance at some discrete time points. Furthermore, we propose an optimal scheme to protect quantum coherence by executing prior weak measurement and post-measurement reversal. It is worth noticing that the scheme can get better quantum coherence with the larger weak measurement strength, while at the cost of reducing success probability.

  15. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection.

    PubMed

    Lugg, Sebastian T; Howells, Phillip A; Thickett, David R

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection.

  16. Optimization Of A Mass Spectrometry Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Jose; Alegria, F. Correa; Redondo, Luis; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Rocha, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a system developed in order to optimize the mass spectrometry process of an ion implanter. The system uses a PC to control and display the mass spectrum. The operator interacts with the I/O board, that interfaces with the computer and the ion implanter by a LabVIEW code. Experimental results are shown and the capabilities of the system are discussed.

  17. On process optimization considering LCA methodology.

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, Carla; Mussati, Miguel C; Aguirre, Pío

    2012-04-15

    The goal of this work is to research the state-of-the-art in process optimization techniques and tools based on LCA, focused in the process engineering field. A collection of methods, approaches, applications, specific software packages, and insights regarding experiences and progress made in applying the LCA methodology coupled to optimization frameworks is provided, and general trends are identified. The "cradle-to-gate" concept to define the system boundaries is the most used approach in practice, instead of the "cradle-to-grave" approach. Normally, the relationship between inventory data and impact category indicators is linearly expressed by the characterization factors; then, synergic effects of the contaminants are neglected. Among the LCIA methods, the eco-indicator 99, which is based on the endpoint category and the panel method, is the most used in practice. A single environmental impact function, resulting from the aggregation of environmental impacts, is formulated as the environmental objective in most analyzed cases. SimaPro is the most used software for LCA applications in literature analyzed. The multi-objective optimization is the most used approach for dealing with this kind of problems, where the ε-constraint method for generating the Pareto set is the most applied technique. However, a renewed interest in formulating a single economic objective function in optimization frameworks can be observed, favored by the development of life cycle cost software and progress made in assessing costs of environmental externalities. Finally, a trend to deal with multi-period scenarios into integrated LCA-optimization frameworks can be distinguished providing more accurate results upon data availability.

  18. Resist process optimization for further defect reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Iseki, Tomohiro; Marumoto, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Koji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Uemura, Ryouichi; Yoshihara, Kosuke

    2012-03-01

    Defect reduction has become one of the most important technical challenges in device mass-production. Knowing that resist processing on a clean track strongly impacts defect formation in many cases, we have been trying to improve the track process to enhance customer yield. For example, residual type defect and pattern collapse are strongly related to process parameters in developer, and we have reported new develop and rinse methods in the previous papers. Also, we have reported the optimization method of filtration condition to reduce bridge type defects, which are mainly caused by foreign substances such as gels in resist. Even though we have contributed resist caused defect reduction in past studies, defect reduction requirements continue to be very important. In this paper, we will introduce further process improvements in terms of resist defect reduction, including the latest experimental data.

  19. Process parameters optimization in ion exchange 238Pu aqueous processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Nixon, J.; Laurinat, J.; Brock, J.; Silver, G.; Reimus, M.; Ramsey, K. B.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes bench-scale efforts (5-7 grams of 238Pu) to optimize the ion exchange process for 234U separation with minimal 238Pu losses to the effluent and wash liquids. The bench-scale experiments also determine the methodology to be used for the full-scale process: 5 kg238Pu annual throughput. Heat transfer calculations used to determine the thermal gradients expected during ion exchange processing are also described. The calculations were performed in collaboration with Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (WSRTC) and provide information for the design of the full-scale ion exchange equipment.

  20. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  1. Optimal Hamiltonian Simulation by Quantum Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Guang Hao; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-01-01

    The physics of quantum mechanics is the inspiration for, and underlies, quantum computation. As such, one expects physical intuition to be highly influential in the understanding and design of many quantum algorithms, particularly simulation of physical systems. Surprisingly, this has been challenging, with current Hamiltonian simulation algorithms remaining abstract and often the result of sophisticated but unintuitive constructions. We contend that physical intuition can lead to optimal simulation methods by showing that a focus on simple single-qubit rotations elegantly furnishes an optimal algorithm for Hamiltonian simulation, a universal problem that encapsulates all the power of quantum computation. Specifically, we show that the query complexity of implementing time evolution by a d -sparse Hamiltonian H ^ for time-interval t with error ɛ is O [t d ∥H ^ ∥max+log (1 /ɛ ) /log log (1 /ɛ ) ] , which matches lower bounds in all parameters. This connection is made through general three-step "quantum signal processing" methodology, comprised of (i) transducing eigenvalues of H ^ into a single ancilla qubit, (ii) transforming these eigenvalues through an optimal-length sequence of single-qubit rotations, and (iii) projecting this ancilla with near unity success probability.

  2. Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

  3. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  4. Implementation of the Altair optimization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm J.; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2003-02-01

    Altair is the adaptive optics system developed by NRC Canada for the Gemini North Telescope. Altair uses modal control and a quad-cell based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. In order for Altair to adapt to changes in the observing conditions, two optimizers are activated when the AO loop is closed. These optimizers are the modal gain optimizer (MGO) and the centroid gain optimizer (CGO). This paper discusses the implementation and timing results of these optimizers.

  5. Two example applications of optimization techniques to US Department of Energy contractor radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, S.E.; Martin, J.B.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Six numerical examples of optimization of radiation protection are provided in the appendices of ICRP Publication 37. In each case, the calculations are based on fairly well defined parameters and assumptions that were well understood. In this paper, we have examined two numerical examples that are based on empirical data and less certain assumptions. These examples may represent typical applications of optimization principles to the evaluation of specific elements of a radiation protection program. In the first example, the optimum bioassay frequency for tritium workers was found to be once every 95 days, which compared well with ICRP Publication 10 recommendations. However, this result depended heavily on the assumption that the value of a potential undetected rem was US $1000. The second example showed that the optimum frequency for recalibrating Cutie Pie (CP) type ionization chamber survey instruments was once every 102 days, which compared well with the Hanford standard frequency of once every 90 days. This result depended largely on the assumption that an improperly operating CP instrument could lead to a serious overexposure. These examples have led us to conclude that optimization of radiation protection programs must be a very dynamic process. Examples must be recalculated as empirical data expand and improve and as the uncertainties surrounding assumptions are reduced.

  6. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  7. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  8. Solid phase synthesis of partially protected tocinoic acid: optimization with respect to resin and protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Hlavácek, J; Ragnarsson, U

    2001-07-01

    A few solid phase and solution approaches of good repute were applied in parallel with the aim to provide optimized routes to Boc- and Fmoc-tocinoic acid (3a and 3c) and the corresponding Tyr(Bu(t)) derivatives (3b and 3d). Boc-tocinoic acid is known to couple with tripeptide amides to give substituted oxytocin precursors in high yields, requiring only Boc-cleavage to furnish the corresponding hormone analogs with minimal loss of material. For comparison, two protected linear hexapeptides (2a and 2b) were prepared on three polystyrene supports, two with acid-labile handles and one a conventional chloromethylated resin, in yields of 62-82 and 58-76%, respectively. The intermediate 2a could be converted to 3a with physical data in agreement with those earlier reported. Similarly, the intermediate 2b was converted to 3b. The highest yields for both 2a and 2b were obtained with a 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin, which in addition provided advantages with respect to overall speed and convenience. Additional syntheses of 3c and 3d on this and of 3c on SASRIN resin, in conjunction with trityl instead of benzyl for side-chain protection of cysteine, were also elaborated.

  9. Optimal signal processing for continuous qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Shilin; Tsang, Mankei

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of a quantum two-level system, or a qubit in modern terminology, often involves an electromagnetic field that interacts with the qubit, before the field is measured continuously and the qubit state is inferred from the noisy field measurement. During the measurement, the qubit may undergo spontaneous transitions, further obscuring the initial qubit state from the observer. Taking advantage of some well-known techniques in stochastic detection theory, here we propose a signal processing protocol that can infer the initial qubit state optimally from the measurement in the presence of noise and qubit dynamics. Assuming continuous quantum-nondemolition measurements with Gaussian or Poissonian noise and a classical Markov model for the qubit, we derive analytic solutions to the protocol in some special cases of interest using Itō calculus. Our method is applicable to multihypothesis testing for robust qubit readout and relevant to experiments on qubits in superconducting microwave circuits, trapped ions, nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, semiconductor quantum dots, or phosphorus donors in silicon.

  10. Quantifying the Material Processing Conditions for an Optimized FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edgs of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001 in. tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histones along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  11. Unraveling the Material Processing Conditions for Optimizing FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001? tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histories along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  12. Adaptive, predictive controller for optimal process control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.K.; Baum, C.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Buescher, K.L.; Hanagandi, V.M.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Jones, R.D.; Parkinson, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    One can derive a model for use in a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) from first principles or from experimental data. Until recently, both methods failed for all but the simplest processes. First principles are almost always incomplete and fitting to experimental data fails for dimensions greater than one as well as for non-linear cases. Several authors have suggested the use of a neural network to fit the experimental data to a multi-dimensional and/or non-linear model. Most networks, however, use simple sigmoid functions and backpropagation for fitting. Training of these networks generally requires large amounts of data and, consequently, very long training times. In 1993 we reported on the tuning and optimization of a negative ion source using a special neural network[2]. One of the properties of this network (CNLSnet), a modified radial basis function network, is that it is able to fit data with few basis functions. Another is that its training is linear resulting in guaranteed convergence and rapid training. We found the training to be rapid enough to support real-time control. This work has been extended to incorporate this network into an MPC using the model built by the network for predictive control. This controller has shown some remarkable capabilities in such non-linear applications as continuous stirred exothermic tank reactors and high-purity fractional distillation columns[3]. The controller is able not only to build an appropriate model from operating data but also to thin the network continuously so that the model adapts to changing plant conditions. The controller is discussed as well as its possible use in various of the difficult control problems that face this community.

  13. Optimal Conservation Outcomes Require Both Restoration and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Possingham, Hugh P.; Bode, Michael; Klein, Carissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation outcomes are principally achieved through the protection of intact habitat or the restoration of degraded habitat. Restoration is generally considered a lower priority action than protection because protection is thought to provide superior outcomes, at lower costs, without the time delay required for restoration. Yet while it is broadly accepted that protected intact habitat safeguards more biodiversity and generates greater ecosystem services per unit area than restored habitat, conservation lacks a theory that can coherently compare the relative outcomes of the two actions. We use a dynamic landscape model to integrate these two actions into a unified conservation theory of protection and restoration. Using nonlinear benefit functions, we show that both actions are crucial components of a conservation strategy that seeks to optimise either biodiversity conservation or ecosystem services provision. In contrast to conservation orthodoxy, in some circumstances, restoration should be strongly preferred to protection. The relative priority of protection and restoration depends on their costs and also on the different time lags that are inherent to both protection and restoration. We derive a simple and easy-to-interpret heuristic that integrates these factors into a single equation that applies equally to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service objectives. We use two examples to illustrate the theory: bird conservation in tropical rainforests and coastal defence provided by mangrove forests. PMID:25625277

  14. Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam

    2011-01-17

    Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

  15. Application of simulation models for the optimization of business processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jašek, Roman; Sedláček, Michal; Chramcov, Bronislav; Dvořák, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the applications of modeling and simulation tools in the optimization of business processes, especially in solving an optimization of signal flow in security company. As a modeling tool was selected Simul8 software that is used to process modeling based on discrete event simulation and which enables the creation of a visual model of production and distribution processes.

  16. Intelligent Processing Equipment Within the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greathouse, Daniel G.; Nalesnik, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and environmental remediation requires the cooperation, at all levels, of government and industry. Intelligent processing equipment, in addition to other artificial intelligence based tools, was used by the Environmental Protection Agency to provide personnel safety and improve the efficiency of those responsible for protection and remediation of the environment. These exploratory efforts demonstrate the feasibility and utility of expanding development and widespread use of these tools. A survey of current intelligent processing equipment applications in the Agency is presented and is followed by a brief discussion of possible uses in the future.

  17. Optimization of NLC machine parameters for specific physics processes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Kathleen A

    1999-10-11

    We examine the optimization of NLC parameters at 500, 1000, and 1500 GeV c.m. energy for specific classes of physics processes, in particular, top and stop pair production, and W-W scattering processes. Our focus is on optimizing the luminosity spectrum, while maintaining or improving machine operability.

  18. Optimization of thermal protection systems for the space vehicle. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of the computational techniques for the design optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle are discussed. The resulting computer program was then used to perform initial optimization and sensitivity studies on a typical thermal protection system (TPS) to demonstrate its application to the space shuttle TPS design. The program was developed in FORTRAN IV for CDC 6400 computer, but it was subsequently converted to the FORTRAN V language to be used on the Univac 1108.

  19. Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

  20. Extrusion process optimization for toughness in balloon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.; Harrison, I. R.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental optimization process for blown film extrusion is described and examined in terms of the effects of the technique on the toughness of balloon films. The optimization technique by Cantor (1990) is employed which involves the identification of key process variables including screw speed, nip speed, bubble diameter, and frost-line height for analysis to optimize the merit function. The procedure is employed in the extrusion of a low-density polyethylene polymer, and the resulting optimized materials are toughness- and puncture-tested. Balloon toughness is optimized in the analytical relationship, and the process parameters are modified to attain optimal toughness. The film produced is shown to have an average toughness of 24.5 MPa which is a good value for this key property of balloon materials for high-altitude flights.

  1. Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Memo No. 88-442 ~LECTE March 1988 31988 %,.. MvAY 1 98 0) PROCESS MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION USING STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Emmanuel...Sachs and George Prueger Abstract A methodology is presented for the construction of process models by the combination of physically based mechanistic...253-8138. .% I " Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design" by Emanuel Sachs Assistant Professor and George

  2. Measurement and optimization of electrical process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tuck-Boon; Kagalwalla, Abde Ali; Gupta, Puneet

    2010-03-01

    Process window (PW) is a collection of values of process parameters that allow circuit to be printed and to operate under desired specifications. Conventional process window which is determined through geometrical fidelity, geometric process window (GPW), does not account for lithography effects on electrical metrics such as delay and power. In contrast to GPW, this paper introduces electrical process window (EPW) which accounts for electrical specifications. Process parameters are considered within EPW if the performance (delay and leakage power) of printed circuit is within desired specifications. Our experiment results show that the area of EPW is 1.5~6x larger than that of GPW. This implies that even if a layout falls outside geometric tolerance, the electrical performance of the circuit may satisfy desired specifications. In addition to process window evaluation, we show that EPW can be enlarged by 10% on average using gate length biasing and Vth push. We also propose approximate methods to evaluate EPW, which can be used in the absence of any design information. Our results show that the proposed approximation method can estimate more than 80% of the area of reference EPW.

  3. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-06-18

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  4. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  5. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  6. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  7. Optimal Stationary Linear Control of the Wiener Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    OPTIMAL STATIONARY LINEAR CONTROL OF THE WIENER PROCESS. (U) FES 80 V E BENES. I KARATZAS AFOSR-76-3063 UNCLASSIFIED AFOSR -TR-8O-0338 NL...mElllllllllll mhmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmr( EFOSR-TR- 2 0-0S8 0 3 OPTIMAL STATIONARY LINEAR CONTROL OF THE WIENER PROCESS by LEVEL CVACLAV E. BENES Bell Telephone...or " DIst. special D U L I. F UNCLASSIFIED _ _ _ , ,_I_ _ _ _ _ _. OPTIMAL STATIONARY LINEAR CONTROL OF TIlE WIENER PROCESS V’aclav E. Benes and

  8. A design optimization process for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Fox, George; Duquette, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is used to develop and implement a process for design optimization. Because the relative worth of arbitrary design concepts cannot be assessed directly, comparisons must be based on designs that provide the same performance from the point of view of station users; such designs can be compared in terms of life cycle cost. Since the technology required to produce a space station is widely dispersed, a decentralized optimization process is essential. A formulation of the optimization process is provided and the mathematical models designed to facilitate its implementation are described.

  9. Process optimization for continuous extrusion wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Carella, Anthony J; Ren, Yukun; Lo, Julian B

    2011-08-01

    Three granulating binders in high drug-load acetaminophen blends were evaluated using high shear granulation and extrusion granulation. A polymethacrylate binder enhanced tablet tensile strength with rapid disintegration in simulated gastric fluid, whereas polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroxypropyl cellulose binders produced less desirable tablets. Using the polymethacrylate binder, the extrusion granulation process was studied regarding the effects of granulating liquid, injection rate and screw speed on granule properties. A full factorial experimental design was conducted to allow the statistical analysis of interactions between extrusion process parameters. Response variables considered in the study included extruder power consumption (screw loading), granule bulk/tapped density, particle size distribution, tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution.

  10. Optimal control of the sweeping process over polyhedral controlled sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, G.; Henrion, R.; Nguyen, D. Hoang; Mordukhovich, B. S.

    2016-02-01

    The paper addresses a new class of optimal control problems governed by the dissipative and discontinuous differential inclusion of the sweeping/Moreau process while using controls to determine the best shape of moving convex polyhedra in order to optimize the given Bolza-type functional, which depends on control and state variables as well as their velocities. Besides the highly non-Lipschitzian nature of the unbounded differential inclusion of the controlled sweeping process, the optimal control problems under consideration contain intrinsic state constraints of the inequality and equality types. All of this creates serious challenges for deriving necessary optimality conditions. We develop here the method of discrete approximations and combine it with advanced tools of first-order and second-order variational analysis and generalized differentiation. This approach allows us to establish constructive necessary optimality conditions for local minimizers of the controlled sweeping process expressed entirely in terms of the problem data under fairly unrestrictive assumptions. As a by-product of the developed approach, we prove the strong W 1 , 2-convergence of optimal solutions of discrete approximations to a given local minimizer of the continuous-time system and derive necessary optimality conditions for the discrete counterparts. The established necessary optimality conditions for the sweeping process are illustrated by several examples.

  11. Young children's beliefs about the stability of traits: protective optimism?

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Kristi L; Chang, Bernard; Story, Tyler

    2002-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated individual differences in children's beliefs about the stability of traits, but this focus on individuals may have masked important developmental differences. In a series of four studies, younger children (5-6 years old, Ns = 53, 32, 16, and 16, respectively) were more optimistic in their beliefs about traits than were older children (7-10 years old, Ns = 60, 32, 16, and 16, respectively) and adults (Ns = 130, 100, 48, and 48, respectively). Younger children were more likely to believe that negative traits would change in an extreme positive direction over time (Study 1) and that they could control the expression of a trait (Study 3). This was true not only for psychological traits, but also for biological traits such as missing a finger and having poor eyesight. Young children also optimistically believed that extreme positive traits would be retained over development (Study 2). Study 4 extended these findings to groups, and showed that young children believed that a majority of people can have above average future outcomes. All age groups made clear distinctions between the malleability of biological and psychological traits, believing negative biological traits to be less malleable than negative psychological traits and less subject to a person's control. Hybrid traits (such as intelligence and body weight) fell midway between these two with respect to malleability. The sources of young children's optimism and implications of this optimism for age differences in the incidence of depression are discussed.

  12. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  13. Suborbital spaceplane optimization using non-stationary Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Robin; de Muelenaere, Julien; Elham, Ali

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents multidisciplinary design optimization of a sub-orbital spaceplane. The optimization includes three disciplines: the aerodynamics, the structure and the trajectory. An Adjoint Euler code is used to calculate the aerodynamic lift and drag of the vehicle as well as their derivatives with respect to the design variables. A new surrogate model has been developed based on a non-stationary Gaussian process. That model was used to estimate the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle during the trajectory optimization. The trajectory of thevehicle has been optimized together with its geometry in order to maximize the amount of payload that can be carried by the spaceplane.

  14. Process sequence optimization for digital microfluidic integration using EWOD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Supriya; Joyce, Robin; Sharma, Akash Kumar; Sharma, Himani; Sharma, Niti Nipun; Varghese, Soney; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Micro/nano-fluidic MEMS biosensors are the devices that detects the biomolecules. The emerging micro/nano-fluidic devices provide high throughput and high repeatability with very low response time and reduced device cost as compared to traditional devices. This article presents the experimental details for process sequence optimization of digital microfluidics (DMF) using "electrowetting-on-dielectric" (EWOD). Stress free thick film deposition of silicon dioxide using PECVD and subsequent process for EWOD techniques have been optimized in this work.

  15. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    PubMed

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased.

  16. Comprehensive process monitoring for laser welding process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritt, P.; Boley, M.; Heider, A.; Fetzer, F.; Jarwitz, M.; Weller, D.; Weber, R.; Berger, P.; Graf, T.

    2016-03-01

    Fundamental process monitoring is very helpful to detect defects formed during the complex interactions of capillary laser welding process. Beside the monitoring and diagnostics of laser welding process enlarges the process knowledge which is essential to prevent weld defects. Various studies on monitoring of laser welding processes of aluminum, copper and steel were performed. Coaxial analyses in real-time with inline coherent imaging and photodiode based measurements have been applied as well as off-axis thermography, spectroscopy, online X-Ray observation and highspeed imaging with 808 nm illumination wavelength. The presented diagnostics and monitoring methods were appropriate to study typical weld defects like pores, spatters and cracks. Using these diagnostics allows understanding the formation of such defects and developing strategies to prevent them.

  17. Optimization in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmerman, Loren A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential elements of the design process consist of the mission definition phase that provides the system requirements, the conceptual design, the preliminary design and finally the detailed design. Mission definition is performed largely by operations analysts in conjunction with the customer. The result of their study is handed off to the systems engineers for documentation as the systems requirements. The document that provides these requirements is the basis for the further design work of the design engineers at the Lockheed-Georgia Company. The design phase actually begins with conceptual design, which is generally conducted by a small group of engineers using multidisciplinary design programs. Because of the complexity of the design problem, the analyses are relatively simple and generally dependent on parametric analyses of the configuration. The result of this phase is a baseline configuration from which preliminary design may be initiated.

  18. Optimization in the systems engineering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmerman, Loren A.

    The essential elements of the design process consist of the mission definition phase that provides the system requirements, the conceptual design, the preliminary design and finally the detailed design. Mission definition is performed largely by operations analysts in conjunction with the customer. The result of their study is handed off to the systems engineers for documentation as the systems requirements. The document that provides these requirements is the basis for the further design work of the design engineers at the Lockheed-Georgia Company. The design phase actually begins with conceptual design, which is generally conducted by a small group of engineers using multidisciplinary design programs. Because of the complexity of the design problem, the analyses are relatively simple and generally dependent on parametric analyses of the configuration. The result of this phase is a baseline configuration from which preliminary design may be initiated.

  19. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  20. Optimal design of upstream processes in biotransformation technologies.

    PubMed

    Dheskali, Endrit; Michailidi, Katerina; de Castro, Aline Machado; Koutinas, Apostolis A; Kookos, Ioannis K

    2017-01-01

    In this work a mathematical programming model for the optimal design of the bioreaction section of biotechnological processes is presented. Equations for the estimation of the equipment cost derived from a recent publication by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are also summarized. The cost-optimal design of process units and the optimal scheduling of their operation can be obtained using the proposed formulation that has been implemented in software available from the journal web page or the corresponding author. The proposed optimization model can be used to quantify the effects of decisions taken at a lab scale on the industrial scale process economics. It is of paramount important to note that this can be achieved at the early stage of the development of a biotechnological project. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the usefulness and potential of the proposed methodology.

  1. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  2. Beyond incompatibility: integrating process for optimal performance.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, M

    1997-01-01

    Organizations are bringing disparate groups together to cut costs and integrate services. Ironically, they are finding the very people they look to for success are those who were used to working independently. At a breakout session of the Congress of Integrated Delivery Systems held in Dallas in March, 1997, participants were asked to share some of their real-world experiences as they worked toward integration. Mission statements tend to be at the head of the list for most organizations as they strive to integrate. Not all the participants agreed on their value, however. The success of reengineering depends on many factors. Is the facility fully behind the initiative? Is the team cohesive and focused? One participant pointed out that leadership was a problem: the staff was not empowered and in the end, the organization was leaderless--someone has to take control, this manager stated. Some groups have found that starting with a clean slate is helpful, particularly if the whole operation is flawed. Another manager felt that wiping the slate clean is not always the answer. Some industries have always looked at business along product lines and now healthcare is attempting to do the same. Will it work? One participant answered that this view has helped her organization see who their patients are. Another insists it has facilitated teamwork between disciplines. All would agree that communication is critical. Most agree that e-mail is a good tool and to some, it is invaluable. Slowly but surely, each organization will have to learn how to integrate its own processes and services.

  3. Economic optimization of natural hazard protection - conceptual study of existing approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their

  4. Mars Soil-Based Resource Processing and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Mueller, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into products and services, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have significant benefits for robotic and human exploration missions. In particular, the ability to use in situ resources to make propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables has been shown in studies to significantly reduce mission mass, cost, and risk, while enhancing or enabling missions not possible without the incorporation of ISRU. In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study. For the first time in a large scale Mars architecture study, water from Mars soil was considered as a potential resource. At the time of the study, knowledge of water resources (their form, concentration, and distribution) was extremely limited. Also, due to lack of understanding of how to apply planetary protection rules and requirements to ISRU soil-based excavation and processing, an extremely conservative approach was incorporated where only the top several centimeters of ultraviolet (UV) radiated soil could be processed (assumed to be 3% water by mass). While results of the Mars DRA 5.0 study showed that combining atmosphere processing to make oxygen and methane with soil processing to extract water provided the lowest mission mass, atmosphere processing to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen was baselined for the mission since it was the lowest power and risk option. With increased knowledge and further clarification of Mars planetary protection rules, and the recent release of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) report on "Special Regions and the Human Exploration of Mars", it is time to reexamine potential water resources on Mars, options for soil processing to extract water, and the implications with respect to planetary protection and Special Regions on Mars.

  5. Maximizing the efficiency of multienzyme process by stoichiometry optimization.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Pavel; Kurumbang, Nagendra P; Bendl, Jaroslav; Brezovsky, Jan; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri

    2014-09-05

    Multienzyme processes represent an important area of biocatalysis. Their efficiency can be enhanced by optimization of the stoichiometry of the biocatalysts. Here we present a workflow for maximizing the efficiency of a three-enzyme system catalyzing a five-step chemical conversion. Kinetic models of pathways with wild-type or engineered enzymes were built, and the enzyme stoichiometry of each pathway was optimized. Mathematical modeling and one-pot multienzyme experiments provided detailed insights into pathway dynamics, enabled the selection of a suitable engineered enzyme, and afforded high efficiency while minimizing biocatalyst loadings. Optimizing the stoichiometry in a pathway with an engineered enzyme reduced the total biocatalyst load by an impressive 56 %. Our new workflow represents a broadly applicable strategy for optimizing multienzyme processes.

  6. Optimal point process filtering and estimation of the coalescent process.

    PubMed

    Parag, Kris V; Pybus, Oliver G

    2017-04-03

    The coalescent process is a widely used approach for inferring the demographic history of a population, from samples of its genetic diversity. Several parametric and non-parametric coalescent inference methods, involving Markov chain Monte Carlo, Gaussian processes, and other algorithms, already exist. However, these techniques are not always easy to adapt and apply, thus creating a need for alternative methodologies. We introduce the Bayesian Snyder filter as an easily implementable and flexible minimum mean square error estimator for parametric demographic functions on fixed genealogies. By reinterpreting the coalescent as a self-exciting Markov process, we show that the Snyder filter can be applied to both isochronously and heterochronously sampled datasets. We analytically solve the filter equations for the constant population size Kingman coalescent, derive expressions for its mean squared estimation error, and estimate its robustness to prior distribution specification. For populations with deterministically time-varying size we numerically solve the Snyder equations, and test this solution on common demographic models. We find that the Snyder filter accurately recovers the true demographic history for these models. We also apply the filter to a well-studied, dataset of hepatitis C virus sequences and show that the filter compares well to a popular phylodynamic inference method. The Snyder filter is an exact (given discretised priors, it does not approximate the posterior) and direct Bayesian estimation method that has the potential to become a useful alternative tool for coalescent inference.

  7. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

  8. Optimal finite-time processes in stochastic thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Schmiedl, Tim; Seifert, Udo

    2007-03-09

    For a small system like a colloidal particle or a single biomolecule embedded in a heat bath, the optimal protocol of an external control parameter minimizes the mean work required to drive the system from one given equilibrium state to another in a finite time. In general, this optimal protocol obeys an integro-differential equation. Explicit solutions both for a moving laser trap and a time-dependent strength of such a trap show finite jumps of the optimal protocol to be typical both at the beginning and at the end of the process.

  9. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    of issues across contract boundaries is a more difficult matter. This aspect, one of a seamless systems approach to the treatment of tank wastes at the Hanford site, is the focus of the Optimization Studies. This ''big O''Optimization of Life-Cycle operations is what is meant when the term ''optimization'' is used on the River Protection Project and initiatives cited in this paper. From the early contractor centric methods and processes used to move toward an integrated solution, through extensive partnering approaches, to the current quality initiatives with multi-organizational participation, significant progress is being made towards achieving the goal of truly integrated life-cycle optimization for the Department of Energy's River Protection Project and Waste Treatment Plant.

  10. Beauty of Simplicity: Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Liquefaction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andress, D. L.; Watkins, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    Paper describes how use of single component refrigerants yields an LNG liquefaction process that is safe, simple to operate, easy to understand, and robust in reliability. The 34-year operating history of Kenai LNG has proven the inherent advantages of the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process. The paper is written from an operational point of view, and describes basic design parameters and operation of the processes.

  11. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  12. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Khurana, M. K.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the application of Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis to optimize the process parameters of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of AISI 1020 carbon steels for multiple quality characteristics (bead width, bead height, weld penetration and heat affected zone). An orthogonal array of L9 has been implemented to fabrication of joints. The experiments have been conducted according to the combination of voltage (V), current (A) and welding speed (Ws). The results revealed that the welding speed is most significant process parameter. By analyzing the grey relational grades, optimal parameters are obtained and significant factors are known using ANOVA analysis. The welding parameters such as speed, welding current and voltage have been optimized for material AISI 1020 using GMAW process. To fortify the robustness of experimental design, a confirmation test was performed at selected optimal process parameter setting. Observations from this method may be useful for automotive sub-assemblies, shipbuilding and vessel fabricators and operators to obtain optimal welding conditions.

  13. Optimizing a Laser Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Holmes, William

    2010-01-01

    A systematic experimental study has been performed to determine the effects of each of the operating conditions in a double-pulse laser ablation process that is used to produce single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The comprehensive data compiled in this study have been analyzed to recommend conditions for optimizing the process and scaling up the process for mass production. The double-pulse laser ablation process for making SWCNTs was developed by Rice University researchers. Of all currently known nanotube-synthesizing processes (arc and chemical vapor deposition), this process yields the greatest proportion of SWCNTs in the product material. The aforementioned process conditions are important for optimizing the production of SWCNTs and scaling up production. Reports of previous research (mostly at Rice University) toward optimization of process conditions mention effects of oven temperature and briefly mention effects of flow conditions, but no systematic, comprehensive study of the effects of process conditions was done prior to the study described here. This was a parametric study, in which several production runs were carried out, changing one operating condition for each run. The study involved variation of a total of nine parameters: the sequence of the laser pulses, pulse-separation time, laser pulse energy density, buffer gas (helium or nitrogen instead of argon), oven temperature, pressure, flow speed, inner diameter of the flow tube, and flow-tube material.

  14. Optimal Discounted Linear Control of the Wiener Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    1r~~ ~~ • 7 ~O—AO7 8 ~87 BROWN UNIV PROVIDENCE R I LEFSCHETZ CENTER FOR DYNAM— ETC F/s IUt I OPTIMAL DISCOUNTED LINEAR CONTROL OF THE WIENER...4I • —~~~~~ A — --a -I’ p.posa-ra- 79~~ 124 9 OPTIMAL DISCOU NTED LINEAR CONTROL OF THE WIENER PROCESS~ by -J loannis Kara t:as Lefsche tz Center for...DISCOUNTED LINEAR CONTROL OF THE WIENER PROCESS~ loannis Karat zas ABSTRACT The following stochastic control problem is considered

  15. Verifying and Validating Proposed Models for FSW Process Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and the attempts to model the process in order to optimize and improve the process. The studies are ongoing to validate and refine the model of metal flow in the FSW process. There are slides showing the conventional FSW process, a couple of weld tool designs and how the design interacts with the metal flow path. The two basic components of the weld tool are shown, along with geometries of the shoulder design. Modeling of the FSW process is reviewed. Other topics include (1) Microstructure features, (2) Flow Streamlines, (3) Steady-state Nature, and (4) Grain Refinement Mechanisms

  16. Towards an Optimized Coupling-loss Induced Quench Protection System (CLIQ) for Quadrupole Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaioli, Emmanuele; Datskov, Vladimir I.; Desbiolles, Vincent; Feuvrier, Jerome; Kirby, Glyn; Maciejewski, Michal; Sperin, Kevin A.; ten Kate, Herman H. J.; Verweij, Arjan P.; Willering, Gerard

    The recently developed Coupling-Loss-Induced Quench (CLIQ) protection system is a new method for initiating a fast and voluminous transition to the normal state for protecting high energy density superconducting magnets. Its simple and robust electrical design, its lower failure rate, and its more efficient energy deposition mechanism make CLIQ often preferable to other conventional quench protection methods. The system is now implemented for the protection of a two meter long superconducting quadrupole model magnet and as such fully characterized in the CERN magnet test facility. Test results convincingly show that CLIQ allows for a more global quench initiation and thus a faster discharge of the magnet energy than conventional quench heaters. Nevertheless, the CLIQ performance is strongly affected by the length of the magnet to protect, hence an optimization is required for effective application to full-size magnets. A series of measures for the optimization of a quench protection system for a quadrupole magnet based on CLIQ is outlined here. The impact of various key parameters on CLIQ's performance, the most efficient CLIQ configuration, and the advantage of installing multiple CLIQ units are assessed.

  17. System Design Support by Optimization Method Using Stochastic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Yoshio

    We proposed the new optimization method based on stochastic process. The characteristics of this method are to obtain the approximate solution of the optimum solution as an expected value. In numerical calculation, a kind of Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the solution because of stochastic process. Then, it can obtain the probability distribution of the design variable because it is generated in the probability that design variables were in proportion to the evaluation function value. This probability distribution shows the influence of design variables on the evaluation function value. This probability distribution is the information which is very useful for the system design. In this paper, it is shown the proposed method is useful for not only the optimization but also the system design. The flight trajectory optimization problem for the hang-glider is shown as an example of the numerical calculation.

  18. Visualization System Requirements for Data Processing Pipeline Design and Optimization.

    PubMed

    von Landesberger, Tatiana; Fellner, Dieter; Ruddle, Roy

    2016-08-25

    The rising quantity and complexity of data creates a need to design and optimize data processing pipelines - the set of data processing steps, parameters and algorithms that perform operations on the data. Visualization can support this process but, although there are many examples of systems for visual parameter analysis, there remains a need to systematically assess users' requirements and match those requirements to exemplar visualization methods. This article presents a new characterization of the requirements for pipeline design and optimization. This characterization is based on both a review of the literature and first-hand assessment of eight application case studies. We also match these requirements with exemplar functionality provided by existing visualization tools. Thus, we provide end-users and visualization developers with a way of identifying functionality that addresses data processing problems in an application. We also identify seven future challenges for visualization research that are not met by the capabilities of today's systems.

  19. Multi-Objective Optimization for Alumina Laser Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, E. M.; Elmesalamy, A. S.; Sobih, M.; Elshaer, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser sintering processes has become one of the most popular additive manufacturing processes due to its flexibility in creation of complex components. This process has many interacting parameters, which have a significant influence on the process output. In this work, high purity alumina is sintered through a pulsed Nd:YAG laser sintering process. The aim of this work is to understand the effect of relevant sintering process parameters (laser power and laser scanning speed) on the quality of the sintered layer (layer surface roughness, layer thickness and vector/line width, and density). Design of experiments and statistical modeling techniques are employed to optimize the process control factors and to establish a relationship between these factors and output responses. Model results have been verified through experimental work and show reasonable prediction of process responses within the limits of sintering parameters.

  20. The research on aging failure rate and optimization estimation of protective relay under haze conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-kang; Zhou, Meng-ran; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Pei-qiang; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In the fog and haze, the air contains large amounts of H2S, SO2, SO3 and other acids, air conductivity is greatly improved, the relative humidity is also greatly increased, Power transmission lines and electrical equipment in such an environment will increase in the long-running failure ratedecrease the sensitivity of the detection equipment, impact protection device reliability. Weibull distribution is widely used in component failure distribution fitting. It proposes a protection device aging failure rate estimation method based on the least squares method and the iterative method,.Combined with a regional power grid statistics, computing protective equipment failure rate function. Binding characteristics of electrical equipment operation status under haze conditions, optimization methods, get more in line with aging protection equipment failure under conditions of haze characteristics.

  1. An atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchevskii, V. M.; Kislov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    Matters concerned with development of methodical and mathematical support for an atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system are considered taking as an example the problem of controlling nitrogen oxide emissions at a gas-and-oil-fired thermal power station. The combined environmental-and-economic characteristics of boilers, which correlate the costs for suppressing emissions with the boiler steam load and mass discharge of nitrogen oxides in analytic form, are used as the main tool for optimal control. A procedure for constructing and applying environmental-and-economic characteristics on the basis of technical facilities available in modern instrumentation and control systems is presented.

  2. Optimal Signal Processing of Frequency-Stepped CW Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, Gary A.; Wu, Shawkang M.; Bilbro, Griff L.; Ardalan, Sasan H.; Hearn, Chase P.; Neece, Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    An optimal signal processing algorithm is derived for estimating the time delay and amplitude of each scatterer reflection using a frequency-stepped CW system. The channel is assumed to be composed of abrupt changes in the reflection coefficient profile. The optimization technique is intended to maximize the target range resolution achievable from any set of frequency-stepped CW radar measurements made in such an environment. The algorithm is composed of an iterative two-step procedure. First, the amplitudes of the echoes are optimized by solving an overdetermined least squares set of equations. Then, a nonlinear objective function is scanned in an organized fashion to find its global minimum. The result is a set of echo strengths and time delay estimates. Although this paper addresses the specific problem of resolving the time delay between the first two echoes, the derivation is general in the number of echoes. Performance of the optimization approach is illustrated using measured data obtained from an HP-X510 network analyzer. It is demonstrated that the optimization approach offers a significant resolution enhancement over the standard processing approach that employs an IFFT. Degradation in the performance of the algorithm due to suboptimal model order selection and the effects of additive white Gaussion noise are addressed.

  3. Optimal Signal Processing of Frequency-Stepped CW Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, Gary A.; Wu, Shawkang M.; Bilbro, Griff L.; Ardalan, Sasan H.; Hearn, Chase P.; Neece, Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    An optimal signal processing algorithm is derived for estimating the time delay and amplitude of each scatterer reflection using a frequency-stepped CW system. The channel is assumed to be composed of abrupt changes in the reflection coefficient profile. The optimization technique is intended to maximize the target range resolution achievable from any set of frequency-stepped CW radar measurements made in such an environment. The algorithm is composed of an iterative two-step procedure. First, the amplitudes of the echoes are optimized by solving an overdetermined least squares set of equations. Then, a nonlinear objective function is scanned in an organized fashion to find its global minimum. The result is a set of echo strengths and time delay estimates. Although this paper addresses the specific problem of resolving the time delay between the two echoes, the derivation is general in the number of echoes. Performance of the optimization approach is illustrated using measured data obtained from an HP-851O network analyzer. It is demonstrated that the optimization approach offers a significant resolution enhancement over the standard processing approach that employs an IFFT. Degradation in the performance of the algorithm due to suboptimal model order selection and the effects of additive white Gaussion noise are addressed.

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Optimization of Risk Protection Under Budget Constraints.

    PubMed

    Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is commonly applied as a tool for deciding on risk protection. With CBA, one can identify risk mitigation strategies that lead to an optimal tradeoff between the costs of the mitigation measures and the achieved risk reduction. In practical applications of CBA, the strategies are typically evaluated through efficiency indicators such as the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and the marginal cost (MC) criterion. In many of these applications, the BCR is not consistently defined, which, as we demonstrate in this article, can lead to the identification of suboptimal solutions. This is of particular relevance when the overall budget for risk reduction measures is limited and an optimal allocation of resources among different subsystems is necessary. We show that this problem can be formulated as a hierarchical decision problem, where the general rules and decisions on the available budget are made at a central level (e.g., central government agency, top management), whereas the decisions on the specific measures are made at the subsystem level (e.g., local communities, company division). It is shown that the MC criterion provides optimal solutions in such hierarchical optimization. Since most practical applications only include a discrete set of possible risk protection measures, the MC criterion is extended to this situation. The findings are illustrated through a hypothetical numerical example. This study was prepared as part of our work on the optimal management of natural hazard risks, but its conclusions also apply to other fields of risk management.

  5. [Hygienic optimization of the use of chemical protective means on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Pankova, V B; Elizarov, B B; Mezentsev, A P; Komleva, E A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents data characterizing the working conditions of railway workers. It shows that there is the greatest levels of noise and vibration, the burden and intensity of work. The worst working conditions are noted in energy supply, car, locomotive services and track facilities. The working conditions determine a significant industrial risk of railway workers since the prevention of health abnormalities by using chemical protective means is a topical problem. The priority lines of hygienic rationale for optimization the choice and use of chemical protective means for workers exposed to occupational hazards are determined.

  6. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  7. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  8. Automated electrochemical assembly of the protected potential TMG-chitotriomycin precursor based on rational optimization of the carbohydrate building block.

    PubMed

    Nokami, Toshiki; Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Takaiso, Aki; Hayase, Shuichi; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Ryutaro; Shimizu, Akihiro; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2015-03-20

    The anomeric arylthio group and the hydroxyl-protecting groups of thioglycosides were optimized to construct carbohydrate building blocks for automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis of oligoglucosamines having 1,4-β-glycosidic linkages. The optimization study included density functional theory calculations, measurements of the oxidation potentials, and the trial synthesis of the chitotriose trisaccharide. The automated synthesis of the protected potential N,N,N-trimethyl-d-glucosaminylchitotriomycin precursor was accomplished by using the optimized building block.

  9. An optimal GPS data processing technique for precise positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sien-Chong; Melbourne, William G.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical formula to optimally combine dual-frequency GPS pseudorange and carrier phase (integrated Doppler) data streams into a single data stream is derived in closed form. The data combination reduces the data volume and computing time in the filtering process for parameter estimation by a factor of 4 while preserving the full data strength for precise positioning. The resulting single data stream is that of carrier phase measurements with both data noise and bias uncertainty strictly defined. With this mathematical formula the single stream of optimally combined GPS measurements can be efficiently formed by simple numerical calculations. Carrier phase ambiguity resolution, when feasible, is strengthened due to the preserved full data strength with the optimally combined data and the resulting longer wavelength for the ambiguity to be resolved.

  10. Optimization of Forming Processes in Microstructure Sensitive Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmestani, H.; Li, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    Optimization of the forming processes from initial microstructures of raw materials to desired microstructures of final products is an important topic in materials design. Processing path model proposed in this study gives an explicit mathematical solution about how the microstructure evolves during thermomechanical processing. Based on a conservation principle in the orientation space (originally proposed by Bunge), this methodology is independent of the underlying deformation mechanisms. The evolutions of texture coefficients are modeled using a texture evolution matrix calculated from the experimental results. For the same material using the same processing method, the texture evolution matrix is the same. It does not change with the initial texture. This processing path model provides functions of processing paths and streamlines.

  11. Optimal design of the satellite constellation arrangement reconfiguration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Bakhtiari, Majid; Soleymani, Mahshid

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a novel approach is introduced for the satellite constellation reconfiguration based on Lambert's theorem. Some critical problems are raised in reconfiguration phase, such as overall fuel cost minimization, collision avoidance between the satellites on the final orbital pattern, and necessary maneuvers for the satellites in order to be deployed in the desired position on the target constellation. To implement the reconfiguration phase of the satellite constellation arrangement at minimal cost, the hybrid Invasive Weed Optimization/Particle Swarm Optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm is used to design sub-optimal transfer orbits for the satellites existing in the constellation. Also, the dynamic model of the problem will be modeled in such a way that, optimal assignment of the satellites to the initial and target orbits and optimal orbital transfer are combined in one step. Finally, we claim that our presented idea i.e. coupled non-simultaneous flight of satellites from the initial orbital pattern will lead to minimal cost. The obtained results show that by employing the presented method, the cost of reconfiguration process is reduced obviously.

  12. Optimal Management Strategy for Groundwater Protection and Restoration Along with Discussions on Related Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.

    2003-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater systems is an increasingly critical problem. The limited available resources or budget for groundwater protection and restoration and sustainable development in a country or region require a corresponding strategy for groundwater protection and restoration to maximize resource or budget utilization and minimize an adverse impact on the sustainable development. An innovative strategy for groundwater protection and restoration has been established based on the optimization principles and considerations of both risk assessments of groundwater contamination and difficulties or costs of groundwater remediation and protection measures. Site investigations and groundwater modeling are two critical components to implement this strategy. Cost for groundwater protection and restoration can be categorized as Existing Contaminated Site Investigation Cost (ECSIC), Existing Contaminated Site Remediation Cost (ECSRC), Projected Contamination Site Investigation Cost (PCSIC), Projected Contamination Site Protection Cost (PCSPC), and Projected Contamination Site Remediation Cost (PCSRC). The objective function for optimization analyses consists of risk reduction components with variables of the above different costs from all individual site remediation and protection measures. The optimal distribution of the limited available resources is determined by such proper selections of those variables that the objective function reaches its maximum. Several important issues related to implementations of the strategy for groundwater protection and restoration are discussed. Those issues include uncertainty from aquifer heterogeneity, modeling for fractured geologic media, irreversible sorption, and implementations of natural attenuation. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations through a numerical flow and transport model can be performed to develop a heterogeneity dispersivity matrix to account for the effects of different attributes of aquifer heterogeneity. In

  13. Plasma sprayed manganese-cobalt spinel coatings: Process sensitivity on phase, electrical and protective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Su Jung; Pala, Zdenek; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Manganese cobalt spinel (Mn1.5Co1.5O4, MCO) coatings are prepared by the air plasma spray (APS) process to examine their efficacy in serving as protective coatings from Cr-poisoning of the cathode side in intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). These complex oxides are susceptible to process induced stoichiometric and phase changes which affect their functional performance. To critically examine these effects, MCO coatings are produced with deliberate modifications to the spray process parameters to explore relationship among process conditions, microstructure and functional properties. The resultant interplay among particle thermal and kinetic energies are captured through process maps, which serve to characterize the parametric effects on properties. The results show significant changes to the chemistry and phase composition of the deposited material resulting from preferential evaporation of oxygen. Post deposition annealing recovers oxygen in the coatings and allows partial recovery of the spinel phase, which is confirmed through thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and magnetic hysteresis measurements. In addition, coatings with high density after sintering show excellent electrical conductivity of 40 S cm-1 at 800 °C while simultaneously providing requisite protection characteristics against Cr-poisoning. This study provides a framework for optimal evaluation of MCO coatings in intermediate temperature SOFCs.

  14. Optimization of a reversible hood for protecting a pedestrian's head during car collisions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sunan; Yang, Jikuang

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated and optimized the performance of a reversible hood (RH) for the prevention of the head injuries of an adult pedestrian from car collisions. The FE model of a production car front was introduced and validated. The baseline RH was developed from the original hood in the validated car front model. In order to evaluate the protective performance of the baseline RH, the FE models of an adult headform and a 50th percentile human head were used in parallel to impact the baseline RH. Based on the evaluation, the response surface method was applied to optimize the RH in terms of the material stiffness, lifting speed, and lifted height. Finally, the headform model and the human head model were again used to evaluate the protective performance of the optimized RH. It was found that the lifted baseline RH can obviously reduce the impact responses of the headform model and the human head model by comparing with the retracted and lifting baseline RH. When the optimized RH was lifted, the HIC values of the headform model and the human head model were further reduced to much lower than 1000. The risk of pedestrian head injuries can be prevented as required by EEVC WG17.

  15. Optimizing The DSSC Fabrication Process Using Lean Six Sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauss, Brian

    Alternative energy technologies must become more cost effective to achieve grid parity with fossil fuels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an innovative third generation photovoltaic technology, which is demonstrating tremendous potential to become a revolutionary technology due to recent breakthroughs in cost of fabrication. The study here focused on quality improvement measures undertaken to improve fabrication of DSSCs and enhance process efficiency and effectiveness. Several quality improvement methods were implemented to optimize the seven step individual DSSC fabrication processes. Lean Manufacturing's 5S method successfully increased efficiency in all of the processes. Six Sigma's DMAIC methodology was used to identify and eliminate each of the root causes of defects in the critical titanium dioxide deposition process. These optimizations resulted with the following significant improvements in the production process: 1. fabrication time of the DSSCs was reduced by 54 %; 2. fabrication procedures were improved to the extent that all critical defects in the process were eliminated; 3. the quantity of functioning DSSCs fabricated was increased from 17 % to 90 %.

  16. Characterizations of Overtaking Optimality for Controlled Diffusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jasso-Fuentes, Hector Hernandez-Lerma, Onesimo

    2008-06-15

    In this paper we give conditions for (the existence and) several characterizations of overtaking optimal policies for a general class of controlled diffusion processes. Our characterization results are of a lexicographical type; namely, first we identify the class of so-called canonical policies, and then within this class we search for policies with some special feature-for instance, canonical policies that in addition maximize the bias.

  17. Process optimization electrospinning fibrous material based on polyhydroxybutyrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Tyubaeva, P. M.; Staroverova, O. V.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.; Ischenko, A. A.; Iordanskii, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The article analyzes the influence of the main technological parameters of electrostatic spinning on the morphology and properties of ultrathin fibers on the basis of polyhydroxybutyrate. It is found that the electric conductivity and viscosity of the spinning solution affects the process of forming fibers macrostructure. The fiber-based materials PHB lets control geometry and optimize the viscosity and conductivity of a spinning solution. The resulting fibers have found use in medicine, particularly in the construction elements musculoskeletal.

  18. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xanthopoulos, A.; Iakovou, E.

    2009-05-15

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

  19. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, A; Iakovou, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

  20. A Taguchi approach on optimal process control parameters for HDPE pipe extrusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, R. Umamaheswara; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2016-12-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes find versatile applicability for transportation of water, sewage and slurry from one place to another. Hence, these pipes undergo tremendous pressure by the fluid carried. The present work entails the optimization of the withstanding pressure of the HDPE pipes using Taguchi technique. The traditional heuristic methodology stresses on a trial and error approach and relies heavily upon the accumulated experience of the process engineers for determining the optimal process control parameters. This results in setting up of less-than-optimal values. Hence, there arouse a necessity to determine optimal process control parameters for the pipe extrusion process, which can ensure robust pipe quality and process reliability. In the proposed optimization strategy, the design of experiments (DoE) are conducted wherein different control parameter combinations are analyzed by considering multiple setting levels of each control parameter. The concept of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) is applied and ultimately optimum values of process control parameters are obtained as: pushing zone temperature of 166 °C, Dimmer speed at 08 rpm, and Die head temperature to be 192 °C. Confirmation experimental run is also conducted to verify the analysis and research result and values proved to be in synchronization with the main experimental findings and the withstanding pressure showed a significant improvement from 0.60 to 1.004 Mpa.

  1. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  2. Using Future Value Analysis to Select an Optimal Portfolio of Force Protection Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Bard, J.F. “A Comparison of the Analytic Hierarchy Process with Multiattribute Utility Theory : A Case Study,” IIE Transactions, 24: 111-121(November...FVA incorporates the ideals of multi-attribute utility theory , specifically using the VFT process, as well as linear programming optimization...objective methodologies in use today are the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). These are two distinct approaches

  3. Optimizing product life cycle processes in design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneye, Ola. B.; Anderl, Reiner

    2002-02-01

    Life cycle concepts do not only serve as basis in assisting product developers understand the dependencies between products and their life cycles, they also help in identifying potential opportunities for improvement in products. Common traditional concepts focus mainly on energy and material flow across life phases, necessitating the availability of metrics derived from a reference product. Knowledge of life cycle processes won from an existing product is directly reused in its redesign. Depending on sales volume nevertheless, the environmental impact before product optimization can be substantial. With modern information technologies today, computer-aided life cycle methodologies can be applied well before product use. On the basis of a virtual prototype, life cycle processes are analyzed and optimized, using simulation techniques. This preventive approach does not only help in minimizing (or even eliminating) environmental burdens caused by product, costs incurred due to changes in real product can also be avoided. The paper highlights the relationship between product and life cycle and presents a computer-based methodology for optimizing the product life cycle during design, as presented by SFB 392: Design for Environment - Methods and Tools at Technical University, Darmstadt.

  4. Parallel particle swarm optimization on a graphics processing unit with application to trajectory optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Xiong, F.; Wang, F.; Xiong, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In order to reduce the computational time, a fully parallel implementation of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm on a graphics processing unit (GPU) is presented. Instead of being executed on the central processing unit (CPU) sequentially, PSO is executed in parallel via the GPU on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) platform. The processes of fitness evaluation, updating of velocity and position of all particles are all parallelized and introduced in detail. Comparative studies on the optimization of four benchmark functions and a trajectory optimization problem are conducted by running PSO on the GPU (GPU-PSO) and CPU (CPU-PSO). The impact of design dimension, number of particles and size of the thread-block in the GPU and their interactions on the computational time is investigated. The results show that the computational time of the developed GPU-PSO is much shorter than that of CPU-PSO, with comparable accuracy, which demonstrates the remarkable speed-up capability of GPU-PSO.

  5. Process Parameters Optimization in Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Vishal; Aryal, Ashmin; Katyal, Puneet; Goswami, Amitesh

    2016-04-01

    This work aims to optimize the formability and surface roughness of parts formed by the single-point incremental forming process for an Aluminium-6063 alloy. The tests are based on Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array selected on the basis of DOF. The tests have been carried out on vertical machining center (DMC70V); using CAD/CAM software (SolidWorks V5/MasterCAM). Two levels of tool radius, three levels of sheet thickness, step size, tool rotational speed, feed rate and lubrication have been considered as the input process parameters. Wall angle and surface roughness have been considered process responses. The influential process parameters for the formability and surface roughness have been identified with the help of statistical tool (response table, main effect plot and ANOVA). The parameter that has the utmost influence on formability and surface roughness is lubrication. In the case of formability, lubrication followed by the tool rotational speed, feed rate, sheet thickness, step size and tool radius have the influence in descending order. Whereas in surface roughness, lubrication followed by feed rate, step size, tool radius, sheet thickness and tool rotational speed have the influence in descending order. The predicted optimal values for the wall angle and surface roughness are found to be 88.29° and 1.03225 µm. The confirmation experiments were conducted thrice and the value of wall angle and surface roughness were found to be 85.76° and 1.15 µm respectively.

  6. Ultrafast Quantum Process Tomography via Continuous Measurement and Convex Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Charles; Riofrio, Carlos; Deutsch, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Quantum process tomography (QPT) is an essential tool to diagnose the implementation of a dynamical map. However, the standard protocol is extremely resource intensive. For a Hilbert space of dimension d, it requires d2 different input preparations followed by state tomography via the estimation of the expectation values of d2 - 1 orthogonal observables. We show that when the process is nearly unitary, we can dramatically improve the efficiency and robustness of QPT through a collective continuous measurement protocol on an ensemble of identically prepared systems. Given the measurement history we obtain the process matrix via a convex program that optimizes a desired cost function. We study two estimators: least-squares and compressive sensing. Both allow rapid QPT due to the condition of complete positivity of the map; this is a powerful constraint to force the process to be physical and consistent with the data. We apply the method to a real experimental implementation, where optimal control is used to perform a unitary map on a d = 8 dimensional system of hyperfine levels in cesium atoms, and obtain the measurement record via Faraday spectroscopy of a laser probe. Supported by the NSF

  7. Roll levelling semi-analytical model for process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, E.; Garcia, D.; Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Mendiguren, J.

    2016-08-01

    Roll levelling is a primary manufacturing process used to remove residual stresses and imperfections of metal strips in order to make them suitable for subsequent forming operations. In the last years the importance of this process has been evidenced with the apparition of Ultra High Strength Steels with strength > 900 MPa. The optimal setting of the machine as well as a robust machine design has become critical for the correct processing of these materials. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is the widely used technique for both aspects. However, in this case, the FEM simulation times are above the admissible ones in both machine development and process optimization. In the present work, a semi-analytical model based on a discrete bending theory is presented. This model is able to calculate the critical levelling parameters i.e. force, plastification rate, residual stresses in a few seconds. First the semi-analytical model is presented. Next, some experimental industrial cases are analyzed by both the semi-analytical model and the conventional FEM model. Finally, results and computation times of both methods are compared.

  8. Implementation and Optimization of Image Processing Algorithms on Embedded GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Nitin; Yoo, Jin Woo; Choi, Ho Yeol; Park, In Kyu

    In this paper, we analyze the key factors underlying the implementation, evaluation, and optimization of image processing and computer vision algorithms on embedded GPU using OpenGL ES 2.0 shader model. First, we present the characteristics of the embedded GPU and its inherent advantage when compared to embedded CPU. Additionally, we propose techniques to achieve increased performance with optimized shader design. To show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, we employ cartoon-style non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), speeded-up robust feature (SURF) detection, and stereo matching as our example algorithms. Performance is evaluated in terms of the execution time and speed-up achieved in comparison with the implementation on embedded CPU.

  9. Thickness optimization for lithography process on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaojing; Su, Yajuan; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Fong; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bifeng; Gao, Tao; Wei, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    With the development of the lithography, the demand for critical dimension (CD) and CD uniformity (CDU) has reached a new level, which is harder and harder to achieve. There exists reflection at the interface between photo-resist and substrate during lithography exposure. This reflection has negative impact on CD and CDU control. It is possible to optimize the litho stack and film stack thickness on different lithography conditions. With the optimized stack, the total reflectivity for all incident angles at the interface can be controlled less than 0.5%, ideally 0.1%, which enhances process window (PW) most of the time. The theoretical results are verified by the experiment results from foundry, which helps the foundry achieve the mass production finally.

  10. Graphics Processing Units and High-Dimensional Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth; Suchard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of graphics processing units (GPUs) in high-dimensional optimization problems. A single GPU card with hundreds of arithmetic cores can be inserted in a personal computer and dramatically accelerates many statistical algorithms. To exploit these devices fully, optimization algorithms should reduce to multiple parallel tasks, each accessing a limited amount of data. These criteria favor EM and MM algorithms that separate parameters and data. To a lesser extent block relaxation and coordinate descent and ascent also qualify. We demonstrate the utility of GPUs in nonnegative matrix factorization, PET image reconstruction, and multidimensional scaling. Speedups of 100 fold can easily be attained. Over the next decade, GPUs will fundamentally alter the landscape of computational statistics. It is time for more statisticians to get on-board. PMID:21847315

  11. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  12. Where should I send it? Optimizing the submission decision process.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Santiago; Munch, Stephan B

    2015-01-01

    How do scientists decide where to submit manuscripts? Many factors influence this decision, including prestige, acceptance probability, turnaround time, target audience, fit, and impact factor. Here, we present a framework for evaluating where to submit a manuscript based on the theory of Markov decision processes. We derive two models, one in which an author is trying to optimally maximize citations and another in which that goal is balanced by either minimizing the number of resubmissions or the total time in review. We parameterize the models with data on acceptance probability, submission-to-decision times, and impact factors for 61 ecology journals. We find that submission sequences beginning with Ecology Letters, Ecological Monographs, or PLOS ONE could be optimal depending on the importance given to time to acceptance or number of resubmissions. This analysis provides some guidance on where to submit a manuscript given the individual-specific values assigned to these disparate objectives.

  13. Development of an analytical solution of modified Biot's equations for the optimization of lightweight acoustic protection.

    PubMed

    Kanfoud, Jamil; Ali Hamdi, Mohamed; Becot, François-Xavier; Jaouen, Luc

    2009-02-01

    During lift-off, space launchers are submitted to high-level of acoustic loads, which may damage sensitive equipments. A special acoustic absorber has been previously integrated inside the fairing of space launchers to protect the payload. A new research project has been launched to develop a low cost fairing acoustic protection system using optimized layers of porous materials covered by a thin layer of fabric. An analytical model is used for the analysis of acoustic wave propagation within the multilayer porous media. Results have been validated by impedance tube measurements. A parametric study has been conducted to determine optimal mechanical and acoustical properties of the acoustic protection under dimensional thickness constraints. The effect of the mounting conditions has been studied. Results reveal the importance of the lateral constraints on the absorption coefficient particularly in the low frequency range. A transmission study has been carried out, where the fairing structure has been simulated by a limp mass layer. The transmission loss and noise reduction factors have been computed using Biot's theory and the local acoustic impedance approximation to represent the porous layer effect. Comparisons between the two models show the frequency domains for which the local impedance model is valid.

  14. Simulative design and process optimization of the two-stage stretch-blow molding process

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Rasche, S.; Windeck, C.

    2015-05-22

    The total production costs of PET bottles are significantly affected by the costs of raw material. Approximately 70 % of the total costs are spent for the raw material. Therefore, stretch-blow molding industry intends to reduce the total production costs by an optimized material efficiency. However, there is often a trade-off between an optimized material efficiency and required product properties. Due to a multitude of complex boundary conditions, the design process of new stretch-blow molded products is still a challenging task and is often based on empirical knowledge. Application of current CAE-tools supports the design process by reducing development time and costs. This paper describes an approach to determine optimized preform geometry and corresponding process parameters iteratively. The wall thickness distribution and the local stretch ratios of the blown bottle are calculated in a three-dimensional process simulation. Thereby, the wall thickness distribution is correlated with an objective function and preform geometry as well as process parameters are varied by an optimization algorithm. Taking into account the correlation between material usage, process history and resulting product properties, integrative coupled simulation steps, e.g. structural analyses or barrier simulations, are performed. The approach is applied on a 0.5 liter PET bottle of Krones AG, Neutraubling, Germany. The investigations point out that the design process can be supported by applying this simulative optimization approach. In an optimization study the total bottle weight is reduced from 18.5 g to 15.5 g. The validation of the computed results is in progress.

  15. Simulative design and process optimization of the two-stage stretch-blow molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Rasche, S.; Windeck, C.

    2015-05-01

    The total production costs of PET bottles are significantly affected by the costs of raw material. Approximately 70 % of the total costs are spent for the raw material. Therefore, stretch-blow molding industry intends to reduce the total production costs by an optimized material efficiency. However, there is often a trade-off between an optimized material efficiency and required product properties. Due to a multitude of complex boundary conditions, the design process of new stretch-blow molded products is still a challenging task and is often based on empirical knowledge. Application of current CAE-tools supports the design process by reducing development time and costs. This paper describes an approach to determine optimized preform geometry and corresponding process parameters iteratively. The wall thickness distribution and the local stretch ratios of the blown bottle are calculated in a three-dimensional process simulation. Thereby, the wall thickness distribution is correlated with an objective function and preform geometry as well as process parameters are varied by an optimization algorithm. Taking into account the correlation between material usage, process history and resulting product properties, integrative coupled simulation steps, e.g. structural analyses or barrier simulations, are performed. The approach is applied on a 0.5 liter PET bottle of Krones AG, Neutraubling, Germany. The investigations point out that the design process can be supported by applying this simulative optimization approach. In an optimization study the total bottle weight is reduced from 18.5 g to 15.5 g. The validation of the computed results is in progress.

  16. An Optimizing Algorithm for Automating Lifecycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Calton, T.L.

    1998-12-09

    Designing products for ~ assembly and disassembly during its entire Iifecycle for purposes including service, field repair, upgrade, and disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In additiou finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended Iifecycle. DifFerent goals and cortstmints (compared to initial assembly) require us to re-visit the significant fi,mdamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of assembly planning or applied studies of lifecycle assembly processes, which give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, analyze, and optimize the disassembly and assembly processes.

  17. The Enterprise Derivative Application: Flexible Software for Optimizing Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Richard C; Allgood, Glenn O; Knox, John R

    2008-11-01

    The Enterprise Derivative Application (EDA) implements the enterprise-derivative analysis for optimization of an industrial process (Allgood and Manges, 2001). It is a tool to help industry planners choose the most productive way of manufacturing their products while minimizing their cost. Developed in MS Access, the application allows users to input initial data ranging from raw material to variable costs and enables the tracking of specific information as material is passed from one process to another. Energy-derivative analysis is based on calculation of sensitivity parameters. For the specific application to a steel production process these include: the cost to product sensitivity, the product to energy sensitivity, the energy to efficiency sensitivity, and the efficiency to cost sensitivity. Using the EDA, for all processes the user can display a particular sensitivity or all sensitivities can be compared for all processes. Although energy-derivative analysis was originally designed for use by the steel industry, it is flexible enough to be applied to many other industrial processes. Examples of processes where energy-derivative analysis would prove useful are wireless monitoring of processes in the petroleum cracking industry and wireless monitoring of motor failure for determining the optimum time to replace motor parts. One advantage of the MS Access-based application is its flexibility in defining the process flow and establishing the relationships between parent and child process and products resulting from a process. Due to the general design of the program, a process can be anything that occurs over time with resulting output (products). So the application can be easily modified to many different industrial and organizational environments. Another advantage is the flexibility of defining sensitivity parameters. Sensitivities can be determined between all possible variables in the process flow as a function of time. Thus the dynamic development of the

  18. Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protective systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A modular program for design optimization of thermal protection systems is discussed. Its capabilities and limitations are reviewed. Instructions for the operation of the program, output, and the program itself are given.

  19. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  20. Model-driven optimization of multicomponent self-assembly processes.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Peter A; Grenier, Christophe; Markvoort, Albert J; Schenning, Albertus P H J; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2013-10-22

    Here, we report an engineering approach toward multicomponent self-assembly processes by developing a methodology to circumvent spurious, metastable assemblies. The formation of metastable aggregates often hampers self-assembly of molecular building blocks into the desired nanostructures. Strategies are explored to master the pathway complexity and avoid off-pathway aggregates by optimizing the rate of assembly along the correct pathway. We study as a model system the coassembly of two monomers, the R- and S-chiral enantiomers of a π-conjugated oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative. Coassembly kinetics are analyzed by developing a kinetic model, which reveals the initial assembly of metastable structures buffering free monomers and thereby slows the formation of thermodynamically stable assemblies. These metastable assemblies exert greater influence on the thermodynamically favored self-assembly pathway if the ratio between both monomers approaches 1:1, in agreement with experimental results. Moreover, competition by metastable assemblies is highly temperature dependent and hampers the assembly of equilibrium nanostructures most effectively at intermediate temperatures. We demonstrate that the rate of the assembly process may be optimized by tuning the cooling rate. Finally, it is shown by simulation that increasing the driving force for assembly stepwise by changing the solvent composition may circumvent metastable pathways and thereby force the assembly process directly into the correct pathway.

  1. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  2. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  3. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  4. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  5. MO-B-BRB-00: Optimizing the Treatment Planning Process

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality. In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include: Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS. Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment. Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, (c) protocol/template sharing, (d) semi

  6. Design and optimization of CMOS LNA with ESD protection for 2.4 GHz WSN application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiqun, Li; Liang, Chen; Hao, Zhang

    2011-10-01

    A new optimization method of a source inductive degenerated low noise amplifier (LNA) with electrostatic discharge protection is proposed. It can achieve power-constrained simultaneous noise and input matching. An analysis of the input impedance and the noise parameters is also given. Based on the developed method, a 2.4 GHz LNA for wireless sensor network application is designed and optimized using 0.18-μm RF CMOS technology. The measured results show that the LNA achieves a noise figure of 1.59 dB, a power gain of 14.12 dB, an input 1 dB compression point of -8 dBm and an input third-order intercept point of 1 dBm. The DC current is 4 mA under a supply of 1.8 V.

  7. Optimization of low gravity materials processing experiments using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Choudry, Amar

    1988-01-01

    The use of an expert system for the control of materials processing experiments in a facility such as the Space Station provides a number of attractive features for insuring that certain critical process parameters can be used to optimize the productivity of the materials processing experiments. The proposed approach to implementation of an expert system utilizes a knowledge base of desired process characteristics which will provide the desired results. The knowledge base for each experiment will be created in conjunction with the scientific investigator in charge of the experiment. Improvements to the knowledge base will be expanded to include self learning sessions in ground based experiments in order to teach the expert system how to respond to perturbations in the process and update the knowledge base on what process change should be implemented in order to reach the desired end product. Design considerations using an on-line real time expert system such as PICON is studied. The types of experiments evaluated include several types of solidification experiments which will be performed on the Space Station.

  8. Optimizing the lithography model calibration algorithms for NTD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C. M.; Lo, Fred; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.

    2016-03-01

    As patterns shrink to the resolution limits of up-to-date ArF immersion lithography technology, negative tone development (NTD) process has been an increasingly adopted technique to get superior imaging quality through employing bright-field (BF) masks to print the critical dark-field (DF) metal and contact layers. However, from the fundamental materials and process interaction perspectives, several key differences inherently exist between NTD process and the traditional positive tone development (PTD) system, especially the horizontal/vertical resist shrinkage and developer depletion effects, hence the traditional resist parameters developed for the typical PTD process have no longer fit well in NTD process modeling. In order to cope with the inherent differences between PTD and NTD processes accordingly get improvement on NTD modeling accuracy, several NTD models with different combinations of complementary terms were built to account for the NTD-specific resist shrinkage, developer depletion and diffusion, and wafer CD jump induced by sub threshold assistance feature (SRAF) effects. Each new complementary NTD term has its definite aim to deal with the NTD-specific phenomena. In this study, the modeling accuracy is compared among different models for the specific patterning characteristics on various feature types. Multiple complementary NTD terms were finally proposed to address all the NTD-specific behaviors simultaneously and further optimize the NTD modeling accuracy. The new algorithm of multiple complementary NTD term tested on our critical dark-field layers demonstrates consistent model accuracy improvement for both calibration and verification.

  9. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    DOEpatents

    Tarte, Lisa A.; Bonde, Wayne L.; Carey, Paul G.; Contolini, Robert J.; McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  10. Experimental optimization of a real time fed-batch fermentation process using Markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Saucedo, V M; Karim, M N

    1997-07-20

    This article describes a methodology that implements a Markov decision process (MDP) optimization technique in a real time fed-batch experiment. Biological systems can be better modeled under the stochastic framework and MDP is shown to be a suitable technique for their optimization. A nonlinear input/output model is used to calculate the probability transitions. All elements of the MDP are identified according to physical parameters. Finally, this study compares the results obtained when optimizing ethanol production using the infinite horizon problem, with total expected discount policy, to previous experimental results aimed at optimizing ethanol production using a recombinant Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 317-327, 1997.

  11. Tonotopic Optimization for Temporal Processing in the Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Oline, Stefan N.; Ashida, Go

    2016-01-01

    In the auditory system, sounds are processed in parallel frequency-tuned circuits, beginning in the cochlea. Auditory nerve fibers reflect this tonotopy and encode temporal properties of acoustic stimuli by “locking” discharges to a particular stimulus phase. However, physiological constraints on phase-locking depend on stimulus frequency. Interestingly, low characteristic frequency (LCF) neurons in the cochlear nucleus improve phase-locking precision relative to their auditory nerve inputs. This is proposed to arise through synaptic integration, but the postsynaptic membrane's selectivity for varying levels of synaptic convergence is poorly understood. The chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), exhibits tonotopic distribution of both input and membrane properties. LCF neurons receive many small inputs and have low input thresholds, whereas high characteristic frequency (HCF) neurons receive few, large synapses and require larger currents to spike. NM therefore presents an opportunity to study how small membrane variations interact with a systematic topographic gradient of synaptic inputs. We investigated membrane input selectivity and observed that HCF neurons preferentially select faster input than their LCF counterparts, and that this preference is tolerant of changes to membrane voltage. We then used computational models to probe which properties are crucial to phase-locking. The model predicted that the optimal arrangement of synaptic and membrane properties for phase-locking is specific to stimulus frequency and that the tonotopic distribution of input number and membrane excitability in NM closely tracks a stimulus-defined optimum. These findings were then confirmed physiologically with dynamic-clamp simulations of inputs to NM neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One way that neurons represent temporal information is by phase-locking, which is discharging in response to a particular phase of the stimulus waveform. In the auditory system

  12. Processing Optimization of Deformed Plain Woven Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.; Vaidya, Uday K.

    2013-12-01

    This research addresses the processing optimization of post-manufactured, plain weave architecture composite panels consisted of four glass layers and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) when formed with only localized heating. Often times, during the production of deep drawn composite parts, a fabric preform experiences various defects, including non-isothermal heating and thickness variations. Minimizing these defects is of utmost importance for mass produceability in a practical manufacturing process. The broad objective of this research was to implement a design of experiments approach to minimize through-thickness composite panel variation during manufacturing by varying the heating time, the temperature of heated components and the clamping pressure. It was concluded that the heated tooling with least area contact was most influential, followed by the length of heating time and the amount of clamping pressure.

  13. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  14. Numerical Tool Path Optimization for Conventional Sheet Metal Spinning Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentsch, Benedikt; Manopulo, Niko; Hora, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    To this day, conventional sheet metal spinning processes are designed with a very low degree of automation. They are usually executed by experienced personnel, who actively adjust the tool paths during production. The practically unlimited freedom in designing the tool paths enables the efficient manufacturing of complex geometries on one hand, but is challenging to translate into a standardized procedure on the other. The present study aims to propose a systematic methodology, based on a 3D FEM model combined with a numerical optimization strategy, in order to design tool paths. The accurate numerical modelling of the spinning process is firstly discussed, followed by an analysis of appropriate objective functions and constraints required to obtain a failure free tool path design.

  15. Process optimization by use of design of experiments: Application for liposomalization of FK506.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto

    2017-03-07

    Design of experiments (DoE) can accelerate the optimization of drug formulations, especially complexed formulas such as those of drugs, using delivery systems. Administration of FK506 encapsulated in liposomes (FK506 liposomes) is an effective approach to treat acute stroke in animal studies. To provide FK506 liposomes as a brain protective agent, it is necessary to manufacture these liposomes with good reproducibility. The objective of this study was to confirm the usefulness of DoE for the process-optimization study of FK506 liposomes. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effect of the process parameters on the properties of FK506 liposomes. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that there was interaction between the hydration temperature and the freeze-thaw cycle on both the particle size and encapsulation efficiency. An increase in the PBS hydration volume resulted in an increase in encapsulation efficiency. Process parameters had no effect on the ζ-potential. The multiple regression equation showed good predictability of the particle size and the encapsulation efficiency. These results indicated that manufacturing conditions must be taken into consideration to prepare liposomes with desirable properties. DoE would thus be promising approach to optimize the conditions for the manufacturing of liposomes.

  16. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  17. Designing optimized industrial process analysers for closed loop control

    PubMed Central

    Grevesmuehl, Bernard; Kradjel, Cynthia; Kellner, Hanno

    1991-01-01

    Manufacturers are now looking closely at ways of optimizing ‘quality’ and increasing process efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs. Near infra-red (NIR) technology is a popular solution to this challenge: it provides manufacturers with rapid and reliable in-process analysis and thousands of systems have already been installed in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural markets. For over 10 years, NIR has been successfully applied to at-line process analysis. Rugged and easy-to-operate filter analysers are traditionally located in the control room–process operators can then ‘grab samples’ and obtain results in less than a minute. There are many practical advantages to using at-line filter systems. Products from many lines can be run on one system, and, since there is no direct process interface, installation, operation and maintenance are quite simple. Many manufacturers, however, are now striving to achieve on-line closed loop control, in these cases the benefit of obtaining continuous measurement is well worth the effort required to automate the analysis. PMID:18924898

  18. Optimization of radiation protection for the control of occupational exposure in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S W; Schandorf, C; Yeboah, J

    2011-11-01

    Investigation of the optimization of protection of occupational exposed workers (OEWs) in Ghana had been carried out on the three practices in the country, namely medical applications, industrial radioisotope applications and research and education from 2002 to 2007. Mean annual effective dose and collective effective dose were estimated from dosimetry records from the Radiation Protection Institute of those occupationally exposed from 2002 to 2007. The mean annual effective dose estimated for about 650 OEWs per year ranged from 0.42 to 0.68 mSv compared with a global value of 0.5 mSv estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR 2008 Report). This implies that efforts should still be made to institute as low as reasonably achievable culture in most practices in Ghana even though trend of doses incurred was low. The collective effective dose for this same period estimated ranged from 0.26 to 0.47 man Sv. A reference monetary value of the man sievert was estimated using the human capital approach for each year from 2002 to 2009; it ranged from 172 to 22 US $ per man Sv, which provided a basis for estimating the cost of averting a unit collective effective dose of 1 man Sv. This value could not be used for quantitative optimization since the range of mean annual effective dose estimated was below 1 mSv.

  19. Optimal snubbers in a vibration protection arrangement of sensitive electrooptic payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Djerassy, Shlomo

    2007-04-01

    Compliant snubbers are the indispensable emergency component in the low-frequency vibration isolation arrangements of the sensitive electro-optic payloads undergoing frequent exposure to the harsh environmental shock and vibration. Their primary objective is to protect the payload from colliding with the surroundings and vibration mounts form bottoming and failure originated from their excessive deflection. Needless to say, the snubber operation is associated with developing high impulsive reaction forces and accelerations capable of damaging inherently shock and vibration sensitive components of electro-optic payload. Therefore, special attention needs to be paid to their optimal design aimed at minimizing the above reaction forces and acceleration subject to limitations imposed on the peak deflections of the snubber. Unfortunately, a regular approach to an optimal design of snubbers for such sensitive equipment does not seem to exist. Using the Kelvin-Voight body approach, the authors develop an analytical model of the axial collision of a lumped body with a visco-elastic snubber and make experimental substantiation of the chosen model. From analytical solution, the authors evaluate restitution ratio, peak values of the acceleration, snubber deformation and develop procedure of the optimal design. In particular, the apparent damping ratio of the snubber is 40% independently upon the approaching velocity, snubber stiffness and allowed deformation. Further, by adapting the above model of visco-elastic collision in the Matlab-Simulink environment, the authors are attempting to design the optimal snubber for the more complicated case of low frequency vibration isolated payload exposed to the gravity forces and environmental acceleration half-sine shock 20g@11ms per MIL STD 810F. The authors discuss the obtained results and practical aspects of designing and using optimal snubbers.

  20. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law

    PubMed Central

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench. PMID:27377557

  1. Process optimization of mechano-electrospinning by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Bu, Ningbin; Huang, YongAn; Duan, Yongqing; Yin, Zhouping

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, mechano-electrospinning (MES) is presented to write the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) solution into fibers directly, and the effects of the process parameters on the fiber are investigated experimentally based on response surface methodology. The different width of the fiber is obtained by adjusting the individual process parameters (velocity of the substrate, applied voltage and nozzle-to-substrate distance). Considering the continuous jet and stable Taylor-cone, the operation field is selected for investigating the complicated relationship between the process parameters on the width of the fiber by using the response surface methodology. The experiment results show that the predicted width of the fiber is in good agreement with the actual width of the fiber. Based on the analysis of the importance of the terms in the equation, a simple model can be used to predict the width of the fiber. Depending on this model, a large number of calibration experiments can be subducted. Additionally, the principle of the selection of the process parameters is presented by optimizing parameters, which can give a guideline for obtaining the desired fiber in the experiment.

  2. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  3. Rate-Distortion Optimization for Stereoscopic Video Streaming with Unequal Error Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A. Serdar; Aksay, Anil; Akar, Gozde Bozdagi; Arikan, Erdal

    2008-12-01

    We consider an error-resilient stereoscopic streaming system that uses an H.264-based multiview video codec and a rateless Raptor code for recovery from packet losses. One aim of the present work is to suggest a heuristic methodology for modeling the end-to-end rate-distortion (RD) characteristic of such a system. Another aim is to show how to make use of such a model to optimally select the parameters of the video codec and the Raptor code to minimize the overall distortion. Specifically, the proposed system models the RD curve of video encoder and performance of channel codec to jointly derive the optimal encoder bit rates and unequal error protection (UEP) rates specific to the layered stereoscopic video streaming. We define analytical RD curve modeling for each layer that includes the interdependency of these layers. A heuristic analytical model of the performance of Raptor codes is also defined. Furthermore, the distortion on the stereoscopic video quality caused by packet losses is estimated. Finally, analytical models and estimated single-packet loss distortions are used to minimize the end-to-end distortion and to obtain optimal encoder bit rates and UEP rates. The simulation results clearly demonstrate the significant quality gain against the nonoptimized schemes.

  4. Predictive Process Optimization for Fracture Ductility in Automotive TRIP Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jiadong

    In light of the emerging challenges in the automotive industry of meeting new energy-saving and environment-friendly requirements imposed by both the government and the society, the auto makers have been working relentlessly to reduce the weight of automobiles. While steel makers pushed out a variety of novel Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) to serve this market with new needs, TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels is one of the most promising materials for auto-body due to its exceptional combination of strength and formability. However, current commercial automotive TRIP steels demonstrate relatively low hole-expansion (HE) capability, which is critical in stretch forming of various auto parts. This shortcoming on ductility has been causing fracture issues in the forming process and limits the wider applications of this steel. The kinetic theory of martensitic transformations and associated transformation plasticity is applied to the optimization of transformation stability for enhanced mechanical properties in a class of high strength galvannealed TRIP steel. This research leverages newly developed characterization and simulation capabilities, supporting computational design of high-performance steels exploiting optimized transformation plasticity for desired mechanical behaviors, especially for the hole-expansion ductility. The microstructure of the automotive TRIP sheet steels was investigated, using advanced tomographic characterization including nanoscale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. The microstructural basis of austenite stability, the austenite carbon concentration in particular, was quantified and correlated with measured fracture ductility through transformation plasticity constitutive laws. Plastic flow stability for enhanced local fracture ductility at high strength is sought to maintain high hole-expansion ductility, through quantifying the optimal stability and the heat-treatment process to achieve it. An additional

  5. Optimal lot sizing in screening processes with returnable defective items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishkaei, Behzad Maleki; Niaki, S. T. A.; Farhangi, Milad; Rashti, Mehdi Ebrahimnezhad Moghadam

    2014-07-01

    This paper is an extension of Hsu and Hsu (Int J Ind Eng Comput 3(5):939-948, 2012) aiming to determine the optimal order quantity of product batches that contain defective items with percentage nonconforming following a known probability density function. The orders are subject to 100 % screening process at a rate higher than the demand rate. Shortage is backordered, and defective items in each ordering cycle are stored in a warehouse to be returned to the supplier when a new order is received. Although the retailer does not sell defective items at a lower price and only trades perfect items (to avoid loss), a higher holding cost incurs to store defective items. Using the renewal-reward theorem, the optimal order and shortage quantities are determined. Some numerical examples are solved at the end to clarify the applicability of the proposed model and to compare the new policy to an existing one. The results show that the new policy provides better expected profit per time.

  6. Identifying protective dengue vaccines: guide to mastering an empirical process.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2013-09-23

    A recent clinical trial of a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine afforded no protection against disease caused by dengue 2 (DENV-2). This outcome was unexpected as two or more doses of this vaccine had raised broad neutralizing antibody responses. Data from pre-clinical subhuman primate studies revealed that vaccination with the monotypic DENV-2 component failed to meet established criteria for solid protection to homotypic live virus challenge. Accordingly, it is suggested that preclinical testing adopt more rigorous criteria for protection and that Phase I testing be extended to require evidence of solid monotypic protective immunity for each component of a dengue vaccine by direct challenge with live-attenuated DENV. Because live-attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccines exhibit evidence of immunological interference phenomena, during Phase II, volunteers given mixtures of DENV 1-4 vaccines should be separately challenged with monotypic live-attenuated DENV. Immune responses to live-attenuated challenge viruses and vaccine strains should be studied in an attempt to develop useful in vitro correlates of in vivo protection. Finally, it will be important to learn if DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) contributes to pathogenesis of the vascular permeability syndrome in humans. If so, immunity to dengue 1-4 NS1 may be crucial to prevent severe disease.

  7. Simulation and optimization technologies for petroleum waste management and remediation process control.

    PubMed

    Qin, X S; Huang, G H; He, L

    2009-01-01

    Leakage and spill of petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks and pipelines have posed significant threats to groundwater resources across many petroleum-contaminated sites. Remediation of these sites is essential for protecting the soil and groundwater resources and reducing risks to local communities. Although many efforts have been made, effective design and management of various remediation systems are still challenging to practitioners. In recent years, the subsurface simulation model has been combined with techniques of optimization to address important problems of contaminated site management. The combined simulation-optimization system accounts for the complex behavior of the subsurface system and identifies the best management strategy under consideration of the management objectives and constraints. During the past decades, a large number of studies were conducted to simulate contaminant flow and transport in the subsurface and seek cost-effective remediation designs. This paper gives a comprehensive review on recent developments, advancements, challenges, and barriers associated with simulation and optimization techniques in supporting process control of petroleum waste management and site remediation. A number of related methodologies and applications were examined. Perspectives of effective site management were investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced research efforts, which include issues of data availability and reliability, concerns in uncertainty, necessity of post-modeling analysis, and usefulness of development of process control techniques.

  8. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  9. On the optimization of multitasking process with multiplayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Wang, Nianxin; Xi, Zhendong; Li, Yujian; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In society, many problems can be understood as multitasking process with multiplayer (MPM). Choosing different strategies or different orders in processing tasks, an individual will spend a different amount of time to complete all the tasks. Therefore, a good strategy or a good order can help an individual work more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a model to study the optimization problems of MPM. The average time spent for all the tasks by an individual is calculated in each strategy, and we find the random choice strategy can make an individual spend less time in completing all tasks. The correlation coefficient between the order of each task processed by an individual and the corresponding time spent for all the tasks by the individual is also calculated. Then the internal statistics law between the order and the corresponding time is found and explains why the random choice strategy is better. Finally, we research the change of the queue length in each task with the time. These results have certain significance on theory and practical application on MPM.

  10. Optimization of image processing algorithms on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Pramod; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2011-03-01

    This work presents a technique to optimize popular image processing algorithms on mobile platforms such as cell phones, net-books and personal digital assistants (PDAs). The increasing demand for video applications like context-aware computing on mobile embedded systems requires the use of computationally intensive image processing algorithms. The system engineer has a mandate to optimize them so as to meet real-time deadlines. A methodology to take advantage of the asymmetric dual-core processor, which includes an ARM and a DSP core supported by shared memory, is presented with implementation details. The target platform chosen is the popular OMAP 3530 processor for embedded media systems. It has an asymmetric dual-core architecture with an ARM Cortex-A8 and a TMS320C64x Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The development platform was the BeagleBoard with 256 MB of NAND RAM and 256 MB SDRAM memory. The basic image correlation algorithm is chosen for benchmarking as it finds widespread application for various template matching tasks such as face-recognition. The basic algorithm prototypes conform to OpenCV, a popular computer vision library. OpenCV algorithms can be easily ported to the ARM core which runs a popular operating system such as Linux or Windows CE. However, the DSP is architecturally more efficient at handling DFT algorithms. The algorithms are tested on a variety of images and performance results are presented measuring the speedup obtained due to dual-core implementation. A major advantage of this approach is that it allows the ARM processor to perform important real-time tasks, while the DSP addresses performance-hungry algorithms.

  11. Laser dimpling process parameters selection and optimization using surrogate-driven process capability space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkat, Erkan Caner; Franciosa, Pasquale; Ceglarek, Dariusz

    2017-08-01

    Remote laser welding technology offers opportunities for high production throughput at a competitive cost. However, the remote laser welding process of zinc-coated sheet metal parts in lap joint configuration poses a challenge due to the difference between the melting temperature of the steel (∼1500 °C) and the vapourizing temperature of the zinc (∼907 °C). In fact, the zinc layer at the faying surface is vapourized and the vapour might be trapped within the melting pool leading to weld defects. Various solutions have been proposed to overcome this problem over the years. Among them, laser dimpling has been adopted by manufacturers because of its flexibility and effectiveness along with its cost advantages. In essence, the dimple works as a spacer between the two sheets in lap joint and allows the zinc vapour escape during welding process, thereby preventing weld defects. However, there is a lack of comprehensive characterization of dimpling process for effective implementation in real manufacturing system taking into consideration inherent changes in variability of process parameters. This paper introduces a methodology to develop (i) surrogate model for dimpling process characterization considering multiple-inputs (i.e. key control characteristics) and multiple-outputs (i.e. key performance indicators) system by conducting physical experimentation and using multivariate adaptive regression splines; (ii) process capability space (Cp-Space) based on the developed surrogate model that allows the estimation of a desired process fallout rate in the case of violation of process requirements in the presence of stochastic variation; and, (iii) selection and optimization of the process parameters based on the process capability space. The proposed methodology provides a unique capability to: (i) simulate the effect of process variation as generated by manufacturing process; (ii) model quality requirements with multiple and coupled quality requirements; and (iii

  12. The application of multi-objective optimization method for activated sludge process: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Lu, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment approach. Depending on the design and specific application, activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can achieve biological nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal, besides the removal of organic carbon substances. However, the effluent N and P limits are getting tighter because of increased emphasis on environmental protection, and the needs for energy conservation as well as the operational reliability. Therefore, the balance between treatment performance and cost becomes a critical issue for the operations of WWTPs, which necessitates a multi-objective optimization (MOO). Recent studies in this field have shown promise in utilizing MOO to address the multiple conflicting criteria (i.e. effluent quality, operation cost, operation stability), including studying the ASP models that are primarily responsible for the process, and developing the method of MOO in the wastewater treatment process, which facilitates better optimization of process performance. Based on a better understanding of the application of MOO for ASP, a comprehensive review is conducted to offer a clear vision of the advances, and potential areas for future research are also proposed in the field.

  13. The Speech-Press Debate, the Law of Libel, and Protection for the Editorial Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonecipher, Harry W.

    Questions concerning the relative protection afforded by the speech and press clauses of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, the law of libel, and protection for the editorial process are the focus of this paper. The first section summarizes arguments for First Amendment press protection, focusing on the question of whether…

  14. Design of a tomato packing system by image processing and optimization processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Kumazaki, T.; Saigusa, M.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, with the development of environmental control systems in plant factories, tomato production has rapidly increased in Japan. However, with the decline in the availability of agricultural labor, there is a need to automate grading, sorting and packing operations. In this research, we designed an automatic packing program with which tomato weight could be estimated by image processing and that they were able to be packed in an optimized configuration. The weight was estimated by using the pixel area properties after an L*a*b* color model conversion, noise rejection, filling holes and boundary preprocessing. The packing optimization program was designed by a 0-1 knapsack algorithm for dynamic combinatorial optimization.

  15. Tenure: How Due Process Protects Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher tenure rights, first established more than a century ago, are under unprecedented attack. Tenure--which was enacted to protect students' education and those who provide it--is under assault from coast to coast, in state legislatures, in state courtrooms, and in the media. In June 2014, in the case of "Vergara v. California," a…

  16. Novel Optimization Methodology for Welding Process/Consumable Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Marie A; DebRoy, Tarasankar; Vitek, John; Babu, Suresh

    2006-01-15

    Advanced materials are being developed to improve the energy efficiency of many industries of future including steel, mining, and chemical, as well as, US infrastructures including bridges, pipelines and buildings. Effective deployment of these materials is highly dependent upon the development of arc welding technology. Traditional welding technology development is slow and often involves expensive and time-consuming trial and error experimentation. The reason for this is the lack of useful predictive tools that enable welding technology development to keep pace with the deployment of new materials in various industrial sectors. Literature reviews showed two kinds of modeling activities. Academic and national laboratory efforts focus on developing integrated weld process models by employing the detailed scientific methodologies. However, these models are cumbersome and not easy to use. Therefore, these scientific models have limited application in real-world industrial conditions. On the other hand, industrial users have relied on simple predictive models based on analytical and empirical equations to drive their product development. The scopes of these simple models are limited. In this research, attempts were made to bridge this gap and provide the industry with a computational tool that combines the advantages of both approaches. This research resulted in the development of predictive tools which facilitate the development of optimized welding processes and consumables. The work demonstrated that it is possible to develop hybrid integrated models for relating the weld metal composition and process parameters to the performance of welds. In addition, these tools can be deployed for industrial users through user friendly graphical interface. In principle, the welding industry users can use these modular tools to guide their welding process parameter and consumable composition selection. It is hypothesized that by expanding these tools throughout welding industry

  17. Further Development and Assessment of a Broadband Liner Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of advanced fan designs (including higher bypass ratios) and shorter engine nacelles has highlighted a need for increased fan noise reduction over a broader frequency range. Thus, improved broadband liner designs must account for these constraints and, where applicable, take advantage of advanced manufacturing techniques that have opened new possibilities for novel configurations. This work focuses on the use of an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process to design a variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner for a high speed fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design a liner aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. The multi-degree of freedom design is carried through design, fabrication, and testing. In-duct attenuation predictions compare well with measured data and the multi-degree of freedom liner is shown to outperform a more conventional liner over a range of flow conditions. These promising results provide further confidence in the design tool, as well as the enhancements made to the overall design process.

  18. Optimization process of tribenzoine production as a glycerol derived product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Abdurrakhman, Rifianto, Y.; Abdullah, Hadiyanto, Samsudin, Asep M.; Annisa, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Tribenzoin is a derived product from glycerol that can produce from glycerol conversion via esterification process. The product can be used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and also can be used to improve the properties of adhesive materials and water resistance in the ink printer.In the other hand, it advantages is environmentally friendly andrenewable because it is not derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the effect of temperature and catalyst concentration for tribenzoin production. For the responses, yield and product composition were observed. Results showed that the highest yield achieved at optimal variable data processed using Central Composite Design (CCD) which is 63.64 temperature (°C), mole ratio of benzoic acidto glycerol is 3.644:1, and catalyst concentration 6.25% (wt% glycerol). Yield products produced 58.71%. FTIR analysis results showed that the samples contained the results of IR spectra wavelength 1761 cm-1 in the fingerprint region and 3165 cm-1 frequency region group. The existence of these two adjustments that fixed in the area is strong evidence that the compound is tribenzoin.

  19. Optimal separation of jojoba protein using membrane processes

    SciTech Connect

    Nabetani, Hiroshi; Abbott, T.P.; Kleiman, R.

    1995-05-01

    The efficiency of a pilot-scale membrane system for purifying and concentrating jojoba protein was estimated. In this system, a jojoba extract was first clarified with a microfiltration membrane. The clarified extract was diafiltrated and the protein was purified with an ultrafiltration membrane. Then the protein solution was concentrated with the ultrafiltration membrane. Permeate flux during microfiltration was essentially independent of solids concentration in the feed, in contrast with the permeate flux during ultrafiltration which was a function of protein concentration. Based on these results, a mathematical model which describes the batchwise concentration process with ultrafiltration membranes was developed. Using this model, the combination of batchwise concentration with diafiltration was optimized, and an industrial-scale process was designed. The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the performance of the membrane system was also investigated. The addition of EDTA increased the concentration of protein in the extract and improved the recovery of protein in the final products. The quality of the final product (color and solubility) was also improved. However, EDTA decreased permeate flux during ultrafiltration.

  20. Assessing and Optimizing Microarchitectural Performance of Event Processing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marcelo R. N.; Bizarro, Pedro; Marques, Paulo

    Event Processing (EP) systems are being progressively used in business critical applications in domains such as algorithmic trading, supply chain management, production monitoring, or fraud detection. To deal with high throughput and low response time requirements, these EP systems mainly use the CPU-RAM sub-system for data processing. However, as we show here, collected statistics on CPU usage or on CPU-RAM communication reveal that available systems are poorly optimized and grossly waste resources. In this paper we quantify some of these inefficiencies and propose cache-aware algorithms and changes on internal data structures to overcome them. We test the before and after system both at the microarchitecture and application level and show that: i) the changes improve microarchitecture metrics such as clocks-per-instruction, cache misses or TLB misses; ii) and that some of these improvements result in very high application level improvements such as a 44% improvement on stream-to-table joins with 6-fold reduction on memory consumption, and order-of-magnitude increase on throughput for moving aggregation operations.

  1. A key to success: optimizing the planning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Huseyin; Karakaya, Kamil

    2014-05-01

    operation planning process is analyzed according to a comprehensive approach. The difficulties of planning are identified. Consequently, for optimizing a decisionmaking process of an air operation, a planning process is identified in a virtual command and control structure.

  2. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  3. Process window aware layout optimization using hot spot fixing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kyoh, Suigen; Kotani, Toshiya; Inoue, Soichi

    2007-03-01

    The feasibility of Hot Spot Fixing (HSF) system in DfM flow is studied and reported. Hot spot fixing using process simulation is indispensable under low-k1 lithography process for logic devices with advanced design rule (DR). Hot spot such as pinching, bridging, line-end shortening will occur, mainly depending on local pattern context. Proper calibration of DR, mask data preparation (MDP), resolution enhancement technique (RET) and optical proximity effect correction (OPC) will reduce potential hot spots. However, pattern layout variety is so enormous that, even with most careful calibration of every process, unexpected potential hot spots are occasionally left in the design layout 1-2. OPC optimization is useful for maximizing common process margin, but it cannot expand individual pattern's process margin without modification of design layout. So, at an early design stage, hot spot extraction using lithography compliance check (LCC) and manual modification of design at hot spots will be a simple and useful method. The problem is that, it is difficult to determine how to modify layout in order to be consistent with DR, MDP/OPC rule. For proper layout modification, intimate knowledge of the entire process would be necessary, and moreover, the modification work often tends to be iterative, and thus time-consuming. Therefore, using our automated HSF system in the cell design stage and also the chip design stage is helpful for fixing design layout while avoiding fatal hot spot occurrence, with enough process margin and also with short turnaround time (TAT) 3-4. The basic system flow in the developed system is as follows; LCC extracts potential hot spots, and the hot spots are categorized by lithography error mode, grade, and surrounding context. And then, hot spot modification instructor, taking the surrounding situation into consideration, generates modification guide for every hot spot. Design data is automatically modified according to the instruction at every hot

  4. Hydroxyapatite coatings for marble protection: Optimization of calcite covering and acid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa; Scherer, George W.

    2016-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has a much lower dissolution rate and solubility than calcite, especially in an acidic environment, so it has been proposed for the protection of marble against acidic rain corrosion. Promising results were obtained, but further optimization is necessary as the treated layer is often incomplete, cracked and/or porous. In this paper, several parameters were investigated to obtain a coherent, uncracked layer, and to avoid the formation of metastable, soluble phases instead of HAP: the role of the pH of the starting solution; the effect of organic and inorganic additions, and in particular that of ethanol, as it is reported to adsorb on calcite, hence possibly favoring the growth of the HAP layer. Finally, a double application of the treatment was tested. Results were compared to those obtained with ammonium oxalate treatment, widely investigated for marble protection. Results indicate that adding small amounts of ethanol to the formulation remarkably increases the acid resistance of treated samples, and yields better coverage of the surface without crack formation. The effectiveness of the treatment is further enhanced when a second treatment is applied. The efficacy of ethanol-doped DAP mixtures was found to be remarkably higher than that of ammonium oxalate based treatments.

  5. Process development in the QbD paradigm: Role of process integration in process optimization for production of biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Pathak, Mili; Godara, Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Biotherapeutics have become the focus of the pharmaceutical industry due to their proven effectiveness in managing complex diseases. Downstream processes of these molecules consist of several orthogonal, high resolution unit operations designed so as to be able to separate variants having very similar physicochemical properties. Typical process development involves optimization of the individual unit operations based on Quality by Design principles in order to define the design space within which the process can deliver product that meets the predefined specifications. However, limited efforts are dedicated to understanding the interactions between the unit operations. This paper aims to showcase the importance of understanding these interactions and thereby arrive at operating conditions that are optimal for the overall process. It is demonstrated that these are not necessarily same as those obtained from optimization of the individual unit operations. Purification of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), a biotherapeutic expressed in E. coli., has been used as a case study. It is evident that the suggested approach results in not only higher yield (91.5 vs. 86.4) but also improved product quality (% RP-HPLC purity of 98.3 vs. 97.5) and process robustness. We think that this paper is very relevant to the present times when the biotech industry is in the midst of implementing Quality by Design towards process development. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:355-362, 2016.

  6. Process for producing radiation-induced self-terminating protective coatings on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas and radiation are used to produce a protective coating that is substantially void-free on the molecular scale, self-terminating, and degradation resistant. The process can be used to deposit very thin (.apprxeq.5-20 .ANG.) coatings on critical surfaces needing protection from degradative processes including, corrosion and contamination.

  7. Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the

  8. Processing and optimization of functional ceramic coatings and inorganic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyutu, Edward Kennedy G.

    Processing of functional inorganic materials including zero (0-D) dimensional (e.g. nanoparticles), 1-D (nanorods, nanofibers), and 2-D (films/coating) structures is of fundamental and technological interest. This research will have two major sections. The first part of section one focuses on the deposition of silicon dioxide onto a pre-deposited molybdenum disilicide coating on molybdenum substrates for both high (>1000 °C) and moderate (500-600 °C) temperature oxidation protection. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD/MOCVD) techniques will be utilized to deposit the metal suicide and oxide coatings. The focus of this study will be to establish optimum deposition conditions and evaluate the metal oxide coating as oxidation - thermal barriers for Mo substrates under both isothermal (static) and cyclic oxidation conditions. The second part of this section will involve a systematic evaluation of a boron nitride (BN) interface coating prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are prospective candidates for high (>1000 °C) temperature applications and fiber- matrix interfaces are the dominant design parameters in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). An important goal of the study is to determine a set of process parameters, which would define a boron nitride (BN) interface coating by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with respect to coating. In the first part of the second section, we will investigate a new approach to synthesize ultrafine metal oxides that combines microwave heating and an in-situ ultrasonic mixing of two or more liquid precursors with a tubular flow reactor. Different metal oxides such as nickel ferrite and zinc aluminate spinels will be studied. The synthesis of metal oxides were investigated in order to study the effects of the nozzle and microwave (INM process) on the purity, composition, and particle size of the resulting powders. The second part of this research section involves a study of microwave frequency

  9. Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

  10. Optimal Signal Processing in Small Stochastic Biochemical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Etay; Nemenman, Ilya; Wiggins, Chris H.

    2007-01-01

    We quantify the influence of the topology of a transcriptional regulatory network on its ability to process environmental signals. By posing the problem in terms of information theory, we do this without specifying the function performed by the network. Specifically, we study the maximum mutual information between the input (chemical) signal and the output (genetic) response attainable by the network in the context of an analytic model of particle number fluctuations. We perform this analysis for all biochemical circuits, including various feedback loops, that can be built out of 3 chemical species, each under the control of one regulator. We find that a generic network, constrained to low molecule numbers and reasonable response times, can transduce more information than a simple binary switch and, in fact, manages to achieve close to the optimal information transmission fidelity. These high-information solutions are robust to tenfold changes in most of the networks' biochemical parameters; moreover they are easier to achieve in networks containing cycles with an odd number of negative regulators (overall negative feedback) due to their decreased molecular noise (a result which we derive analytically). Finally, we demonstrate that a single circuit can support multiple high-information solutions. These findings suggest a potential resolution of the “cross-talk” phenomenon as well as the previously unexplained observation that transcription factors that undergo proteolysis are more likely to be auto-repressive. PMID:17957259

  11. Stochastic optimization framework (SOF) for computer-optimized design, engineering, and performance of multi-dimensional systems and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Many systems and processes, both natural and artificial, may be described by parameter-driven mathematical and physical models. We introduce a generally applicable Stochastic Optimization Framework (SOF) that can be interfaced to or wrapped around such models to optimize model outcomes by effectively "inverting" them. The Visual and Autonomous Exploration Systems Research Laboratory (http://autonomy.caltech.edu edu) at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has long-term experience in the optimization of multi-dimensional systems and processes. Several examples of successful application of a SOF are reviewed and presented, including biochemistry, robotics, device performance, mission design, parameter retrieval, and fractal landscape optimization. Applications of a SOF are manifold, such as in science, engineering, industry, defense & security, and reconnaissance/exploration. Keywords: Multi-parameter optimization, design/performance optimization, gradient-based steepest-descent methods, local minima, global minimum, degeneracy, overlap parameter distribution, fitness function, stochastic optimization framework, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary Algorithms, Genetic Programming, Evolutionary Computation, multi-objective optimization, Pareto-optimal front, trade studies )

  12. Process optimization and consumable development for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R.

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is one of the most critical processing steps that enables fabrication of multilevel interconnects. The success of CMP process is limited by the implementation of an optimized process and reduction of process generated defects along with post CMP surface characteristics such as dishing and erosion. This thesis investigates to identify various sources of defects and studies the effect of factors that can be used to optimize the process. The major contributions of this work are: Understanding the effect of temperature rise on surface tribology, electrochemistry and post CMP pattern effects during the CMP process; investigating the effect of pad conditioning temperature and slurry flow rate on tribology and post CMP characteristics; development of novel slurries using polymer hybrid particles and improvement in slurry metrology to reduce surface damage during CMP. From the current research, it was shown that the effect of temperature on CMP tribology is predominantly affected by the polishing parameters and the polishing pad characteristics more than the chemical nature of the slurry. The effect of temperature is minimal on the resulting surface roughness but the with-in die non-uniformity is significantly affected by the temperature at the interface. Secondly, in this research it was shown that the effectiveness and aggressiveness of the pad conditioning process is highly influenced by the conditioning temperature. This aspect can be utilized to optimize the parameters for the pad conditioning process. Further, post CMP characteristics such as dishing, erosion and metal loss on patterned samples were shown to decrease with increase in slurry flow rate. This research then concentrates on the development of novel low defect slurry using polymer hybrid abrasive particles. Several varieties of surface functionalized polymer particles were employed to make oxide CMP slurries. These novel slurries proved to be potential candidates to

  13. Optimized process parameters for fabricating metal particles reinforced 5083 Al composite by friction stir processing

    PubMed Central

    Bauri, Ranjit; Yadav, Devinder; Shyam Kumar, C.N.; Janaki Ram, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit improved strength but suffer from low ductility. Metal particles reinforcement can be an alternative to retain the ductility in MMCs (Bauri and Yadav, 2010; Thakur and Gupta, 2007) [1,2]. However, processing such composites by conventional routes is difficult. The data presented here relates to friction stir processing (FSP) that was used to process metal particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites. The data is the processing parameters, rotation and traverse speeds, which were optimized to incorporate Ni particles. A wide range of parameters covering tool rotation speeds from 1000 rpm to 1800 rpm and a range of traverse speeds from 6 mm/min to 24 mm/min were explored in order to get a defect free stir zone and uniform distribution of particles. The right combination of rotation and traverse speed was found from these experiments. Both as-received coarse particles (70 μm) and ball-milled finer particles (10 μm) were incorporated in the Al matrix using the optimized parameters. PMID:26566541

  14. Optimization of Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategies Against Mouse-Adapted Ebolavirus in a Short-Term Protection Study.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Jenna; Bello, Alexander; Wong, Gary; Fausther-Bovendo, Hugues; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary

    2015-10-01

    In nonhuman primates, complete protection against an Ebola virus (EBOV) challenge has previously been achieved after a single injection with several vaccine platforms. However, long-term protection against EBOV after a single immunization has not been demonstrated to this date. Interestingly, prime-boost regimens have demonstrated longer protection against EBOV challenge, compared with single immunizations. Since prime-boost regimens have the potential to achieve long-term protection, determining optimal vector combinations is crucial. However, testing prime-boost efficiency in long-term protection studies is time consuming and resource demanding. Here, we investigated the optimal prime-boost combination, using DNA, porcine-derived adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV-po6), and human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector, in a short-term protection study in the mouse model of EBOV infection. In addition, we also investigated which immune parameters were indicative of a strong boost. Each vaccine platform was titrated in mice to identify which dose (single immunization) induced approximately 20% protection after challenge with a mouse-adapted EBOV. These doses were then used to determine the protection efficacy of various prime-boost combinations, using the same mouse model. In addition, humoral and cellular immune responses against EBOV glycoprotein were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a neutralizing antibody assay, and an interferon γ-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay. When DNA was used as a prime, Ad5 boost induced the best protection, which correlated with a higher cellular response. In contrast, when AAV-po6 or Ad5 were injected first, better protection was achieved after DNA boost, and this correlated with a higher total glycoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G titer. Prime-boost regimens using independent vaccine platforms may provide a useful strategy to induce long-term immune protection against filoviruses.

  15. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  16. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  17. Design of self-processing antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.

    PubMed

    Powell, W A; Catranis, C M; Maynard, C A

    2000-08-01

    Small antimicrobial peptides are excellent candidates for inclusion in self-processing proteins that could be used to confer pathogen resistance in transgenic plants. Antimicrobial peptides as small as 22 amino acids in length have been designed to incorporate the residual amino acids left from protein processing by the tobacco etch virus'(TEVs') NIa protease. Also, by minimizing the length of these peptides and the number of highly hydrophobic residues, haemolytic activity was reduced without affecting the peptide's antimicrobial activity.

  18. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-11-15

    A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H2O2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72g/L, H2O2 concentration 12.32mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  19. On the optimal viewing position for object processing.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Lotje; Vitu, Françoise

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a visually presented word is processed most easily when participants initially fixate just to the left of the word's center. Fixating on this optimal viewing position (OVP) results in shorter response times and a lower probability of making additional within-word refixations (OVP effects), but also longer initial-fixation durations (an inverted-OVP or I-OVP effect), as compared to initially fixating at the beginning or the end of the word. Thus, typical curves are u-shaped (or inverted-u-shaped), with a leftward bias. Most researchers explain the u-shape in terms of visual constraints, and the leftward bias in terms of language constraints. Previous studies have demonstrated that (I)-OVP effects are not specific to words, but generalize to object viewing. We further investigated this by comparing the strength and (a)symmetry of (I-)OVP effects for words and objects. To this purpose, we gave participants an object- versus word-naming task in which we manipulated the position at which they initially fixated the stimulus (i.e., a line drawing or the written name of an object). Our results showed that object viewing, just as word viewing, resulted in u-shaped (I-)OVP curves. However, the effect was weaker than for words. Furthermore, for words, the curves were biased to the left, whereas they were symmetrical for objects. This might indicate that part of the (I-)OVP effect for words is language specific, and that (I-)OVP effects for objects are a purer measure of the effect of visual constraints.

  20. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  1. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes.

  2. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    temperature and pressure were linked to final product quality in freeze-dried corn, indicating processing modifications that could lead to improved product shelf life. Storage temperatures and packaging systems were also assessed for the impact to food quality. Reduced temperature storage had inconclusive impact to the progression of rancidity in butter cookies. Frozen storage was detrimental to fruit and vegetable textural attributes but refrigerated storage helped to sustain color and organoleptic ratings for plant-based foods. With regard to packaging systems, the metallized film overwrap significantly decreased the progression of the rancidity of butter cookies as compared to the highest barrier non-metallized film. The inclusion of oxygen scavengers resulted in noticeable moisture gains in butter cookies over time, independent of packaging film systems. Neither emergent processing technology nor the freeze dry optimization resulted in compelling quality differences from current space food provisions such that a five-year shelf life is likely with these processing changes alone. Using a combination of refrigeration and PATS processing is expected to result in organoleptically-acceptable fruit quality for most fruits through five years. The vitamin degradation will be aided somewhat by the cold temperatures but, given the labile nature of vitamin C, a more stable fortification method, such as encapsulation, should also be investigated to ensure vitamin delivery throughout the product life. Similarly, significant improvement to the packaging film used in the MATS processing, optimization of formulation for dielectric properties, vitamin fortification, and reduced temperature storage should be investigated as a hurdle approach to reach a five year shelf life in wet-pack entrees and soups. Baked goods and other environmentally-sensitive spaceflight foods will require an almost impenetrable barrier to protect the foods from oxygen and moisture ingress but scavengers and

  3. A study of optimizing processes for metallized textile design application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ronghui

    The purpose of this research is to find an optimum electroless plating process in order to obtain relatively low surface resistance, and improve functional properties and appearance of nickel-plated and copper-plated polyester fabrics. The optimum results indicate that the NiSO4 concentration and temperature of the bath in the plating process are most important factors influencing surface resistance of electroless nickel-plated polyester fabric. However, NiSO4 concentration and pH of the plating bath are most significant factors affecting electroless copper plating. The micro-structures and properties of nickel and copper, and nickel/copper multi-layer plated polyester fabrics have been studied. In the case of electroless nickel plating, the nickel deposit layer becomes more uniform and continuous when prepared at higher NiSO4 concentration and higher bath temperature. As for the electroless copper plating, the surface morphology of the copper deposits indicates that the average diameter of the particles is increased with the rise of NiSO4 concentration and pH. The surface morphology of nickel/copper multi-layer deposits reveals the presence of ultra-fine nodules and the deposits are compact and uniform in size. There is an increase in EMI SE with respect to the rise of Ni 2+ concentration and bath temperature for electroless nickel plating; and EMI SE increases with the rise of Ni2+ concentration and pH of the plating solution for electroless copper plating on polyester fabric. With the same deposit weight, the EMI SE of nickel/copper-plated fabric is greatly higher than that of the nickel-plated fabric, but slightly lower than that of the copper-plated fabric. However, the anti-corrosive property of nickel/copper-plated fabrics is significantly superior to the copper-plated fabrics, but slightly inferior to the nickel-plated fabric. Design application effects have been explored by the controlling plating conditions. The electroless plating parameters play an

  4. Lower bound of optimization in radiological protection system taking account of practical implementation of clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    constraint that requires optimization in radiological protection should be set to the dose criterion of 0.1 mSv/y, considering the fundamental concept used in the clearance criterion for resolving the issues on uncertainty in clearance. (author)

  5. Using Finite Element Simulation to Optimize the Heat Treatment of Tire Protection Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, S.; Prevedel, P.; Marsoner, S.; Ecker, W.; Illmeier, M.

    2014-04-01

    The heat treatment of tire protection chains has a major influence on the final product because the high local stresses that arise during quenching may lead to material failure, i.e., quench cracks. The investigations presented in this paper aim at the identification of critical areas in the design of a tire chain link made of 50CrV4 (DIN 1.8159) steel. Parametric studies were conducted by means of finite element (FE) simulation. The FE model enables the calculation of the stress evolution in the chain link during heat treatment. The position of the cracks produced in laboratory quench experiments coincided with the position where the FE simulation model predicted the maximum tensile stress at the end of the quench. Hence, geometry optimization of the chain links is now possible by means of parametric FE studies aiming to minimize these tensile stresses. To identify the influence of the various input parameters on the calculated stress evolution during the quenching, a sensitivity analysis was performed. The influence of the mesh size, the heat transfer at the surface, and the thermo-mechanical properties of the material phases on the stress calculation was evaluated and trends were identified. Temperature measurements during quenching experiments were used to determine the heat transfer parameters. X-ray residual stress measurements on pre-defined positions after an instrumented laboratory quenching were used to validate the simulation results.

  6. Optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study performed to continue development of computational techniques for the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System is reported. The resulting computer code was used to perform some additional optimization studies on several TPS configurations. The program was developed in Fortran 4 for the CDC 6400, and it was converted to Fortran 5 to be used for the Univac 1108. The computational methodology is developed in modular fashion to facilitate changes and updating of the techniques and to allow overlaying the computer code to fit into approximately 131,000 octal words of core storage. The program logic involves subroutines which handle input and output of information between computer and user, thermodynamic stress, dynamic, and weight/estimate analyses of a variety of panel configurations. These include metallic, ablative, RSI (with and without an underlying phase change material), and a thermodynamic analysis only of carbon-carbon systems applied to the leading edge and flat cover panels. Two different thermodynamic analyses are used. The first is a two-dimensional, explicit precedure with variable time steps which is used to describe the behavior of metallic and carbon-carbon leading edges. The second is a one-dimensional implicity technique used to predict temperature in the charring ablator and the noncharring RSI. The latter analysis is performed simply by suppressing the chemical reactions and pyrolysis of the TPS material.

  7. Metamodeling and Optimization of a Blister Copper Two-Stage Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Kusiak, Jan; Małecki, Stanisław; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to estimate parameters for a two-stage production process of blister copper (containing 99.4 wt.% of Cu metal) as well as those for most industrial processes with high accuracy, which leads to problems related to process modeling and control. The first objective of this study was to model flash smelting and converting of Cu matte stages using three different techniques: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, which utilized noisy technological data. Subsequently, more advanced models were applied to optimize the entire process (which was the second goal of this research). The obtained optimal solution was a Pareto-optimal one because the process consisted of two stages, making the optimization problem a multi-criteria one. A sequential optimization strategy was employed, which aimed for optimal control parameters consecutively for both stages. The obtained optimal output parameters for the first smelting stage were used as input parameters for the second converting stage. Finally, a search for another optimal set of control parameters for the second stage of a Kennecott-Outokumpu process was performed. The optimization process was modeled using a Monte-Carlo method, and both modeling parameters and computed optimal solutions are discussed.

  8. Stretching the limits of forming processes by robust optimization: A demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebenga, J. H.; Atzema, E. H.; Boogaard, A. H. van den

    2013-12-16

    Robust design of forming processes using numerical simulations is gaining attention throughout the industry. In this work, it is demonstrated how robust optimization can assist in further stretching the limits of metal forming processes. A deterministic and a robust optimization study are performed, considering a stretch-drawing process of a hemispherical cup product. For the robust optimization study, both the effect of material and process scatter are taken into account. For quantifying the material scatter, samples of 41 coils of a drawing quality forming steel have been collected. The stochastic material behavior is obtained by a hybrid approach, combining mechanical testing and texture analysis, and efficiently implemented in a metamodel based optimization strategy. The deterministic and robust optimization results are subsequently presented and compared, demonstrating an increased process robustness and decreased number of product rejects by application of the robust optimization approach.

  9. The Sea of Azov: Recent abrasion processes and problems of coastal protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Bespalova, L. A.; Ivlieva, O. V.; Tsygankova, A. E.; Kropyanko, L. V.

    2016-12-01

    The abrasion processes of the Sea of Azov have been assessed on the basis of long-term monitoring. The coast has been zoned by the degree of abrasion. The current condition of coast protection measures has been studied.

  10. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental Consent, Minors' Right to Due Process, Equal Protection and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    In State v. Koome, the Washington Supreme Court has striken that state's statute regarding parental consent for a minor's abortion. Implications of the finding for a minor's right to due process, equal protection, and privacy are discussed. (LBH)

  11. 77 FR 10657 - Protecting the Public and Our Employees in Our Hearing Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Process AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are clarifying our regulations to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. Due to increasing... of protection we provide to our staff and to the public during the hearing process. We expect...

  12. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  13. Psychosocial processes and mechanisms of risk and protection.

    PubMed

    Psychosocial research on adolescent drinking includes studies of personality and the impact of particular personality traits on drinking risk, expectancies (that is, the effects someone expects after drinking alcohol), and cognitive development. Although studies involving adolescents have not identified specific sets of personality traits that uniquely predict alcohol use, some traits have been shown to be associated with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. These traits include disinhibition or poor self-regulation, impulsiveness and aggression, novelty-seeking, and negative affectivity. Externalizing behaviors in childhood and early adolescence have been found to predict alcohol use disorders in early adulthood, as have certain internalizing behaviors. This article examines the theories and psychosocial processes thought to underlie underage drinking.

  14. A parallel Jacobson-Oksman optimization algorithm. [parallel processing (computers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Markos, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    A gradient-dependent optimization technique which exploits the vector-streaming or parallel-computing capabilities of some modern computers is presented. The algorithm, derived by assuming that the function to be minimized is homogeneous, is a modification of the Jacobson-Oksman serial minimization method. In addition to describing the algorithm, conditions insuring the convergence of the iterates of the algorithm and the results of numerical experiments on a group of sample test functions are presented. The results of these experiments indicate that this algorithm will solve optimization problems in less computing time than conventional serial methods on machines having vector-streaming or parallel-computing capabilities.

  15. Rapid Process Optimization: A Novel Process Improvement Methodology to Innovate Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Bookman, Kelly; Birznieks, Derek B; Leeret, Robert; Koehler, April; Planck, Shauna; Zane, Richard

    2016-03-26

    Health care systems have utilized various process redesign methodologies to improve care delivery. This article describes the creation of a novel process improvement methodology, Rapid Process Optimization (RPO). This system was used to redesign emergency care delivery within a large academic health care system, which resulted in a decrease: (1) door-to-physician time (Department A: 54 minutes pre vs 12 minutes 1 year post; Department B: 20 minutes pre vs 8 minutes 3 months post), (2) overall length of stay (Department A: 228 vs 184; Department B: 202 vs 192), (3) discharge length of stay (Department A: 216 vs 140; Department B: 179 vs 169), and (4) left without being seen rates (Department A: 5.5% vs 0.0%; Department B: 4.1% vs 0.5%) despite a 47% increased census at Department A (34 391 vs 50 691) and a 4% increase at Department B (8404 vs 8753). The novel RPO process improvement methodology can inform and guide successful care redesign.

  16. Optimal fabrication processes for unidirectional metal-matrix composites: A computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Morel, M.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for optimizing the fabrication process of unidirectional metal matrix composites. The temperature and pressure histories are optimized such that the residual microstresses of the composite at the end of the fabrication process are minimized and the material integrity throughout the process is ensured. The response of the composite during the fabrication is simulated based on a nonlinear micromechanics theory. The optimal fabrication problem is formulated and solved with non-linear programming. Application cases regarding the optimization of the fabrication cool-down phases of unidirectional ultra-high modulus graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium composites are presented.

  17. Optimization Of PVDF-TrFE Processing Conditions For The Fabrication Of Organic MEMS Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pierre-Henri; Dufour, Isabelle; Ayela, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic optimization of processing conditions of PVDF-TrFE piezoelectric thin films, used as integrated transducers in organic MEMS resonators. Indeed, despite data on electromechanical properties of PVDF found in the literature, optimized processing conditions that lead to these properties remain only partially described. In this work, a rigorous optimization of parameters enabling state-of-the-art piezoelectric properties of PVDF-TrFE thin films has been performed via the evaluation of the actuation performance of MEMS resonators. Conditions such as annealing duration, poling field and poling duration have been optimized and repeatability of the process has been demonstrated. PMID:26792224

  18. Optimal fabrication processes for unidirectional metal-matrix composites - A computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Morel, M.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for optimizing the fabrication process of unidirectional metal matrix composites. The temperature and pressure histories are optimized such that the residual microstresses of the composite at the end of the fabrication process are minimized and the material integrity throughout the process is ensured. The response of the composite during the fabrication is simulated based on a nonlinear micromechanics theory. The optimal fabrication problem is formulated and solved with nonlinear programming. Application cases regarding the optimization of the fabrication cool-down phases of unidirectional ultra-high modulus graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium composites are presented.

  19. Considerations on the Optimal and Efficient Processing of Information-Bearing Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Herbert Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a fundamental hurdle that impedes the processing of information-bearing signals, specifically the extraction of salient information. Processing that is both optimal and efficient is desired; optimality ensures the extracted information has the highest fidelity allowed by the noise, while efficiency ensures limited resource usage. Optimal…

  20. Processing Systems Optimization Through Automatic Design and Reorganization of Program Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunamaker, J. F., Jr.; And Others

    A methodology is described for an automatic design system initially defined in terms of logical processes or program modules. Processes and files are grouped and reorganized in such a way as to produce an optimal design with respect to a specific target machine. Performance criteria for the optimal design are defined in terms of transport volume…

  1. [Search for optimal combinations of the hygienic and protective characteristics of body armors].

    PubMed

    Logatkin, S M

    2008-01-01

    The protective composition of a body armor is generally characterized by two major parameters--the area and level of protection, i.e. resistance to bullets and fragments. These characteristics directly depend on the mass of a body armor and the sizes of the body's screening. The positive protective characteristics simultaneously have a negative impact on the most important hygienic indices of a body armor, such as convenience and easiness-to-use. The optimum combination of protective and performance characteristics of body armors makes a compromise between their mass and the level of protection.

  2. Optimization for growth of Rhodocyclus gelatinosus in seafood processing effluents.

    PubMed

    Prasertsan, P; Choorit, W; Suwanno, S

    1993-09-01

    Tuna condensate was a better substrate than shrimp-blanching water or effluent from a frozen-seafood plant for growing Rhodocyclus gelatinosus under anaerobic conditions in the light. One strain out of four examined, R7, gave the highest biomass (4.0 g/l), cell yield (0.32 g cell/g COD), and COD removal (78%) in 1:10 (v/v) diluted tuna condensate. Shrimp-blanching water added to the tuna condensate further increased growth rate, biomass and COD removal. Optimal growth was at pH 7.0 and 3000 Lux light intensity. Acetate, pyruvate, glucose, glutamate, propionate or malate added to the tuna condensate did not increase cell yield, carotenoid or bacteriochlorophyll content or biomass protein. A maximum cell mass of 5.6 g/l (containing 50% protein) and 86% COD removal were obtained after 5 days' incubation under optimal conditions.

  3. Tools for high-throughput process and medium optimization.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Martin; Stettler, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Shaking technology in combination with small-scale disposable plastic vessels has become a notable bioprocess optimization tool widely exploited for cells grown in suspension. This chapter focuses on the two most accommodating culture systems: 50 mL centrifugation tubes and 96-deepwell plates. Used by many laboratories for routine passaging of suspension cultures and all types of optimization experiments as flexible culture system, the 50 mL shake tubes are the preferred vessels for manual manipulations, while microtiter plates are the ideal containers when automatic liquid handling systems are available. Both culture systems can offer to the cells a well-mixed environment which is close to the conditions found at larger scale in production bioreactors.

  4. A System-Oriented Approach for the Optimal Control of Process Chains under Stochastic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Melanie; Schäfer, Julian; Pollak, Jürgen; Link, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    Process chains in manufacturing consist of multiple connected processes in terms of dynamic systems. The properties of a product passing through such a process chain are influenced by the transformation of each single process. There exist various methods for the control of individual processes, such as classical state controllers from cybernetics or function mapping approaches realized by statistical learning. These controllers ensure that a desired state is obtained at process end despite of variations in the input and disturbances. The interactions between the single processes are thereby neglected, but play an important role in the optimization of the entire process chain. We divide the overall optimization into two phases: (1) the solution of the optimization problem by Dynamic Programming to find the optimal control variable values for each process for any encountered end state of its predecessor and (2) the application of the optimal control variables at runtime for the detected initial process state. The optimization problem is solved by selecting adequate control variables for each process in the chain backwards based on predefined quality requirements for the final product. For the demonstration of the proposed concept, we have chosen a process chain from sheet metal manufacturing with simplified transformation functions.

  5. Optimization of Processing of Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Baaklini, George Y.

    1988-01-01

    Process changes iterated under guidance of x-radiography. In recent work at NASA Lewis Research Center, density gradients in sintered silicon nitride, characterized by x-radiography, identified and appeared strongly dependent upon powder-processing and sintering conditions. NASA technical memorandum describes systematic investigation, based upon preliminary work, of density-gradient/flexural-strength relationships as affected by processing.

  6. Nitrogen removal process optimization in New York City WPCPS: a case study of Wards Island WPCP.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Musabyimana, M; Deur, A; Beckmann, K

    2009-01-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has been engaged in a continuous process to develop a nitrogen removal program to reduce the nitrogen mass discharge from its water pollution control plants, (WPCPs), from 49,158 kg/d to 20,105 kg/d by the year 2017 as recommended by the Long Island Sound Study. As part of the process, a comprehensive research effort was undertaken involving bench, pilot and full scale studies to identify the most effective way to upgrade and optimize the existing WPCPs. Aeration tank 13 (AT-13) at the Wards Island WPCP was particularly attractive as a full-scale research facility because its aeration tank with its dedicated final settling tanks and RAS pumps could be isolated from the remaining treatment facilities. The nitrogen removal performance of AT-13, which, at the time, was operated as a "basic step feed BNR Facility", was evaluated and concurrently nitrification kinetic parameters were measured using in-situ bench scale experiments. Additional bench scale experiments provided denitrification rates using different sources of carbon and measurement of the maximum specific growth rate of nitrifying bacteria. The combined findings were then used to upgrade AT-13 to a "full" BNR facility with carbon and alkalinity addition. This paper will focus on the combined bench and full scale results that were the basis for the consequent upgrade.

  7. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-07-04

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine when in chiral form.

  8. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

  9. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  10. Application of a neural network to simulate analysis in an optimization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1992-01-01

    A new experimental software package called NETS/PROSSS aimed at reducing the computing time required to solve a complex design problem is described. The software combines a neural network for simulating the analysis program with an optimization program. The neural network is applied to approximate results of a finite element analysis program to quickly obtain a near-optimal solution. Results of the NETS/PROSSS optimization process can also be used as an initial design in a normal optimization process and make it possible to converge to an optimum solution with significantly fewer iterations.

  11. Lightning protection for the process canyons at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has performed Lightning Studies for the existing Process Canyons at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These studies were initiated to verify the lightning protection systems for the facilities and to compare the installations to the National Fire Protection (NFPA) Standard 780, Lighting Protection Code, 1992. The original study of the F-Canyon was initiated to develop answers to concerns raised by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Once this study was completed it was determined that a similar study for H-Canyon would be prudent; followed by an evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building (S-Canyon). This paper will provide an overview of the nature of lightning and the principals of lightning protection. This will provide the reader with a basic understanding of the phenomena of lighting and its potential for damaging structures, components, and injuring personnel in or near the structure.

  12. Cooperative optimization of reconfigurable machine tool configurations and production process plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Nan; Li, Aiping; Xue, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The production process plan design and configurations of reconfigurable machine tool (RMT) interact with each other. Reasonable process plans with suitable configurations of RMT help to improve product quality and reduce production cost. Therefore, a cooperative strategy is needed to concurrently solve the above issue. In this paper, the cooperative optimization model for RMT configurations and production process plan is presented. Its objectives take into account both impacts of process and configuration. Moreover, a novel genetic algorithm is also developed to provide optimal or near-optimal solutions: firstly, its chromosome is redesigned which is composed of three parts, operations, process plan and configurations of RMTs, respectively; secondly, its new selection, crossover and mutation operators are also developed to deal with the process constraints from operation processes (OP) graph, otherwise these operators could generate illegal solutions violating the limits; eventually the optimal configurations for RMT under optimal process plan design can be obtained. At last, a manufacturing line case is applied which is composed of three RMTs. It is shown from the case that the optimal process plan and configurations of RMT are concurrently obtained, and the production cost decreases 6.28% and nonmonetary performance increases 22%. The proposed method can figure out both RMT configurations and production process, improve production capacity, functions and equipment utilization for RMT.

  13. Optimization of process condition of nanosilica production by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qisti, N.; Indrasti, N. S.; Suprihatin

    2016-11-01

    Bagasse ashes have high silica content thus it can be used in nanosilicaproduction to increase its benefit value. This study aimed to get the best time for synthesis and to determine the optimum synthesis time and temperature. This study used the hydrothermal method, a simple method with relatively low reaction temperature and provide a good chemical homogeneity. Time varieties in synthesizing silica were 8,10 and 12 hours, at the temperature of 150 °C. But the results were not as expected. Moreover, optimization of synthesis temperature and time used 4 hours at the temperature of 150 °C based on previous studies. Optimization was conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Later, a testusing PSA (Particle Size Analyzer) was performed to obtain particle sizes and PDI values (Polydispersity Index). The results showed that the prediction model of temperature synthesis was 152.67 °C synthesis time of 6 hours, particle size of 276.288 nm and PDI value of 0.189642. The tests showed that the size of particle obtained was 330.39 nm and PDI value at 0.3580. Actual results and predicted results were not significant different.

  14. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries.

  15. Optimization of the sonication process for meloxicam nanocrystals preparation

    PubMed Central

    IURIAN, SONIA; TOMUŢA, IOAN; RUS, LUCIA; ACHIM, MARCELA; LEUCUTA, SORIN E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Meloxicam, a widely recommended AINS, presents poor water solubility, which limits its bioavailability and effect onset. The objective of this study is the investigation of the most important factors that influence the efficiency of sonication in the preparation of meloxicam nanocrystals. Methods The effects of crucial technological sonication parameters (amplitude, time and applied cycle) on the crystal sizes and dissolution were investigated using a central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels. Different mathematical models were applied for the evaluation of the influence of each factor on the measured responses. Results The amplitude and the time were found as the most important variables. Their increase determined significant size reduction and homogeneity due to cavitation phenomenon, while the applied cycle was less important. The crystal size greatly influenced dissolution; a strong correlation was noted between small crystals and fast dissolution after freeze-drying the nanosuspensions. The optimal formulation was obtained by sonication at 100% amplitude, for 45 minutes and cycle 1, conditions which led to 600 nm crystals with 0.521 polydispersion index. The morphological analysis revealed small, round-shaped crystals with narrow size distribution. Conclusions The results provided the optimal sonication conditions needed to obtain meloxicam nanosuspensions with high drug dissolution capacity. PMID:26609271

  16. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  17. A common and functional mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype enhances optimism and protects against depression in females.

    PubMed

    Klok, M D; Giltay, E J; Van der Does, A J W; Geleijnse, J M; Antypa, N; Penninx, B W J H; de Geus, E J C; Willemsen, G; Boomsma, D I; van Leeuwen, N; Zitman, F G; de Kloet, E R; DeRijk, R H

    2011-12-13

    Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are abundantly expressed in the limbic brain and mediate cortisol effects on the stress-response and behavioral adaptation. Dysregulation of the stress response impairs adaptation and is a risk factor for depression, which is twice as abundant in women than in men. Because of the importance of MR for appraisal processes underlying the initial phase of the stress response we investigated whether specific MR haplotypes were associated with personality traits that predict the risk of depression. We discovered a common gene variant (haplotype 2, frequency ∼0.38) resulting in enhanced MR activity. Haplotype 2 was associated with heightened dispositional optimism in study 1 and with less hopelessness and rumination in study 2. Using data from a large genome-wide association study we then established that haplotype 2 was associated with a lower risk of depression. Interestingly, all effects were restricted to women. We propose that common functional MR haplotypes are important determinants of inter-individual variability in resilience to depression in women by differentially mediating cortisol effects on the stress system.

  18. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  19. Point-process principal components analysis via geometric optimization.

    PubMed

    Solo, Victor; Pasha, Syed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    There has been a fast-growing demand for analysis tools for multivariate point-process data driven by work in neural coding and, more recently, high-frequency finance. Here we develop a true or exact (as opposed to one based on time binning) principal components analysis for preliminary processing of multivariate point processes. We provide a maximum likelihood estimator, an algorithm for maximization involving steepest ascent on two Stiefel manifolds, and novel constrained asymptotic analysis. The method is illustrated with a simulation and compared with a binning approach.

  20. Modeling and multi-criteria optimization of an industrial process for continuous lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Mokeddem, Diab; Khellaf, Abdelhafid

    2014-06-01

    The key feature of this paper is the optimization of an industrial process for continuous production of lactic acid. For this, a two-stage fermentor process integrated with cell recycling has been mathematically modeled and optimized for overall productivity, conversion, and yield simultaneously. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was applied to solve the constrained multi-objective optimization problem as it is capable of finding multiple Pareto-optimal solutions in a single run, thereby avoiding the need to use a single-objective optimization several times. Compared with traditional methods, NSGA-II could find most of the solutions in the true Pareto-front and its simulation is also very direct and convenient. The effects of operating variables on the optimal solutions are discussed in detail. It was observed that we can make higher profit with an acceptable compromise in a two-stage system with greater efficiency.

  1. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2015-02-17

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  2. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2014-06-24

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  3. Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.

  4. Optimized Laplacian image sharpening algorithm based on graphic processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tinghuai; Li, Lu; Ji, Sai; Wang, Xin; Tian, Yuan; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah

    2014-12-01

    In classical Laplacian image sharpening, all pixels are processed one by one, which leads to large amount of computation. Traditional Laplacian sharpening processed on CPU is considerably time-consuming especially for those large pictures. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of Laplacian sharpening based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which is a computing platform of Graphic Processing Units (GPU), and analyze the impact of picture size on performance and the relationship between the processing time of between data transfer time and parallel computing time. Further, according to different features of different memory, an improved scheme of our method is developed, which exploits shared memory in GPU instead of global memory and further increases the efficiency. Experimental results prove that two novel algorithms outperform traditional consequentially method based on OpenCV in the aspect of computing speed.

  5. Optimization of the BCP processing of elliptical nb srf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Cooper, C.; Rowe, A.; Galasso, G.; /Udine U.

    2006-06-01

    At present, the electropolishing (EP) process is considered the key technology unleashing the capability to produce Niobium SRF cavities performing at or above 35 MV/m. Nevertheless buffered chemical polishing (BCP) remains a cheap, simple and effective processing technique for single grain high gradient and polycrystalline lower gradient cavities. BCP will be adopted to chemically process the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities being fabricated at Fermilab [1]. The dimensions and the shape of these cavities yield a strong nonuniformity in the material removal between iris and equator of the cells. This paper describes the thermal-fluid finite element model adopted to simulate the process, the experimental flow visualization tests performed to verify the simulation and a novel device fabricated to solve the problem.

  6. Optimizing the availability of a buffered industrial process

    DOEpatents

    Martz, Jr., Harry F.; Hamada, Michael S.; Koehler, Arthur J.; Berg, Eric C.

    2004-08-24

    A computer-implemented process determines optimum configuration parameters for a buffered industrial process. A population size is initialized by randomly selecting a first set of design and operation values associated with subsystems and buffers of the buffered industrial process to form a set of operating parameters for each member of the population. An availability discrete event simulation (ADES) is performed on each member of the population to determine the product-based availability of each member. A new population is formed having members with a second set of design and operation values related to the first set of design and operation values through a genetic algorithm and the product-based availability determined by the ADES. Subsequent population members are then determined by iterating the genetic algorithm with product-based availability determined by ADES to form improved design and operation values from which the configuration parameters are selected for the buffered industrial process.

  7. Pulsed pumping process optimization using a potential flow model.

    PubMed

    Tenney, C M; Lastoskie, C M

    2007-08-15

    A computational model is applied to the optimization of pulsed pumping systems for efficient in situ remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the pulsed pumping mode of operation, periodic rather than continuous pumping is used. During the pump-off or trapping phase, natural gradient flow transports contaminated groundwater into a treatment zone surrounding a line of injection and extraction wells that transect the contaminant plume. Prior to breakthrough of the contaminated water from the treatment zone, the wells are activated and the pump-on or treatment phase ensues, wherein extracted water is augmented to stimulate pollutant degradation and recirculated for a sufficient period of time to achieve mandated levels of contaminant removal. An important design consideration in pulsed pumping groundwater remediation systems is the pumping schedule adopted to best minimize operational costs for the well grid while still satisfying treatment requirements. Using an analytic two-dimensional potential flow model, optimal pumping frequencies and pumping event durations have been investigated for a set of model aquifer-well systems with different well spacings and well-line lengths, and varying aquifer physical properties. The results for homogeneous systems with greater than five wells and moderate to high pumping rates are reduced to a single, dimensionless correlation. Results for heterogeneous systems are presented graphically in terms of dimensionless parameters to serve as an efficient tool for initial design and selection of the pumping regimen best suited for pulsed pumping operation for a particular well configuration and extraction rate. In the absence of significant retardation or degradation during the pump-off phase, average pumping rates for pulsed operation were found to be greater than the continuous pumping rate required to prevent contaminant breakthrough.

  8. Optimal Estimation with Two Process Models and No Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    example is provided in which a process model based on the dynamics of a ballistic projectile is blended with an inertial navigation system. The...inertial navigation system. The results show that under the certain conditions, the algorithm provides estimates of the projectile states with less...with such systems. This problem could present itself in navigation applications. In the example used here, one process model comes from projectile

  9. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  10. Optimization of a recombinant human growth hormone purification process using quality by design.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Enriquez, Carolina; Romero-Díaz, Alexis de Jesús; Hernández-Moreno, Ana V; Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; Miranda-Hernández, Mariana P; López-Morales, Carlos A; Pérez, Néstor O; Salazar-Ceballos, Rodolfo; Cruz-García, Norberto; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2016-11-16

    This work describes a strategy to optimize a downstream processing of a recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) by incorporating a quality by design approach toward meeting higher quality specifications. The optimized process minimized the presence of impurities and degradation by-products during manufacturing by the establishment of in-process controls. Capillary zone electrophoresis, reverse phase, and size-exclusion chromatographies were used as analytical techniques to establish new critical process parameters for the solubilization, capture, and intermediate purification steps aiming to maintain rhGH quality by complying with pharmacopeial specifications. The results indicated that the implemented improvements in the process allowed the optimization of the specific recovery and purification of rhGH without compromising its quality. In addition, this optimization facilitated the stringent removal of the remaining impurities in further polishing stages, as demonstrated by the analysis of the obtained active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  11. Optimization of Plasma Spray Process Using Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Huang, X.; Liu, R.; Yang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure features of coatings produced by a plasma spray process are affected significantly by the process parameters such as powder size, spray gun nozzle size, total plasma gas flow, ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow, and so on. This article presents a study of the effects of these parameters on the microstructure (porosity, formation of crack, unmelted particle and oxide phase) of NiCrAlY coatings deposited by the Mettech Axial III™ System. A Taguchi array is used to design the spraying process parameters. The results of the microstructure evaluation are used to generate regression equations for the prediction of coating microstructure based on process parameters. The results predicted from the regression equations are in good agreement with the experimental results according to a confidence level of 0.95. Among the parameters examined, the powder size and the ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow rate are the most significant parameters affecting the occurrence of crack, porosity, unmelted particle and oxide. Within the range of the designed process parameters, lower powder size and higher ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow rate lead to less cracks, pores, unmelted particles but more oxides. Nozzle size has marginal influence on oxides which increase with nozzle size. Gas flow rate has no direct influence on any coating feature evaluated with the range of variation.

  12. Thermomechanical processing optimization for 304 austenitic stainless steel using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wen; Yang, Sen

    2016-12-01

    Thermomechanical processing has an important effect on the grain boundary character distribution. To obtain the optimal thermomechanical processing parameters is the key of grain boundary engineering. In this study, genetic algorithm (GA) based on artificial neural network model was proposed to optimize the thermomechanical processing parameters. In this model, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was established to map the relationship between thermomechanical processing parameters and the fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries, and GA integrated with BPNN (BPNN/GA) was applied to optimize the thermomechanical processing parameters. The validation of the optimal thermomechanical processing parameters was verified by an experiment. Moreover, the microstructures and the intergranular corrosion resistance of the base material (BM) and the materials produced by the optimal thermomechanical processing parameters (termed as the GBEM) were studied. Compared to the BM specimen, the fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries was increased from 56.8 to 77.9% and the random boundary network was interrupted by the low-Σ CSL boundaries, and the intergranular corrosion resistance was improved in the GBEM specimen. The results indicated that the BPNN/GA model was an effective and reliable means for the thermomechanical processing parameters optimization, which resulted in improving the intergranular corrosion resistance in 304 austenitic stainless steel.

  13. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  14. Confidentiality Protections for Adolescents and Young Adults in the Health Care Billing and Insurance Claims Process.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The importance of protecting confidential health care for adolescents and young adults is well documented. State and federal confidentiality protections exist for both minors and young adults, although the laws vary among states, particularly for minors. However, such confidentiality is potentially violated by billing practices and in the processing of health insurance claims. To address this problem, policies and procedures should be established so that health care billing and insurance claims processes do not impede the ability of providers to deliver essential health care services on a confidential basis to adolescents and young adults covered as dependents on a family's health insurance plan.

  15. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-03-21

    This application describes a process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  16. Optimization of the curing process of a sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phyo Maung, Pyi; Tatarnikov, O.; Malysheva, G.

    2016-10-01

    This study presented finite element modelling and experimental measurements of temperatures during the autoclave curing of the T-50 aircraft wing sandwich panel. This panel consists of upper and lower carbon fibre based laminates and an aluminium foil honeycomb. The finite element modelling was performed using the Femap-Nastran product. During processing, the temperature at various points on the surface of the panel was measured using the thermocouples. The finite element method simulated the thermal conditions and determined the temperatures in the different parts of the panel for a full cycle of the curing process. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that their difference does not exceed 6%.

  17. Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mojtaba

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction (TAD) for each operation. In the present work, the process planning is divided into preliminary planning, and secondary/detailed planning. In the preliminary stage, based on the analysis of order and clustering constraints as a compulsive constraint aggregation in operation sequencing and using an intelligent searching strategy, the feasible sequences are generated. Then, in the detailed planning stage, using the genetic algorithm which prunes the initial feasible sequences, the optimized operation sequence and the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and TAD for each operation based on optimization constraints as an additive constraint aggregation are obtained. The main contribution of this work is the optimization of sequence of the operations of the part, and optimization of machine selection, cutting tool and TAD for each operation using the intelligent search and genetic algorithm simultaneously. PMID:21845020

  18. FinFET Doping; Material Science, Metrology, and Process Modeling Studies for Optimized Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.; Shayesteh, M.

    2011-01-07

    In this review paper the challenges that face doping optimization in 3-dimensional (3D) thin-body silicon devices will be discussed, within the context of material science studies, metrology methodologies, process modeling insight, ultimately leading to optimized device performance. The focus will be on ion implantation at the method to introduce the dopants to the target material.

  19. Processing Narratives Concerning Protected Values: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Neural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonas T; Gimbel, Sarah I; Dehghani, Morteza; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Sagae, Kenji; Wong, Jennifer D; Tipper, Christine M; Damasio, Hanna; Gordon, Andrew S; Damasio, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Narratives are an important component of culture and play a central role in transmitting social values. Little is known, however, about how the brain of a listener/reader processes narratives. A receiver's response to narration is influenced by the narrator's framing and appeal to values. Narratives that appeal to "protected values," including core personal, national, or religious values, may be particularly effective at influencing receivers. Protected values resist compromise and are tied with identity, affective value, moral decision-making, and other aspects of social cognition. Here, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying reactions to protected values in narratives. During fMRI scanning, we presented 78 American, Chinese, and Iranian participants with real-life stories distilled from a corpus of over 20 million weblogs. Reading these stories engaged the posterior medial, medial prefrontal, and temporo-parietal cortices. When participants believed that the protagonist was appealing to a protected value, signal in these regions was increased compared with when no protected value was perceived, possibly reflecting the intensive and iterative search required to process this material. The effect strength also varied across groups, potentially reflecting cultural differences in the degree of concern for protected values.

  20. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  1. Materials Processing Technology Initiatives. Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling for Optimization of Thermomechanical Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TM-2008-4056 MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling for Optimization of...5835-0019 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling

  2. Simulation and optimization of the cold roll-forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jinn-Jong

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, the cold roll-forming process of steel was simulated. The FEM model of rollers was built in the LS-DYNA software. There are six stands used in the cold-roll-forming process simulation. The frictions of the tools were determined by the comparison of the cold-roll-forming results and the simulation deformation. Many friction conditions were tested to approach the experimental results of the forming experiments. The blanks were pushed through the rollers in the roll-forming machine. While in the simulation, the rollers were running over the fixed-end blank instead of moving the materials. The resulted motion is the same but the boundary conditions were easier to specify and control. The rolling speeds in the simulation were higher to save the calculation time but still confirm to the experiment results. The simulation results shown the axial and the shear strains were induced during the bending process of sheet metal. The thickness of the sheet metal was varied very slightly during the roll-forming process. The dimension and shape of the cold roll-formed specimens were in good agreement with the experiment results. The Taguchi method was adopted to design an optimum roll flower.

  3. Optimizing an Immersion ESL Curriculum Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative…

  4. Optimization of Control Processes of Digital Electrical Drive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochviri, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work is solution of the problems associated with synthesis of the digital speed regulators both for DC and AC thyristor electrical drives. The investigation is realized based on the parameters of continuous technological equipment (e.g. paper-making machine) by taking into account elastic transmission links of the drive systems. Appropriate frequency characteristics and transient processes are described.

  5. Developing a Quality Improvement Process to Optimize Faculty Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merillat, Linda; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2016-01-01

    As part of a major shift to embed quality improvement processes within a School of Nursing at a medium-sized Midwestern university, a faculty enrichment program using a Plan-Do-Act-Study design was implemented. A central focus for the program was the development and maintenance of an online faculty resource center identified as "My Faculty…

  6. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  7. Optimization Of A Bilayer Resist Process For Polysilicon Gate Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Ludwik J.; Spadini, Gianpaolo; Vidusek, David A.; Legenza, Michael W.

    1986-07-01

    A high resolution, easy to implement bilayer PMGI [poly[dimethylglutarimiden process has been developed for producing polysilicon gates for high density CMOS. One micron wide, proximity effect free, and very uniform poly lines were obtained. Unbiased mask dimensions were reproduced easily with optimum process latitude. A focus latitude of 5 microns for 1 micron dense (repeating line/space) pattern is reported. This was achieved using a conventional stepper with a nominal resolution of 1.1 microns and a depth of focus of +/-1.3 microns. The delta between the mask and the final wafer dimensions was virtually the same for lines ranging from 5 all the way to 1 micron, as well as for all single and dense lines showing no proximity effects. The after-etch linewidths were uniform to within a sigma of 0.04 microns across a 4 inch wafer. The process consisted of the following: The polysilicon was coated with a planarizing and antireflecting PMGI layer of about 1 micron. A 0.7 micron layer of conventional novolak resist was put on top. The image was formed in the top resist and transferred to the bottom by a deep UV flood exposure. The PMGI was developed in a aqueous-based solution completely removing the top resist in the process. The etching was done in a single wafer RIE machine. All the linewidth measurements were made on final poly structures using electrical techniques. The advantages of using PMGI over conventional materials such as PMMA are no interlayer mixing, aqueous-based developer chemicals, and better etch resistance. The process is very flexible and different schemes can be implemented as needed. A novolak cap can be retained for increased etch resistance by changing to a different aqueous developer solution; however, the simple uncapped approach was found to be already far superior to any single layer resist technique and it was easily implemented on conventional production equipment.

  8. Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chao Chung

    2011-07-15

    Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

  9. Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chao Chung

    2011-07-01

    Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

  10. Epithelial Immunization Induces Polyfunctional CD8+ T Cells and Optimal Mousepox Protection

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Nicholas A.; DeHaven, Brian C.; Snook, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed several routes of immunization with vaccinia virus (VACV) in protecting mice against ectromelia virus (ECTV). By a wide margin, skin scarification provided the greatest protection. Humoral immunity and resident-memory T cells notwithstanding, several approaches revealed that circulating, memory CD8+ T cells primed via scarification were functionally superior and conferred enhanced virus control. Immunization via the epithelial route warrants further investigation, as it may also provide enhanced defense against other infectious agents. PMID:24899206

  11. 76 FR 58807 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Incorporate Climate Change Information-- Release of Final Report AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning can Incorporate Climate Change... planning can incorporate climate change impacts information into programs. The assessment revealed...

  12. Charge transfer processes: the role of optimized molecular orbitals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin; Domingo, Alex; Krah, Tim; Robert, Vincent

    2014-08-07

    The influence of the molecular orbitals on charge transfer (CT) reactions is analyzed through wave function-based calculations. Characteristic CT processes in the organic radical 2,5-di-tert-butyl-6-oxophenalenoxyl linked with tetrathiafulvalene and the inorganic crystalline material LaMnO3 show that changes in the inner shells must be explicitly taken into account. Such electronic reorganization can lead to a reduction of the CT vertical transition energy up to 66%. A state-specific approach accessible through an adapted CASSCF (complete active space self-consistent field) methodology is capable of reaching good agreement with the experimental spectroscopy of CT processes. A partitioning of the relaxation energy in terms of valence- and inner-shells is offered and sheds light on their relative importance. This work paves the way to the intimate description of redox reactions using quantum chemistry methods.

  13. Neural networks for process control and optimization: two industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Gérard; Denoeux, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The two most widely used neural models, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function network (RBFN), are presented in the framework of system identification and control. The main steps for building such nonlinear black box models are regressor choice, selection of internal architecture, and parameter estimation. The advantages of neural network models are summarized: universal approximation capabilities, flexibility, and parsimony. Two applications are described in steel industry and water treatment, respectively, the control of alloying process in a hot dipped galvanizing line and the control of a coagulation process in a drinking water treatment plant. These examples highlight the interest of neural techniques, when complex nonlinear phenomena are involved, but the empirical knowledge of control operators can be learned.

  14. Optimal Design of Material and Process Parameters in Powder Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, G.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J.; Liu, B.

    2007-04-01

    The paper is concerned with optimization and parametric identification for the different stages in Powder Injection Molding process that consists first in injection of powder mixture with polymer binder and then to the sintering of the resulting powders part by solid state diffusion. In the first part, one describes an original methodology to optimize the process and geometry parameters in injection stage based on the combination of design of experiments and an adaptive Response Surface Modeling. Then the second part of the paper describes the identification strategy that one proposes for the sintering stage, using the identification of sintering parameters from dilatometeric curves followed by the optimization of the sintering process. The proposed approaches are applied to the optimization of material and process parameters for manufacturing a ceramic femoral implant. One demonstrates that the proposed approach give satisfactory results.

  15. On the optimality equation for average cost Markov control processes with Feller transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskiewicz, Anna; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    2006-04-01

    We consider Markov control processes with Borel state space and Feller transition probabilities, satisfying some generalized geometric ergodicity conditions. We provide a new theorem on the existence of a solution to the average cost optimality equation.

  16. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  17. Deconvoluting the Friction Stir Weld Process for Optimizing Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2008-01-01

    In the friction stir welding process, the rotating surfaces of the pin and shoulder contact the weld metal and force a rotational flow within the weld metal. Heat, generated by the metal deformation as well as frictional slippage with the contact surface, softens the metal and makes it easier to deform. As in any thermo-mechanical processing of metal, the flow conditions are critical to the quality of the weld. For example, extrusion of metal from under the shoulder of an excessively hot weld may relax local pressure and result in wormhole defects. The trace of the weld joint in the wake of the weld may vary geometrically depending upon the flow streamlines around the tool with some geometry more vulnerable to loss of strength from joint contamination than others. The material flow path around the tool cannot be seen in real time during the weld. By using analytical "tools" based upon the principles of mathematics and physics, a weld model can be created to compute features that can be observed. By comparing the computed observations with actual data, the weld model can be validated or adjusted to get better agreement. Inputs to the model to predict weld structures and properties include: hot working properties ofthe metal, pin tool geometry, travel rate, rotation and plunge force. Since metals record their prior hot working history, the hot working conditions imparted during FSW can be quantified by interpreting the final microstructure. Variations in texture and grain size result from variations in the strain accommodated at a given strain rate and temperature. Microstructural data from a variety of FSWs has been correlated with prior marker studies to contribute to our understanding of the FSW process. Once this stage is reached, the weld modeling process can save significant development costs by reducing costly trial-and-error approaches to obtaining quality welds.

  18. Multiscale metrologies for process optimization of carbon nanotube polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, Bharath; Orloff, Nathan D.; Ashkar, Rana; Doshi, Sagar; Twedt, Kevin; Krishnamurthy, Ajay; Davis, Chelsea; Forster, Aaron M.; Thostenson, Erik; Obrzut, Jan; Sharma, Renu; Liddle, James Alexander

    2016-07-18

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer nanocomposites are attractive multifunctional materials with a growing range of commercial applications. With the increasing demand for these materials, it is imperative to develop and validate methods for on-line quality control and process monitoring during production. In this work, a novel combination of characterization techniques is utilized, that facilitates the non-invasive assessment of CNT dispersion in epoxy produced by the scalable process of calendering. First, the structural parameters of these nanocomposites are evaluated across multiple length scales (10-10 m to 10-3 m) using scanning gallium-ion microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering. Then, a non-contact resonant microwave cavity perturbation (RCP) technique is employed to accurately measure the AC electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites. Quantitative correlations between the conductivity and structural parameters find the RCP measurements to be sensitive to CNT mass fraction, spatial organization and, therefore, the processing parameters. These results, and the non-contact nature and speed of RCP measurements identify this technique as being ideally suited for quality control of CNT nanocomposites in a nanomanufacturing environment. In conclusion, when validated by the multiscale characterization suite, RCP may be broadly applicable in the production of hybrid functional materials, such as graphene, gold nanorod, and carbon black nanocomposites.

  19. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  20. Multiscale metrologies for process optimization of carbon nanotube polymer composites

    DOE PAGES

    Natarajan, Bharath; Orloff, Nathan D.; Ashkar, Rana; ...

    2016-07-18

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer nanocomposites are attractive multifunctional materials with a growing range of commercial applications. With the increasing demand for these materials, it is imperative to develop and validate methods for on-line quality control and process monitoring during production. In this work, a novel combination of characterization techniques is utilized, that facilitates the non-invasive assessment of CNT dispersion in epoxy produced by the scalable process of calendering. First, the structural parameters of these nanocomposites are evaluated across multiple length scales (10-10 m to 10-3 m) using scanning gallium-ion microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering. Then, a non-contactmore » resonant microwave cavity perturbation (RCP) technique is employed to accurately measure the AC electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites. Quantitative correlations between the conductivity and structural parameters find the RCP measurements to be sensitive to CNT mass fraction, spatial organization and, therefore, the processing parameters. These results, and the non-contact nature and speed of RCP measurements identify this technique as being ideally suited for quality control of CNT nanocomposites in a nanomanufacturing environment. In conclusion, when validated by the multiscale characterization suite, RCP may be broadly applicable in the production of hybrid functional materials, such as graphene, gold nanorod, and carbon black nanocomposites.« less

  1. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    PubMed

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  2. The role of optimism in the process of schema-focused cognitive therapy of personality problems.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the determinants and effects of optimism in the process of schema-focused cognitive therapy of personality problems. The sample consisted of 35 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and DSM-IV Cluster C personality traits who participated in an 11-week residential program with one symptom-focused and one personality-focused phase. This study examines the role played by optimism during the individual sessions of the second phase, using a time series approach. Decreased patient's belief in his/her primary Early Maladaptive Schema and increased patient-experienced empathy from the therapist in a session predicted increased patient-rated optimism before the subsequent session. Increased patient-rated optimism in turn predicted decreased schema belief and distress and increased insight, empathy, and therapist-rated optimism. The slope of optimism across sessions was related to change in most of the overall outcome measures. There appears to be a positive feedback in the process of schema-focused cognitive therapy between decreased schema belief and increased optimism. In addition, optimism appears to mediate the effects of schema belief and therapist empathy on overall improvement, and to serve as an antecedent to decreased distress and to increased empathy, insight, and therapist's optimism.

  3. FPGA based hardware optimized implementation of signal processing system for LFM pulsed radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim, Noor ul; Jun, Wang

    2016-11-01

    Signal processing is one of the main parts of any radar system. Different signal processing algorithms are used to extract information about different parameters like range, speed, direction etc, of a target in the field of radar communication. This paper presents LFM (Linear Frequency Modulation) pulsed radar signal processing algorithms which are used to improve target detection, range resolution and to estimate the speed of a target. Firstly, these algorithms are simulated in MATLAB to verify the concept and theory. After the conceptual verification in MATLAB, the simulation is converted into implementation on hardware using Xilinx FPGA. Chosen FPGA is Xilinx Virtex-6 (XC6LVX75T). For hardware implementation pipeline optimization is adopted and also other factors are considered for resources optimization in the process of implementation. Focusing algorithms in this work for improving target detection, range resolution and speed estimation are hardware optimized fast convolution processing based pulse compression and pulse Doppler processing.

  4. Performance improvements of binary diffractive structures via optimization of the photolithography and dry etch processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Kevin; Leonard, Jerry; Jones, Richard D.

    2010-08-01

    Increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) used in wafer scanner illumination systems are driving continuous improvements in their associated manufacturing processes. Specifically, these processes are designed to improve the output pattern uniformity of off-axis illumination systems to minimize degradation in the ultimate imaging performance of a lithographic tool. In this paper, we discuss performance improvements in both photolithographic patterning and RIE etching of fused silica diffractive optical structures. In summary, optimized photolithographic processes were developed to increase critical dimension uniformity and featuresize linearity across the substrate. The photoresist film thickness was also optimized for integration with an improved etch process. This etch process was itself optimized for pattern transfer fidelity, sidewall profile (wall angle, trench bottom flatness), and across-wafer etch depth uniformity. Improvements observed with these processes on idealized test structures (for ease of analysis) led to their implementation in product flows, with comparable increases in performance and yield on customer designs.

  5. Efficient Robust Optimization of Metal Forming Processes using a Sequential Metamodel Based Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebenga, J. H.; Klaseboer, G.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2011-08-01

    The coupling of Finite Element (FE) simulations to mathematical optimization techniques has contributed significantly to product improvements and cost reductions in the metal forming industries. The next challenge is to bridge the gap between deterministic optimization techniques and the industrial need for robustness. This paper introduces a new and generally applicable structured methodology for modeling and solving robust optimization problems. Stochastic design variables or noise variables are taken into account explicitly in the optimization procedure. The metamodel-based strategy is combined with a sequential improvement algorithm to efficiently increase the accuracy of the objective function prediction. This is only done at regions of interest containing the optimal robust design. Application of the methodology to an industrial V-bending process resulted in valuable process insights and an improved robust process design. Moreover, a significant improvement of the robustness (>2σ) was obtained by minimizing the deteriorating effects of several noise variables. The robust optimization results demonstrate the general applicability of the robust optimization strategy and underline the importance of including uncertainty and robustness explicitly in the numerical optimization procedure.

  6. Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to

  7. Parameter Optimization of Nitriding Process Using Chemical Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Firat; Lippmann, Nils

    2016-12-01

    Using the dynamics of chemical kinetics, an investigation to search for an optimum condition for a gas nitriding process is performed over the solution space spanned by the initial temperature and gas composition of the furnace. For a two-component furnace atmosphere, the results are presented in temporal variations of gas concentrations and the nitrogen coverage on the surface. It seems that the exploitation of the nitriding kinetics can provide important feedback for setting the model-based control algorithms. The present work shows that when the nitrogen gas concentration is not allowed to exceed 6 pct, the Nad coverage can attain maximum values as high as 0.97. The time evolution of the Nad coverage also reveals that, as long as the temperature is above the value where nitrogen poisoning of the surface due to the low-temperature adsorption of excess nitrogen occurs, the initial ammonia content in the furnace atmosphere is much more important in the nitriding process than is the initial temperature.

  8. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  9. Processes of Discernment when Considering Issues of Neglect in Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The researchers describe a study conducted to explore how child protection practitioners negotiate their way through ambiguous and contradictory evidence when working with families under a "suspicion" of neglect. In depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the processes of discernment that practitioners used to determine how to…

  10. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    PubMed

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios.

  11. Optimization of the production process using virtual model of a workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of the production process is an element of the design cycle consisting of: problem definition, modelling, simulation, optimization and implementation. Without the use of simulation techniques, the only thing which could be achieved is larger or smaller improvement of the process, not the optimization (i.e., the best result it is possible to get for the conditions under which the process works). Optimization is generally management actions that are ultimately bring savings in time, resources, and raw materials and improve the performance of a specific process. It does not matter whether it is a service or manufacturing process. Optimizing the savings generated by improving and increasing the efficiency of the processes. Optimization consists primarily of organizational activities that require very little investment, or rely solely on the changing organization of work. Modern companies operating in a market economy shows a significant increase in interest in modern methods of production management and services. This trend is due to the high competitiveness among companies that want to achieve success are forced to continually modify the ways to manage and flexible response to changing demand. Modern methods of production management, not only imply a stable position of the company in the sector, but also influence the improvement of health and safety within the company and contribute to the implementation of more efficient rules for standardization work in the company. This is why in the paper is presented the application of such developed environment like Siemens NX to create the virtual model of a production system and to simulate as well as optimize its work. The analyzed system is the robotized workcell consisting of: machine tools, industrial robots, conveyors, auxiliary equipment and buffers. In the program could be defined the control program realizing the main task in the virtual workcell. It is possible, using this tool, to optimize both the

  12. Codon-optimized filovirus DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular electroporation protect cynomolgus macaques from lethal Ebola and Marburg virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Grant-Klein, Rebecca J; Altamura, Louis A; Badger, Catherine V; Bounds, Callie E; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Kwilas, Steven A; Vu, Hong A; Warfield, Kelly L; Hooper, Jay W; Hannaman, Drew; Dupuy, Lesley C; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation with DNA plasmids expressing codon-optimized glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) or Marburg virus (MARV) or a combination of codon-optimized GP DNA vaccines for EBOV, MARV, Sudan virus and Ravn virus. When measured by ELISA, the individual vaccines elicited slightly higher IgG responses to EBOV or MARV than did the combination vaccines. No significant differences in immune responses of macaques given the individual or combination vaccines were measured by pseudovirion neutralization or IFN-γ ELISpot assays. Both the MARV and mixed vaccines were able to protect macaques from lethal MARV challenge (5/6 vs. 6/6). In contrast, a greater proportion of macaques vaccinated with the EBOV vaccine survived lethal EBOV challenge in comparison to those that received the mixed vaccine (5/6 vs. 1/6). EBOV challenge survivors had significantly higher pre-challenge neutralizing antibody titers than those that succumbed.

  13. Concurrent micromechanical tailoring and fabrication process optimization for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M.; Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented to minimize the residual matrix stresses in metal matrix composites. Fabrication parameters such as temperature and consolidation pressure are optimized concurrently with the characteristics (i.e., modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, strength, and interphase thickness) of a fiber-matrix interphase. By including the interphase properties in the fabrication process, lower residual stresses are achievable. Results for an ultra-high modulus graphite (P100)/copper composite show a reduction of 21 percent for the maximum matrix microstress when optimizing the fabrication process alone. Concurrent optimization of the fabrication process and interphase properties show a 41 percent decrease in the maximum microstress. Therefore, this optimization method demonstrates the capability of reducing residual microstresses by altering the temperature and consolidation pressure histories and tailoring the interphase properties for an improved composite material. In addition, the results indicate that the consolidation pressures are the most important fabrication parameters, and the coefficient of thermal expansion is the most critical interphase property.

  14. Combined micromechanical and fabrication process optimization for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M.; Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented to minimize the residual matrix stresses in metal matrix composites. Fabrication parameters such as temperature and consolidation pressure are optimized concurrently with the characteristics (i.e., modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, strength, and interphase thickness) of a fiber-matrix interphase. By including the interphase properties in the fabrication process, lower residual stresses are achievable. Results for an ultra-high modulus graphite (P100)/copper composite show a reduction of 21 percent for the maximum matrix microstress when optimizing the fabrication process alone. Concurrent optimization of the fabrication process and interphase properties show a 41 percent decrease in the maximum microstress. Therefore, this optimization method demonstrates the capability of reducing residual microstresses by altering the temperature and consolidation pressure histories and tailoring the interphase properties for an improved composite material. In addition, the results indicate that the consolidation pressures are the most important fabrication parameters, and the coefficient of thermal expansion is the most critical interphase property.

  15. Optimization of the processing technology of Fructus Arctii by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Di; Qin, Kun-Ming; Shen, Bao-Jia; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to optimize the processing of Fructus Arctii by response surface methodology (RSM). Based on single factor studies, a three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to monitor the effects of independent variables, including processing temperature and time, on the dependent variables. Response surfaces and contour plots of the contents of total lignans, chlorogenic acid, arctiin, and arctigenin were obtained through ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) monitoring and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructus Arctii should be processed under heating in a pot at 311 °C, medicine at 119 °C for 123s with flipping frequently. The experimental values under the optimized processing technology were consistent with the predicted values. In conclusion, RSM is an effective method to optimize the processing of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  16. Optimization of protein electroextraction from microalgae by a flow process.

    PubMed

    Coustets, Mathilde; Joubert-Durigneux, Vanessa; Hérault, Josiane; Schoefs, Benoît; Blanckaert, Vincent; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Teissié, Justin

    2015-06-01

    Classical methods, used for large scale treatments such as mechanical or chemical extractions, affect the integrity of extracted cytosolic protein by releasing proteases contained in vacuoles. Our previous experiments on flow processes electroextraction on yeasts proved that pulsed electric field technology allows preserving the integrity of released cytosolic proteins, by not affecting vacuole membranes. Furthermore, large cell culture volumes are easily treated by the flow technology. Based on this previous knowledge, we developed a new protocol in order to electro-extract total cytoplasmic proteins from microalgae (Nannochloropsis salina, Chlorella vulgaris and Haematococcus pluvialis). Given that induction of electropermeabilization is under the control of target cell size, as the mean diameter for N. salina is only 2.5 μm, we used repetitive 2 ms long pulses of alternating polarities with stronger field strengths than previously described for yeasts. The electric treatment was followed by a 24h incubation period in a salty buffer. The amount of total protein release was observed by a classical Bradford assay. A more accurate evaluation of protein release was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Similar results were obtained with C. vulgaris and H. pluvialis under milder electrical conditions as expected from their larger size.

  17. Study on Process Optimization of Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbara, H.; Gu, S.; McCartney, D. G.; Price, T. S.; Shipway, P. H.

    2011-03-01

    Cold gas dynamic spraying is a relatively new spray coating technique capable of depositing a variety of materials without extensive heating. As a result the inherent degradation of the powder particles found during traditional thermal spraying can be avoided. The simplicity of this technique is its most salient feature. High pressure gas is accelerated through a convergent-divergent nozzle up to supersonic velocity. The powder particles are carried to the substrate by the gas and on impact the particles deform at temperatures below their melting point. Computational modeling of thermal spray systems can provide thorough descriptions of the complex, compressible, particle-laden flow, and therefore can be utilized to strengthen understanding and allow technological progress to be made in a more systematic fashion. The computational fluid dynamic approach is adopted in this study to examine the effects of changing the nozzle cross-section shape, particle size and process gas type on the gas flow characteristics through a cold spray nozzle, as well as the spray distribution and particle velocity variation at the exit.

  18. Optimization of BARC process for hyper-NA immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kilyoung; Lee, Junghyung; Lee, Sungkoo; Park, Dongheok; Bok, Cheolkyu; Moon, Seungchan

    2008-03-01

    The extension of current 193nm immersion lithography technology is depending on increasing the numerical aperture (NA). High-resolution imaging requires the decrease of photoresist thickness to compensate for smaller depth of focus (DOF) and prevent pattern collapse. Poor etch selectivity between photoresist and BARC reads to the use of thinner BARC with faster etch-rate. Also, controlling reflectance over a wider range of incident angles for hyper-NA above 1.0 gives more challenge for thin BARC. To reduce substrate reflectivity, various material strategies (dual-layer BARC such as organic/inorganic BARC or organic/organic BARC, Si-based ARC/spin-on carbon (SOC), and so on) have been introduced through many papers. Organic dual-layer BARC is capable of suppressing reflectivity through wide range of incident angles. But, the inevitable increase of its thickness is not a desirable direction due to the decreasing trend of photoresist thickness. When amorphous carbon (a-C) is used as a hardmask for sub-stack, the combination of organic/inorganic BARC (i.e. SiON) is currently well known process. Si-ARC/SOC may be the promising candidates of hardmask because Si component of Si-ARC affords a high etch selectivity to photoresist and its combination with SOC decreases reflectance. The optical constants of above organic materials can be tuned to control the substrate reflectivity for hyper-NA.

  19. Method and apparatus for optimized processing of sparse matrices

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Valerie E.

    1993-01-01

    A computer architecture for processing a sparse matrix is disclosed. The apparatus stores a value-row vector corresponding to nonzero values of a sparse matrix. Each of the nonzero values is located at a defined row and column position in the matrix. The value-row vector includes a first vector including nonzero values and delimiting characters indicating a transition from one column to another. The value-row vector also includes a second vector which defines row position values in the matrix corresponding to the nonzero values in the first vector and column position values in the matrix corresponding to the column position of the nonzero values in the first vector. The architecture also includes a circuit for detecting a special character within the value-row vector. Matrix-vector multiplication is executed on the value-row vector. This multiplication is performed by multiplying an index value of the first vector value by a column value from a second matrix to form a matrix-vector product which is added to a previous matrix-vector product.

  20. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  1. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  2. Comparative investigation of Au nano-particle formation process dependent upon various protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitoku, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Kazuya; Nakazato, Yuta; Ono, Shunichi; Katayama, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Formation process of gold nanoparticles was investigated by near-field heterodyne transient grating method. In the absence of the protective agents, although the diffusion of H[AuICl2] could be observed after the photo-reduction of H[AuIIICl4], the diffusion of nanoparticle-seeds was not observed. On the other hand, in the presence of the protective agents, the diffusion of a complex molecule (Au and protective agent) and nanoparticle-seeds could be observed. From these results, it was found that enough amount of the complex is essential for the nanoparticle formation. We also investigated the formation process with four different chemicals as a protective agent. The hydrodynamic radius of nanoparticle-seeds generated in the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and TritonX-100 solutions were larger than those generated in the Tween 20 and Brij 58 solutions. The former two have hydrophilic chain in the molecular structure; on the other hand, the latter two have hydrophobic alkyl chain. Based on those facts, we concluded that the interaction between the chains of the complex molecule plays an important role in the nanoparticle formation process.

  3. New Grandparents' Mental Health: The Protective Role of Optimism, Self-Mastery, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Taubman - Ben-Ari, Orit

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the contribution of optimism, self-mastery, perceived social support, and background variables (age, physical health, economic status) to mental health following the transition to grandparenthood. The sample consisted of 257 first-time Israeli grandparents (grandmothers and grandfathers, maternal and paternal) who were…

  4. Optimization Control of the Color-Coating Production Process for Model Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    He, Dakuo; Wang, Zhengsong; Yang, Le; Mao, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    Optimized control of the color-coating production process (CCPP) aims at reducing production costs and improving economic efficiency while meeting quality requirements. However, because optimization control of the CCPP is hampered by model uncertainty, a strategy that considers model uncertainty is proposed. Previous work has introduced a mechanistic model of CCPP based on process analysis to simulate the actual production process and generate process data. The partial least squares method is then applied to develop predictive models of film thickness and economic efficiency. To manage the model uncertainty, the robust optimization approach is introduced to improve the feasibility of the optimized solution. Iterative learning control is then utilized to further refine the model uncertainty. The constrained film thickness is transformed into one of the tracked targets to overcome the drawback that traditional iterative learning control cannot address constraints. The goal setting of economic efficiency is updated continuously according to the film thickness setting until this reaches its desired value. Finally, fuzzy parameter adjustment is adopted to ensure that the economic efficiency and film thickness converge rapidly to their optimized values under the constraint conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization control strategy is validated by simulation results.

  5. Optimization Control of the Color-Coating Production Process for Model Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    He, Dakuo; Wang, Zhengsong; Yang, Le; Mao, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    Optimized control of the color-coating production process (CCPP) aims at reducing production costs and improving economic efficiency while meeting quality requirements. However, because optimization control of the CCPP is hampered by model uncertainty, a strategy that considers model uncertainty is proposed. Previous work has introduced a mechanistic model of CCPP based on process analysis to simulate the actual production process and generate process data. The partial least squares method is then applied to develop predictive models of film thickness and economic efficiency. To manage the model uncertainty, the robust optimization approach is introduced to improve the feasibility of the optimized solution. Iterative learning control is then utilized to further refine the model uncertainty. The constrained film thickness is transformed into one of the tracked targets to overcome the drawback that traditional iterative learning control cannot address constraints. The goal setting of economic efficiency is updated continuously according to the film thickness setting until this reaches its desired value. Finally, fuzzy parameter adjustment is adopted to ensure that the economic efficiency and film thickness converge rapidly to their optimized values under the constraint conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization control strategy is validated by simulation results. PMID:27247563

  6. Optimal pH control of batch processes for production of curdlan by Agrobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Lee; Lee; Kim; Park

    1999-08-01

    We sought an optimal pH profile to maximize curdlan production in a batch fermentation of Agrobacterium species. The optimal pH profile was calculated using a gradient iteration algorithm based on the minimum principle of Pontryagin. The model equations describing cell growth and curdlan production were developed as functions of pH, sucrose concentration, and ammonium concentration, since the specific rates of cell growth and curdlan production were highly influenced by those parameters. The pH profile provided the strategy to shift the culture pH from the optimal growth condition (pH 7.0) to the optimal production one (pH 5.5) at the time of ammonium exhaustion. By applying the optimal pH profile in the batch process, we obtained significant improvement in curdlan production (64 g L-1) compared to that of constant pH operation (36 g L-1).

  7. Optimization of Training Sets for Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns from Vibrating Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been used for a number of years to process holography-generated characteristic patterns of vibrating structures. This technology depends critically on the selection and the conditioning of the training sets. A scaling operation called folding is discussed for conditioning training sets optimally for training feed-forward neural networks to process characteristic fringe patterns. Folding allows feed-forward nets to be trained easily to detect damage-induced vibration-displacement-distribution changes as small as 10 nm. A specific application to aerospace of neural-net processing of characteristic patterns is presented to motivate the conditioning and optimization effort.

  8. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  9. Optimized photocatalytic degradation of pefloxacin by TiO2/UV process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.-L.; Cui, S.-J.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of pefloxacin was studied using modified TiO2 as a photocatalyst. The effect of various parameters such as the amount of the photocatalyst, the initial concentration of pefloxacin, initial pH value on the process were investigated, and the optimal conditions were determined. The optimal amount of the photocatalyst is 0.3 g/L. The photodegradation rate of pefloxacin decreases with the increase of initial concentration. Alkaline medium is favorable for the photocatalytic degradation process. The primary photo-degradation products were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and thus the process mechanism was discussed.

  10. Process Optimization for Suppressing Cracks in Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Al2O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F. Y.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, S.; Ma, G. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-03-01

    Direct additive manufacturing of ceramics (DAMC) without binders is a promising technique for rapidly fabricating high-purity components with good performance. Nevertheless, cracks are easily generated during fabrication as a result of the high intrinsic brittleness of ceramics and the great temperature gradients. Therefore, optimizing the DAMC process is a challenge. In this study, direct fabrication of Al2O3 single-bead wall structures are conducted with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. A new process optimization method for suppressing cracks is proposed based on analytical models, and then the influence of process parameters on crack number is discussed experimentally. The results indicate that the crack number decreases obviously with the increase of scanning speed. Single-bead wall specimens without cracks are successfully fabricated by the optimized process.

  11. Media milling process optimization for manufacture of drug nanoparticles using design of experiments (DOE).

    PubMed

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Marwah, Ashwani; Pillai, Raviraj

    2015-01-01

    Design of experiments (DOE), a component of Quality by Design (QbD), is systematic and simultaneous evaluation of process variables to develop a product with predetermined quality attributes. This article presents a case study to understand the effects of process variables in a bead milling process used for manufacture of drug nanoparticles. Experiments were designed and results were computed according to a 3-factor, 3-level face-centered central composite design (CCD). The factors investigated were motor speed, pump speed and bead volume. Responses analyzed for evaluating these effects and interactions were milling time, particle size and process yield. Process validation batches were executed using the optimum process conditions obtained from software Design-Expert® to evaluate both the repeatability and reproducibility of bead milling technique. Milling time was optimized to <5 h to obtain the desired particle size (d90 < 400 nm). The desirability function used to optimize the response variables and observed responses were in agreement with experimental values. These results demonstrated the reliability of selected model for manufacture of drug nanoparticles with predictable quality attributes. The optimization of bead milling process variables by applying DOE resulted in considerable decrease in milling time to achieve the desired particle size. The study indicates the applicability of DOE approach to optimize critical process parameters in the manufacture of drug nanoparticles.

  12. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  13. Optimizing the Long-Term Capacity Expansion and Protection of Iraqi Oil Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    PROTECTION OF IRAQI OIL INFRASTRUCTURE Patrick S. Brown Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., University of Idaho, 1991 Submitted in...U.S. statute mile NCAD Navy Cost Analysis Division NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency nm nautical mile NOC Northern Oil Company (Iraq) OPEC...remotely using only a computer and a high-speed internet connection. I only wish that the Navy as a whole were as receptive to telecommuting as you

  14. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  15. A Priori Design of Optimal Electro-Optic Materials for Laser Eye Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    group can occupy any position of the R ring. The total optimization space is then 5 *4* 5 * 2 =200 molecules. We have performed three runs, starting from...an extremely large space of possible EO- molecular architectures; and 2 ) accuracy of calculating ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra. We show that...chromophores: 1) tolane- and 2 ) FTC-based (Fig. 1). The tolane-based chromophores are transparent in the desirable, yellow visible range but have only mid

  16. Process optimization for osmo-dehydrated carambola (Averrhoa carambola L) slices and its storage studies.

    PubMed

    Roopa, N; Chauhan, O P; Raju, P S; Das Gupta, D K; Singh, R K R; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    An osmotic-dehydration process protocol for Carambola (Averrhoacarambola L.,), an exotic star shaped tropical fruit, was developed. The process was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The experimental variables selected for the optimization were soak solution concentration (°Brix), soaking temperature (°C) and soaking time (min) with 6 experiments at central point. The effect of process variables was studied on solid gain and water loss during osmotic dehydration process. The data obtained were analyzed employing multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. Quadratic models were found to fit well (R(2), 95.58 - 98.64 %) in describing the effect of variables on the responses studied. The optimized levels of the process variables were achieved at 70°Brix, 48 °C and 144 min for soak solution concentration, soaking temperature and soaking time, respectively. The predicted and experimental results at optimized levels of variables showed high correlation. The osmo-dehydrated product prepared at optimized conditions showed a shelf-life of 10, 8 and 6 months at 5 °C, ambient (30 ± 2 °C) and 37 °C, respectively.

  17. Optimization of the Temperature-Time Curve for the Curing Process of Thermoset Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksendrić, Dragan; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Ćirović, Velimir

    2016-10-01

    An intelligent optimization model aiming at off-line or pre-series optimization of the thermal curing cycle of polymer matrix composites is proposed and discussed. The computational procedure is based on the coupling of a finite element thermochemical process model, dynamic artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. Objective of the optimization routine is the maximization of the composite degree of cure by the definition of the autoclave temperature. Obtained outcomes evidenced the capability of the method as well as its efficiency with respect to hard computing or experimental procedures.

  18. Optimization of carbon capture systems using surrogate models of simulated processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cozad, A.; Chang, Y.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demand placed on power generation plants to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, processes to separate and capture CO2 for eventual sequestration are highly sought after. Carbon capture processes impart a parasitic load on the power plants; it is estimated that this would increase the cost of electricity from existing pulverized coal plants anywhere from 71-85 percent [1]. The National Energy and Technology Lab (NETL) is working to lower this to below a 30 percent increase. To reach this goal, work is being done not only to accurately simulate these processes, but also to leverage those accurate and detailed simulations to design optimal carbon capture processes. The major challenges include the lack of accurate algebraic models of the processes, computationally costly simulations, and insufficiently robust simulations. The first challenge bars the use of provable derivative-based optimization algorithms. The latter two can either lead to difficult or impossible direct derivative-free optimization. To overcome these difficulties, we take a more indirect method to solving this problem by, first, generating an accurate set of algebraic surrogate models from the simulation then using derivative-based solvers to optimize the surrogate models. We developed a method that uses derivative-based and derivative-free optimization alongside machine learning and statistical techniques to generate the set of low-complexity surrogate models using data sampled from detailed simulations. The models are validated and improved through the use of derivative-free solvers to adaptively sample new simulation points. The resulting surrogate models can then be used in a superstructure-based process synthesis and solved using derivative-based methods to optimize carbon capture processes.

  19. [Optimization of Energy Saving Measures with ABR-MBR Integrated Process].

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Lu, Shuang-jun; Xu, Yue-zhong; Liu, Jie; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    High energy consumption and membrane fouling are important factors that limit the wide use of membrane bioreactor (MBR). In order to reduce energy consumption and delay the process of membrane fouling, the process of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-MBR was used to treat domestic sewage. The structure of the process and conditions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal were optimized in this study. The results showed that energy consumption was reduced by 43% through optimizing the structure of ABR-MBR process. Meanwhile, the process achieved a high level of COD, NH: -N, TN and TP removal, with the average removal efficiencies of 91%, 85%, 76% and 86%, respectively. In addition, the added particulate media could effectively delay membrane fouling, while the formation process of membrane fouling was changed. The extracted amount of carbohydrates increased while the amount of proteins decreased. Finally, the potential was enhanced for the practical application of MBR.

  20. A Study on the Optimization Performance of Fireworks and Cuckoo Search Algorithms in Laser Machining Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, D.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-11-01

    Laser machining is a promising non-contact process for effective machining of difficult-to-process advanced engineering materials. Increasing interest in the use of lasers for various machining operations can be attributed to its several unique advantages, like high productivity, non-contact processing, elimination of finishing operations, adaptability to automation, reduced processing cost, improved product quality, greater material utilization, minimum heat-affected zone and green manufacturing. To achieve the best desired machining performance and high quality characteristics of the machined components, it is extremely important to determine the optimal values of the laser machining process parameters. In this paper, fireworks algorithm and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm are applied for single as well as multi-response optimization of two laser machining processes. It is observed that although almost similar solutions are obtained for both these algorithms, CS algorithm outperforms fireworks algorithm with respect to average computation time, convergence rate and performance consistency.

  1. Optimization of a glycoengineered Pichia pastoris cultivation process for commercial antibody production.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxin; Ly, Jeffrey; Watts, Kathryn; Hsu, Amy; Walker, Andre; McLaughlin, Kathleen; Berdichevsky, Marina; Prinz, Bianka; Sean Kersey, D; d'Anjou, Marc; Pollard, David; Potgieter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Glycoengineering enabled the production of proteins with human N-linked glycans by Pichia pastoris. This study used a glycoengineered P. pastoris strain which is capable of producing humanized glycoprotein with terminal galactose for monoclonal antibody production. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize the process parameters. Followed by further optimization of the specific methanol feed rate, induction duration, and the initial induction biomass, the resulting process yielded up to 1.6 g/L of monoclonal antibody. This process was also scaled-up to 1,200-L scale, and the process profiles, productivity, and product quality were comparable with 30-L scale. The successful scale-up demonstrated that this glycoengineered P. pastoris fermentation process is a robust and commercially viable process.

  2. The Protective Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill, Submerged Culture Using the Optimized Medium Composition, on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wenyu; Han, Chunchao; Xu, Xin; Li, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), an edible mushroom native to Brazil, is widely used for nonprescript and medicinal purposes. Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life, which can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol. In this study, the medium composition of ABM was optimized using response surface methodology for maximum mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The model predicts to gain a maximal mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide at 1.047 g/100 mL, and 0.367 g/100 mL, respectively, when the potato is 29.88 g/100 mL, the glucose is 1.01 g/100 mL, and the bran is 1.02 g/100 mL. The verified experiments showed that the model was significantly consistent with the model prediction and that the trends of mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide were predicted by artificial neural network. After that, the optimized medium was used for the submerged culture of ABM. Then, alcohol-induced liver injury in mice model was used to examine the protective effect of ABM cultured using the optimized medium on the liver. And the hepatic histopathological observations showed that ABM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. PMID:25114908

  3. The protective effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill, submerged culture using the optimized medium composition, on alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wenyu; Han, Chunchao; Xu, Xin; Li, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), an edible mushroom native to Brazil, is widely used for nonprescript and medicinal purposes. Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life, which can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol. In this study, the medium composition of ABM was optimized using response surface methodology for maximum mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The model predicts to gain a maximal mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide at 1.047 g/100 mL, and 0.367 g/100 mL, respectively, when the potato is 29.88 g/100 mL, the glucose is 1.01 g/100 mL, and the bran is 1.02 g/100 mL. The verified experiments showed that the model was significantly consistent with the model prediction and that the trends of mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide were predicted by artificial neural network. After that, the optimized medium was used for the submerged culture of ABM. Then, alcohol-induced liver injury in mice model was used to examine the protective effect of ABM cultured using the optimized medium on the liver. And the hepatic histopathological observations showed that ABM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage.

  4. IEC 61511 and the capital project process--a protective management system approach.

    PubMed

    Summers, Angela E

    2006-03-17

    This year, the process industry has reached an important milestone in process safety-the acceptance of an internationally recognized standard for safety instrumented systems (SIS). This standard, IEC 61511, documents good engineering practice for the assessment, design, operation, maintenance, and management of SISs. The foundation of the standard is established by several requirements in Part 1, Clauses 5-7, which cover the development of a management system aimed at ensuring that functional safety is achieved. The management system includes a quality assurance process for the entire SIS lifecycle, requiring the development of procedures, identification of resources and acquisition of tools. For maximum benefit, the deliverables and quality control checks required by the standard should be integrated into the capital project process, addressing safety, environmental, plant productivity, and asset protection. Industry has become inundated with a multitude of programs focusing on safety, quality, and cost performance. This paper introduces a protective management system, which builds upon the work process identified in IEC 61511. Typical capital project phases are integrated with the management system to yield one comprehensive program to efficiently manage process risk. Finally, the paper highlights areas where internal practices or guidelines should be developed to improve program performance and cost effectiveness.

  5. Optimization of milling time before and after recalcination on HTR processed strontium hexaferrite powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    HTR (Hydrogen Treatment and Recalculation) process is a novel technique for heat treatment of conventional strontium hexaferrite powder in static hydrogen and then its recalcination in air. This process has a marked effect on the microstructure and on the magnetic properties of the material. In this work, this HTR-processed powder has been milled before and after recalcination, and the effect of milling on the magnetic properties has been optimized.

  6. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  7. Improved Sugar Production by Optimizing Planetary Mill Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Process

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeong Heo; Lee, Siseon; Lee, Jae-Won; Hong, Youn-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Sung, Daekyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Sang, Byoung-In; Mitchell, Robert J.; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization of planetary mill pretreatment and saccharification processes for improving biosugar production. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) wood sawdust waste was used as biomass feedstock and the process parameters optimized in this study were the buffering media, the milling time, the enzyme quantity, and the incubation time. Glucose yields were improved when acetate buffer was used rather than citrate buffer. Initially, with each process variable tests, the optimal values were 100 minutes of milling, an enzyme concentration of 16 FPU/g-biomass, and a 12-hour enzymatic hydrolysis. Typically, interactions between these experimental conditions and their effects on glucose production were next investigated using RSM. Glucose yields from the Pinus rigida waste exceeded 80% with several of the conditions tested, demonstrating that milling can be used to obtain high levels of glucose bioconversion from woody biomass for biorefinery purposes. PMID:26539475

  8. Optimizing chemical conditioning for odour removal of undigested sewage sludge in drying processes.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Monclús, Hèctor; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martin, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Emission of odours during the thermal drying in sludge handling processes is one of the main sources of odour problems in wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work was to assess the use of the response surface methodology as a technique to optimize the chemical conditioning process of undigested sewage sludges, in order to improve the dewaterability, and to reduce the odour emissions during the thermal drying of the sludge. Synergistic effects between inorganic conditioners (iron chloride and calcium oxide) were observed in terms of sulphur emissions and odour reduction. The developed quadratic models indicated that optimizing the conditioners dosage is possible to increase a 70% the dewaterability, reducing a 50% and 54% the emission of odour and volatile sulphur compounds respectively. The optimization of the conditioning process was validated experimentally.

  9. Multiresponse Optimization of Process Parameters in Turning of GFRP Using TOPSIS Method.

    PubMed

    Parida, Arun Kumar; Routara, Bharat Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Taguchi's design of experiment is utilized to optimize the process parameters in turning operation with dry environment. Three parameters, cutting speed (v), feed (f), and depth of cut (d), with three different levels are taken for the responses like material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (R a ). The machining is conducted with Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and based on the S/N analysis, the optimal process parameters for surface roughness and MRR are calculated separately. Considering the larger-the-better approach, optimal process parameters for material removal rate are cutting speed at level 3, feed at level 2, and depth of cut at level 3, that is, v 3-f 2-d 3. Similarly for surface roughness, considering smaller-the-better approach, the optimal process parameters are cutting speed at level 1, feed at level 1, and depth of cut at level 3, that is, v 1-f 1-d 3. Results of the main effects plot indicate that depth of cut is the most influencing parameter for MRR but cutting speed is the most influencing parameter for surface roughness and feed is found to be the least influencing parameter for both the responses. The confirmation test is conducted for both MRR and surface roughness separately. Finally, an attempt has been made to optimize the multiresponses using technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) with Taguchi approach.

  10. Multiresponse Optimization of Process Parameters in Turning of GFRP Using TOPSIS Method

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Arun Kumar; Routara, Bharat Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Taguchi's design of experiment is utilized to optimize the process parameters in turning operation with dry environment. Three parameters, cutting speed (v), feed (f), and depth of cut (d), with three different levels are taken for the responses like material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra). The machining is conducted with Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and based on the S/N analysis, the optimal process parameters for surface roughness and MRR are calculated separately. Considering the larger-the-better approach, optimal process parameters for material removal rate are cutting speed at level 3, feed at level 2, and depth of cut at level 3, that is, v3-f2-d3. Similarly for surface roughness, considering smaller-the-better approach, the optimal process parameters are cutting speed at level 1, feed at level 1, and depth of cut at level 3, that is, v1-f1-d3. Results of the main effects plot indicate that depth of cut is the most influencing parameter for MRR but cutting speed is the most influencing parameter for surface roughness and feed is found to be the least influencing parameter for both the responses. The confirmation test is conducted for both MRR and surface roughness separately. Finally, an attempt has been made to optimize the multiresponses using technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) with Taguchi approach. PMID:27437503

  11. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Process." Volume II, "ACC To Be Model ", contains the To-Be Retail Asset Sustainment Process Model displaying the activities and functions related to the...adoption. Volume III, "Future To Be Asset Sustainment Process Model ," is published as a stand-alone volume of this report. Volume III contains a discussion...of the Reengineering Team’s efforts in the development of a logistics process model for a more distant future retail aircraft asset sustainment

  12. Multi-objective optimization of gear forging process based on adaptive surrogate meta-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanjuan; Labergere, Carl; Lafon, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent

    2013-05-01

    In forging industry, net shape or near net shape forging of gears has been the subject of considerable research effort in the last few decades. So in this paper, a multi-objective optimization methodology of net shape gear forging process design has been discussed. The study is mainly done in four parts: building parametric CAD geometry model, simulating the forging process, fitting surrogate meta-models and optimizing the process by using an advanced algorithm. In order to maximally appropriate meta-models of the real response, an adaptive meta-model based design strategy has been applied. This is a continuous process: first, bui Id a preliminary version of the meta-models after the initial simulated calculations; second, improve the accuracy and update the meta-models by adding some new representative samplings. By using this iterative strategy, the number of the initial sample points for real numerical simulations is greatly decreased and the time for the forged gear design is significantly shortened. Finally, an optimal design for an industrial application of a 27-teeth gear forging process was introduced, which includes three optimization variables and two objective functions. A 3D FE nu merical simulation model is used to realize the process and an advanced thermo-elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equation is considered to represent the material behavior. The meta-model applied for this example is kriging and the optimization algorithm is NSGA-II. At last, a relatively better Pareto optimal front (POF) is gotten with gradually improving the obtained surrogate meta-models.

  13. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  14. Fault detection of feed water treatment process using PCA-WD with parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shirong; Tang, Qian; Lin, Yu; Tang, Yuling

    2017-04-03

    Feed water treatment process (FWTP) is an essential part of utility boilers; and fault detection is expected for its reliability improvement. Classical principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to FWTPs in our previous work; however, the noises of T(2) and SPE statistics result in false detections and missed detections. In this paper, Wavelet denoise (WD) is combined with PCA to form a new algorithm, (PCA-WD), where WD is intentionally employed to deal with the noises. The parameter selection of PCA-WD is further formulated as an optimization problem; and PSO is employed for optimization solution. A FWTP, sustaining two 1000MW generation units in a coal-fired power plant, is taken as a study case. Its operation data is collected for following verification study. The results show that the optimized WD is effective to restrain the noises of T(2) and SPE statistics, so as to improve the performance of PCA-WD algorithm. And, the parameter optimization enables PCA-WD to get its optimal parameters in an automatic way rather than on individual experience. The optimized PCA-WD is further compared with classical PCA and sliding window PCA (SWPCA), in terms of four cases as bias fault, drift fault, broken line fault and normal condition, respectively. The advantages of the optimized PCA-WD, against classical PCA and SWPCA, is finally convinced with the results.

  15. Temperature profile optimization: potential for multi-enzymatic biopolymer depolymerization processes.

    PubMed

    Kirse, Christoph; Briesen, Heiko

    2017-03-06

    Optimal control of temperature was applied to a population balance model of enzymatically catalyzed depolymerization of a soluble polymer coupled with denaturation of enzyme. The reaction time required to reach a desired yield was predicted to be reduced by more than 10[Formula: see text] compared with isothermal operation. Also the yield within a given time could be increased by more than 5[Formula: see text] points. It was also possible to increase the yield and reduce the reaction time if a time-varying temperature profile was used. Furthermore, a simple-to-implement linear increasing temperature profile was shown to realize most of the saving potential. Rigorous optimization of the enzyme mixture and composition was predicted to have an even greater potential for improving the economic feasibility of the process. Optimization coupled with optimal control can be performed quickly in silico using the algorithm developed in this study if a validated and parameterized population balance model is available.

  16. The Tool for Designing Engineering Systems Using a New Optimization Method Based on a Stochastic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Yoshio

    The conventional optimization methods were based on a deterministic approach, since their purpose is to find out an exact solution. However, these methods have initial condition dependence and risk of falling into local solution. In this paper, we propose a new optimization method based on a concept of path integral method used in quantum mechanics. The method obtains a solutions as an expected value (stochastic average) using a stochastic process. The advantages of this method are not to be affected by initial conditions and not to need techniques based on experiences. We applied the new optimization method to a design of the hang glider. In this problem, not only the hang glider design but also its flight trajectory were optimized. The numerical calculation results showed that the method has a sufficient performance.

  17. Design Tool Using a New Optimization Method Based on a Stochastic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Yoshio

    Conventional optimization methods are based on a deterministic approach since their purpose is to find out an exact solution. However, such methods have initial condition dependence and the risk of falling into local solution. In this paper, we propose a new optimization method based on the concept of path integrals used in quantum mechanics. The method obtains a solution as an expected value (stochastic average) using a stochastic process. The advantages of this method are that it is not affected by initial conditions and does not require techniques based on experiences. We applied the new optimization method to a hang glider design. In this problem, both the hang glider design and its flight trajectory were optimized. The numerical calculation results prove that performance of the method is sufficient for practical use.

  18. De-risking pharmaceutical tablet manufacture through process understanding, latent variable modeling, and optimization technologies.

    PubMed

    Muteki, Koji; Swaminathan, Vidya; Sekulic, Sonja S; Reid, George L

    2011-12-01

    In pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing processes, a major source of disturbance affecting drug product quality is the (lot-to-lot) variability of the incoming raw materials. A novel modeling and process optimization strategy that compensates for raw material variability is presented. The approach involves building partial least squares models that combine raw material attributes and tablet process parameters and relate these to final tablet attributes. The resulting models are used in an optimization framework to then find optimal process parameters which can satisfy all the desired requirements for the final tablet attributes, subject to the incoming raw material lots. In order to de-risk the potential (lot-to-lot) variability of raw materials on the drug product quality, the effect of raw material lot variability on the final tablet attributes was investigated using a raw material database containing a large number of lots. In this way, the raw material variability, optimal process parameter space and tablet attributes are correlated with each other and offer the opportunity of simulating a variety of changes in silico without actually performing experiments. The connectivity obtained between the three sources of variability (materials, parameters, attributes) can be considered a design space consistent with Quality by Design principles, which is defined by the ICH-Q8 guidance (USDA 2006). The effectiveness of the methodologies is illustrated through a common industrial tablet manufacturing case study.

  19. Multi-response optimization of CO 2 laser-welding process of austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyounis, K. Y.; Olabi, A. G.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2008-02-01

    Recently, laser welding of austenitic stainless steel has received great attention in industry. This is due to its widespread application in petroleum refinement stations, power plants, the pharmaceutical industry and also in households. Therefore, mechanical properties should be controlled to obtain good welded joints. The welding process should be optimized by the proper mathematical models. In this research, the tensile strength and impact strength along with the joint-operating cost of laser-welded butt joints made of AISI304 was investigated. Design-expert software was used to establish the design matrix and to analyze the experimental data. The relationships between the laser-welding parameters (laser power, welding speed and focal point position) and the three responses (tensile strength, impact strength and joint-operating cost) were established. Also, the optimization capabilities in design-expert software were used to optimize the welding process. The developed mathematical models were tested for adequacy using analysis of variance and other adequacy measures. In this investigation, the optimal welding conditions were identified in order to increase the productivity and minimize the total operating cost. Overlay graphs were plotted by superimposing the contours for the various response surfaces. The process parameters effect was determined and the optimal welding combinations were tabulated.

  20. Data-based robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes: energy efficiency case study in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Puya; Brown, Martin; Maciejowski, Jan; Wang, Hong

    2011-12-01

    Reducing energy consumption is a major challenge for "energy-intensive" industries such as papermaking. A commercially viable energy saving solution is to employ data-based optimization techniques to obtain a set of "optimized" operational settings that satisfy certain performance indices. The difficulties of this are: 1) the problems of this type are inherently multicriteria in the sense that improving one performance index might result in compromising the other important measures; 2) practical systems often exhibit unknown complex dynamics and several interconnections which make the modeling task difficult; and 3) as the models are acquired from the existing historical data, they are valid only locally and extrapolations incorporate risk of increasing process variability. To overcome these difficulties, this paper presents a new decision support system for robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes. The plant is first divided into serially connected units to model the process, product quality, energy consumption, and corresponding uncertainty measures. Then multiobjective gradient descent algorithm is used to solve the problem in line with user's preference information. Finally, the optimization results are visualized for analysis and decision making. In practice, if further iterations of the optimization algorithm are considered, validity of the local models must be checked prior to proceeding to further iterations. The method is implemented by a MATLAB-based interactive tool DataExplorer supporting a range of data analysis, modeling, and multiobjective optimization techniques. The proposed approach was tested in two U.K.-based commercial paper mills where the aim was reducing steam consumption and increasing productivity while maintaining the product quality by optimization of vacuum pressures in forming and press sections. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Resources and life-management strategies as determinants of successful aging: on the protective effect of selection, optimization, and compensation.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela; Smith, Jacqui

    2006-06-01

    In this research, the authors investigated the specific and shared impact of personal resources and selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) life-management strategies (A. M. Freund & P. B. Baltes, 2002) on subjective well-being. Life-management strategies were expected to be most relevant when resources were constrained, particularly in very old age. In Study 1 (N=156, 71-91 years), age-differential predictive patterns supported this assumption: Young-old individuals' well-being was predicted independently by resources and SOC, whereas SOC buffered the effect of restricted resources in old-old individuals. Study 2 replicated the findings longitudinally with resource-poor and resource-rich older individuals (N=42). In both studies, specific SOC strategies were differentially adaptive. Results confirm that resources are important determinants of well-being but that life-management strategies have a considerable protective effect with limited resources.

  2. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  3. Optimal Control of Non-isothermal Polymer Crystallization Processes in a Deterministic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Luis A.; Escobedo, Ramón

    2009-09-01

    An optimal control problem for a deterministic model of polymer crystallization processes is investigated. The applied cooling temperature and the duration of the cooling process are used as control parameters to minimize a cost functional which accounts for the two main industrial competitive interests: to avoid excessively low temperatures and to shorten the time spent in the total crystallization. We derive explicit expressions of the optimal controls by using an analytical approximation of the relation between the amount of polymer already crystallized at a given time and the total amount of cold injected into the sample until this instant of time. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the good agreement with the analytical expressions. It is surprising and remarkable that the explicit expressions of the optimal control values are obtained through the minimization of an elementary function in one real variable.

  4. Optimization of process parameters in drilling of fibre hybrid composite using Taguchi and grey relational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Sharavanan, S.; Jeykrishnan, J.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays quality plays a vital role in all the products. Hence, the development in manufacturing process focuses on the fabrication of composite with high dimensional accuracy and also incurring low manufacturing cost. In this work, an investigation on machining parameters has been performed on jute-flax hybrid composite. Here, the two important responses characteristics like surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized by employing 3 machining input parameters. The input variables considered are drill bit diameter, spindle speed and feed rate. Machining is done on CNC vertical drilling machine at different levels of drilling parameters. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used for optimizing individual tool parameters. Analysis Of Variance is used to find the significance of individual parameters. The simultaneous optimization of the process parameters is done by grey relational analysis. The results of this investigation shows that, spindle speed and drill bit diameter have most effect on material removal rate and surface roughness followed by feed rate.

  5. Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

    2009-04-01

    The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

  6. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwagen, Gordon; Huang, Yaping

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  7. Optimization of Parameter Ranges for Composite Tape Winding Process Based on Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Shi, Yaoyao; He, Xiaodong; Kang, Chao; Deng, Bo; Song, Shibo

    2016-11-01

    This study is focus on the parameters sensitivity of winding process for composite prepreg tape. The methods of multi-parameter relative sensitivity analysis and single-parameter sensitivity analysis are proposed. The polynomial empirical model of interlaminar shear strength is established by response surface experimental method. Using this model, the relative sensitivity of key process parameters including temperature, tension, pressure and velocity is calculated, while the single-parameter sensitivity curves are obtained. According to the analysis of sensitivity curves, the stability and instability range of each parameter are recognized. Finally, the optimization method of winding process parameters is developed. The analysis results show that the optimized ranges of the process parameters for interlaminar shear strength are: temperature within [100 °C, 150 °C], tension within [275 N, 387 N], pressure within [800 N, 1500 N], and velocity within [0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s], respectively.

  8. Optimization of biopharmaceutical downstream processes supported by mechanistic models and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Pirrung, Silvia M; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; van Beckhoven, Ruud F W C; van de Sandt, Emile J A X; Eppink, Michel H M; Ottens, Marcel

    2017-01-05

    Downstream process development is a major area of importance within the field of bioengineering. During the design of such a downstream process, important decisions have to be made regarding the type of unit operations as well as their sequence and their operating conditions. Current computational approaches addressing these issues either show a high level of simplification or struggle with computational speed. Therefore, this article presents a new approach that combines detailed mechanistic models and speed-enhancing artificial neural networks. This approach was able to simultaneously optimize a process with three different chromatographic columns toward yield with a minimum purity of 99.9%. The addition of artificial neural networks greatly accelerated this optimization. Due to high computational speed, the approach is easily extendable to include more unit operations. Therefore, it can be of great help in the acceleration of downstream process development. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017.

  9. Optimization of struvite precipitation in synthetic biologically treated swine wastewater--determination of the optimal process parameters.

    PubMed

    Capdevielle, Aurélie; Sýkorová, Eva; Biscans, Béatrice; Béline, Fabrice; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2013-01-15

    A sustainable way to recover phosphorus (P) in swine wastewater involves a preliminary step of P dissolution followed by the separation of particulate organic matter. The next two steps are firstly the precipitation of struvite crystals done by adding a crystallization reagent (magnesia) and secondly the filtration of the crystals. A design of experiments with five process parameters was set up to optimize the size of the struvite crystals in a synthetic swine wastewater. More than 90% of P was recovered as large crystals of struvite in optimal conditions which were: low Mg:Ca ratio (2.25:1), the leading parameter, high N:P ratio (3:1), moderate stirring rate (between 45 and 90 rpm) and low temperature (below 20 °C).These results were obtained despite the presence of a large amount of calcium and using a cheap reactant (MgO). The composition of the precipitates was identified by Raman analysis and solid dissolution. Results showed that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) co-precipitated with struvite and that carbonates were incorporated with solid fractions.

  10. Optimizing the Teaching-Learning Process Through a Linear Programming Model--Stage Increment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgard, Maria R.; Min, Leo Yoon-Gee

    An operations research method to optimize the teaching-learning process is introduced in this paper. In particular, a linear programing model is proposed which, unlike dynamic or control theory models, allows the computer to react to the responses of a learner in seconds or less. To satisfy the assumptions of linearity, the seemingly complicated…

  11. Computer Simulation and Optimization of the Process of Thawing of Grounds Using Microwave Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasov, S. A.; Volkov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, consideration is given to a mathematical model and a numerical method to calculate and optimize the process of high-speed thawing of grounds using microwave energy. Relevant examples of calculations and an analysis of results are presented.

  12. Optimal Ripeness Stage for Processing ‘Kent’ Mangoes into Fresh-cut Slices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal ripeness stage for processing ‘Kent’ mango into a fresh-cut product and marketing it with best quality and maximum shelf life in terms of visual, compositional, and sensory quality was determined. An initial ripeness stage selection was based on whole fruit firmness, which was more relia...

  13. A Dynamic Process Model for Optimizing the Hospital Environment Cash-Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Flavius; Rosu, Serban

    2011-09-01

    In this article is presented a new approach to some fundamental techniques of solving dynamic programming problems with the use of functional equations. We will analyze the problem of minimizing the cost of treatment in a hospital environment. Mathematical modeling of this process leads to an optimal control problem with a finite horizon.

  14. Development of an Optimization Methodology for the Aluminum Alloy Wheel Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianglan; Reilly, Carl; Maijer, Daan M.; Cockcroft, Steve L.; Phillion, Andre B.

    2015-08-01

    An optimization methodology has been developed for the aluminum alloy wheel casting process. The methodology is focused on improving the timing of cooling processes in a die to achieve improved casting quality. This methodology utilizes (1) a casting process model, which was developed within the commercial finite element package, ABAQUS™—ABAQUS is a trademark of Dassault Systèms; (2) a Python-based results extraction procedure; and (3) a numerical optimization module from the open-source Python library, Scipy. To achieve optimal casting quality, a set of constraints have been defined to ensure directional solidification, and an objective function, based on the solidification cooling rates, has been defined to either maximize, or target a specific, cooling rate. The methodology has been applied to a series of casting and die geometries with different cooling system configurations, including a 2-D axisymmetric wheel and die assembly generated from a full-scale prototype wheel. The results show that, with properly defined constraint and objective functions, solidification conditions can be improved and optimal cooling conditions can be achieved leading to process productivity and product quality improvements.

  15. Finite Element Based Optimization of Material Parameters for Enhanced Ballistic Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Arash; Huber, Daniel; Rothe, Hendrik

    2013-06-01

    The threat imposed by terrorist attacks is a major hazard for military installations, vehicles and other items. The large amounts of firearms and projectiles that are available, pose serious threats to military forces and even civilian facilities. An important task for international research and development is to avert danger to life and limb. This work will evaluate the effect of modern armor with numerical simulations. It will also provide a brief overview of ballistic tests in order to offer some basic knowledge of the subject, serving as a basis for the comparison of simulation results. The objective of this work is to develop and improve the modern armor used in the security sector. Numerical simulations should replace the expensive ballistic tests and find vulnerabilities of items and structures. By progressively changing the material parameters, the armor is to be optimized. Using a sensitivity analysis, information regarding decisive variables is yielded and vulnerabilities are easily found and eliminated afterwards. To facilitate the simulation, advanced numerical techniques have been employed in the analyses.

  16. Highly Enhanced Cooperative Upconversion Luminescence through Energy Transfer Optimization and Quenching Protection.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng; Zhu, Xingjun; Qiu, Xiaochen; Gu, Yuyang; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2016-07-20

    Upconversion luminescence nanomaterials have shown great potential in biological and physical applications because of their unique properties. However, limited research exists on the cooperative sensitization upconversion emission in Tb(3+) ions over Er(3+) ions and Tm(3+) ions because of its low efficiency. Herein, by optimizing the doping ratio of sensitizer and activator to maximize the utilization of the photon energy and introducing the CaF2 inert shell to shield sensitizer from quenchers, we synthesize ultrasmall NaYbF4:Tb@CaF2 nanoparticles with a significant enhancement (690-fold) in cooperative sensitization upconversion emission intensity, compared with the parent NaYbF4:Tb. The lifetime of Tb(3+) emission in NaYbF4:Tb@CaF2 nanoparticles is prolonged extensively to ∼3.5 ms. Furthermore, NaYbF4:Tb@CaF2 was applied in in vitro and in vivo bioimaging. The presented luminescence enhancement strategy provides cooperative sensitization upconversion with new opportunities for bioapplication.

  17. Optimal foraging: The responses of Peromyscus leucopus to experimental changes in processing time and hunger.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, John P; Wilson, Julian C

    1980-07-01

    Food density, degree of hunger prior to foraging, and food processing difficulty were varied in order to determine their effects on the diet diversity of captive Peromyscus leucopus foraging for buried seeds. No relationship was found between diet diversity and food density. However, diet diversity exhibited a significantly positive relationship with hunger, and a significantly negative relationship with seed processing time. These results strongly support optimal foraging theory.

  18. Modeling and optimization of transmission and processing of data in an information computer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Boriev, Z.; Nyrkov, A.; Sokolov, S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a comparative analysis of the routing algorithms that allows optimizing the process of transmission and processing of data in information computer networks. A special attention is paid to multipath methods of data transmission coupled with the number of operations necessary for their performance. In addition the authors have raised the question of a linear programming method for the purpose of the solution of the above-mentioned problem.

  19. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  20. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  1. Codon-optimized filovirus DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular electroporation protect cynomolgus macaques from lethal Ebola and Marburg virus challenges

    PubMed Central

    Grant-Klein, Rebecca J; Altamura, Louis A; Badger, Catherine V; Bounds, Callie E; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Kwilas, Steven A; Vu, Hong A; Warfield, Kelly L; Hooper, Jay W; Hannaman, Drew; Dupuy, Lesley C; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation with DNA plasmids expressing codon-optimized glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) or Marburg virus (MARV) or a combination of codon-optimized GP DNA vaccines for EBOV, MARV, Sudan virus and Ravn virus. When measured by ELISA, the individual vaccines elicited slightly higher IgG responses to EBOV or MARV than did the combination vaccines. No significant differences in immune responses of macaques given the individual or combination vaccines were measured by pseudovirion neutralization or IFN-γ ELISpot assays. Both the MARV and mixed vaccines were able to protect macaques from lethal MARV challenge (5/6 vs. 6/6). In contrast, a greater proportion of macaques vaccinated with the EBOV vaccine survived lethal EBOV challenge in comparison to those that received the mixed vaccine (5/6 vs. 1/6). EBOV challenge survivors had significantly higher pre-challenge neutralizing antibody titers than those that succumbed. PMID:25996997

  2. Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Computational techniques were developed and assimilated for the design optimization. The resulting computer program was then used to perform initial optimization and sensitivity studies on a typical thermal protection system (TPS) to demonstrate its application to the space shuttle TPS design. The program was developed in Fortran IV for the CDC 6400 but was subsequently converted to the Fortran V language to be used on the Univac 1108. The program allows for improvement and update of the performance prediction techniques. The program logic involves subroutines which handle the following basic functions: (1) a driver which calls for input, output, and communication between program and user and between the subroutines themselves; (2) thermodynamic analysis; (3) thermal stress analysis; (4) acoustic fatigue analysis; and (5) weights/cost analysis. In addition, a system total cost is predicted based on system weight and historical cost data of similar systems. Two basic types of input are provided, both of which are based on trajectory data. These are vehicle attitude (altitude, velocity, and angles of attack and sideslip), for external heat and pressure loads calculation, and heating rates and pressure loads as a function of time.

  3. The intact Kunitz domain protects the amyloid precursor protein from being processed by matriptase-2.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Anna-Madeleine; Glebov, Konstantin; Walter, Jochen; Merkel, Olaf; Mangold, Martin; Schmidt, Frederike; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Gütschow, Michael; Stirnberg, Marit

    2016-08-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. So far, the mechanism of APP processing is insufficiently characterized at the molecular level. Whereas the knowledge of Aβ generation by several proteases has been expanded, the contribution of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) present in two major APP isoforms to the complex proteolytic processing of APP is poorly understood. In this study, we have identified KPI-containing APP as a very potent, slow-binding inhibitor for the membrane-bound proteolytic regulator of iron homeostasis matriptase-2 by forming stable complexes with its target protease in HEK cells. Inhibition and complex formation depend on the intact KPI domain. By inhibiting matriptase-2, KPI-containing APP is protected from matriptase-2-mediated proteolysis within the Aβ region, thus preventing the generation of N-terminally truncated Aβ.

  4. ICPP Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) Plant Protection System (PPS) baseline criteria evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.W.; Clayton, R.J.; Fielding, K.D.; Mozes, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents a baseline criteria evaluation of the FAST Plant Protection System (PPS) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), Computer Process Application (CPA) personnel originally prepared this report as requested by the FAST Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) Operational Readiness Review (ORR) committee. It was required by the ORR committee for the 1992 restart of FDP operations. However on April 29, 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed WINCO to discontinue reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at the ICPP. This eliminated the mission of the FDP. The report includes an evaluation of the PPS against criteria requested by the ORR committee and against criteria contained in the WINCO PPS Requirements Manual. This second criteria evaluation is summarized in Appendix A.

  5. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 3. Future to be Asset Sustainment Process Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Models), contains the To-Be Retail Asset Sustainment Process Model displaying the activities and functions related to the improved processes for receipt...of a logistics process model for a more distant future asset sustainment scenario unconstrained by today’s logistics information systems limitations...It also contains a process model reflecting the Reengineering Team’s vision of the future asset sustainment process.

  6. A strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance in a spark plasma sintering process

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wan-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is currently widely applied to existing alloys as a means of further enhancing the alloys’ figure of merit. However, the determination of the optimal sintering condition is challenging in the SPS process. This report demonstrates a systematic way to independently optimize the Seebeck coefficient S and the ratio of electrical to thermal conductivity (σ/κ) and thus achieve the maximum figure of merit zT = S2(σ/κ)T. Sb2−xInxTe3 (x = 0–0.2) were chosen as examples to validate the method. Although high sintering temperature and pressure are helpful in enhancing the compactness and electrical conductivity of pressed samples, the resultant deteriorated Seebeck coefficient and increasing thermal conductivity eventually offset the benefit. We found that the optimal sintering temperature coincides with temperatures at which the maximum Seebeck coefficient begins to degrade, whereas the optimal sintering pressure coincided with the pressure at which the σ/κ ratio reaches a maximum. Based on this principle, the optimized sintering conditions were determined, and the zT of Sb1.9In0.1Te3 is raised to 0.92 at 600 K, showing an approximately 84% enhancement. This work develops a facile strategy for selecting the optimal SPS sintering condition to further enhance the zT of bulk specimens. PMID:26975209

  7. A strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance in a spark plasma sintering process.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wan-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2016-03-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is currently widely applied to existing alloys as a means of further enhancing the alloys' figure of merit. However, the determination of the optimal sintering condition is challenging in the SPS process. This report demonstrates a systematic way to independently optimize the Seebeck coefficient S and the ratio of electrical to thermal conductivity (σ/κ) and thus achieve the maximum figure of merit zT = S(2)(σ/κ)T. Sb2-xInxTe3 (x = 0-0.2) were chosen as examples to validate the method. Although high sintering temperature and pressure are helpful in enhancing the compactness and electrical conductivity of pressed samples, the resultant deteriorated Seebeck coefficient and increasing thermal conductivity eventually offset the benefit. We found that the optimal sintering temperature coincides with temperatures at which the maximum Seebeck coefficient begins to degrade, whereas the optimal sintering pressure coincided with the pressure at which the σ/κ ratio reaches a maximum. Based on this principle, the optimized sintering conditions were determined, and the zT of Sb1.9In0.1Te3 is raised to 0.92 at 600 K, showing an approximately 84% enhancement. This work develops a facile strategy for selecting the optimal SPS sintering condition to further enhance the zT of bulk specimens.

  8. Optimal synthesis and design of the number of cycles in the leaching process for surimi production.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, M Agustina; Scenna, Nicolás J; Mussati, Sergio F

    2016-12-01

    Water consumption required during the leaching stage in the surimi manufacturing process strongly depends on the design and the number and size of stages connected in series for the soluble protein extraction target, and it is considered as the main contributor to the operating costs. Therefore, the optimal synthesis and design of the leaching stage is essential to minimize the total annual cost. In this study, a mathematical optimization model for the optimal design of the leaching operation is presented. Precisely, a detailed Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model including operating and geometric constraints was developed based on our previous optimization model (NLP model). Aspects about quality, water consumption and main operating parameters were considered. The minimization of total annual costs, which considered a trade-off between investment and operating costs, led to an optimal solution with lesser number of stages (2 instead of 3 stages) and higher volumes of the leaching tanks comparing with previous results. An analysis was performed in order to investigate how the optimal solution was influenced by the variations of the unitary cost of fresh water, waste treatment and capital investment.

  9. Combining analysis with optimization at Langley Research Center. An evolutionary process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The evolutionary process of combining analysis and optimization codes was traced with a view toward providing insight into the long term goal of developing the methodology for an integrated, multidisciplinary software system for the concurrent analysis and optimization of aerospace structures. It was traced along the lines of strength sizing, concurrent strength and flutter sizing, and general optimization to define a near-term goal for combining analysis and optimization codes. Development of a modular software system combining general-purpose, state-of-the-art, production-level analysis computer programs for structures, aerodynamics, and aeroelasticity with a state-of-the-art optimization program is required. Incorporation of a modular and flexible structural optimization software system into a state-of-the-art finite element analysis computer program will facilitate this effort. This effort results in the software system used that is controlled with a special-purpose language, communicates with a data management system, and is easily modified for adding new programs and capabilities. A 337 degree-of-freedom finite element model is used in verifying the accuracy of this system.

  10. Modelling and optimization of a recombinant BHK-21 cultivation process using hybrid grey-box systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A; Cunha, A E; Clemente, J J; Moreira, J L; Cruz, H J; Alves, P M; Carrondo, M J T; Oliveira, R

    2005-08-22

    In this work a model-based optimization study of fed-batch BHK-21 cultures expressing the human fusion glycoprotein IgG1-IL2 was performed. It was concluded that due to the complexity of the BHK metabolism it is rather difficult to develop a kinetic model with sufficient accuracy for optimization studies. Many kinetic expressions and a large number of parameters are involved resulting in a complex identification problem. For this reason, an alternative more cost-effective methodology based on hybrid grey-box models was adopted. Several model structures combining the a priori reliable first principles knowledge with black-box models were investigated using data from batch and fed-batch experiments. It has been reported in previous studies that the BHK metabolism exhibits modulation particularities when compared to other mammalian cell lines. It was concluded that these mechanisms were effectively captured by the hybrid model, this being of crucial importance for the successful optimization of the process operation. A method was proposed to monitor the risk of hybrid model unreliability and to constraint the optimization results to acceptable risk levels. From the optimization study it was concluded that the process productivity may be considerably increased if the glutamine and glucose concentrations are maintained at low levels during the growth phase and then glutamine feeding is increased.

  11. Detecting community structure in complex networks using an interaction optimization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Paul; Kim, Sangwook

    2017-01-01

    Most complex networks contain community structures. Detecting these community structures is important for understanding and controlling the networks. Most community detection methods use network topology and edge density to identify optimal communities; however, these methods have a high computational complexity and are sensitive to network forms and types. To address these problems, in this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses an interaction optimization process to detect community structures in complex networks. This algorithm efficiently searches the candidates of optimal communities by optimizing the interactions of the members within each community based on the concept of greedy optimization. During this process, each candidate is evaluated using an interaction-based community model. This model quickly and accurately measures the difference between the quantity and quality of intra- and inter-community interactions. We test our algorithm on several benchmark networks with known community structures that include diverse communities detected by other methods. Additionally, after applying our algorithm to several real-world complex networks, we compare our algorithm with other methods. We find that the structure quality and coverage results achieved by our algorithm surpass those of the other methods.

  12. Adaptive optimal control of highly dissipative nonlinear spatially distributed processes with neuro-dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-04-01

    Highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely employed to describe the system dynamics of industrial spatially distributed processes (SDPs). In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem of the general highly dissipative SDPs, and propose an adaptive optimal control approach based on neuro-dynamic programming (NDP). Initially, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is employed to compute empirical eigenfunctions (EEFs) of the SDP based on the method of snapshots. These EEFs together with singular perturbation technique are then used to obtain a finite-dimensional slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations that accurately describes the dominant dynamics of the PDE system. Subsequently, the optimal control problem is reformulated on the basis of the slow subsystem, which is further converted to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. HJB equation is a nonlinear PDE that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. Thus, an adaptive optimal control method is developed via NDP that solves the HJB equation online using neural network (NN) for approximating the value function; and an online NN weight tuning law is proposed without requiring an initial stabilizing control policy. Moreover, by involving the NN estimation error, we prove that the original closed-loop PDE system with the adaptive optimal control policy is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the developed method is tested on a nonlinear diffusion-convection-reaction process and applied to a temperature cooling fin of high-speed aerospace vehicle, and the achieved results show its effectiveness.

  13. Optimization of pretreatments and process parameters for sorghum popping in microwave oven using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gayatri; Joshi, Dinesh C; Mohapatra, Debabandya

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum is a popular healthy snack food. Popped sorghum was prepared in a domestic microwave oven. A 3 factor 3 level Box and Behneken design was used to optimize the pretreatment conditions. Grains were preconditioned to 12-20 % moisture content by the addition of 0-2 % salt solutions. Oil was applied (0-10 % w/w) to the preconditioned grains. Optimization of the pretreatments was based on popping yield, volume expansion ratio, and sensory score. The optimized condition was found at 16.62 % (wb), 0.55 % salt and 10 % oil with popping yield of 82.228 %, volume expansion ratio of 14.564 and overall acceptability of 8.495. Further, the microwave process parameters were optimized using a 2 factor 3 level design having microwave power density ranging from 9 to 18 W/g and residence time ranging from 100 to 180 s. For the production of superior quality pop sorghum, the optimized microwave process parameters were microwave power density of 18 Wg(-1) and residence time of 140 s.

  14. Optimal design activated sludge process by means of multi-objective optimization: case study in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenliang; Yao, Chonghua; Lu, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal design of activated sludge process (ASP) using multi-objective optimization was studied, and a benchmark process in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1) was taken as a target process. The objectives of the study were to achieve four indexes of percentage of effluent violation (PEV), overall cost index (OCI), total volume and total suspended solids, making up four cases for comparative analysis. Models were solved by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in MATLAB. Results show that: ineffective solutions can be rejected by adding constraints, and newly added objectives can affect the relationship between the existing objectives; taking Pareto solutions as process parameters, the performance indexes of PEV and OCI can be improved more than with the default process parameters of BSM1, especially for N removal and resistance against dynamic NH4(+)-N in influent. The results indicate that multi-objective optimization is a useful method for optimal design ASP.

  15. Layout optimization of GGISCR structure for on-chip system level ESD protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jie; Dong, Shurong; Wong, Hei; Hu, Tao; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-01

    To improve the holding voltage, area efficiency and robustness, a comparative study on single finger, 4-finger and round shape layout of gate-grounded-nMOS incorporated SCR (GGISCR) devices are conducted. The devices were fabricated with a commercial 0.35 μm HV-CMOS process without any additional mask or process modification. To have a fair comparison, we develop a new Figure-of-Merit (FOM) modeling for the performance evaluation of these devices. We found that the ring type device which has an It2 value of 18.9 A is area efficient and has smaller effective capacitance. The different characteristics were explained with the different effective ESD currents in these layout structures.

  16. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D.; Alves, Oswaldo L.; Da Silva, João P. S.; De Souza, Gabriel I. H.; Rodrigues, Flávio A.; Esposito, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  17. Optimization of an electron cyclotron resonance plasma etch process for n{sup +} polysilicon: HBr process chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, G.D.; Blain, M.G.; Westerfield, P.L.; Trutna, L.S.; Maxwell, K.L.

    1993-08-01

    Designed experiments were employed to characterize a process for etching phosphorus doped polycrystalline silicon with HBr in a close-coupled ECR plasma reactor configured for 200 mm wafers. A fractional factorial screening experiment was employed to determine the principal input factors and the main etch effects. Linear models of the process responses indicate RF power, O{sub 2} flow rate, and the position of the resonance zone (with respect to the wafer) as the three strongest factors influencing process performance. Response surfaces generated using data from a follow-on response surface methodology (RSM) experiment predicted an optimum operating region characterized by relatively low RF power, a small O{sub 2} flow, and a resonance zone position close to the wafer. The optimized process demonstrated a polysilicon etch rate of 270 nm/min, an etch rate non-uniformity of 2.2% (1s), an etch selectivity to oxide greater than 100:1, and anisotropic profiles. Particle test results for the optimized process indicated that careful selection of the O{sub 2} fraction is required to avoid polymer deposition and particle formation.

  18. Optimizing process time of laser drilling processes in solar cell manufacturing by coaxial camera control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Volker; Gutscher, Simon; Blug, Andreas; Knorz, Annerose; Ahrbeck, Christopher; Nekarda, Jan; Carl, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In emitter wrap through (EWT) solar cells, laser drilling is used to increase the light sensitive area by removing emitter contacts from the front side of the cell. For a cell area of 156 x 156 mm2, about 24000 via-holes with a diameter of 60 μm have to be drilled into silicon wafers with a thickness of 200 μm. The processing time of 10 to 20 s is determined by the number of laser pulses required for safely opening every hole on the bottom side. Therefore, the largest wafer thickness occurring in a production line defines the processing time. However, wafer thickness varies by roughly +/-20 %. To reduce the processing time, a coaxial camera control system was integrated into the laser scanner. It observes the bottom breakthrough from the front side of the wafer by measuring the process emissions of every single laser pulse. To achieve the frame rates and latency times required by the repetition rate of the laser (10 kHz), a camera based on cellular neural networks (CNN) was used where the images are processed directly on the camera chip by 176 x 144 sensor-processor-elements. One image per laser pulse is processed within 36 μs corresponding to a maximum pulse rate of 25 kHz. The laser is stopped when all of the holes are open on the bottom side. The result is a quality control system in which the processing time of a production line is defined by average instead of maximum wafer thickness.

  19. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

  20. Optimization, Production, and Characterization of a CpG-Oligonucleotide-Ficoll Conjugate Nanoparticle Adjuvant for Enhanced Immunogenicity of Anthrax Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a novel phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN)-Ficoll conjugated nanoparticulate adjuvant, termed DV230-Ficoll. This adjuvant was constructed from an amine-functionalized-Ficoll, a heterobifunctional linker (succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-hexaethylene glycol] ester) and the CpG-ODN DV230. Herein, we describe the evaluation of the purity and reactivity of linkers of different lengths for CpG-ODN-Ficoll conjugation, optimization of linker coupling, and conjugation of thiol-functionalized CpG to maleimide-functionalized Ficoll and process scale-up. Physicochemical characterization of independently produced lots of DV230-Ficoll reveal a bioconjugate with a particle size of approximately 50 nm and covalent attachment of more than 100 molecules of CpG per Ficoll. Solutions of purified DV230-Ficoll were stable for at least 12 months at frozen and refrigerated temperatures and stability was further enhanced in lyophilized form. Compared to nonconjugated monomeric DV230, the DV230-Ficoll conjugate demonstrated improved in vitro potency for induction of IFN-α from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced higher titer neutralizing antibody responses against coadministered anthrax recombinant protective antigen in mice. The processes described here establish a reproducible and robust process for the synthesis of a novel, size-controlled, and stable CpG-ODN nanoparticle adjuvant suitable for manufacture and use in vaccines. PMID:27074387

  1. Meltlets(®) of soy isoflavones: process optimization and the effect of extrusion spheronization process parameters on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Ketkee; Amin, Purnima

    2013-07-01

    In the current research work an attempt was made to develop "Melt in mouth pellets" (Meltlets(®)) containing 40% herbal extract of soy isoflavones that served to provide antioxidants activity in menopausal women. The process of extrusion-spheronization was optimized for extruder speed, extruder screen size, spheronization speed, and time. While doing so the herbal extract incorporated in the pellet matrix was subjected to various processing conditions such as the effect of the presence of other excipients, mixing or kneading to prepare wet mass, heat generated during the process of extrusion, spheronization, and drying. Thus, the work further investigates the effect of these processing parameters on the antioxidant activity of the soy isoflavone herbal extract incorporated in the formula. Thereby, the antioxidant activity of the soya bean herbal extract, Meltlets(®) and of the placebo pellets was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total reduction capacity.

  2. Optimization of processing temperature in the nitridation process for the synthesis of iron nitride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rohith Vinod, K.; Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.

    2015-06-24

    We have demonstrated an effective strategy on the nitridation process to synthesize ε-Fe{sub 3}N nanoparticles (NPs) from the zero valent iron NPs as a starting material. The transformation of iron into iron nitride phase was systematically studied by performing the nitridation process at different processing temperatures. The phase, crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. Morphology and size of the ZVINPs and ε-Fe{sub 3}N NPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Further, their room temperature magnetic properties were studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer and it revealed that the magnetic property of ε-Fe{sub 3}N is associated with ratio of Fe-N in the iron nitride system.

  3. Optimization of processing temperature in the nitridation process for the synthesis of iron nitride nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohith Vinod, K.; Saravanan, P.; Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    We have demonstrated an effective strategy on the nitridation process to synthesize ɛ-Fe3N nanoparticles (NPs) from the zero valent iron NPs as a starting material. The transformation of iron into iron nitride phase was systematically studied by performing the nitridation process at different processing temperatures. The phase, crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. Morphology and size of the ZVINPs and ɛ-Fe3N NPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Further, their room temperature magnetic properties were studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer and it revealed that the magnetic property of ɛ-Fe3N is associated with ratio of Fe-N in the iron nitride system.

  4. An Optimization System with Parallel Processing for Reducing Common-Mode Current on Electronic Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Yuji; Uno, Takanori; Asai, Hideki

    In this paper, we propose an optimization system with parallel processing for reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI) on electronic control unit (ECU). We adopt simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and taboo search (TS) to seek optimal solutions, and a Spice-like circuit simulator to analyze common-mode current. Therefore, the proposed system can determine the adequate combinations of the parasitic inductance and capacitance values on printed circuit board (PCB) efficiently and practically, to reduce EMI caused by the common-mode current. Finally, we apply the proposed system to an example circuit to verify the validity and efficiency of the system.

  5. Convexity of Ruin Probability and Optimal Dividend Strategies for a General Lévy Process

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuancun; Yuen, Kam Chuen; Shen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We consider the optimal dividends problem for a company whose cash reserves follow a general Lévy process with certain positive jumps and arbitrary negative jumps. The objective is to find a policy which maximizes the expected discounted dividends until the time of ruin. Under appropriate conditions, we use some recent results in the theory of potential analysis of subordinators to obtain the convexity properties of probability of ruin. We present conditions under which the optimal dividend strategy, among all admissible ones, takes the form of a barrier strategy. PMID:26351655

  6. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  7. A sequential, multi-complexity topology optimization process for aeroelastic wing structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiles, Mark A.

    The design of structures is motivated by the requirement that performance goals must be met at the lowest possible cost. In the realm of aircraft design, the least-weight structure typically leads to the lowest cost vehicle. Therefore, the goal becomes that of supporting all flight loads at the minimum achievable weight. This study outlines a method to identify the optimal layout or topology of a wing structure that minimizes the wing's weight under multiple loads, subject to strength and aeroelastic constraints. The procedure was developed with the goal of using available, well-defined tools for structural sizing optimization to simplify the layout selection process. This approach uses a sequence of sizing optimization problems to identify and remove non-essential elements from an overpopulated structure. The optimization and deletion processes produce a series of improving feasible topologies for the set of flight loads imposed on the wing. These candidate structures are compared and the least-weight design is chosen as the optimum. The procedure was first applied to a plane truss problem and was able to reproduce the well-established Michell truss solution, providing validation of the approach. Then, the process was applied to wing models representing several different types of aircraft to illustrate its applicability across a wide range of wing design problems.

  8. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  9. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature. PMID:26358528

  10. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    PubMed

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  11. Advanced computational tools for optimization and uncertainty quantification of carbon capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Ng, Brenda; Eslick, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.

  12. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-09-11

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.

  13. Simultaneous optimization of multiple performance characteristics in coagulation-flocculation process for Indian paper industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, R; Saseetharan, M K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process in wastewater generated from the paper and pulp industry using a grey relational analysis (GRA)-based Taguchi method. Process parameters included types and doses of natural coagulants and coagulant aid, and pH. To track the efficiency of the treatment process, the following responses were chosen for optimization: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity of wastewater, alone or in combination or all together. Analysis of variance showed that the type and dose of the coagulant aid were the most significant parameters, followed by pH and the dose of the coagulant; the type of coagulant used was found to be insignificant in the coagulation-flocculation process. Optimization of process parameters to achieve lower turbidity and greater removal of COD and TDS was verified in a separate confirmatory experiment, which showed improvements in COD and TDS removal and a decrease in turbidity of 8.2, 6.35 and 26.17%, respectively, with the application of the Taguchi method and GRA.

  14. Development of Pangasius steaks by improved sous-vide technology and its process optimization.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Singh, Chongtham Baru; Kumar, Raushan; Martin Xavier, K A; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati; Balange, Amjad K

    2016-11-01

    The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous-vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous-vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product. The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration (X1), cooking time (X2) and cooking temperature (X3) on dependent variable i.e. TBARS value (Y1). From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous-vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1.08% chitosan concentration, 70.93 °C of cooking temperature and 16.48 min for cooking time and predicted minimum value of multiple response optimal condition was Y = 0.855 mg MDA/Kg of fish. The high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.975) between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to efficiently predict processing condition for development of sous-vide processed Pangasius steaks. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius.

  15. Optimization of the process chain for mirrors made of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waechter, Daniel; Kroedel, Matthias; Huenten, Martin; Klocke, Fritz

    2012-09-01

    Different grades of silicon carbide (SiC) became an established material for structures as well as optical mirrors in space-borne applications. But the manufacturing still causes high efforts and restrains an extension of application in further fields. The research project MirrorFab aims for a qualification of an optimized process chain for manufacturing mirrors made of Cesic®. Cesic® consists of a matrix of SiC reinforced with chopped carbon fibers. There is a space qualified Cesic® manufacturing process and an established network for the supply chain. The project addresses the required gain in efficiency and flexibility in the manufacturing capabilities. The consortium covers the major parts of the process chain. It aims for increasing the performance of each manufacturing technology. Additionally, the consideration of the complete process chain enables a holistic optimization approach. This paper deals particularly with the process optimization of the grinding step after infiltration. The benefit of the use of an ultra precision grinding machine for mirrors in the range of 200 mm is evaluated. This paper presents the results of a systematical study on the influence of the grit size, the type of bond as well the major machining parameters on the surface roughness and the grinding forces, when machining the material Cesic®. A major finding is, that the use of ultra fine grinding wheels does not result in a superior surface quality compared to the use of a D46 grinding wheel with resinoid bond.

  16. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  17. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  18. Data-driven inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purr, S.; Wendt, A.; Meinhardt, J.; Moelzl, K.; Werner, A.; Hagenah, H.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    The manufacturing process of car body parts needs to be adaptable during production because of fluctuating variables; finding the most suitable settings is often expensive. The cause-effect relation between variables and process results is currently unknown; thus, any measure taken to adjust the process is necessarily subjective and dependent on operator experience. To investigate the correlations involved, a data mining system that can detect influences and determine the quality of resulting parts is integrated into the series process. The collected data is used to analyze causes, predict defects, and optimize the overall process. In this paper, a data-driven method is proposed for the inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts. The calculation of suitable settings to produce good parts is based on measurements of influencing variables, such as the characteristics of blanks. First, the available data are presented, and in the event of quality issues, current procedures are investigated. Thereafter, data mining techniques are applied to identify models that link occurring fluctuations and appropriate measures to adapt the process so that it addresses such fluctuations. Consequently, a method is derived for providing objective information on appropriate process parameters.

  19. Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous Bead Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A.; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K.; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Jawed, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties. PMID:27920762

  20. Some Results on the Analysis of Stochastic Processes with Uncertain Transition Probabilities and Robust Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Keyong Li; Seong-Cheol Kang; I. Ch. Paschalidis

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates stochastic processes that are modeled by a finite number of states but whose transition probabilities are uncertain and possibly time-varying. The treatment of uncertain transition probabilities is important because there appears to be a disconnection between the practice and theory of stochastic processes due to the difficulty of assigning exact probabilities to real-world events. Also, when the finite-state process comes as a reduced model of one that is more complicated in nature (possibly in a continuous state space), existing results do not facilitate rigorous analysis. Two approaches are introduced here. The first focuses on processes with one terminal state and the properties that affect their convergence rates. When a process is on a complicated graph, the bound of the convergence rate is not trivially related to that of the probabilities of individual transitions. Discovering the connection between the two led us to define two concepts which we call 'progressivity' and 'sortedness', and to a new comparison theorem for stochastic processes. An optimality criterion for robust optimal control also derives from this comparison theorem. In addition, this result is applied to the case of mission-oriented autonomous robot control to produce performance estimate within a control framework that we propose. The second approach is in the MDP frame work. We will introduce our preliminary work on optimistic robust optimization, which aims at finding solutions that guarantee the upper bounds of the accumulative discounted cost with prescribed probabilities. The motivation here is to address the issue that the standard robust optimal solution tends to be overly conservative.

  1. Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous Bead Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Jawed, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  2. Process optimization for high-pressure processing of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Barjinder Pal; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2016-10-06

    This study aims to investigate the effect of high-pressure processing on the quality of black tiger shrimp using response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of three processing parameters, namely pressure (300-600 MPa), temperature (30-50 ℃), and time (0-15 min), on the inactivation rate of Staphylococcus aureus and physical properties (color and texture) of shrimp and to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum bacterial inactivation with minimal changes in quality attributes. The results revealed that the processing conditions significantly affected the studied responses and the experimental data have been adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R(2)) of 0.92, 0.92, and 0.94 for the inactivation rate of S. aureus, hardness, and color changes, respectively. The optimized conditions targeting minimum six log cycle reductions of S. aureus with moderate changes in quality attributes were obtained as: pressure, 361 MPa; time, 12 min and temperature, 46 ℃. The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was verified effectively by the validation data.

  3. [Optimization of the processing technology of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Li, F; Zhong, Z C

    1994-04-01

    A study on the processing technology of Aconitum kusnezoffii by orthogonal test was carried out by assaying as criteria the changes in contents of the total alkaloids and ester type alkaloids before and after processing. The optimum experimental conditions were obtained after treating the experimental data with a formula for the multiple criteria, and the optimal processing results were achieved by having the material macerated with water, cut into thick pieces and then steamed under high pressure (127 degrees C, 0.15MPa) for 3 hours.

  4. Optimization and analysis of mixed refrigerant composition for the PRICO natural gas liquefaction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiongwen; Liu, Jinping; Cao, Le

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the energy optimization of the PRICO natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process was performed with the genetic algorithm (GA) and the process simulation software Aspen Plus. Then the characteristics of the heat transfer composite curves of the cold box were obtained and analyzed. Based on it, the heat exchange process in the cold box was divided into three regions. At last, in order to find the relationship between the energy consumption and the composition of the mixed refrigerant, the effects of the refrigerant flow composition on the temperature difference and the pinch point location were deeply investigated, which would be useful to guide the refrigerant charging.

  5. Process metallurgy simulation for metal drawing process optimization by using two-scale finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Toshihiko; Morita, Yusuke; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hideo

    2014-10-06

    We developed two-scale FE analysis procedure based on the crystallographic homogenization method by considering the hierarchical structure of poly-crystal aluminium alloy metal. It can be characterized as the combination of two-scale structure, such as the microscopic polycrystal structure and the macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. Micro polycrystal structure can be modeled as a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE). RVE is featured as by 3×3×3 eight-nodes solid finite elements, which has 216 crystal orientations. This FE analysis code can predict the deformation, strain and stress evolutions in the wire drawing processes in the macro- scales, and further the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in the micro-scale. In this study, we analyzed the texture evolution in the wire drawing processes by our two-scale FE analysis code under conditions of various drawing angles of dice. We evaluates the texture evolution in the surface and center regions of the wire cross section, and to clarify the effects of processing conditions on the texture evolution.

  6. Applying Business Process Re-engineering Patterns to optimize WS-BPEL Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buys, Jonas; de Florio, Vincenzo; Blondia, Chris

    With the advent of XML-based SOA, WS-BPEL shortly turned out to become a widely accepted standard for modeling business processes. Though SOA is said to embrace the principle of business agility, BPEL process definitions are still manually crafted into their final executable version. While SOA has proven to be a giant leap forward in building flexible IT systems, this static BPEL workflow model is somewhat paradoxical to the need for real business agility and should be enhanced to better sustain continual process evolution. In this paper, we point out the potential of adding business intelligence with respect to business process re-engineering patterns to the system to allow for automatic business process optimization. Furthermore, we point out that BPR macro-rules could be implemented leveraging micro-techniques from computer science. We present some practical examples that illustrate the benefit of such adaptive process models and our preliminary findings.

  7. An intelligent factory-wide optimal operation system for continuous production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Junwei; Zheng, Xiuping

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a novel intelligent factory-wide operation system for a continuous production process is designed to optimise the entire production process, which consists of multiple units; furthermore, this system is developed using process operational data to avoid the complexity of mathematical modelling of the continuous production process. The data-driven approach aims to specify the structure of the optimal operation system; in particular, the operational data of the process are used to formulate each part of the system. In this context, the domain knowledge of process engineers is utilised, and a closed-loop dynamic optimisation strategy, which combines feedback, performance prediction, feed-forward, and dynamic tuning schemes into a framework, is employed. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified using industrial experimental results.

  8. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  9. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  10. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  11. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  12. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  13. Critical Protection Item Classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    As a part of its compliance with the Department of Energy requirements for safety of nuclear facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) assigns functional classifications to structures, systems and components (SSCs). As a result, changes in design, operations, maintenance, testing, and inspections of SSCs are performed and backfit requirements are established. This paper describes the Critical Protection Item (CPI) Classification for waste processing facility (WPF) at SRS. The descriptions of the WPF and the processes considered are provided elsewhere. The proposed CPI classification methodology includes the evaluation of the onsite radiological consequences, and the onsite and offsite non-radiological consequences from postulated accidents at the WPF, and comparison of these consequences with allowable frequency-dependent limits. When allowable limits are exceeded, CPIs are identified for accident mitigation.

  14. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertanities about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions.

  15. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return.

    PubMed

    Race, M S

    1996-01-01

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertanities about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions.

  16. Role of Sirt1 during the ageing process: relevance to protection of synapses in the brain.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Juan A; Zolezzi, Juan M; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-01

    Ageing is a stochastic process associated with a progressive decline in physiological functions which predispose to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The intrinsic complexity of ageing remains a significant challenge to understand the cause of this natural phenomenon. At the molecular level, ageing is thought to be characterized by the accumulation of chronic oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids caused by free radicals. Increased oxidative stress and misfolded protein formations, combined with impaired compensatory mechanisms, may promote neurodegenerative disorders with age. Nutritional modulation through calorie restriction has been shown to be effective as an anti-ageing factor, promoting longevity and protecting against neurodegenerative pathology in yeast, nematodes and murine models. Calorie restriction increases the intracellular levels of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), a co-substrate for the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1, silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1) activity and a cofactor for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. Promotion of intracellular NAD(+) anabolism is speculated to induce neuroprotective effects against amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) toxicity in some models for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sirt1, has been implicated in the ageing process. Sirt1 serves as a deacetylase for numerous proteins involved in several cellular pathways, including stress response and apoptosis, and plays a protective role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  17. Static optimization of muscle forces during gait in comparison to EMG-to-force processing approach.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Sofia; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2007-07-01

    Individual muscle forces evaluated from experimental motion analysis may be useful in mathematical simulation, but require additional musculoskeletal and mathematical modelling. A numerical method of static optimization was used in this study to evaluate muscular forces during gait. The numerical algorithm used was built on the basis of traditional optimization techniques, i.e., constrained minimization technique using the Lagrange multiplier method to solve for constraints. Measuring exact muscle forces during gait analysis is not currently possible. The developed optimization method calculates optimal forces during gait, given a specific performance criterion, using kinematics and kinetics from gait analysis together with muscle architectural data. Experimental methods to validate mathematical methods to calculate forces are limited. Electromyography (EMG) is frequently used as a tool to determine muscle activation in experimental studies on human motion. A method of estimating force from the EMG signal, the EMG-to-force approach, was recently developed by Bogey et al. [Bogey RA, Perry J, Gitter AJ. An EMG-to-force processing approach for determining ankle muscle forcs during normal human gait. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2005;13:302-10] and is based on normalization of activation during a maximum voluntary contraction to documented maximal muscle strength. This method was adapted in this study as a tool with which to compare static optimization during a gait cycle. Muscle forces from static optimization and from EMG-to-force muscle forces show reasonably good correlation in the plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, but less correlation in the knee flexor and extensor muscles. Additional comparison of the mathematical muscle forces from static optimization to documented averaged EMG data reveals good overall correlation to patterns of evaluated muscular activation. This indicates that on an individual level, muscular force patterns from mathematical

  18. Combined optimization of image-gathering and image-processing systems for scene feature detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Arduini, Robert F.; Samms, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the image gathering and image processing systems for minimum mean squared error estimation of scene characteristics is investigated. A stochastic optimization problem is formulated where the objective is to determine a spatial characteristic of the scene rather than a feature of the already blurred, sampled and noisy image data. An analytical solution for the optimal characteristic image processor is developed. The Wiener filter for the sampled image case is obtained as a special case, where the desired characteristic is scene restoration. Optimal edge detection is investigated using the Laplacian operator x G as the desired characteristic, where G is a two dimensional Gaussian distribution function. It is shown that the optimal edge detector compensates for the blurring introduced by the image gathering optics, and notably, that it is not circularly symmetric. The lack of circular symmetry is largely due to the geometric effects of the sampling lattice used in image acquisition. The optimal image gathering optical transfer function is also investigated and the results of a sensitivity analysis are shown.

  19. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected.

  20. Process optimization of a novel immediate release film coating system using QbD principles.

    PubMed

    Teckoe, Jason; Mascaro, Tracey; Farrell, Thomas P; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2013-06-01

    This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200). Critical quality attributes (CQAs) or associated performance indicators of the coated tablets were measured while coating process parameters such as percent solids of the coating dispersion, coating spray rate, inlet air temperature, airflow rate and pan speed were varied, using a design of experiment protocol. The optimized process parameters were then confirmed by independent coating trials. Disintegration time of coated tablets was not affected by the coating process conditions used in this study, while tablet appearance, as determined by measurement of tablet color, coating defects and gloss was determined to be a CQA. Tablet gloss increased when low spray rate and low percent solids were used, as well as with increased coating pan speed. The study used QbD principles and experimental design models to provide a basis to identify ranges of coating process conditions which afford acceptable product quality. High productivity, color uniformity, and very low defect levels were obtained with Opadry 200 even when using a broad range of coating process conditions.

  1. An Approach to Optimize Size Parameters of Forging by Combining Hot-Processing Map and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H. E.; Wang, X. Y.; Deng, L.

    2014-11-01

    The size parameters of 6061 aluminum alloy rib-web forging were optimized by using hot-processing map and finite element method (FEM) based on high-temperature compression data. The results show that the stress level of the alloy can be represented by a Zener-Holloman parameter in a hyperbolic sine-type equation with the hot deformation activation energy of 343.7 kJ/mol. Dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization concurrently preceded during high-temperature deformation of the alloy. Optimal hot-processing parameters for the alloy corresponding to the peak value of 0.42 are 753 K and 0.001 s-1. The instability domain occurs at deformation temperature lower than 653 K. FEM is an available method to validate hot-processing map in actual manufacture by analyzing the effect of corner radius, rib width, and web thickness on workability of rib-web forging of the alloy. Size parameters of die forgings can be optimized conveniently by combining hot-processing map and FEM.

  2. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Arulmathi, P; Elangovan, G; Begum, A Farjana

    2015-01-01

    Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5%) and color (95.1%) of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm(2), electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  3. About Distributed Simulation-based Optimization of Forming Processes using a Grid Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Manfred; Barth, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    Permanently increasing complexity of products and their manufacturing processes combined with a shorter "time-to-market" leads to more and more use of simulation and optimization software systems for product design. Finding a "good" design of a product implies the solution of computationally expensive optimization problems based on the results of simulation. Due to the computational load caused by the solution of these problems, the requirements on the Information&Telecommunication (IT) infrastructure of an enterprise or research facility are shifting from stand-alone resources towards the integration of software and hardware resources in a distributed environment for high-performance computing. Resources can either comprise software systems, hardware systems, or communication networks. An appropriate IT-infrastructure must provide the means to integrate all these resources and enable their use even across a network to cope with requirements from geographically distributed scenarios, e.g. in computational engineering and/or collaborative engineering. Integrating expert's knowledge into the optimization process is inevitable in order to reduce the complexity caused by the number of design variables and the high dimensionality of the design space. Hence, utilization of knowledge-based systems must be supported by providing data management facilities as a basis for knowledge extraction from product data. In this paper, the focus is put on a distributed problem solving environment (PSE) capable of providing access to a variety of necessary resources and services. A distributed approach integrating simulation and optimization on a network of workstations and cluster systems is presented. For geometry generation the CAD-system CATIA is used which is coupled with the FEM-simulation system INDEED for simulation of sheet-metal forming processes and the problem solving environment OpTiX for distributed optimization.

  4. An integrated approach of topology optimized design and selective laser melting process for titanium implants materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dongming; Yang, Yongqiang; Su, Xubin; Wang, Di; Sun, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    The load-bearing bone implants materials should have sufficient stiffness and large porosity, which are interacted since larger porosity causes lower mechanical properties. This paper is to seek the maximum stiffness architecture with the constraint of specific volume fraction by topology optimization approach, that is, maximum porosity can be achieved with predefine stiffness properties. The effective elastic modulus of conventional cubic and topology optimized scaffolds were calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) method; also, some specimens with different porosities of 41.1%, 50.3%, 60.2% and 70.7% respectively were fabricated by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process and were tested by compression test. Results showed that the computational effective elastic modulus of optimized scaffolds was approximately 13% higher than cubic scaffolds, the experimental stiffness values were reduced by 76% than the computational ones. The combination of topology optimization approach and SLM process would be available for development of titanium implants materials in consideration of both porosity and mechanical stiffness.

  5. Thermodynamic optimization of a Penrose process: An engineers' approach to black hole thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravetti, A.; Gruber, C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C. S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a new view on the thermodynamics of black holes introducing effects of irreversibility by employing thermodynamic optimization and finite-time thermodynamics. These questions are of importance both in physics and in engineering, combining standard thermodynamics with optimal control theory in order to find optimal protocols and bounds for realistic processes without assuming anything about the microphysics involved. We work out the details of the thermodynamic optimization of a Penrose process, i.e. the problem of finding the maximum work that can be extracted from a Kerr black hole in finite time. This problem has already been addressed in the case of an isolated black hole. Here we consider the case of a black hole immersed in a reservoir and show that the presence of the reservoir can dramatically improve the work output. We discuss the relevance of our results for real astrophysical phenomena, for the comparison with laboratory black holes analogues and for other theoretical aspects of black hole thermodynamics.

  6. Development of optimization model for sputtering process parameter based on gravitational search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norlina, M. S.; Diyana, M. S. Nor; Mazidah, P.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    In the RF magnetron sputtering process, the desirable layer properties are largely influenced by the process parameters and conditions. If the quality of the thin film has not reached up to its intended level, the experiments have to be repeated until the desirable quality has been met. This research is proposing Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) as the optimization model to reduce the time and cost to be spent in the thin film fabrication. The optimization model's engine has been developed using Java. The model is developed based on GSA concept, which is inspired by the Newtonian laws of gravity and motion. In this research, the model is expected to optimize four deposition parameters which are RF power, deposition time, oxygen flow rate and substrate temperature. The results have turned out to be promising and it could be concluded that the performance of the model is satisfying in this parameter optimization problem. Future work could compare GSA with other nature based algorithms and test them with various set of data.

  7. Modeling and optimization of red currants vacuum drying process by response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Šumić, Zdravko; Vakula, Anita; Tepić, Aleksandra; Čakarević, Jelena; Vitas, Jasmina; Pavlić, Branimir

    2016-07-15

    Fresh red currants were dried by vacuum drying process under different drying conditions. Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology was used for optimization of drying process in terms of physical (moisture content, water activity, total color change, firmness and rehydratation power) and chemical (total phenols, total flavonoids, monomeric anthocyanins and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) properties of dried samples. Temperature (48-78 °C), pressure (30-330 mbar) and drying time (8-16 h) were investigated as independent variables. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model where regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine model fitness and optimal drying conditions. The optimal conditions of simultaneously optimized responses were temperature of 70.2 °C, pressure of 39 mbar and drying time of 8 h. It could be concluded that vacuum drying provides samples with good physico-chemical properties, similar to lyophilized sample and better than conventionally dried sample.

  8. Optimal heating trajectories of controlling green tapes of YSZ electrolyte deformation using TMA during thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liau, Leo Chau-Kuang; Chen, Chung-Chun

    The optimal heating trajectories to minimize the time required for the organic additives removal in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) green tapes were determined using a dynamic optimization method. The removal process model was described by the mass transport of the volatile gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of the organic additives inside the tapes and the kinetics of the decomposition. The pressure buildup of the sample tapes formed by the volatile gas can be estimated by a numerical simulation method; meanwhile, the deformation (strain) of the tape caused by the pressure buildup was measured by a thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA) during the thermal processing. Results show that the formation of the maximum pressure buildup at the center of the cubic tape is influenced by the sample size and heating conditions. In addition, the dynamic strain at the center of the sample measured by TMA agrees with the formation of the pressure buildup estimated by the numerical calculation. Moreover, the optimal heating trajectories determined by the dynamic optimization scheme with the constraint of the formation of the maximum pressure buildup were verified from the tape deformation analysis by the TMA tests.

  9. EPA Proposes Revisions to its Risk Management Program to Improve Chemical Process Safety and Further Protect Communities and First Responders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to revise its Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations to improve chemical process safety, assist local emergency authorities in planning for and responding to accidents, and

  10. Capturing Knowledge In Order To Optimize The Cutting Process For Polyethylene Pipes Using Knowledge Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ionela Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge management is a powerful instrument. Areas where knowledge - based modelling can be applied are different from business, industry, government to education area. Companies engage in efforts to restructure the database held based on knowledge management principles as they recognize in it a guarantee of models characterized by the fact that they consist only from relevant and sustainable knowledge that can bring value to the companies. The proposed paper presents a theoretical model of what it means optimizing polyethylene pipes, thus bringing to attention two important engineering fields, the one of the metal cutting process and gas industry, who meet in order to optimize the butt fusion welding process - the polyethylene cutting part - of the polyethylene pipes. All approach is shaped on the principles of knowledge management. The study was made in collaboration with companies operating in the field.

  11. Towards Optimal Multi-Dimensional Query Processing with BitmapIndices

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2005-09-30

    Bitmap indices have been widely used in scientific applications and commercial systems for processing complex, multi-dimensional queries where traditional tree-based indices would not work efficiently. This paper studies strategies for minimizing the access costs for processing multi-dimensional queries using bitmap indices with binning. Innovative features of our algorithm include (a) optimally placing the bin boundaries and (b) dynamically reordering the evaluation of the query terms. In addition, we derive several analytical results concerning optimal bin allocation for a probabilistic query model. Our experimental evaluation with real life data shows an average I/O cost improvement of at least a factor of 10 for multi-dimensional queries on datasets from two different applications. Our experiments also indicate that the speedup increases with the number of query dimensions.

  12. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  13. Reduced order model based on principal component analysis for process simulation and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Y.; Malacina, A.; Biegler, L.; Munteanu, S.; Madsen, J.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that distributed parameter computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models provide more accurate results than conventional, lumped-parameter unit operation models used in process simulation. Consequently, the use of CFD models in process/equipment co-simulation offers the potential to optimize overall plant performance with respect to complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena. Because solving CFD models is time-consuming compared to the overall process simulation, we consider the development of fast reduced order models (ROMs) based on CFD results to closely approximate the high-fidelity equipment models in the co-simulation. By considering process equipment items with complicated geometries and detailed thermodynamic property models, this study proposes a strategy to develop ROMs based on principal component analysis (PCA). Taking advantage of commercial process simulation and CFD software (for example, Aspen Plus and FLUENT), we are able to develop systematic CFD-based ROMs for equipment models in an efficient manner. In particular, we show that the validity of the ROM is more robust within well-sampled input domain and the CPU time is significantly reduced. Typically, it takes at most several CPU seconds to evaluate the ROM compared to several CPU hours or more to solve the CFD model. Two case studies, involving two power plant equipment examples, are described and demonstrate the benefits of using our proposed ROM methodology for process simulation and optimization.

  14. Modelling and Optimization of Technological Process for Magnetron Synthesis of Altin Nanocomposite Films on Cutting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhina, T. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights the results of the research on developing the mechanism to model the technological process for magnetron synthesis of nanocomposite films on cutting tools, which provides their specified physical and mechanical characteristics by controlling pulsed plasma parameters. The paper presents optimal conditions for AlTiN coating deposition on cutting tools according to the ion energy of sputtered atoms in order to provide their specified physical and mechanical characteristics.

  15. Finite Element Optimization for Nondestructive Evaluation on a Graphics Processing Unit for Ground Vehicle Hull Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-22

    Toledo , Toledo , OH 3 US Army TARDEC, Warren, MI UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A Approved for Public Release Finite Element Optimization for...2 University of Toledo , Toledo , OH 3 US Army TARDEC, Warren, MI This is a reprint of the paper presented under the same title in the...GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT FOR GROUND VEHICLE HULL INSPECTION Victor U. Karthik ECE Department Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824

  16. [Practical games as one of the forms for optimizing the academic process in physician postgraduate training].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, V A; Davydova, I V; Bilinskiĭ, E A; Beziuk, N N; Shlykova, N A; Zaĭtseva, V I; Kozlovskiĭ, V I; Aleksandrova, L A

    1998-05-01

    Described in the article is one of the forms of optimization of the instructional process in the postgraduation physician training--"business-like games". Highly skilled, competent position of the teacher who conducts a business-like game secures an active participation in learning of students, helps in opening the mind, broadening the outlook on the problem under consideration, gives much incentive to further independent work on the discussed issues.

  17. A method to generate fully multi-scale optimal interpolation by combining efficient single process analyses, illustrated by a DINEOF analysis spiced with a local optimal interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.-M.; Barth, A.; Tomazic, I.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.

    2014-10-01

    We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be expanded into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of two processes can be obtained by different mathematical formulations involving iterations and analysis focusing on a single process. From the different mathematical equivalent formulations, we then select the most efficient ones by analyzing the behavior of the different possibilities in a simple and well-controlled test case. The clear guidelines deduced from this experiment are then applied to a real situation in which we combine large-scale analysis of hourly Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) satellite images using data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions (DINEOF) with a local optimal interpolation using a Gaussian covariance. It is shown that the optimal combination indeed provides the best reconstruction and can therefore be exploited to extract the maximum amount of useful information from the original data.

  18. Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Routine in Optimizing Food and Bioengineering Processes.

    PubMed

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; McCulloch, Richard

    2016-11-09

    Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes. For each case study, the hybrid genetic algorithm found a better optimum candidate than reported by the sources. In the case of food processing, the hybrid genetic algorithm improved the anthocyanin yield by 6.44%. Optimization of bio-oil production using HGA resulted in a 5.06% higher yield. In the enzyme production process, HGA predicted a 0.39% higher xylanase yield. Hybridization of the genetic algorithm with a deterministic algorithm resulted in an improved optimum compared to statistical methods.

  19. Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Routine in Optimizing Food and Bioengineering Processes

    PubMed Central

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; McCulloch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes. For each case study, the hybrid genetic algorithm found a better optimum candidate than reported by the sources. In the case of food processing, the hybrid genetic algorithm improved the anthocyanin yield by 6.44%. Optimization of bio-oil production using HGA resulted in a 5.06% higher yield. In the enzyme production process, HGA predicted a 0.39% higher xylanase yield. Hybridization of the genetic algorithm with a deterministic algorithm resulted in an improved optimum compared to statistical methods. PMID:28231171

  20. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9 A m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15 min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process.

  1. Optimal synthesis of a pressure swing adsorption process for CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2008-01-01

    -bed 7-step cycle. However, they solved a very small two variable optimization problem, thus being a specialized case. Zhang et al. have given justifications for using a specific cyclic component step in the adsorption cycle in the context of CO2 capture by using a simplistic mathematical model for the PSA process. Reynolds et al. have suggested a variety of stripping PSA cycles for CO2 recovery at high temperature using a hydrotalcite-like adsorbent. In this study, a two-bed superstructure of the PSA process has been developed to optimally synthesize an appropriate cycle for CO2 capture. The superstructure considers all the possible operating steps in a PSA cycle with two beds. An optimal control problem with a PDE-based model for PSA system has been formulated in which different steps within a cycle are realized with the help of control variables changing with time. The optimization problem has been solved for three different cases of maximizing CO2 recovery (for a given purity), maximizing feed throughput and minimizing specific power (for a given level of CO2 purity and recovery). Current results indicate the superstructure-based approach as a promising technique for deriving optimal PSA cycles. Different cases with different number of control variables indicate convergence to a particular kind of PSA cycle with over 99% purity and recovery of CO2. The results obtained from optimization problem will also be compared with the optimal PSA cycle simulated more accurately in a dynamic simulation environment.

  2. Optimization and Simulation of Plastic Injection Process using Genetic Algorithm and Moldflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martowibowo, Sigit Yoewono; Kaswadi, Agung

    2017-03-01

    The use of plastic-based products is continuously increasing. The increasing demands for thinner products, lower production costs, yet higher product quality has triggered an increase in the number of research projects on plastic molding processes. An important branch of such research is focused on mold cooling system. Conventional cooling systems are most widely used because they are easy to make by using conventional machining processes. However, the non-uniform cooling processes are considered as one of their weaknesses. Apart from the conventional systems, there are also conformal cooling systems that are designed for faster and more uniform plastic mold cooling. In this study, the conformal cooling system is applied for the production of bowl-shaped product made of PP AZ564. Optimization is conducted to initiate machine setup parameters, namely, the melting temperature, injection pressure, holding pressure and holding time. The genetic algorithm method and Moldflow were used to optimize the injection process parameters at a minimum cycle time. It is found that, an optimum injection molding processes could be obtained by setting the parameters to the following values: T M = 180 °C; P inj = 20 MPa; P hold = 16 MPa and t hold = 8 s, with a cycle time of 14.11 s. Experiments using the conformal cooling system yielded an average cycle time of 14.19 s. The studied conformal cooling system yielded a volumetric shrinkage of 5.61% and the wall shear stress was found at 0.17 MPa. The difference between the cycle time obtained through simulations and experiments using the conformal cooling system was insignificant (below 1%). Thus, combining process parameters optimization and simulations by using genetic algorithm method with Moldflow can be considered as valid.

  3. Optimizing Energy Conversion in Organic Materials via Processing and Morphological Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amonoo, Jojo A.

    The performance and reliability of bulk heterojunction thin film polymer solar cells are inextricably linked to the three-dimensional nanoscale morphological structure of the photoactive materials, driven by the extent of phase separation between the polymer and fullerene components. To this end, well-established processing protocols to induce phase separation comprising high temperature and solvent vapor annealing have been employed to create optimal nanoscale morphologies. This thesis examines two fundamental approaches regarding the control of nanoscale morphology: (1) a novel environmentally benign processing method, and (2) the use of an all-conjugated gradient copolymer.

  4. Optimization of Training Sets For Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Vibrating Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An artificial neural network is disclosed that processes holography generated characteristic pattern of vibrating structures along with finite-element models. The present invention provides for a folding operation for conditioning training sets for optimally training forward-neural networks to process characteristic fringe pattern. The folding pattern increases the sensitivity of the feed-forward network for detecting changes in the characteristic pattern The folding routine manipulates input pixels so as to be scaled according to the location in an intensity range rather than the position in the characteristic pattern.

  5. Use of NMR in fish processing optimization: a review of recent progress.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Ulf; Standal, Inger B; Aursand, Ida G; Veliyulin, Emil; Aursand, Marit

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this review is to give an overview of general trends in the application of the NMR related to fish processing and quality and to provide some viewpoints on the current situation. Three novel examples of the application of the methodologies magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and low-field NMR are also presented. The capability of these techniques to be utilized as a tool to optimize fish processing, and thereby improving product quality, as well as to confirm labelling information, are demonstrated.

  6. [Orthogonal experiment design in the optimization of processing technology for Rhizoma Pinelliae by ginger and alum].

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Ye, D; Diao, H; Cai, B

    1996-11-01

    Based on the L9(3)1 orthogonal design with the amount of ginger, amount of alum and decocting time as working factors, and using the method of recording comprehensive scores, an experimental study has been made on the optimization of processing technology for Rhizoma Pinelliae by ginger and alum as stipulated in the Pharmacopoeia. The result shows that the best process is to use 15 kg of ginger juice and 8 kg of alum per 100 kg of Pinellia ternata and decoct them together for 2-3 hours till the juice is fully absorbed by Rhizoma Pinelliae.

  7. Protection of high temperature superconducting thin-films in a semiconductor processing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yizi; Fiske, R.; Sanders, S.C.; Ekin, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    Annealing studies have been carried out for high temperature superconductor YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} in a reducing ambient, in order to identify insulator layer(s) that will effectively protect the superconducting film in the hostile environment. While a layer of magnesium oxide (MgO) sputter deposited directly on YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} film provides some degree of protection, the authors found that a composite structure of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/MgO, where the SrTiO{sub 3} was grown by laser ablation immediately following YBCO deposition (in-situ process), was much more effective. They also address the need for a buffer layer between YBCO and aluminum (Al) during annealing. Al is most commenly used for semiconductor metalization, but is known to react readily with YBCO at elevated temperatures. The authors found that the most effective buffer layers are platinum (Pt) and gold/platinum (Au/Pt).

  8. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L(-1)) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH(-1) and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst.

  9. Eco-techno-economic synthesis of process routes for the production of zinc using combinatorial optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhölter, S.; Krüger, J.; Reuter, M. A.

    1996-12-01

    The demands placed on the environmental and social acceptability of metallurgical processing technology are rising steadily. Of particular importance are the production techniques, products, and disposal of residues. These aspects are affected by the varying compositions of the primary and secondary raw materials processed in the plants and the rapidly changing market situations in the metallurgical industry. Metallurgical engineers have to select “optimal” processes from a vast number of existing technologies for the primary production of zinc and for the processing of zinc containing residues. To enable the engineer to compare these techniques and to choose the right combination of unit operations, a process design methodology is presented here, which has been adapted from methodologies developed in chemical engineering and minerals processing. In a previous article by the authors, a structural parameter approach was introduced, that implements a synthesis model, which includes all unit operations currently implemented in zinc metallurgy. At the basis of this model is a data base containing the details of the unit operations included in the model. In this article, this methodology is expanded to incorporate an unlimited quantity of different components by introducing the simulated annealing optimization technique to generate optimal flow sheets for the production of zinc under varying constraints which include operation costs, metal prices, environmental costs, and split factors for Zn, Pb, Ag, and Fe. Case studies demonstrate the functionality of this metallurgical tool for the hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc including numerous unit operations for the processing of by-products and residues. It will also be demonstrated how this model can be extended to a “waste management” tool that generates processing routes not only for the residues from the zinc industry but also for zinc containing residues from other processes, e.g., EAF dusts.

  10. Optimization and scale-up of a fluid bed tangential spray rotogranulation process.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, J; Dumont, H; Bertrand, F; Legros, R

    2007-04-20

    The production of pellets in the pharmaceutical industry generally involves multi-step processing: (1) mixing, (2) wet granulation, (3) spheronization and (4) drying. While extrusion-spheronization processes have been popular because of their simplicity, fluid-bed rotogranulation (FBRG) is now being considered as an alternative, since it offers the advantages of combining the different steps into one processing unit, thus reducing processing time and material handling. This work aimed at the development of a FBRG process for the production of pellets in a 4.5-l Glatt GCPG1 tangential spray rotoprocessor and its optimization using factorial design. The factors considered were: (1) rotor disc velocity, (2) gap air pressure, (3) air flow rate, (4) binder spray rate and (5) atomization pressure. The pellets were characterized for their physical properties by measuring size distribution, roundness and flow properties. The results indicated that: pellet mean particle size is negatively affected by air flow rate and rotor plate speed, while binder spray rate has a positive effect on size; pellet flow properties are enhanced by operating with increased air flow rate and worsened with increased binder spray rate. Multiple regression analysis enabled the identification of an optimal operating window for production of acceptable pellets. Scale-up of these operating conditions was tested in a 30-l Glatt GPCG15 FBRG.

  11. Application of Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy to optimization of green tea steaming process conditions.

    PubMed

    Ono, Daiki; Bamba, Takeshi; Oku, Yuichi; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we constructed prediction models by metabolic fingerprinting of fresh green tea leaves using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to objectively optimize of the steaming process conditions in green tea manufacture. The steaming process is the most important step for manufacturing high quality green tea products. However, the parameter setting of the steamer is currently determined subjectively by the manufacturer. Therefore, a simple and robust system that can be used to objectively set the steaming process parameters is necessary. We focused on FT-NIR spectroscopy because of its simple operation, quick measurement, and low running costs. After removal of noise in the spectral data by principal component analysis (PCA), PLS regression analysis was performed using spectral information as independent variables, and the steaming parameters set by experienced manufacturers as dependent variables. The prediction models were successfully constructed with satisfactory accuracy. Moreover, the results of the demonstrated experiment suggested that the green tea steaming process parameters could be predicted on a larger manufacturing scale. This technique will contribute to improvement of the quality and productivity of green tea because it can objectively optimize the complicated green tea steaming process and will be suitable for practical use in green tea manufacture.

  12. Optimizing NiCr and FeCr HVOF Coating Structures for High Temperature Corrosion Protection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.

    2015-02-01

    In order to achieve a desired dense structure for coatings employed in high temperature corrosion conditions, thermal spray process optimization with diagnostic tools can be applied. In this study, NiCr (51Ni-46Cr-2Si-1Fe) and FeCr (Fe-19Cr-9W-7Nb-4Mo-5B-2C-2Si-1Mn) powders were sprayed with HVOFGF (gas-fueled) and HVOFLF (liquid-fueled) systems, and the spray processes were monitored with diagnostic tools, including SprayWatch for measuring the temperature and velocity of the spray stream, and in situ coating property (ICP measurement) for measuring the stress state. Various spray parameters were applied to attain the best coating characteristics for high temperature applications. Selected coatings were exposed to high temperature corrosion conditions both in laboratory and actual power plant. The coatings were analyzed by microscopic means and mechanical testing. The application of process-structure-properties-performance methodology with the process monitoring, analysis of the coating characteristics, and results of corrosion performance are presented in this paper.

  13. Co-Optimization of CO2-EOR and Storage Processes in Mature Oil Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Ampomah, William; Balch, Robert S.; Grigg, Reid B.; ...

    2016-08-02

    This article presents an optimization methodology for CO2 enhanced oil recovery in partially depleted reservoirs. A field-scale compositional reservoir flow model was developed for assessing the performance history of an active CO2 flood and for optimizing both oil production and CO2 storage in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Ochiltree County, Texas. A geological framework model constructed from geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquired from the FWU was the basis for all reservoir simulations and the optimization method. An equation of state was calibrated with laboratory fluid analyses and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP). Initial history calibrationsmore » of primary, secondary and tertiary recovery were conducted as the basis for the study. After a good match was achieved, an optimization approach consisting of a proxy or surrogate model was constructed with a polynomial response surface method (PRSM). The PRSM utilized an objective function that maximized both oil recovery and CO2 storage. Experimental design was used to link uncertain parameters to the objective function. Control variables considered in this study included: water alternating gas cycle and ratio, production rates and bottom-hole pressure of injectors and producers. Other key parameters considered in the modeling process were CO2 purchase, gas recycle and addition of infill wells and/or patterns. The PRSM proxy model was ‘trained’ or calibrated with a series of training simulations. This involved an iterative process until the surrogate model reached a specific validation criterion. A sensitivity analysis was first conducted to ascertain which of these control variables to retain in the surrogate model. A genetic algorithm with a mixed-integer capability optimization approach was employed to determine the optimum developmental strategy to maximize both oil recovery and CO2 storage. The proxy model reduced the computational cost

  14. Statistical media and process optimization for biotransformation of rice bran to vanillin using Pediococcus acidilactici.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-11-01

    An isolate of P. acidilactici capable of producing vanillin from rice bran was isolated from a milk product. Response Surface Methodology was employed for statistical media and process optimization for production of biovanillin. Statistical medium optimization was done in two steps involving Placket Burman Design and Central Composite Response Designs. The RSM optimized vanillin production medium consisted of 15% (w/v) rice bran, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.1% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.005% (w/v) ferulic acid, 0.005% (w/v) magnesium sulphate, and 0.1% (v/v) tween-80, pH 5.6, at a temperature of 37 degrees C under shaking conditions at 180 rpm. 1.269 g/L vanillin was obtained within 24 h of incubation in optimized culture medium. This is the first report indicating such a high vanillin yield obtained during biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a Pediococcal isolate.

  15. Key considerations for optimization of formulation and melt-extrusion process parameters for developing thermosensitive compound.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Vippagunta, Radha; Li, Shoufeng; Vippagunta, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    The melt-extrusion process is currently applied in the pharmaceutical field in the manufacturing of a variety of dosage forms and formulations, including solid dispersions. Though this technology is considered efficient and continuous, there are potential challenges of which, additional thermal degradation of drug substance because heat stress and shear forces are of a primary concern. This paper attempts to understand the impact of thermal and/or mechanical components of the melt-extrusion process on the stability of a thermosensitive drug substance during scale-up. The overall degradation profile of the drug substance was correlated with the various physical changes made to the extruder as well as the process temperature. The results suggested that the degradation profile of a thermosensitive drug substance could be controlled by proper design of screw assemblies and by optimization of screw rotations per minute, process temperature, and feed rate during development and scale-up.

  16. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  17. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  18. Optimizing Cloud Based Image Storage, Dissemination and Processing Through Use of Mrf and Lerc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Plesea, Lucian; Maurer, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The volume and numbers of geospatial images being collected continue to increase exponentially with the ever increasing number of airborne and satellite imaging platforms, and the increasing rate of data collection. As a result, the cost of fast storage required to provide access to the imagery is a major cost factor in enterprise image management solutions to handle, process and disseminate the imagery and information extracted from the imagery. Cloud based object storage offers to provide significantly lower cost and elastic storage for this imagery, but also adds some disadvantages in terms of greater latency for data access and lack of traditional file access. Although traditional file formats geoTIF, JPEG2000 and NITF can be downloaded from such object storage, their structure and available compression are not optimum and access performance is curtailed. This paper provides details on a solution by utilizing a new open image formats for storage and access to geospatial imagery optimized for cloud storage and processing. MRF (Meta Raster Format) is optimized for large collections of scenes such as those acquired from optical sensors. The format enables optimized data access from cloud storage, along with the use of new compression options which cannot easily be added to existing formats. The paper also provides an overview of LERC a new image compression that can be used with MRF that provides very good lossless and controlled lossy compression.

  19. Optimization of valve opening process for the suppression of impulse exhaust noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingxiang; Zhao, Shengdun

    2017-02-01

    Impulse exhaust noise generated by the sudden impact of discharging flow of pneumatic systems has significant temporal characteristics including high sound pressure and rapid sound transient. The impulse noise exposures are more hazardous to hearing than the energy equivalent uniform noise exposures. This paper presents a novel approach to suppress the peak sound pressure as a major indicator of impulsiveness of the impulse exhaust noise by an optimization of the opening process of valve. Relationships between exhaust flow and impulse noise are described by thermodynamics and noise generating mechanism. Then an optimized approach by controlling the valve opening process is derived under a constraint of pre-setting exhaust time. A modified servo-direct-driven valve was designed and assembled in a typical pneumatic system for the verification experiments comparing with an original solenoid valve. Experimental results with groups of initial cylinder pressures and pre-setting exhaust times are shown to verify the effects of the proposed optimization. Some indicators of energy-equivalent and impulsiveness are introduced to discuss the effects of the noise suppressions. Relationship between noise reduction and exhaust time delay is also discussed.

  20. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  1. Optimization of tetanus toxoid ammonium sulfate precipitation process using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Prebeg, Pero; Kurtović, Tihana; Ranić, Jelena; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Halassy, Beata

    2016-10-02

    Tetanus toxoid (TTd) is a highly immunogenic, detoxified form of tetanus toxin, a causative agent of tetanus disease, produced by Clostridium tetani. Since tetanus disease cannot be eradicated but is easily prevented by vaccination, the need for the tetanus vaccine is permanent. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of optimizing TTd purification, i.e., ammonium sulfate precipitation process. The influence of the percentage of ammonium sulfate, starting amount of TTd, buffer type, pH, temperature, and starting purity of TTd on the purification process were investigated using optimal design for response surface models. Responses measured for evaluation of the ammonium sulfate precipitation process were TTd amount (Lf/mL) and total protein content. These two parameters were used to calculate purity (Lf/mgPN) and the yield of the process. Results indicate that citrate buffer, lower temperature, and lower starting amount of TTd result in higher purities of precipitates. Gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates revealed that there are no inter-protein cross-links and that all contaminating proteins have pIs similar to TTd, so this is most probably the reason for the limited success of purification by precipitation.

  2. Optimization of an electron cyclotron resonance plasma etch process for [ital n][sup +] polysilicon: HBr process chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, G.D.; Blain, M.G. ); Westerfield, P.L.; Trutna, L.S.; Maxwell, K.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Designed experiments were employed to characterize a process for etching phosphorus doped polycrystalline silicon with HBr in a close-coupled electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor configured for 200 mm wafers. A fractional factorial screening experiment was employed to determine the principal input factors and the main etch effects. Linear models of the process responses indicate rf power, O[sub 2] flow rate, and the position of the resonance zone (with respect to the wafer) as the three strongest factors influencing process performance. Response surfaces generated using data from a follow-on response surface methodology experiment predicted an optimum operating region characterized by relatively low rf power, a small O[sub 2] flow, and a resonance zone position close to the wafer. One operating point in this region demonstrated a polysilicon etch rate of 270 nm/min, an etch rate nonuniformity of 2.2% (1 std. dev.), an etch selectivity to oxide greater than 100:1, and anisotropic profiles. Particle test results for the optimized process indicated that careful selection of the O[sub 2] fraction is required to avoid residue deposition and particle formation.

  3. Bi-level optimizing control of a simulated moving bed process with nonlinear adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Jin-Il; Park, Hyukmin; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Lee, Kwang Soon

    2011-09-23

    A bi-level optimizing control scheme originally proposed for a simulated moving bed (SMB) with linear isotherms has been extended to an SMB with nonlinear isotherms. Cyclic steady state optimization is performed in the upper level to determine the optimum switching period and time-varying feed/desorbent flow rates, and repetitive model predictive control is run in the lower level for purity regulation, taking the decision variables from the upper level as feed-forward information. Experimental as well as numerical study for an SMB process separating a high-concentration mixture of aqueous L-ribose and L-arabinose solutions showed that the proposed scheme performs satisfactorily against various disturbances. In contrast, an alternative scheme based on an SMB model with linear isotherms showed a limitation in the control performance; this scheme was apt to fail in purity regulation.

  4. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  5. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  6. Computing optimal policies for partially observable decision processes using compact representations

    SciTech Connect

    Boutilier, C.; Poole, D.

    1996-12-31

    Partially-observable Markov decision processes provide a general model for decision theoretic planning problems, allowing trade-offs between various courses of actions to be determined under conditions of uncertainty, and incorporating partial observations made by an agent. Dynamic programming algorithms based on the belief state of an agent can be used to construct optimal policies without explicit consideration of past history, but at high computational cost. In this paper, we discuss how structured representations of system dynamics can be incorporated in classic POMDP solution algorithms. We use Bayesian networks with structured conditional probability matrices to represent POMDPs, and use this model to structure the belief space for POMDP algorithms, allowing irrelevant distinctions to be ignored. Apart from speeding up optimal policy construction, we suggest that such representations can be exploited in the development of useful approximation methods.

  7. Optimization of process parameters in CNC turning of aluminium alloy using hybrid RSM cum TLBO approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudrapati, R.; Sahoo, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of the present work is to analyse the significance of turning parameters on surface roughness in computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning operation while machining of aluminium alloy material. Spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been considered as machining parameters. Experimental runs have been conducted as per Box-Behnken design method. After experimentation, surface roughness is measured by using stylus profile meter. Factor effects have been studied through analysis of variance. Mathematical modelling has been done by response surface methodology, to made relationships between the input parameters and output response. Finally, process optimization has been made by teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. Predicted turning condition has been validated through confirmatory experiment.

  8. Biocatalytic conversion of poultry processing leftovers: Optimization of hydrolytic conditions and peptide hydrolysate characterization.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, I V; Sforza, S; Lambertini, F; Ismailova, D Yu; Khotchenkov, V P; Volik, V G; Dossena, A; Popov, V O; Koroleva, O V

    2016-04-15

    Peptide hydrolysate (PH) was produced by deep controllable bioconversion of poultry processing leftovers (broiler necks), by means of a multienzyme composition, containing four commercially available enzyme preparations (Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme, Protamex). The design of multienzyme composition (MEC) was applied to yield a hydrolysate with adjusted properties, including minimized antigenicity and bitterness. The protein recovery was optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design. The individual and interactive effects of hydrolysis conditions (time, hydromodule and MEC dosage) were studied. The experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA method and a well-predictive, second order polynomial model was developed using multiple regression analysis. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were found to be: hydrolysis time 3 h, hydromodule 2.25 l/kg and dosage of MEC 0.25%. The corresponding predicted value for protein recovery was 75.34%, 2 times higher compared to traditional long-term heating hydrolysis. The PH obtained is a low allergenic product with high antioxidant capacity.

  9. Optimization of an individual re-identification modeling process using biometric features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzner, Shari; Jarman, Kristin H.

    2014-09-24

    We present results from the optimization of a re-identification process using two sets of biometric data obtained from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource Project (CAESAR) database. The datasets contain real measurements of features for 2378 individuals in a standing (43 features) and seated (16 features) position. A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to search a large combinatorial space where different features are available between the probe (seated) and gallery (standing) datasets. Results show that optimized model predictions obtained using less than half of the 43 gallery features and data from roughly 16% of the individuals available produce better re-identification rates than two other approaches that use all the information available.

  10. IOTA: integration optimization, triage and analysis tool for the processing of XFEL diffraction images1

    PubMed Central

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Murray, Thomas D.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Berger, James M.; Weis, William I.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) uses an X-ray free-electron laser to extract diffraction data from crystals not amenable to conventional X-ray light sources owing to their small size or radiation sensitivity. However, a limitation of SFX is the high variability of the diffraction images that are obtained. As a result, it is often difficult to determine optimal indexing and integration parameters for the individual diffraction images. Presented here is a software package, called IOTA, which uses a grid-search technique to determine optimal spot-finding parameters that can in turn affect the success of indexing and the quality of integration on an image-by-image basis. Integration results can be filtered using a priori information about the Bravais lattice and unit-cell dimensions and analyzed for unit-cell isomorphism, facilitating an improvement in subsequent data-processing steps. PMID:27275148

  11. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  12. Optimization of residual stresses in MMC's through the variation of interfacial layer architectures and processing parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Salzar, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work was the development of efficient, user-friendly computer codes for optimizing fabrication-induced residual stresses in metal matrix composites through the use of homogeneous and heterogeneous interfacial layer architectures and processing parameter variation. To satisfy this objective, three major computer codes have been developed and delivered to the NASA-Lewis Research Center, namely MCCM, OPTCOMP, and OPTCOMP2. MCCM is a general research-oriented code for investigating the effects of microstructural details, such as layered morphology of SCS-6 SiC fibers and multiple homogeneous interfacial layers, on the inelastic response of unidirectional metal matrix composites under axisymmetric thermomechanical loading. OPTCOMP and OPTCOMP2 combine the major analysis module resident in MCCM with a commercially-available optimization algorithm and are driven by user-friendly interfaces which facilitate input data construction and program execution. OPTCOMP enables the user to identify those dimensions, geometric arrangements and thermoelastoplastic properties of homogeneous interfacial layers that minimize thermal residual stresses for the specified set of constraints. OPTCOMP2 provides additional flexibility in the residual stress optimization through variation of the processing parameters (time, temperature, external pressure and axial load) as well as the microstructure of the interfacial region which is treated as a heterogeneous two-phase composite. Overviews of the capabilities of these codes are provided together with a summary of results that addresses the effects of various microstructural details of the fiber, interfacial layers and matrix region on the optimization of fabrication-induced residual stresses in metal matrix composites.

  13. Development of processes for environmental protection based on self-propagating reactions.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Roberto; Cincotti, Alberto; Concas, Alessandro; Cao, Giacomo

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of exploiting self-propagating reactions for environmental protection is discussed in this paper. In particular, results obtained at the laboratory scale and related to the fixation and consolidation of high level radioactive wastes, the recycling of silicon sludge and aluminum dross produced by semiconductor industries and aluminum foundries, the treating and recycling of a highly toxic solid waste from electrolytic zinc plants, and the degradation of chlorinated aromatics, are examined with particular emphasis on the latter case. Specifically, the self-propagating destruction of hexachlorobenzene and 2-(2-4-dichlorophenoxy)-propanoic acid with calcium hydride as reductive substrate is demonstrated. In fact, the heat liberated by the reactions involved is large enough to guarantee the self-sustaining character of the process within a wide range of reactants compositions. Moreover, no residual chlorinated organic compounds were found in the final solid product. Some reactor engineering aspects, as well as other significant future scientific and technological issues, are also addressed in view of large-scale applicability of processes based on self-propagating reactions. To date, the batch reactor technology seems to be more easily applicable, although the use of continuous reactors is not excluded in the next future.

  14. Malachite green decolorization by the filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum--Mechanistic study and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Anna; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sip, Anna; Długoński, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    The filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum isolated from a dye-contaminated area was investigated in terms of its use for the treatment of Malachite green (MG). The mechanisms involved in this process were established. Peroxidases and cytochrome P-450 do not mediate MG elimination. The laccase of M. roridum IM 6482 was found to be responsible for the decolorization of 8-11% of MG. Thermostable low-molecular-weight factors (LMWF) resistant to sodium azide were found to be largely involved in dye decomposition. In addition, MG decolorization by M. roridum IM 6482 occurred in a non-toxic manner. Data from antimicrobial tests showed that MG toxicity decreased after decolorization. To optimize the MG decolorization process, the effects of operational parameters (such as the medium pH and composition, process temperature and culture agitation) were examined. The results demonstrate that M. roridum IM 6482 may be used effectively as an alternative to traditional decolorization agents.

  15. Auto-SEIA: simultaneous optimization of image processing and machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negro Maggio, Valentina; Iocchi, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Object classification from images is an important task for machine vision and it is a crucial ingredient for many computer vision applications, ranging from security and surveillance to marketing. Image based object classification techniques properly integrate image processing and machine learning (i.e., classification) procedures. In this paper we present a system for automatic simultaneous optimization of algorithms and parameters for object classification from images. More specifically, the proposed system is able to process a dataset of labelled images and to return a best configuration of image processing and classification algorithms and of their parameters with respect to the accuracy of classification. Experiments with real public datasets are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed system.

  16. PEB bake optimization for process window improvement of mixed iso-dense pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liau, C. Y.; Lee, C. H.; Kang, J. T.; Yoon, S. W.; Loo, Christopher; Seow, Bertrand; Sheu, W. B.

    2005-08-01

    We have shown that process effects induced by extending the post-exposure bake temperature in the process flow of chemically amplified photoresists can lead to significant improvements in depth-of-focus (DOF) and exposure latitude (EL) and small geometry printing capability. Due to improved acid dose contrasts and a balanced optimization of acid diffusion in the presence of quencher, PEB temperature increase has enabled the printing of iso and semi-dense space of 0.2 µm and below with a large DOF, using binary masks and 248 nm lithography without expensing the iso-dense bias. The results and findings of a full patterning process in a device flow, with different PEB temperatures as a process enhancement, are presented. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate how, using KrF lithography with binary masks and no optical proximity correction (OPC) nor other reticle enhancement technique (RET), the process latitude can be improved. Lithographic process latitudes, intra-field critical dimension (CD) uniformity and resist profiles of different PEB processes are evaluated. Then, the after-etch profiles are also investigated to ensure the feasibility of this technique.

  17. Experiments for practical education in process parameter optimization for selective laser sintering to increase workpiece quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutterer, Bernd; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Drauschke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is considered as one of the most important additive manufacturing processes due to component stability and its broad range of usable materials. However the influence of the different process parameters on mechanical workpiece properties is still poorly studied, leading to the fact that further optimization is necessary to increase workpiece quality. In order to investigate the impact of various process parameters, laboratory experiments are implemented to improve the understanding of the SLS limitations and advantages on an educational level. Experiments are based on two different workstations, used to teach students the fundamentals of SLS. First of all a 50 W CO2 laser workstation is used to investigate the interaction of the laser beam with the used material in accordance with varied process parameters to analyze a single-layered test piece. Second of all the FORMIGA P110 laser sintering system from EOS is used to print different 3D test pieces in dependence on various process parameters. Finally quality attributes are tested including warpage, dimension accuracy or tensile strength. For dimension measurements and evaluation of the surface structure a telecentric lens in combination with a camera is used. A tensile test machine allows testing of the tensile strength and the interpreting of stress-strain curves. The developed laboratory experiments are suitable to teach students the influence of processing parameters. In this context they will be able to optimize the input parameters depending on the component which has to be manufactured and to increase the overall quality of the final workpiece.

  18. Processing optimization of probiotic yogurt containing glucose oxidase using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A G; Faria, J A F; Walter, E H M; Andrade, R R; Cavalcanti, R N; Oliveira, C A F; Granato, D

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to oxygen may induce a lack of functionality of probiotic dairy foods because the anaerobic metabolism of probiotic bacteria compromises during storage the maintenance of their viability to provide benefits to consumer health. Glucose oxidase can constitute a potential alternative to increase the survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt because it consumes the oxygen permeating to the inside of the pot during storage, thus making it possible to avoid the use of chemical additives. This research aimed to optimize the processing of probiotic yogurt supplemented with glucose oxidase using response surface methodology and to determine the levels of glucose and glucose oxidase that minimize the concentration of dissolved oxygen and maximize the Bifidobacterium longum count by the desirability function. Response surface methodology mathematical models adequately described the process, with adjusted determination coefficients of 83% for the oxygen and 94% for the B. longum. Linear and quadratic effects of the glucose oxidase were reported for the oxygen model, whereas for the B. longum count model an influence of the glucose oxidase at the linear level was observed followed by the quadratic influence of glucose and quadratic effect of glucose oxidase. The desirability function indicated that 62.32 ppm of glucose oxidase and 4.35 ppm of glucose was the best combination of these components for optimization of probiotic yogurt processing. An additional validation experiment was performed and results showed acceptable error between the predicted and experimental results.

  19. DEVELOPING AN OPTIMIZED PROCESS STRATEGY FOR ACID CLEANING OF THE SAVANNAH RIVERSITE HLW TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2006-12-04

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), there remains approximately 35 million gallons of High Level Waste (HLW) that was mostly created from Purex and SRS H-Area Modified (HM) nuclear fuel cycles. The waste is contained in approximately forty-nine tanks fabricated from commercially available carbon steel. In order to minimize general corrosion, the waste is maintained as very-alkaline solution. The very-alkaline chemistry has caused hydrated metal oxides to precipitate and form a sludge heel. Over the years, the sludge waste has aged, with some forming a hardened crust. To aid in the removal of the sludge heels from select tanks for closure the use of oxalic acid to dissolve the sludge is being investigated. Developing an optimized process strategy based on laboratory analyses would be prohibitively costly. This research, therefore, demonstrates that a chemical equilibrium based software program can be used to develop an optimized process strategy for oxalic acid cleaning of the HLW tanks based on estimating resultant chemistries, minimizing resultant oxalates sent to the evaporator, and minimizing resultant solids sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  20. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  1. Process optimization of a novel production method for nanosuspensions using design of experiments (DoE).

    PubMed

    Salazar, Jaime; Heinzerling, Oliver; Müller, Rainer H; Möschwitzer, Jan P

    2011-11-28

    Particle size reduction is a suitable method to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The reduction effectiveness depends on compound properties like crystallinity, hardness and morphology. Sometimes, it is difficult to obtain small particles. To solve this problem a combinative method was developed: a combination of freeze drying with high pressure homogenization (so-called H 96 process). The freeze drying modifies the drug structure to obtain a brittle, fragile starting material for the subsequent homogenization step. Screening experiments with glibenclamide have shown a relation between the lyophilization conditions and the final particle size. Systematic investigations using design of experiment (DoE) were conducted to identify optimal process parameters. The influence of the independent variables drug concentration and organic solvent composition during freeze drying were tested by conducting a two factorial design of experiment. The model drug was dissolved in mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tert-butanol (TBA) in different concentrations, freeze dried and subsequently homogenized at high pressure. Using optimized process conditions the particle size after 20 cycles was very small: 164 nm (z-average) and 0.114 μm (d50%). On the contrary, with unmodified drug the results were 772 nm (z-average) and 2.686 μm (d50%). It was shown, that the structure modification of the drug by means of freeze drying can significantly improve the particle size reduction effectiveness of high pressure homogenization. The study confirmed also the usefulness of DoE for nanocrystal production.

  2. Advanced thermal hydrolysis: optimization of a novel thermochemical process to aid sewage sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira, Jose; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Portela, Juan R; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; Nebot, Enrique

    2012-06-05

    The aim of this work was to study in depth the behavior and optimization of a novel process, called advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH), to determine its utility as a pretreatment (sludge solubilization) or postreatment (organic matter removal) for anaerobic digestion (AD) in the sludge line of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). ATH is based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) addition and takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. On the basis of the response surface methodology (RSM) and a modified Doehlert design, an empirical second-order polynomial model was developed for the total yield of: (a) disintegration degree [DD (%)] (solubilization), (b) filtration constant [F(c) (cm(2)/min)] (dewaterability), and (c) organic matter removal (%). The variables considered were operation time (t), temperature reached after initial heating (T), and oxidant coefficient (n = oxygen(supplied)/oxygen(stoichiometric)). As the model predicts, in the case of the ATH process with high levels of oxidant, it is possible to achieve an organic matter removal of up to 92%, but the conditions required are prohibitive on an industrial scale. ATH operated at optimal conditions (oxygen amount 30% of stoichiometric, 115 °C and 24 min) gave promising results as a pretreatment, with similar solubilization and markedly better dewaterability levels in comparison to those obtained with TH at 170 °C. The empirical validation of the model was satisfactory.

  3. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  4. Towards Optimal Filtering on ARM for ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Mitchell A.

    2015-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN generates enormous amounts of raw data which presents a serious computing challenge. After planned upgrades in 2022, the data output from the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will increase by 200 times to over 40 Tb/s. Advanced and characteristically expensive Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are currently used to process this quantity of data. It is proposed that a cost- effective, high data throughput Processing Unit (PU) can be developed by using several ARM System on Chips in a cluster configuration to allow aggregated processing performance and data throughput while maintaining minimal software design difficulty for the end-user. ARM is a cost effective and energy efficient alternative CPU architecture to the long established x86 architecture. This PU could be used for a variety of high-level algorithms on the high data throughput raw data. An Optimal Filtering algorithm has been implemented in C++ and several ARM platforms have been tested. Optimal Filtering is currently used in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end for basic energy reconstruction and is currently implemented on DSPs.

  5. Optimal processing for gel electrophoresis images: Applying Monte Carlo Tree Search in GelApp.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Ghezal, Ali; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Boudier, Thomas; Gan, Samuel Ken-En; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2016-08-01

    In biomedical research, gel band size estimation in electrophoresis analysis is a routine process. To facilitate and automate this process, numerous software have been released, notably the GelApp mobile app. However, the band detection accuracy is limited due to a band detection algorithm that cannot adapt to the variations in input images. To address this, we used the Monte Carlo Tree Search with Upper Confidence Bound (MCTS-UCB) method to efficiently search for optimal image processing pipelines for the band detection task, thereby improving the segmentation algorithm. Incorporating this into GelApp, we report a significant enhancement of gel band detection accuracy by 55.9 ± 2.0% for protein polyacrylamide gels, and 35.9 ± 2.5% for DNA SYBR green agarose gels. This implementation is a proof-of-concept in demonstrating MCTS-UCB as a strategy to optimize general image segmentation. The improved version of GelApp-GelApp 2.0-is freely available on both Google Play Store (for Android platform), and Apple App Store (for iOS platform).

  6. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  7. Optimization of prehydrolysis time and substrate feeding to improve ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of furfural process residue.

    PubMed

    He, Jianlong; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ning; Xiong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol is a very important industrial chemical. In order to improve ethanol productivity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation from furfural process residue, we developed a process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural process residue, optimizing prehydrolysis cellulase loading concentration, prehydrolysis time, and substrate feeding strategy. The ethanol concentration obtained from the optimized process was 19.3 g/L, corresponding 76.5% ethanol yield, achieved by running SSF for 48 h from 10% furfural process residue with prehydrolysis at 50°C for 4 h and cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g furfural process residue. For higher ethanol concentrations, fed-batch fermentation was performed. The optimized fed-batch process increased the ethanol concentration to 37.6 g/L, 74.5% yield, obtained from 10% furfural process residue with two additions of 5% substrate at 12 and 24 h.

  8. Simulation based flow distribution network optimization for vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kuang-Ting; Devillard, Mathieu; Advani, Suresh G.

    2004-05-01

    In the vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process, using a flow distribution network such as flow channels and high permeability fabrics can accelerate the resin infiltration of the fibre reinforcement during the manufacture of composite parts. The flow distribution network significantly influences the fill time and fill pattern and is essential for the process design. The current practice has been to cover the top surface of the fibre preform with the distribution media with the hope that the resin will flood the top surface immediately and penetrate through the thickness. However, this approach has some drawbacks. One is when the resin finds its way to the vent before it has penetrated the preform entirely, which results in a defective part or resin wastage. Also, if the composite structure contains ribs or inserts, this approach invariably results in dry spots. Instead of this intuitive approach, we propose a science-based approach to design the layout of the distribution network. Our approach uses flow simulation of the resin into the network and the preform and a genetic algorithm to optimize the flow distribution network. An experimental case study of a co-cured rib structure is conducted to demonstrate the design procedure and validate the optimized flow distribution network design. Good agreement between the flow simulations and the experimental results was observed. It was found that the proposed design algorithm effectively optimized the flow distribution network of the part considered in our case study and hence should prove to be a useful tool to extend the VARTM process to manufacture of complex structures with effective use of the distribution network layup.

  9. Optimizing photo-Fenton like process for the removal of diesel fuel from the aqueous phase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, pollution of soil and groundwater caused by fuel leakage from old underground storage tanks, oil extraction process, refineries, fuel distribution terminals, improper disposal and also spills during transferring has been reported. Diesel fuel has created many problems for water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the feasibility of using photo-Fenton like method using nano zero-valent iron (nZVI/UV/H2O2) in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and determining the optimal conditions using Taguchi method. Results The influence of different parameters including the initial concentration of TPH (0.1-1 mg/L), H2O2 concentration (5-20 mmole/L), nZVI concentration (10-100 mg/L), pH (3-9), and reaction time (15-120 min) on TPH reduction rate in diesel fuel were investigated. The variance analysis suggests that the optimal conditions for TPH reduction rate from diesel fuel in the aqueous phase are as follows: the initial TPH concentration equals to 0.7 mg/L, nZVI concentration 20 mg/L, H2O2 concentration equals to 5 mmol/L, pH 3, and the reaction time of 60 min and degree of significance for the study parameters are 7.643, 9.33, 13.318, 15.185 and 6.588%, respectively. The predicted removal rate in the optimal conditions was 95.8% and confirmed by data obtained in this study which was between 95-100%. Conclusion In conclusion, photo-Fenton like process using nZVI process may enhance the rate of diesel degradation in polluted water and could be used as a pretreatment step for the biological removal of TPH from diesel fuel in the aqueous phase. PMID:24955242

  10. [The optimization of the process of instrumental learning with a low intensity of the conditioned stimulus].

    PubMed

    Saltykov, A B; Toloknov, A V; Khitrov, N K

    1993-07-01

    The influence of the intensity of conditional stimulation on the speed of instrumental teaching of rats at different probabilities of casual fulfillment of the reaction under development (VSPR) was investigated. The VSPR value significantly affects the number of positive and negative confirmations in the early period of teaching and, finally, the informational individuum-environment interaction. Therefore, with the existing choice of VSPR values the dependence of the speed of teaching upon different unfavourable factors lessens, which may be used for optimization of the process of instrumental teaching at a low intensity of the conditional signal.

  11. Inverse problems and optimal experiment design in unsteady heat transfer processes identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artyukhin, Eugene A.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental-computational methods for estimating characteristics of unsteady heat transfer processes are analyzed. The methods are based on the principles of distributed parameter system identification. The theoretical basis of such methods is the numerical solution of nonlinear ill-posed inverse heat transfer problems and optimal experiment design problems. Numerical techniques for solving problems are briefly reviewed. The results of the practical application of identification methods are demonstrated when estimating effective thermophysical characteristics of composite materials and thermal contact resistance in two-layer systems.

  12. Process for Managing and Optimizing Radiology Work Flow in the Electronic Heath Record Environment.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Peter B; Long, Graham

    2016-02-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) implementation has dramatically impacted all facets of radiology workflow. Many departments find themselves unprepared for the multiple issues that surface following EHR deployment and the ongoing need for workflow optimization. This paper reviews the structure and processes utilized by the team, developed at the University of Colorado Hospital to evaluate, prioritize, and implement requests for workflow repairs and improvements within the EHR. The evolution of this team as the academic hospital formed a health system with two community hospital sites is also described. This structure may serve as a useful template for others considering EHR deployment or struggling to manage radiology workflow within an existing EHR environment.

  13. Optimal cure cycle design for autoclave processing of thick composites laminates: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Jean W.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal analysis and the calculation of thermal sensitivity of a cure cycle in autoclave processing of thick composite laminates were studied. A finite element program for the thermal analysis and design derivatives calculation for temperature distribution and the degree of cure was developed and verified. It was found that the direct differentiation was the best approach for the thermal design sensitivity analysis. In addition, the approach of the direct differentiation provided time histories of design derivatives which are of great value to the cure cycle designers. The approach of direct differentiation is to be used for further study, i.e., the optimal cycle design.

  14. Intelligent process development of foam molding for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the space shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharwani, S. S.; Walls, J. T.; Jackson, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge based system to assist process engineers in evaluating the processability and moldability of poly-isocyanurate (PIR) formulations for the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) is discussed. The Reaction Injection Molding- Process Development Advisor (RIM-PDA) is a coupled system which takes advantage of both symbolic and numeric processing techniques. This system will aid the process engineer in identifying a startup set of mold schedules and in refining the mold schedules to remedy specific process problems diagnosed by the system.

  15. MO-B-BRB-01: Optimize Treatment Planning Process in Clinical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, W.

    2015-06-15

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality. In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include: Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS. Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment. Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, (c) protocol/template sharing, (d) semi

  16. MO-B-BRB-03: Systems Engineering Tools for Treatment Planning Process Optimization in Radiation Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, A.

    2015-06-15

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality. In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include: Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS. Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment. Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, (c) protocol/template sharing, (d) semi

  17. Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ω-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized.

  18. Optimization of processing parameters for the analysis and detection of embolic signals.

    PubMed

    Aydin, N; Markus, H S

    2000-09-01

    The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is employed by all commercially available ultrasonic systems, provides a time-frequency representation of Doppler ultrasonic signals obtained from blood flow. The FFT assumes that the signal is stationary within the analysis window. However, the presence of short duration embolic signals invalidates this assumption. For optimal detection of embolic signals if FFT is used for signal processing, it is important that the FFT parameters such as window size, window type, and required overlap ratio should be optimized. The effect of varying window type, window size and window overlap ratio were investigated for both simulated embolic signals, and recorded from patients with carotid artery stenosis. An optimal compromise is the use of a Hamming or Hanning window with a FFT size of 64 (8.9 ms) or 128 (17.9 ms). A high overlap ratio should also be employed in order not to miss embolic events occurring at the edges of analysis windows. The degree of overlap required will depend on the FFT size. The minimum overlap should be 65% for a 64-point window and 80% for a 128-point window.

  19. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L.; Lipman, Timothy E.

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10-30 MMgal yr-1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr-1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up.

  20. Investigation and process optimization of SONOS cell's drain disturb in 2-transistor structure flash arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaozhao; Qian, Wensheng; Chen, Hualun; Xiong, Wei; Hu, Jun; Liu, Donghua; Duan, Wenting; Kong, Weiran; Na, Wei; Zou, Shichang

    2017-03-01

    The mechanism and distribution of drain disturb (DD) are investigated in silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) flash cells. It is shown that DD is the only concern in this paper. First, the distribution of trapped charge in nitride layer is found to be non-localized (trapped in entire nitride layer along the channel) after programming. Likewise, the erase is also non-localized. Then, the main disturb mechanism: Fowler Nordheim tunneling (FNT) has been confirmed in this paper with negligible disturb effect from hot-hole injection (HHI). And then, distribution of DD is confirmed to be non-localized similarly, which denotes that DD exists in entire tunneling oxide (Oxide for short). Next, four process optimization ways are proposed for minimization of DD, and VTH shift is measured. It reveals that optimized lightly doped drain (LDD), halo, and channel implant are required for the fabrication of a robust SONOS cell. Finally, data retention and endurance of the optimized SONOS are demonstrated.