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Sample records for protects brother fertile

  1. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes and the nuclear architecture of sperm - a study in a fertile and an infertile brother.

    PubMed

    Karamysheva, Tatyana; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Guediche, Narjes; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are found about four times more frequently in subfertile compared to the general population. The reason for this finding is still unclear. However, a connection of interphase architecture and genome function is suggested. And as we found in a previous study the presence of sSMC influences the nuclear architecture of peripheral blood cells and fibroblasts, we hypothesized that sSMC could have similar effects in sperm cells possibly leading to infertility. Here we applied for the first time 3-dimensional interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to characterize the position of an extra-chromosome with respect to its sister- and selected other chromosomes (6, 15, 18, 19, 21, X, and Y) in sperm. Two sSMC carrier brothers with the identical sSMC derived from chromosome 15 were studied. One of the brothers was fertile and the other brother was infertile. Deviations from the normal positioning of chromosomes 21 and Y were seen in both brothers and for chromosomes 19 and X only in the infertile brother. Most striking were high rates of nullisomy and/or disomy for chromosomes 15, including sSMC (15), and 18 exclusively seen in the infertile brother. Overall, further evidence is provided that sSMC influence the nuclear architecture of a cell, including sperm. Further studies are necessary in sperm of fertile and infertile sSMC carriers to elaborate if the detected aneuploidy like that seen in the infertile brother is due to sSMC presence and disturbance of nuclear architecture.

  2. Protect Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  3. My Brother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwartin, Ina

    I was lucky. I was born younger. My older brother has been with me my whole life. He was an altogether special person, very noble and generous, a foreigner to things kitsch and to banality. When I was a child, he spent a great deal of time with me. During that difficult period parents had to spend almost the whole day at work, and in many households children were l to themselves. At my home I had my brother, who was never a "babysitter" to me and never gave the impression that I was a burden to him. Being together was interesting…

  4. My Brother Warren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Eric

    1987-01-01

    The younger brother of a hyperactive, severely learning-disabled 21-year-old recounts his feelings regarding lack of parental attention, jealousy toward his older brother, embarrassment, and finally empathy for his older brother. (CB)

  5. 75 FR 71458 - Warner Brothers Entertainment, Inc., Warner Brothers Theatrical Enterprises, Including Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ..., Inc., Warner Brothers Pictures, Warner Brothers Pictures International, Warner Brothers Studio... Pictures, Warner Brothers Pictures International, Warner Brothers Studio Facilities, and Warner Brothers...

  6. Big brother.

    PubMed

    Cross, M

    1993-04-15

    Both purchasers and providers will need to change the way they hold patient records on computer, or they could find themselves in breach of the law. Michael Cross examines a report by the Data Protection Registrar.

  7. Brothers of the Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Luke

    2007-01-01

    The Brothers of the Christian Schools, popularly known in the United States as Christian Brothers, have made numerous significant contributions to the development of Catholic education. Building and staffing schools, colleges, and orphanages, producing textbooks and catechetical materials, advocating for the poor, and creating new models of…

  8. Evaluation and treatment of familial globozoospermia in five brothers.

    PubMed

    Kilani, Zaid; Ismail, Radwan; Ghunaim, Samer; Mohamed, Hossam; Hughes, David; Brewis, Ian; Barratt, Christopher L R

    2004-11-01

    To document the pathology of five siblings with complete globozoospermia and to report the effectiveness of repeated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment as therapy. Case report. A tertiary center for assisted reproduction. Five siblings with globozoospermia. Twenty cycles of repeated ICSI treatment. Detailed light and electron microscopy studies were performed on three of the globozoospermic brothers. Clinical pregnancy and live birth after ICSI treatment. Light and electron microscopy showed that all spermatozoa had round heads and no acrosome. Of 129 metaphase-II oocytes injected, 49 fertilized normally, giving an overall fertilization rate of 38% (range, 0-100%). No pregnancies resulted from 13 cycles in brothers 1-3. Brothers 4 and 5 had three pregnancies after seven ICSI cycles, with one live birth and two first-trimester losses. Despite variable fertilization rates, pregnancies and a live birth can be achieved after repeated ICSI treatment cycles in globozoospermic siblings. No apparent pattern was manifest that reflected the true pathology or determined the outcome of ICSI treatment.

  9. 77 FR 75503 - Wright Brothers Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... December 20, 2012 Part II The President Proclamation 8918--Wright Brothers Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Brothers Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation After years of research... changed our way of life. On Wright Brothers Day, we reflect on their astonishing feat and celebrate...

  10. 75 FR 80669 - Wright Brothers Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Proclamation 8617--Wright Brothers Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Proclamation 8617 of December 17, 2010 Wright Brothers Day, 2010 By the President of the United... conquered the age-old dream of manned flight. That day, the two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, could...

  11. 78 FR 76969 - Wright Brothers Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... December 19, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 9071--Wright Brothers Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0... Brothers Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On December 17, 1903... boundaries of human imagination and paving the way for over a century of innovation. On Wright Brothers...

  12. Preventing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy, and safeguarding fertility: triple protection needs of young women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Martha

    2003-11-01

    The problems and risks of unprotected sex, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections are inextricably linked. In this context, the critical yet overlooked problem of infertility also needs to be addressed. Dual protection means concurrent protection against unintended pregnancy and STI/HIV. This paper argues for a more comprehensive notion of "triple protection" to include the safeguarding of fertility. This is intended explicitly to draw out the connection between infertility and STIs--using the "visibility" of fertility and infertility and people's immediate connection with them--and in so doing to bolster STI prevention and control efforts. It could also serve to highlight the connections between infertility and unsafe abortion and delivery practices, which still exist in many developing countries. Understanding differences in perception and weighting of protection concerns by young women and men, whether they wish to start, postpone or avoid pregnancy, is essential for the creation of effective programmes. Building on efforts to promote dual protection, a strategic opportunity exists to include prevention of infertility into safer sex messages and to address the fragmentation of reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programmes.

  13. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  14. [Follicular lymphoma in two brothers].

    PubMed

    Asahi, A; Okamoto, S; Matsushita, H; Hattori, Y; Takayama, N; Ikeda, Y

    2001-05-01

    Two brothers, whose parents had a history of exposure to atomic bomb radiation, developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The younger brother, a 48-year-old man, was diagnosed as having follicular small-cleaved cell lymphoma in October, 1996. He had extranodal lymphoma involvement of the right kidney, bone marrow and skin, in addition to generalized lymphadenopathy. He was treated with intermittent COP chemotherapy, and good control of the lymphoma was obtained. The elder brother, aged 50 years, was diagnosed as having follicular mixed cell lymphoma in May, 1998. He also had extranodal lymphoma involvement of the right parotid gland and bone marrow, as well as generalized lymphadenopathy. After one course of CHOP chemotherapy, he developed paresis of the lower legs and was found to have a mass at the Th5-6 vertebrae by CT scan. After four courses of CHOP chemotherapy followed by ESHAP chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he achieved complete remission, and has since been well. Follicular lymphoma occurring among siblings is rare. Further cytogenetic and molecular studies may provide a better understanding of its etiology.

  15. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  16. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy.

  17. Nature vs. nurture: two brothers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Keltner, N L; James, C A; Darling, R J; Findley, L S; Oliver, K

    2001-01-01

    The nature vs. nurture argument as it pertains to two brothers. To explore the synergistic effects of heritability and environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Review of the literature and the authors' clinical experience. The nature vs. nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces.

  18. 76 FR 79019 - Wright Brothers Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8767--Wright Brothers Day, 2011 Memorandum of... ] Proclamation 8767 of December 15, 2011 Wright Brothers Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of... this day, guide our jetliners to every corner of the world and our spacecraft to the farthest...

  19. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  20. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  1. Protective effect of honey against cigarette smoke induced-impaired sexual behavior and fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam

    2013-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with sexual dysfunction and impaired fertility in males. The aim of this study was to determine the potential protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on sexual behavior and fertility of male rats. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 rats/group) as control, honey (H), CS and H plus CS (H + CS) groups. Rats in control and CS groups received oral administration of distilled water daily while rats in H and H + CS groups received honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage. Rats in CS and H + CS groups were also exposed to CS for 8 min 3 times/day. From 10 to 13 weeks of treatment, each male rat was cohabited with 3 untreated female rats for sexual behavioral and reproductive performance studies. Honey significantly increased the percentages of rats achieving intromission and ejaculation as well as increased mating and fertility indexes of male rats exposed to CS. Thus, honey has a protective effect against CS-induced impaired sexual behavior and fertility in male rats.

  2. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Help when a brother or sister has cancer. Learn how families cope and find support when a sibling has cancer. Tips to help you talk with your friends, deal with stress, and take care of your mind and body are also shared.

  3. Pleural mesothelioma in a couple of brothers

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura, epithelial type, were observed in two brothers. Both the patients had histories of severe exposure to asbestos, having worked as insulators. The latency periods in the two cases were 26 and 38 years, respectively. Available literature data suggest that mesothelioma occurrence among blood-related people is favored by a genetic predisposition. PMID:24872671

  4. My Brother's Keeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Barack

    2014-01-01

    In a White House address, the president announced an initiative to reclaim young boys and men of color. The "My Brother's Keeper" initiative partners with businesses, foundations, and nonprofits to address disparities in education, justice, and employment. President Obama was introduced by Christian, one of a group of students from…

  5. Build Your Own Wright Brothers' Glider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Gordon; Hand, Jon; Ellis, Art

    2003-01-01

    A little more than one hundred years ago, Wilbur and Orville Wright began building models of airfoils and testing them in wind tunnels in their search for an efficient wing. Models continue to be used today by aerospace engineers to prove concepts and launch dreams. To celebrate the centennial of the Wright brothers' historic flight, the authors…

  6. My Brother's Keeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Barack

    2014-01-01

    In a White House address, the president announced an initiative to reclaim young boys and men of color. The "My Brother's Keeper" initiative partners with businesses, foundations, and nonprofits to address disparities in education, justice, and employment. President Obama was introduced by Christian, one of a group of students from…

  7. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  8. Smile on Your Brother: Teaching Siblings Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Paula

    2008-01-01

    A multiage first, second, and third grade classroom includes brothers, sisters, cousins. Two teachers use a developmentally appropriate approach while juggling teaching responsibilities and administering the many tests required by No Child Left Behind. Carter explains their four priorities for children: attendance, responsibility, honesty, and…

  9. Build Your Own Wright Brothers' Glider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Gordon; Hand, Jon; Ellis, Art

    2003-01-01

    A little more than one hundred years ago, Wilbur and Orville Wright began building models of airfoils and testing them in wind tunnels in their search for an efficient wing. Models continue to be used today by aerospace engineers to prove concepts and launch dreams. To celebrate the centennial of the Wright brothers' historic flight, the authors…

  10. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  11. Two brothers with keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans.

    PubMed

    Alfadley, Abdullah; Al Hawsawi, Khalid; Hainau, Bo; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2002-11-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is a rare, X-linked disorder affecting both the skin and eyes. There are few reports about this entity. The aim of this report is to describe 2 brothers with progressive scarring alopecia of the scalp, hypotrichosis with follicular prominence of the eyelashes, and extensive keratosis pilaris. The second patient has Down syndrome with palmoplantar keratoderma and partial alopecia of the eyebrows. We also reviewed the literature about this uncommon entity.

  12. Brotherly Love? The Manipulation of Body Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a street-wise boy who is unaware that his younger brother has been using clever manipulation to get him into trouble. Nicholas is a 12-year-old boy whose father was recently given a life sentence for murder. Nicholas is in a boxing league and uses his fighting skills on the streets. Angel is Nicholas' nine-year-old brother…

  13. Brotherly Love? The Manipulation of Body Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a street-wise boy who is unaware that his younger brother has been using clever manipulation to get him into trouble. Nicholas is a 12-year-old boy whose father was recently given a life sentence for murder. Nicholas is in a boxing league and uses his fighting skills on the streets. Angel is Nicholas' nine-year-old brother…

  14. The Mayo brothers: an American surgical legacy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Few in the history of surgery and just as few in the history of medicine can reach the level of clinical visibility as achieved by the Mayo brothers. The brothers changed the face of medicine while they were alive, and their fame and influence continued to grow after their death in 1939. The Mayo American surgical legacy had incredible proportions. The brothers systematically modified the field as few others had done before. They were great surgical innovators who took the surgical techniques of others and added a touch of their own to make the surgical procedure better and more secure. The Mayos were the stars regionally, nationally, and around the world. They attracted attention from their generation and occupied center stage long after. To speak of the Mayos is to speak of the quintessential American values of professionalism, respect, commitment, and caring for their fellow human beings. Their creation, the Mayo Clinic, surpassed the wildest hopes and predictions that anyone could have had regarding their best dreams.

  15. Myricitrin and bioactive extract of Albizia amara leaves: DNA protection and modulation of fertility and antioxidant-related genes expression.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mona El Said; Ibrahim, Lamya Fawzy; Hussein, Sameh Reda; El-Sharawy, Reham; El-Ansari, Mohamed Amin; Hassanane, Mahrousa Mohamed; Booles, Hoda Fahime

    2016-11-01

    Albizia species are reported to exhibit many biological activities including antiovulatory properties in female rats and antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic activities in male rats. The present study investigates the flavonoids of Albizia amara (Roxb.) B. Boivin (Fabaceae) leaves and evaluates their activity on gene expression of fertility and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase-related genes of treated female mice in addition to their effect on DNA damage. Plant materials were extracted by using 70% methanol for 48 h, the extract was chromatographed on a polyamide 6S column, each isolated compound was purified by using Sephadex LH-20 column; its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. Both the leaves extract and myricitrin (200, 30 mg/kg bw/d, respectively) were assayed for their effect on DNA damage in female mice after four weeks treatment using Comet assay. Their modulatory activity on gene expression of fertility (aromatase CYP19 and luteinizing hormone LH) and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-related genes of treated female mice were investigated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside, myricitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated and identified from the studied taxa. Myricitrin and the extract induced low rate of DNA damage (4.8% and 5%, respectively), compared with the untreated control (4.2%) and significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP19 and LH genes and up-regulated GST gene. Our results highlight the potential effect of the leaves extract of Albizia amara and myricitrin as fertility-regulating phytoconstituents with ability to protect DNA from damage and cells from oxidative stress.

  16. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  17. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  18. Burden of Common Complex Disease Variants in the Exomes of Two Healthy Centenarian Brothers.

    PubMed

    Tindale, Lauren C; Zeng, Andy; Bretherick, Karla L; Leach, Stephen; Thiessen, Nina; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2015-01-01

    It is not understood whether long-term good health is promoted by the absence of disease risk variants, the presence of protective variants, or both. We characterized the exomes of two exceptionally healthy centenarian brothers aged 106 and 109 years who had never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or major pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to gain insight into whether exceptional health and longevity are a result of carrying fewer disease-associated variants than typical individuals. We compared the number of disease-associated alleles, and the proportion of alleles predicted to be functionally damaging, between the centenarian brothers and published population data. Mitochondrial sequence reads were extracted from the exome data in order to analyze mitochondrial variants. The brothers carry a similar number of common disease-associated variants and predicted damaging variants compared to reference groups. They did not carry any high-penetrance clinically actionable variants. They carry mitochondrial haplogroup T, and one brother has a single heteroplasmic variant. Although our small sample size does not allow for definitive conclusions, a healthy aging and longevity phenotype is not necessarily due to a decreased burden of common disease-associated variants. Instead, it may be rare 'positive' variants that play a role in this desirable phenotype. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... do to protect her fertility? What can a boy's cancer doctor do to protect his fertility? How ... families? What are the legal issues for young boys undergoing fertility preservation? What are the legal issues ...

  20. A GIS policy approach for assessing the effect of fertilizers on the quality of drinking and irrigation water and wellhead protection zones (Crete, Greece).

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Koubouris, Georgios C

    2017-03-15

    Fertilizers have undoubtedly contributed to the significant increase in yields worldwide and therefore to the considerable improvement of quality of life of man and animals. Today, attention is focussed on the risks imposed by agricultural fertilizers. These effects include the dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizer major- and trace-elements to the groundwater that deteriorate the quality of drinking and irrigation water. In this study, a map for the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) was generated for assessing the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking and irrigation water quality. The proposed methodology was applied to one of the most intensively cultivated with tree crops area in Crete (Greece) where potential pollutant loads are derived exclusively from agricultural activities and groundwater is the main water source. In this region of 215 km(2), groundwater sampling data from 235 wells were collected over a 15-year time period and analyzed for the presence of anionic (ΝΟ(-3), PO(-3)4) and cationic (K(+1), Fe(+2), Mn(+2), Zn(+2), Cu(+2), B(+3)) fertilizer trace elements. These chemicals are the components of the primary fertilizers used in local tree crop production. Eight factors/maps were considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for each fertilizer element. The eight factors combined were used to generate the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) map indicating the areas with drinking/irrigation water pollution due to the high groundwater contamination caused by excessive fertilizer use. Moreover, by taking into consideration the groundwater flow direction and seepage velocity, the pathway through which groundwater supply become polluted can be predicted. The groundwater quality results show that a small part of the study area, about 8 km(2) (3.72%), is polluted or moderately polluted by the excessive use of fertilizers. Considering that in this area drinking water sources

  1. Bram Stoker's brother, the brain surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the life and work of Sir William Thornley Stoker, 1st Baronet (1845-1912), the eldest brother of Bram Stoker (1847-1912), the author of Dracula (1897). Sir William or "Thornley," as he was commonly known, was one of Ireland's leading physicians. He performed some of the first brain surgeries in Ireland using Sir David Ferrier's maps of the cerebral cortex. From 1879 into the twentieth century, Thornley served as inspector for Ireland under the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act. In this role, Thornley was responsible for granting licenses to researchers who performed experiments on live animals. Due to his reservations about animal experimentation, Thornley eventually became an advocate for the antivivisection cause, testifying at the second Royal Commission on Vivisection (1906-1912). Thornley also influenced Irish literature, albeit indirectly. Bram Stoker's composition notes for Dracula show that he consulted his older brother about the medical scenes in his novel. Thornley's knowledge of cerebral localization and his animal rights advocacy both surface in Dracula. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 36 CFR 7.76 - Wright Brothers National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.76 Section 7.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.76 Wright Brothers National Memorial. (a) Designated airstrip. Wright Brothers National Memorial Airstrip, located at Kill Devil Hills,...

  3. 36 CFR 7.76 - Wright Brothers National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.76 Section 7.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.76 Wright Brothers National Memorial. (a) Designated airstrip. Wright Brothers National Memorial Airstrip, located at Kill Devil Hills,...

  4. Two Dutch brothers with Borrone dermato-cardio-skeletal syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, M A M; Ceulen, R P M; Delhaas, T; de Die-Smulders, C

    2007-06-01

    In 1993, Borrone et al. described two Italian brothers affected by a syndrome of severe acne, mitral valve prolapse, dysmorphic facies, and Scheuermann-like changes of the vertebral column. Since then, no further cases have been reported. Here, we report on two Dutch brothers with many features suggestive of this rare syndrome.

  5. Authentic Expression of Edmund Rice Christian Brother Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercruysse, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1802, Edmund Rice directed the laying of the foundation stone for Mount Sion Monastery and School. After several previous attempts of instructing poor boys in Waterford, this was to be the first permanent home for the Congregation of Christian Brothers. Rice's dream of founding a religious community of brothers was becoming a reality with a…

  6. One sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Eung Suk; Kim, Ungsoo S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of one sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia. One sister and brother complained visual disturbance. The sister was 10 years 11 months old, and brother was 8 years 4 months old. Full ophthalmic examinations were performed, including slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure, keratometry, anterior chamber depth, axial length, fundus examination and the cycloplegic refraction. The cycloplegic refractive power was -15.50 dpt cyl.+4.50 dpt Ax 85 degrees (right eye), -1.00 dpt cyl.+0.50 dpt Ax 90 degrees (left eye) in the sister; -1.75 dpt cyl.+2.25 dpt Ax 90 degrees (right eye), -9.50 dpt cyl.+4.00 dpt Ax 80 degrees (left eye) in the brother. The co-occurrence of severe myopic anisometropia in a sister and brother is extremely rare. The present case suggests that severe myopic anisometropia may be related by genetic inheritance.

  7. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  8. Assessment of fertility protection and ovarian reserve with GnRH antagonist in rats undergoing chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Claudia N C D; Reis, Fernando M; Pena, Guilherme N; Silveira, Laila C; Camargos, Aroldo F

    2010-05-18

    Reproductive function following chemotherapy is of increasing importance given that survival rates are improving. We assessed whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant; cetrorelix) could promote ovarian protection against damage due to chemotherapy. Forty-two female Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups: group I (n=9) received placebo twice; group II (n=12) received placebo+cyclophosphamide (CPA); group III (n=12) received GnRHant+CPA; and group IV (n=9) received GnRHant+placebo. After medication, the estrous cycle was studied through vaginal smears. Rats were mated, pregnancy was documented and the number of live pups evaluated. Afterwards, rat ovaries were removed and prepared for histological studies. The ovarian cross-sectional area was measured and follicles were counted. Cyclic changes in vaginal smears were observed in all but one animal after treatment, but group II had a significantly lower rate of animals with proestrus or estrus (p<0.01). The offspring was markedly reduced by CPA treatment (group II, 3.00+/-1.33 pups vs. group I, 11.44+/-0.78 pups, p<0.01) and this effect was partly reversed by pre-treatment with GnRHant (group III, 7.00+/-1.31 pups). The ovarian cross-sectional area was not significantly different between groups, neither was the number of individual follicle types. However, rats in Group IV had a higher total number of ovarian follicles than those in the control group (17.1+/-1.22 vs. 10.9+/-0.70, p<0.05). The use of a GnRHant before CPA chemotherapy provided protection of fertility.

  9. Neurological and architectural sinuosities: the Niemeyer brothers.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Guasti, José Antonio D; Preul, Mark C

    2010-11-01

    In a family of 7 siblings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2 of the most remarkable national personalities decided to follow different fields at the beginning of the 20th century. Their life's work would, however, intersect in at least 2 respects: the quest for innovation and a passion for sinuosity. The achievements of Paulo and Oscar Niemeyer are landmarks in the history of neurosurgery and architecture in Brazil. Among his many innovations in neurosurgery, Paulo Niemeyer first described the transventricular amygdalohippocampectomy in 1957 and introduced the operating microscope to neurosurgery in Brazil in 1971. His brother Oscar became a world-renowned representative of the modern architecture movement, sculpting graceful curves from concrete.

  10. Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas: report of occurrence in half brothers.

    PubMed

    Fangman, William L; Prose, Neil S

    2004-01-01

    Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas are uncommon, congenital, nontender papules located on the medial plantar aspects of the heel. We report the occurrence of this rare disorder in two half brothers, suggesting that it may occur in a familial pattern.

  11. 17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers Commercial Photographers, Madison Heights, Michigan, Negative No. 38750). SOUTHERN PORTION OF WEST FACADE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWN ON EXTREME LEFT, 24 NOVEMBER 1920. - Basso Building, 7338 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  12. 18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers Commercial Photographers, Madison Heights, Michigan, Negative No. 67707). SOUTHERN PORTION OF WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST, SHOWN ON EXTREME LEFT, 3 June 1925. - Basso Building, 7338 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  13. Different course of silicosis in four brothers of one family.

    PubMed

    Danila, Edvardas; Sileikiene, Virginija; Nargela, Remigijus; Zurauskas, Edvardas; Loskutoviene, Greta

    2009-01-01

    Silicosis remains a common occupational respiratory disease. Even in this era of highly sophisticated hygiene in European countries, new occupational cases of silicosis continue to be reported. Four cases of silicosis which developed after a relatively short occupational exposure to respirable silica among the members of one family are described. Four young men worked illegally abroad in mining in one of European countries. All of them were employed together in the same working conditions. One of the brothers died due to the acute form of the disease (lipoproteinosis). Two of the brothers suffered from simple nodular silicosis, and the fourth brother developed very early nodular silicosis and small airway dust disease. A one year follow-up revealed moderate/severe worsening of the disease in all surviving brothers.

  14. Protect Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the future. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea are a leading cause of female ... anyone pregnant in the future. STIs such as chlamydia and gonorrhea are a leading cause of male ...

  15. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-06

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  16. Photosynthesis mediated decrease in cadmium translocation protect shoot growth of Oryza sativa seedlings up on ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress responses in seedlings of two Indian rice cultivars, MTU 7029 and MO 16 were investigated under ammonium-based fertilizer amendment. Cd translocation was reduced by fertilizer treatment. An increase in the production of organic acids as well as nitrogenous compounds and maintenance of nutrient status were implicated for decrease in Cd translocation which in turn promoted shoot growth. Fertilizer treatment increased photosynthetic pigments and activity of antioxidant enzymes that ensured steady photosynthetic rate during Cd stress. MO 16 showed Cd exclusion characteristics when compared with MTU 7029. Photosynthesis performance of MO 16 was not affected by Cd treatments. These findings suggest that photosynthesis influenced decrease in Cd translocation enhanced shoot growth of seedlings during ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilizer supplementation.

  17. The Lehman Brothers effect and bankruptcy cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, P.; Sornette, D.; Holyst, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    Inspired by the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers and its consequences on the global financial system, we develop a simple model in which the Lehman default event is quantified as having an almost immediate effect in worsening the credit worthiness of all financial institutions in the economic network. In our stylized description, all properties of a given firm are captured by its effective credit rating, which follows a simple dynamics of co-evolution with the credit ratings of the other firms in our economic network. The dynamics resembles the evolution of Potts spin-glass with external global field corresponding to a panic effect in the economy. The existence of a global phase transition, between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, explains the large susceptibility of the system to negative shocks. We show that bailing out the first few defaulting firms does not solve the problem, but does have the effect of alleviating considerably the global shock, as measured by the fraction of firms that are not defaulting as a consequence. This beneficial effect is the counterpart of the large vulnerability of the system of coupled firms, which are both the direct consequences of the collective self-organized endogenous behaviors of the credit ratings of the firms in our economic network.

  18. Intrafamilial sexual abuse: brother-sister incest does not differ from father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain

    2002-09-01

    Three groups of girls who were sexually abused (by either brothers, fathers, or stepfathers) were compared. The purpose was to identify the differing characteristics of the abuse, the family environments, and the psychosocial distress of these children. Seventy-two girls aged between 5 and 16 were assigned to one of the three groups. Subjects were matched between groups on the basis of their actual age. Children completed measures of traumatic stress; their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report Form (CBCL) and other self-report questionnaires on family characteristics. Workers in child protective services completed information regarding the nature and severity of the abuse. Results suggested few differences in the characteristics of sexual abuse between the three groups. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest group (70.8%) than in the stepfather incest (27.3%) or father incest (34.8%) groups. Ninety percent of the victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically-significant distress on at least one measure, whereas 63.6% of stepfather victims did. Compared with father and stepfather perpetrators, brothers were raised in families with more children and more alcohol abuse. The authors conclude that the characteristics of brother-sister incest and its associated psychosocial distress did not differ from the characteristics of father-daughter incest These findings suggest that theoretical models and clinical practices should be adjusted accordingly and that sibling incest should not necessarily be construed as less severe or harmful than father-daughter incest.

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Burgess Brothers Landfill, Woodford, VT, September 25, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This Decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Burgess Brothers Superfund Site in Bennington and Woodford, Vermont. The remedial measures described in this ROD will minimize further migration of contamination into the groundwater and surface water, will eliminate the potential for direct contact and/or incidental ingestion of the material within the landfill, will control landfill gas and prevent exposure to landfill gas containing hazardous substances, and will replace any portion of wetlands destroyed as a result of implementing the selected remedy. The selected remedy consists of operating and maintaining controls to prevent exposure to contaminated soil and to achieve the restoration of groundwater and the protection of surface water.

  20. Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2006-07-11

    The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total n = 944), including one sample of men raised in nonbiological and blended families (e.g., raised with half- or step-siblings or as adoptees) were studied. Only biological older brothers, and not any other sibling characteristic, including nonbiological older brothers, predicted men's sexual orientation, regardless of the amount of time reared with these siblings. These results strongly suggest a prenatal origin to the fraternal birth-order effect.

  1. Family Constellations: Teaching Dave Etter's "Brother" (Modern Poetry in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totherow, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Dave Etter's poem "Brother" involves students by focusing on the themes of guilt and the love/hate complexity of a sibling relationship. Notes that Gina Berriault's story "The Stone Boy" and Harley Elliot's poem "Brothers Together in Winter" work well in conjunction with "Brother" as a thematic…

  2. 75 FR 46864 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... this proposed AD, contact Short Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3... new AD: Short Brothers PLC: Docket No. FAA-2010-0225; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-203-AD....

  3. 75 FR 12154 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3 9DZ Northern Ireland; telephone +44(0... 16, 2006) and adding the following new AD: Short Brothers PLC: Docket No. FAA-2010-0225;...

  4. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  5. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  6. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  7. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  8. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  9. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  10. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  11. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  12. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  13. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  14. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  15. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  16. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  17. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  18. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  19. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... AGENCY Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd County... Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the...

  20. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.

  1. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. Propaganda in Warner Brothers World War II Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William

    To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…

  3. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. The brothers Lumière. Pioneers in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Aterman, K; Grimaud, J A

    1983-10-01

    A brief historical sketch of the brothers Lumière, the inventors of the cinématographe, is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on their perfection of "Autochromes," photographic plates suitable for color photography, and on their foresight in putting these advances to use in medical illustrations.

  5. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  6. Perspective view of the Hope Brothers Building (Building T), 187 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Hope Brothers Building (Building T), 187 Main Street South, view looking northwest - Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  7. Propaganda in Warner Brothers World War II Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William

    To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…

  8. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  9. Correlation of WAIS IQ in 10 Pairs of Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Pairs of brothers were individually examined with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale some 10 months apart by an experienced clinical psychologist unaware of the consanguineous relationship. Correlation of .42 for Full Scale IQ is consistent with median correlation reported by Erlenmeyer-Kimling and Jarvik in their 1963 literature review.…

  10. Fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-07

    Essential facts [Figure: see text] Fertility preservation involves freezing and storing eggs, sperm, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissue for use in a person's future fertility treatment. Men and women may wish to preserve their fertility for a variety of reasons, including delaying parenthood and allowing treatment of a medical condition that may affect future fertility, including some cancer treatments.

  11. A Unique Case of Allogeneic Fat Grafting Between Brothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Samuel; Edelson, Richard L.; Sumpio, Brandon; Kwei, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient’s unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain. Our unique case study supports the use of fat grafting for its restorative purposes and for its ability to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Additionally, it appears that our case provides a basis of a general approach to the treatment of radiation-induced ulcers in chimeric patients with lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27757347

  12. Coloured sweat in two brothers: First report of familial chromhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Daniel C; Cooper, Hywel L

    2016-02-01

    The uncommon diagnosis of chromhidrosis is most frequently made in young adults. This sweat gland disease, although benign, may impact significantly on the patient's quality of life. We describe the first report of familial chromhidrosis of pseudo-eccrine type (pseudochromhidrosis) occurring in two brothers aged 9 and 12 years. The classification and causality of chromhidrosis is described and approaches to assessment and management are outlined.

  13. [Metabolic studies in brothers affected by alcaptonuria (ochronosis)].

    PubMed

    Pugge, H R; Orozco, M; Toledo, A; Ripoll, J; Katz, J; Toledo, I; Pellanda, R

    1978-01-01

    The case of two brothers affected by alcaptonurie is reported. The activity of the homogenthisycasa enzyme has been determined by the material obtained through percutaneous biopsy. Concentrations of the aminoacids producing fenilalanina and thiroxina in their parents' blood have been investigated, the tests showing lack of liver enzyme and normal concentration of the amount of aminoacids in blood. Some aspects of skin lesion have been briefly reported and methods for treatment presented.

  14. Ankylosing spondylitis in two Zaïrian brothers.

    PubMed

    Mbuyi-Muamba, J M; Malonda, N; Yuma, O

    1993-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis has never been described in Zaïre and is considered to be rare in black African populations. We report two cases observed in the University Hospital of Kinshasa. The two patients are brothers. The diagnosis is based on anaemnestic, clinical and radiological findings. We therefore demonstrate the existence of this disease in Zaïre and presume that other similar cases may be diagnosed.

  15. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  16. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  17. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A What's in this article? ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  18. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  19. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  20. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  1. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  2. Primary osteosarcoma of the distal femur in two consecutive brothers.

    PubMed

    Chin, K R; Mankin, H J; Gebhardt, M C

    2001-01-01

    The following report describes two consecutive brothers from a nonimmigrant family, with no identifiable predisposing factors, who presented with osteosarcomas of their distal femurs, one at the age of 18 years and the other at the age of 21 years. Until a cost-effective program is developed to screen for osteosarcoma, a detailed family history should be obtained from every new patient with osteosarcoma and parents should be urged to schedule early evaluations of siblings with complaints of painful extremities. Increased frequency of cytogenetic studies to screen for genetic abnormalities in patients with osteosarcoma is recommended to help elucidate the cause of osteosarcoma.

  3. Propane tank explosion (2 deaths, 7 injuries) at Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, Albert City, Iowa, April 9, 1998. Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report explains the explosion/BLEVE that took place on April 9, 1998, at the Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, located in Albert City, Iowa. Two volunteer fire fighters were killed and seven other emergency response personnel were injured. Safety issues covered in the report include protection of propane storage tanks and piping, state regulatory oversight of such installations, and fire fighter response to propane storage tank fires.

  4. Protective effect of royal jelly on fertility and biochemical parameters in bleomycin-‎induced male rats

    PubMed Central

    Amirshahi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bleomycin (BL) is a glycopeptide antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus which is routinely used for treatment of human cancers. Royal jelly (RJ) is a production from the hypo pharyngeal, mandibular and post cerebral glands of nurse bees. RJ consists of 66% water, 15% sugars, 5% lipids, and 13% proteins, essential amino acids and vitamins. Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rat. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male wistar rats (220±20gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). Control group (CG) received normal saline 10 ml/kg twice a week with Intraperitoneal (I.P) for 48 days (0.3 ml/rat(. Royal Jelly group (RJG) received jelly (100 mg/kg daily) for 48 days orally. Bleomycin group (BLG) received BL (10 mg/kg twice a week) with I.P for 48 days. Royal Jelly+ Bleomycin group (RJ+BLG) received royal Jelly (100 mg/kg /day) orally concomitant with BL administration. Sperm count, motility, and viability were investigated and chromatin quality and DNA integrity were also analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were measured as well. Results: BL caused decline significantly (p<0.05) sperm count, sperm viability, motility as well as testosterone concentration compared to control group while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration were announced in BL in comparison with CG and RJ+BLG. Royal jelly improved Bleomycin-induced toxicity on sperm parameters and testosterone and MDA concentrations. Conclusion: The present results support the idea that BL adversely affects sperm parameters and MDA and the RJ with antioxidant properties has positive effects on these parameters. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Tayebeh amirshahi) PMID:24799882

  5. Mosaic pattern of sucrase isomaltase deficiency in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, Konrad; Keller, Klaus M; Haase, Bianca; Leeb, Tosso; Naim, Hassan Y; Zimmer, Klaus P

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of mucosal changes observed in infants with chronic protracted diarrhea is poorly understood. We report on two brothers suffering from a special form of sucrase isomaltase (SI) deficiency. The children presented with weight loss and dyspepsia after sucrose exposition. We performed an H respiration test, which showed a pathologic result in the younger brother. Analysis of the brush border enzyme activities showed low expression of lactase and SI. Immunoelectron microscopy of duodenal biopsies showed an isolated SI deficiency in a mosaic pattern [e.g., 42% (14%) crypt enterocytes and 64% (59%) villus enterocytes with decreased amounts of SI on microvilli], whereas lactase and aminopeptidase n (ApN) were present at the apical membrane of all cells in a normal range. The SI mosaic pattern of these patients shows that the enterocytes contain low amounts of SI on the apical membrane but express normal quantities of other disaccharidases. These findings suggest the existence of different clonal expressions or specific (posttranslational) mechanisms of postGolgi transportation for individual brush border enzymes. It remains unresolved whether the mosaic distribution is part of a normal maturation process or caused by a lack of an overall control mechanism in the expression of brush border hydrolases.

  6. Human factors of powered flight: the Wright brothers' contributions.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Stanley R

    2004-02-01

    Orville and Wilbur Wright of Dayton, OH, not only were the first to fly a powered aircraft, but also pioneered many human factors considerations. While others tried to develop aircraft with a high degree of aerodynamic stability, the Wrights intentionally designed unstable aircraft with "cerebralized" control modeled on bird flight. During 1901-03, the brothers worked with large gliders at Kill Devil Hills, near Kitty Hawk, NC, to develop the first practical human-interactive controls for aircraft pitch, roll, and yaw. On December 17, 1903, they made four controlled, powered flights over the dunes at Kitty Hawk with their Wright Flyer. During the next 2 yr, the Wrights made numerous flights in the Wright Flyers II and III at Huffman Prairie near Dayton. They later developed practical in-flight control of engine power, plus an angle-of-attack sensor and stick-pusher that reduced pilot workload. The brothers' flight demonstrations in the U.S. and Europe during 1908-09 awakened the world to the new age of controlled flight. Orville was the first aviator to use a seat belt. He also introduced a rudder boost/trim control that gave the pilot greater control authority. The Wrights' flight training school in Dayton included a flight simulator of their own design. The Wrights patented their practical airplane and flight control concepts, many of which are still in use today.

  7. Continuity & Change in Catholic Education: An Ethnography of Christian Brothers College. Research Monograph No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard; And Others

    Four papers on an ethnographic study of Christian Brothers College (CBC) in Australia, a Catholic college, are presented. In "Christian Brothers College: A View from Overseas," Louis M. Smith discusses research methods, the religious ethos, faculty heterogeneity, diversity in classroom organization, the organizational context of the…

  8. Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Sister's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen

    2016-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or sister. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…

  9. Brothers and Sisters: A Source of Support for Children in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Lucy; Edwards, Rosalind; Mauthner, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Whilst UK schools move towards U.S "big brother" style mentoring systems for children, are actual brothers and sisters becoming an invisible source of support to deal with bullying in everyday life? This paper reports on research with children aged 7-13 about their experiences and understandings of their relationships with their brothers…

  10. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  11. 20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. An individual is entitled to benefits if: (a) Such individual: (1) Is the parent,...

  12. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  13. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  14. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  15. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  16. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: The Wrights and Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Hansen, Jennifer; Martin, Cam

    2007-01-01

    Viewgraphs showing glider experiments of the Wright Brothers from 1899-1908 are presented. The slides review the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that preceeded the first powered flight.

  17. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Cole, Jennifer Hansen; Martin, John Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Presentation showing glider experiments of the Wright Brothers from 1899-1908 are presented. The slides review the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905, Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that preceeded the first powered flight.

  18. Mothers' differential treatment of adolescent siblings: predicting college attendance of sisters versus brothers.

    PubMed

    Bissell-Havran, Joanna M; Loken, Eric; McHale, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    Current estimates suggest that by 2015, 60% of college students will be women, a change since 1970 when 59% were men. We investigated family dynamics that might explain the growing gender gap in college attendance, focusing on an ethnically diverse sample of 522 mixed sex sibling dyads from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We examined whether the difference between sisters' and brothers' reports of their mothers' expectations for, and involvement in, their education during adolescence predicted their differential odds of college attendance seven years later. Sisters were more likely than brothers to attend college, and this gap was more pronounced among non-Whites and non-Asians. Sisters also had higher grades in school than their brothers. Although there were no gender differences overall in maternal educational expectations or involvement, brothers reported greater maternal involvement than sisters in non-White and non-Asian families. After controlling for family background factors, the average of siblings' reports of maternal treatment, and differences between siblings' grades, the results revealed that as sisters reported greater maternal educational expectations than their brothers, it became more likely that only the sister rather than only the brother in the family attended college. The difference between brothers' and sisters' reports of their mothers' educational involvement and their odds of attending college showed the same pattern of association but was not statistically significant. These results suggest that within-family social comparisons may play a role in sisters' and brothers' choices about attending college.

  19. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  20. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  1. Having a Brother or Sister with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome. We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with Down syndrome; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without Down syndrome. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with Down syndrome, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their sibling’s lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with Down syndrome as positive and enriching. PMID:21910244

  2. Christ-siemens-touraine syndrome: case report of 2 brothers.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Chaudhari, Arvind; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2014-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disorder. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome (Hypohidrotic Ectodermal dysplasia (HED)) is a diffuse, non-progressive disease present at birth and involves at least two tissues of ectodermal origin. It is caused by mutation in gene ectodysplasin (EDA, EDA1) located at Xq12-13. Main clinical feature of HED is sparse or absent eccrine gland as well as hypotrichosis, nail, and teeth abnormality with characteristic faces. The absence or diminished activity of sweat gland results in patients having more chances of developing hyperthermia and with intolerance to warm environment. Most do well with simple measures such as wet clothes, air conditioning, wet bands etc. We present cases of two brothers, born of non-consanguineous marriage, who presented to us with complaints of heat intolerance and abnormal facial features.

  3. [History of the Cracow Brothers of Mercy Hospital].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, H

    1995-01-01

    The oldest of existing Cracow hospitals was founded in 1609. The paper discusses the origins, development and decay of the hospital-cloister in its first seat at St. John's and St. Mark's streets. Later the author describes the fate of the hospital-cloister from 1812 after its translocation to the second residence at the Krakowska street. In 1906 the third seat became a new buildings' complex at the Trynitarska street. The work remembers the role of the hospital during several epidemies, Ist and IInd World War and its activity during peace times. The author emphasizes the great merits of Brothers of Mercy for Cracow medicine and hospital system in bringing medical and charitable help to sick and poor.

  4. Maintenance of Certification: Big Brother or Responsible Regulation?

    PubMed Central

    Rainsberry, R. Paul N.

    1984-01-01

    From a beginning of providing continuing education where there was none, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, in 30 years, has created a system of study credits, a certification process, and now a maintenance of certification process individually tailored to the participant's practice. Every five years certificants can identify learning needs, evaulate the results of a pre- and post-test, and structure a program of continuing education to meet specific needs. They are required only to participate—not to reach a predetermined standard. Few other non-punitive methods can be this specific. The Maintenance of Certification Program is a prevention of the Big Brother syndrome, rather than a manifestation of it. PMID:20469424

  5. Predicting fertility.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Abha; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Johnson, Neil P

    2008-06-01

    Various predictors of fertility have been described, suggesting that none are ideal. The literature on tests of ovarian reserve is largely limited to women undergoing in vitro fertilization, and is reliant on the use of surrogate markers, such as cycle cancellation and number of oocytes retrieved, as reference standards. Currently available prediction models are far from ideal; most are applicable only to subfertile women seeking assisted reproduction, and lack external validation. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of predictors of fertility are limited by their heterogeneity in terms of the population sampled, predictors tested and reference standards used. There is an urgent need for consensus in the design of these studies, definition of abnormal tests, and, above all, a need to use robust outcomes such as live birth as the reference standard. There are no reliable predictors of fertility that can guide women as to how long childbearing can be deferred.

  6. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when ovulation happens. Couples use a calendar, a thermometer to measure body temperature, the thickness of cervical ... fertility awareness — such as ovulation detection kits and thermometers, for example — are available in drugstores. But they ...

  7. Mixed pineal mature teratoma and germinoma in two brothers of the fraternal triplets.

    PubMed

    Grahovac, Gordan; Alden, Tord; Nitin, Wadhwani

    2017-05-01

    Intracranial teratomas are rare germ cell neoplasms that contain tissues derived from all three germ cell layers and most commonly occurring during childhood. This is the first report of pineal region mixed mature teratoma and germinoma in two fraternal brothers of fraternal triplets. We report the case of a mixed mature teratoma and germinoma of the pineal region in two brothers of fraternal triplets. Older brother was initially diagnosed at the age of 11 years with the pure teratoma of the pineal region but the review of the pathology 3 years after initial surgery revealed the mixed mature teratoma with 5% germinomatous component. The younger brother was diagnosed at the age of 13 years with the mixed mature teratoma with 10% germinomatous component tumor of the pineal region. Younger brother has been treated with adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and older brother was treated without adjuvant therapy. Both brothers had no recurrence. Pineal mature teratomas have a good prognosis, in contrast to their immature or mixed counterparts. A rigorous histological examination of the tumor samples is mandatory, in order to not omit a mixed contingent within the tumor.

  8. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: The Wrights and Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Cole, Jennifer Hansen; Martin, Cam

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Wright Brothers's flight research during the 10 years between 1899 and 1908. The Wright Brothers began their research in flight with gliders. The presentation shows pictures, replicas and characteristics of the gliders that the Wright Brothers used. This presentation is not just a history lesson. In the end it investigates "What Does Flight Research Accomplish?" Flight research can serve many uses, such as Separates the Real from the Imagined, Uncovers the Unexpected and the Overlooked, Forces the Realistic Integration of the Pilot, Forces the Development of Reliable Prediction and Test Processes, Requires Every Problem to Be Addressed, Promotes Technology Transfer, and Builds a Core Technical Team,

  9. cBrother: relaxing parental tree assumptions for Bayesian recombination detection.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Ding, Jing; Minin, Vladimir N; Suchard, Marc A; Dorman, Karin S

    2007-02-15

    Bayesian multiple change-point models accurately detect recombination in molecular sequence data. Previous Java-based implementations assume a fixed topology for the representative parental data. cBrother is a novel C language implementation that capitalizes on reduced computational time to relax the fixed tree assumption. We show that cBrother is 19 times faster than its predecessor and the fixed tree assumption can influence estimates of recombination in a medically-relevant dataset. cBrother can be freely downloaded from http://www.biomath.org/dormanks/ and can be compiled on Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. Online documentation and a tutorial are also available at the site.

  10. Analysis of the Lehman Brothers collapse and the Flash Crash event by applying wavelets methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccar-Varela, Maria P.; Mariani, Maria C.; Tweneboah, Osei K.; Florescu, Ionut

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we apply a wavelet methodology initially developed for geophysical data to financial data. Specifically, the method distinguishes between natural tectonic earthquakes and man made explosions. We exemplify using time series data from two financial events: the Lehman Brothers collapse and the Flash Crash event. We conclude that the Lehman Brothers collapse behaves like a natural earthquake while the Flash Crash event behaves like a human made explosion. This study may imply that the Lehman Brothers type events may be predicted, while sudden Flash Crash type events are not predictable.

  11. Perchlorate in Fertilizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the generat" public, including foreign nations. This technical...States Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecosystems Research Division (EPA/NERJERD). Laboratories who participated in...laboratories TDS total dissolve:solids UV ultra violet V volts Vi PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS 1.0 INTRODUCTION Perchlorate is a powerful oxidizer used in

  12. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome: Cases of Two Brothers and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Il; Chung, Jae-Myun; Kim, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) has cerebral hemiatrophy and compensatory ipsilateral skull thickening, and is manifested by recurrent seizures and hemiparesis. We present one case with typical DDMS, who had a brother suffering from epilepsy with mild imaging abnormality relevant to DDMS and similar seizure semiology. A 26-year-old man had a history of developmental delay, mental retardation, hemiparesis and recurrent seizures. His brother, 23-year-old man had also experienced recurrent seizures, but he had no neurological deficits. Older brother experienced focal motor seizures with/without secondary generalization. Sometimes, he noted an auditory aura. MRI demonstrated the hemispheric atrophy with the adjacent bony hypertrophy. The seizures of younger brother were mainly of the auditory type and the MRI showed mild hemispheric atrophy with hippocampal sclerosis without any bony change. Our sibling cases might have a familial predisposition and support the idea that clinical courses and radiological findings of DDMS are varied even within one family. PMID:24977128

  13. Dyke-davidoff-masson syndrome: cases of two brothers and literature review.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Il; Chung, Jae-Myun; Kim, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) has cerebral hemiatrophy and compensatory ipsilateral skull thickening, and is manifested by recurrent seizures and hemiparesis. We present one case with typical DDMS, who had a brother suffering from epilepsy with mild imaging abnormality relevant to DDMS and similar seizure semiology. A 26-year-old man had a history of developmental delay, mental retardation, hemiparesis and recurrent seizures. His brother, 23-year-old man had also experienced recurrent seizures, but he had no neurological deficits. Older brother experienced focal motor seizures with/without secondary generalization. Sometimes, he noted an auditory aura. MRI demonstrated the hemispheric atrophy with the adjacent bony hypertrophy. The seizures of younger brother were mainly of the auditory type and the MRI showed mild hemispheric atrophy with hippocampal sclerosis without any bony change. Our sibling cases might have a familial predisposition and support the idea that clinical courses and radiological findings of DDMS are varied even within one family.

  14. Proposed Consent Agreement and Final Order: Wood Brothers Trucking & Construction and Jason Carnahan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's proposed Consent Agreement and Final Order in the matter of Wood Brothers Trucking & Construction and Jason Carnahan for violations of the Clean Water Act at their construction site located outside of Boise, Idaho.

  15. Proposed Penalty Against Wood Brothers Trucking & Construction and Jason Carnahan for Clean Water Act Violations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public notice of EPA's proposed penalty against Wood Brothers Trucking & Construction and Jason Carnahan for violations of the Clean Water Act at their construction site located outside of Boise, Idaho.

  16. The role of brothers and sisters in the gender development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Rust, J; Golombok, S; Hines, M; Johnston, K; Golding, J

    2000-12-01

    The study examined whether the sex of older siblings influences the gender role development of younger brothers and sisters of age 3 years. Data on the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a measure of gender role behavior that discriminates within as well as between the sexes, were obtained in a general population study for 527 girls and 582 boys with an older sister, 500 girls and 561 boys with an older brother, and 1665 singleton girls and 1707 singleton boys. It was found that boys with older brothers and girls with older sisters were more sex-typed than same-sex singletons who, in turn, were more sex-typed than children with other-sex siblings. Having an older brother was associated with more masculine and less feminine behavior in both boys and girls, whereas boys with older sisters were more feminine but not less masculine and girls with older sisters were less masculine but not more feminine.

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-121-1968, Riley Brothers, Inc. , Burlington, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Kramkowski, R.; Salisbury, S.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at Riley Brothers, Inc., Burlington, Iowa. Concern centered around the possibility that certain production workers were exposed to various solvents and that the solvent levels measured in their blood tests were quite varied in nature. The company manufactured paint for different uses according to customer specifications. Major products included formulations of solvent-based paints, and spray painting or dip painting of metal parts. Waterproofing material composed of coal-tar pitch was also made here for use by roofers. One paint formulator had a combined exposure to naphtha and xylene that was 1.7 times the recommended exposure limit. Short term exposures to xylene for two paint strippers were 157 and 173 parts per million (ppm) which exceeded the 150 ppm recommended level. Urinary methyl-hippuric-acid concentrations before and after work shifts indicated a cross shift change greater than 1500 milligrams/gram creatinine which corresponded to an air level of xylene exceeding 100 ppm. Some workers are at risk of developing adverse health effects. Improvements in the ventilation system, use of organic vapor respirators, and use of proper respiratory protection during specified projects are recommended.

  18. Performance of older versus younger brothers: data from major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2007-12-01

    Batting and pitching records and career lengths of 312 sets of brothers who became major league baseball players were compared. Older brothers at non-pitching positions (N = 262) had significantly higher batting averages and longer careers than their younger siblings. Differences for pitchers were not statistically significant. The results corroborate other studies that firstborns are more likely than later born siblings to be higher achievers, but different factors may be operative for pitchers.

  19. The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Charles B.

    The first hot air balloon ascension over Paris in September 1783 has been described so many times that it and its passengers—the sheep, the rooster, and the duck—have joined Benjamin Franklin and his kite in the folklore of our culture. Not so well known is the earlier history of ballooning; that the brothers Montgolfier had demonstrated their hot air balloons repeatedly for several months prior to the ascent over Paris; or that the physicist Charles, urged onward and financed by an enthusiast, Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, launched successfully the first fabric balloon filled with hydrogen over Paris more than 3 weeks prior to the memorable ascent of the sheep, and rooster, and the duck.For all of its well-documented detail, the book is readable and enjoyable. It is a well-written but complex book in which Professor Gillispie develops a number of subjects to recreate the era in perspective. The origins and the disposition of the Montgolfiers, the industry of the period, the idea of capturing heated air are all reported in detail. The attempts to obtain government funding and the promotional activities in Paris were forerunners of the modern techniques for obtaining support of research activities.

  20. A pedigree analysis of familial hypercholesterolemia in monozygote twin brothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Jun; Chen, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Xin

    2003-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the features of a family with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Twenty members of 3 generations in a family with hypercholesterolemia were enrolled in the study. The data collected were from clinical observation and subjected to pedigree analysis. The proband was a 41-year-old male who suffered from angina pectoris with multi-vessel stenosis of coronary arteries at the age of 40. Among 20 members, 8 individuals had FH in this family with a total incidence of 40% (54.5% [6/11] in male and 22.2% [2/9] in female). The serum total cholesterol level was increased in childhood from 7.1 to 10.8 mmol/L and tended to increase with increasing age. In addition, the level of total cholesterol was increased in monozygote twin brothers and their offspring in the family. This pedigree analysis showed that FH appears to be a hereditary disease of autosomal dominance, and attention should be paid, especially in the only son or daughter society of China.

  1. Brother of CDO (BOC) expression in equine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vanderman, K S; Tremblay, M; Zhu, W; Shimojo, M; Mienaltowski, M J; Coleman, S J; MacLeod, J N

    2011-04-01

    Brother of CDO (BOC) is a cell surface receptor that derives its name from the structurally related protein, cell adhesion molecule-related/down-regulated by oncogenes (CDO, sometimes CDON). High levels of BOC mRNA and protein expression have been described in embryonic tissues with active cell proliferation and ongoing cellular differentiation(1,2). A microarray-based screen of RNA isolated from 11 different adult equine tissues unexpectedly identified BOC as having an expression pattern restricted to articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to further investigate BOC expression in adult articular cartilage relative to other tissues. Both RT-qPCR and mRNA sequencing confirmed the microarray data. Steady state BOC mRNA levels in articular cartilage were substantially higher than in the other adult tissues tested, neonatal tendon, placenta, and whole embryo. The expression of BOC displayed a pattern of tissue specificity comparable to well established cartilage matrix protein biomarkers. BOC mRNA levels in articular cartilage increased with age, but were rapidly down-regulated when chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from the cartilage matrix and expanded in monolayer culture. Relative expression patterns of CDO were broadly similar, but displayed lower fold change differences. A functional role in articular cartilage that involves Hedgehog signaling is suggested by the known binding affinity of BOC for all three Hedgehog ligands. These data also extend BOC and CDO biology to a post-mitotic and highly differentiated cell type within a mature tissue. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Familial, structural aberration of the Y chromosome with fertility disorders].

    PubMed

    Gall, H; Schmid, M; Schmidtke, J; Schempp, W; Weber, L

    1985-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies on a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome revealed an inherited, structural aberration of the Y-chromosome which has not been described before. The aberrant Y-chromosome was characterized by eight different banding methods. The value of individual staining techniques in studies on Y-heterochromatin aberrations is emphasized. Analysis of the cytogenetic studies (banding methods, restriction endonuclease of DNA, and measurement of the length of the Y-chromosome) permits an interpretation to be made on how the aberrant Y-chromosome originated. The functions of the Y-chromosome are discussed. The decrease in fertility (cryptozoospermia) in the two brothers with the same aberrant Y-chromosome was striking.

  3. Extreme right-handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation in men.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most consistent correlates of sexual orientation in men are handedness and fraternal birth order (i.e., number of older brothers). In the present study, the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation was studied in 4 samples of heterosexual and gay or bisexual men (N = 944). Unlike previous studies, which have only observed an increased rate of non-right-handedness in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men, an elevated rate of extreme right-handedness was found in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men. The results also demonstrated that older brothers moderate the relationship between handedness and sexual orientation. Specifically, older brothers increase the odds of being gay or bisexual in moderate right-handers only; in both non-right-handers and extreme right-handers, older brothers do not affect (or decrease) the odds of being gay or bisexual. The results have implications for an early neurodevelopmental origin to sexual orientation in men. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for gonadotrophin secretory and steroidogenic abnormalities in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, D M; Torchen, L C; Sung, Y; Paparodis, R; Legro, R S; Grebe, S K; Singh, R J; Taylor, R L; Dunaif, A

    2014-12-01

    Are there abnormalities in gonadotrophin secretion, adrenal steroidogenesis and/or testicular steroidogenesis in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Brothers of women with PCOS have increased gonadotrophin responses to gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation and alterations in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. PCOS is a complex genetic disease. Male as well as female first-degree relatives have reproductive features of the syndrome. We previously reported that brothers of affected women have elevated circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. This was a case-control study performed in 29 non-Hispanic white brothers of 22 women with PCOS and 18 control men. PCOS brothers and control men were of comparable age, weight and ethnicity. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and GnRH agonist stimulation tests were performed. Gonadotrophin responses to GnRH agonist as well as changes in precursor-product steroid pairs (delta, Δ) across steroidogenic pathways in response to ACTH and GnRH agonist were examined. Basal total (T) levels did not differ, but dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels (0.13 ± 0.08 brothers versus 0.22 ± 0.09 controls, nmol/l, P = 0.03) were lower in brothers compared with control men. ACTH-stimulated Δ17-hydroxypregnenolone (17Preg)/Δ17-hydroxyprogesterone (17Prog) (7.8 ± 24.2 brothers versus 18.9 ± 21.3 controls, P = 0.04) and ΔDHEA/Δandrostenedione (AD) (0.10 ± 0.05 brothers versus 0.14 ± 0.08 controls, P = 0.04) were lower in brothers than in the controls. GnRH agonist-stimulated Δ17Prog/ΔAD (0.28 ± 8.47 brothers versus 4.79 ± 10.28 controls, P = 0.003) was decreased and luteinizing hormone (38.6 ± 20.6 brothers versus 26.0 ± 9.8 controls, IU/l, P = 0.02), follicle-stimulating hormone (10.2 ± 7.5 brothers versus 4.8 ± 4.1 controls, IU/l P = 0.002), AD (1.7 ± 1.4 brothers versus 0.9 ± 1.5 controls, nmol/l, P = 0.02) and ΔAD/ΔT (0.16 ± 0.14 brothers versus 0.08 ± 0.12 controls, P

  5. Evidence for gonadotrophin secretory and steroidogenic abnormalities in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D.M.; Torchen, L.C.; Sung, Y.; Paparodis, R.; Legro, R.S.; Grebe, S.K.; Singh, R.J.; Taylor, R.L.; Dunaif, A.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there abnormalities in gonadotrophin secretion, adrenal steroidogenesis and/or testicular steroidogenesis in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER Brothers of women with PCOS have increased gonadotrophin responses to gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation and alterations in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY PCOS is a complex genetic disease. Male as well as female first-degree relatives have reproductive features of the syndrome. We previously reported that brothers of affected women have elevated circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was a case–control study performed in 29 non-Hispanic white brothers of 22 women with PCOS and 18 control men. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS PCOS brothers and control men were of comparable age, weight and ethnicity. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and GnRH agonist stimulation tests were performed. Gonadotrophin responses to GnRH agonist as well as changes in precursor-product steroid pairs (delta, Δ) across steroidogenic pathways in response to ACTH and GnRH agonist were examined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Basal total (T) levels did not differ, but dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels (0.13 ± 0.08 brothers versus 0.22 ± 0.09 controls, nmol/l, P = 0.03) were lower in brothers compared with control men. ACTH-stimulated Δ17-hydroxypregnenolone (17Preg)/Δ17-hydroxyprogesterone (17Prog) (7.8 ± 24.2 brothers versus 18.9 ± 21.3 controls, P = 0.04) and ΔDHEA/Δandrostenedione (AD) (0.10 ± 0.05 brothers versus 0.14 ± 0.08 controls, P = 0.04) were lower in brothers than in the controls. GnRH agonist-stimulated Δ17Prog/ΔAD (0.28 ± 8.47 brothers versus 4.79 ± 10.28 controls, P = 0.003) was decreased and luteinizing hormone (38.6 ± 20.6 brothers versus 26.0 ± 9.8 controls, IU/l, P = 0.02), follicle-stimulating hormone (10.2 ± 7.5 brothers versus 4.8 ± 4

  6. Fragile X syndrome: Discordant levels of CGG repeat mosaicism in two brothers

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, O.T.; Hartsfield, J.K. Jr.; Amar, M.J.A.

    1995-08-14

    Fragile X syndrome is associated with an unstable repeated CGG trinucleotide sequence in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR-1 gene. A significant number of individuals with a mild or atypical presentation are mosaics for the CGG expansion. We report a family with two brothers. The proband had severe mental retardation as well as most of the Fragile X syndrome stigmata, whereas his brother shows only mild learning difficulties. Both inherited a 80 x CGG trinucleotide premutation from the mother. They were negative for the FRAXA fragile site in over 100 metaphases examined. Flanking markers verified that both had inherited the same FMR-1 allele and Xq27-q28 flanking sequences from the mother. The methylation status of the brothers indicated active FMR-1 transcription as determined by using StB12.3/EcoRI + Eagl blots. CGG size or methylation mosaicism was not apparent from Southern blots. Polymerase chain reaction and chemiluminescent detection identified that both brothers had different degrees of mosaicism for the CGG expansion. Large expansions amounting to 70% of the total were visible in the proband, whereas less than 5% of the signal was larger than the premutation in his mildly affected brother. These findings suggest that mosaicism may be responsible for some of the variation in penetrance in this disorder. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  8. Legal consequences for torture in children cases: the Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers vs Peru case.

    PubMed

    Tinta, Monica Feria

    2009-01-01

    The Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers case, before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, was the first international case concerning the protection of children in the context of armed conflict where an international court stated the law concerning the duties of States towards children even in the context of war, and provided for reparations. As such it represents a landmark decision. The case arose from the illegal detention, torture and extrajudicial execution of two minors, Emilio and Rafael Gomez Paquiyauri, at the hands of Peruvian Police in 1991, under the Fujimori Administration at a time when the internal war in Peru was at its peak. Unlike most cases coming to the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court, the case had been subject to domestic criminal investigations that had led to the convictions of two low ranking policemen. Yet a more subtle pattern of impunity lied at the root of the case. Torture had been denied by the State, and the prosecutions of low ranking policemen had intended to cover up the responsibility of those who ordered a policy of torture and executions (including the existence of secret codes for the torture and elimination of suspects of "terrorism") during the years of the internal armed conflict in Peru. The joint work of legal and medical expertise in the litigation of the case permitted the establishment of the facts and the law, obtaining an award of 740,500 dollars for the victims and a number of measures of reparation including guarantees of non-repetition and satisfaction, such as the naming of a school after the victims.

  9. The consequences of antisocial behavior in older male siblings for younger brothers and sisters.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jim; Bank, Lew; Burraston, Bert

    2005-12-01

    The contribution of younger male and female siblings' conflict and involvement in deviant activities with their older brothers to younger siblings' adolescent adjustment problems was examined in the context of parenting. Ineffective parenting during younger siblings' childhood had no direct effects on adjustment but facilitated their exposure to older brothers' deviant peers and activities. The effect of sibling conflict on adjustment was mediated by younger siblings' coparticipation in deviant activities with their older brothers during adolescence. Early sibling conflict and coparticipation in deviant activities synergistically increased the risk for younger siblings' adolescent adjustment problems. These empirical relations held in the context of parental discipline of younger siblings during adolescence. Sibling relationships entail a set of iterative social processes that strongly influence risk for adolescent antisocial behavior, drug use, sexual behavior, and traumatic experience. Variations in sibling influence were observed conditional on the gender combination of the sibling pair and on sibling age differences. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Fertility preservation 2

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  11. Brother-sister incest - father-daughter incest: a comparison of characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Rudd, J M; Herzberger, S D

    1999-09-01

    One group of women who were sexually abused by brothers and a second group who were sexually abused by fathers are compared with the intent to identify the differing characteristics of each type of abuse and the effects of the abuse on their adult functioning. Our hypothesis was that there would indeed be differences in the characteristics of the abuse and its effects, and that this would necessitate differing treatment strategies. Surveys were distributed to women attending support groups for incest survivors. Of the 62 women completing questionnaires, 14 women (23%) had been sexually abused by a brother. A similar number of women (15) who had been sexually abused by their fathers were chosen from the overall sample for comparison. The absence of the father as a vital force in family life played a key role in the sexual abuse of women by their brothers in every case. The duration of the sexual abuse for brother-abused women and father-abused women was lengthy. The characteristics, including use of force, are equally as serious for sisters as for daughters. The family circumstances surrounding the abuse were examined for both groups and the results yielded a fuller understanding of the incestuous family. Despite an appearance of normalcy, the level of family-wide disturbances, for example substance abuse, mental illness and pervasive family-wide violence were profound for both groups. In this study, we also examine the effects in adulthood of the serious disruption of childhood developmental phases for both brother-abused and father-abused women, taking into account the incidence of substance abuse, depression, suicidality, and eating disorders. The authors conclude that the characteristics and consequences of brother-sister incest are of equal seriousness to those of father-daughter incest. This would suggest that brother-sister incest is one of the current blind spots in incest research, and one that we cannot afford to ignore. In-depth knowledge of the dynamics

  12. Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome: Brothers with a homozygous STAMBP mutation, uncovered by exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Sogaty, Sameera; Rasool, Mahmood; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abutalib, Yousif Ahmed; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R; Merico, Daniele; Carter, Melissa T; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H; Zarrei, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    We describe two brothers from a consanguineous family of Egyptian ancestry, presenting with microcephaly, apparent global developmental delay, seizures, spasticity, congenital blindness, and multiple cutaneous capillary malformations. Through exome sequencing, we uncovered a homozygous missense variant in STAMBP (p.K303R) in the two siblings, inherited from heterozygous carrier parents. Mutations in STAMBP are known to cause microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MIC-CAP) and the phenotype in this family is consistent with this diagnosis. We compared the findings in the present brothers with those of earlier reported patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  14. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  15. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  16. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  17. Intrafamilial Sexual Abuse: Brother-Sister Incest Does Not Differ from Father-Daughter and Stepfather-Stepdaughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain

    2002-01-01

    A study compared 72 girls (ages 5-16) sexually abused by brothers, fathers, or stepfathers. Results suggested few differences in characteristics of sexual abuse. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest group. More victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically significant distress (90%), than stepfather victims…

  18. 77 FR 46439 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in Toledo, Ohio, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Bakers Brothers site in...

  19. "Our Boys": The Christian Brothers and the Formation of Youth in the "New Ireland"1914-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Daire

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the development of the boys' magazine, "Our Boys," and how this became a powerful auxiliary to the Christian Brothers' work in schools. It championed the values that the Christian Brothers had propagated since their foundation in 1802. Often characterised as Celtic and Romantic, it was neither, but aimed at…

  20. "Our Boys": The Christian Brothers and the Formation of Youth in the "New Ireland"1914-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Daire

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the development of the boys' magazine, "Our Boys," and how this became a powerful auxiliary to the Christian Brothers' work in schools. It championed the values that the Christian Brothers had propagated since their foundation in 1802. Often characterised as Celtic and Romantic, it was neither, but aimed at…

  1. Containment of fertilizers and pesticides at retail operations

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1990-06-28

    Environmental protection has become as important to the fertilizer retailer as the products and services he offers. Emphasis on environmental protection at the dealer level is largely in response to state regulations designed to protect groundwater. The national Clean Water Act of 1987 gave states the lead in developing groundwater protection strategies. Several states have adopted new or stronger regulations and others are moving to do so. Fertilizer dealers need to keep up with these regulations and promote groundwater protection. This paper describes several containment systems for fertilizers and pesticides to help dealers decide how to modify their plants to protect groundwater.

  2. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to ... fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child. During IVF, mature eggs are ...

  3. TCRC Fertility Page

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually ... Orchiectomy: As I mentioned, many men who have testicular cancer also already have fertility problems. In some, the ...

  4. Severe complications in wound healing and fracture treatment in two brothers with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Marion; Spiegler, Juliane; Härtel, Christoph; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabrielle; Kaiser, Martin M

    2013-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 (NTRK1) gene, which encodes the receptor for nerve growth factor. We report the clinical and radiological pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of two brothers, aged 5 and 8 years, with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, the older brother having a proven NTRK1 mutation. In the neonatal period, both presented with recurrent episodes of fever of unknown origin, but their clinical problems changed later. In addition to severe mental retardation and self-harming behaviour, the older brother developed recurrent nonbacterial destructive infections of both the calcaneus and later the talus. No immunodeficiency was found. The younger brother had three complex fractures with a long history of healing problems: overwhelming production of callus, osteomyelitis and movement restrictions. He has less mental retardation than his older brother and shows no self-mutilation.

  5. Evidence of environmental suppression of familial resemblance: height among US Civil War brothers.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Rathouz, P J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines, with historical data, whether within family correlations in height varied across environments and whether variability in height was greater in worse environments. To investigate these hypotheses, brothers were identified who were mustered into the Union Army of the US Civil War, using linked records from the 1850 and 1860 censuses and military and medical records. Heights were available for 3898 men aged 18 and older, of whom 595 were further identified as belonging to 288 family sets of two, three or four brothers. Generalized estimating equations were used to concurrently model the mean height, the variance and the correlation between brothers as a function of county population. Heights decreased as county population size increased (p<0.001). The correlation between brothers' heights decreased significantly (p = 0.032) with increasing county population, and the variance increased (p = 0.026). The correlation ranged approximately from 0.63 in the least populous to 0.24 in the most populous counties. The degree of familial resemblance was lower in environments where mean height was lower, and the variability in height was greater, suggesting that the environmental contribution to the variability in height is of greater relative importance in populations reared, on average, in worse environments.

  6. Brief Report: Comparative ABA and DIR Trials in Twin Brothers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jane C.; Seal, Brenda C.

    2007-01-01

    Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted…

  7. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  8. Two Brothers, Two Cities: Music Education in Boston and Cincinnati from 1830-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzo, Terri Brown; Resta, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The birth of American music education is often attributed solely to Lowell Mason in Boston. His younger brother Timothy, however, was also active at the same time in Cincinnati. This study traces the roots of music education in both cities, but highlights the rarely cited accomplishments of Timothy Mason and his colleagues. Using historical…

  9. Learning English through Social Interaction: The Case of "Big Brother 2006," Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaanta, Leila; Jauni, Heidi; Leppanen, Sirpa; Peuronen, Saija; Paakkinen, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In line with recent Conversation Analytic work on language learning as situated practice, this article investigates how interactants can create language learning opportunities for themselves and others in and through social interaction. The study shows how the participants of "Big Brother Finland," a reality TV show, whose main…

  10. Two Brothers, Two Cities: Music Education in Boston and Cincinnati from 1830-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzo, Terri Brown; Resta, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The birth of American music education is often attributed solely to Lowell Mason in Boston. His younger brother Timothy, however, was also active at the same time in Cincinnati. This study traces the roots of music education in both cities, but highlights the rarely cited accomplishments of Timothy Mason and his colleagues. Using historical…

  11. When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

  12. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  13. The Wright Brothers and the Future of Bio-Inspired Flight: 1899 through to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that proceeded the first powered flight.

  14. Brothers in Excellence: An Empowerment Model for the Career Development of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The author describes Brothers in Excellence (BE), a conceptual model for understanding African American boys and helping them to be successful. BE addresses 3 domains of development proposed to be essential to the success of all African American boys: identity development, social development, and career development. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. A Thousand Lights [and] A Thousand Lights: Teacher and Parent Guide. Brothers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of two brothers, one of whom has a severe hearing impairment, who climb up Mt. Fuji in Japan. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage the reader to relate more personally and foster a deeper level of acceptance…

  16. A Thousand Lights [and] A Thousand Lights: Teacher and Parent Guide. Brothers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of two brothers, one of whom has a severe hearing impairment, who climb up Mt. Fuji in Japan. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage the reader to relate more personally and foster a deeper level of acceptance…

  17. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: The Wrights and Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Cole, Jennifer Hansen; Martin, Cam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that preceeded the first powered flight.

  18. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  19. Sibling Communication in "Star Trek: The Next Generation": Conflicts between Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn

    "Star Trek: The Next Generation" depicts sibling relationships between Data and Lore (android), Worf and Kurn (Klingon) and Jean-Luc and Robert (human) that illustrate conflictual communication and suggest teaching applications. The most disturbing empirical communication research on conflict between brothers reports that male sibling…

  20. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  1. The Liability of Having Brothers: Paying for College and the Sex Composition of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects that the sex composition of family has upon ways in which families finance higher education. Finds that as the number of brothers increases, the likelihood that a student will meet his financial obligation through means other than parental contribution becomes greater. Suggests sex composition is a structural element of the…

  2. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...

  3. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...

  4. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...

  5. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...

  6. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  7. Another Look at Vividness in the Trial of Two Vietnamese Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnahan, Mary I.

    A study examined the trial of People v. Tien (two Vietnamese brothers named defendants in an assault case). In order to understand better the relationship between supportive speech acts and credibility, the study examined how the attorney elicited vivid testimony. One of the ways in which an attorney yields control of testimony to a witness is by…

  8. The Irish Christian Brothers and the National Board of Education: Challenging the Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    For close to 170 years the general consensus from historians has been that Edmund Rice, who founded the Irish Christian Brothers in 1802, was an unenthusiastic applicant to the National Board of Education in Ireland in 1832 and later withdrew his schools because he believed his education was incompatible with the philosophy underpinning the…

  9. Serving, Learning and Mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivukamaran, Thillainatarajan; Holland, Glenda; Clark, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the collaborative partnership between a Big Brothers Big Sisters organization, an elementary school and the College of Education at a public university. The partnership utilized a mentoring system consisting of elementary students, college students, elementary teachers and university faculty. Benefits of the various…

  10. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  11. 3 CFR 8918 - Proclamation 8918 of December 17, 2012. Wright Brothers Day, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... December 17, 2012 Proc. 8918 Wright Brothers Day, 2012By the President of the United States of America A... example inspired the kind of businesses and industries that built and grew our middle class. As we mark... requested the President to issue annually a proclamation inviting the people of the United States to...

  12. Inherited germline ATRX mutation in two brothers with ATR-X syndrome and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianling; Quindipan, Catherine; Parham, David; Shen, Lishuang; Ruble, David; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T; Gai, Xiaowu; Saitta, Sulagna C; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Mascarenhas, Leo

    2017-05-01

    We report a family in which two brothers had an undiagnosed genetic disorder comprised of dysmorphic features, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability (non-verbal), mild anemia, and cryptorchidism. Both developed osteosarcoma. Trio exome sequencing (using blood samples from the younger brother and both parents) was performed and a nonsense NM_000489.4:c.7156C>T (p.Arg2386*) mutation in the ATRX gene was identified in the proband (hemizygous) and in the mother's peripheral blood DNA (heterozygous). The mother is healthy, does not exhibit any clinical manifestations of ATR-X syndrome and there was no family history of cancer. The same hemizygous pathogenic variant was confirmed in the affected older brother's skin tissue by subsequent Sanger sequencing. Chromosomal microarray studies of both brothers' osteosarcomas revealed complex copy number alterations consistent with the clinical diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Recently, somatic mutations in the ATRX gene have been observed as recurrent alterations in both osteosarcoma and brain tumors. However, it is unclear if there is any association between osteosarcoma and germline ATRX mutations, specifically in patients with constitutional ATR-X syndrome. This is the first report of osteosarcoma diagnosed in two males with ATR-X syndrome, suggesting a potential increased risk for cancer in patients with this disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. My Brother as "Problem": Neoliberal Governmentality and Interventions for Black Young Men and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…

  14. Learning English through Social Interaction: The Case of "Big Brother 2006," Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaanta, Leila; Jauni, Heidi; Leppanen, Sirpa; Peuronen, Saija; Paakkinen, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In line with recent Conversation Analytic work on language learning as situated practice, this article investigates how interactants can create language learning opportunities for themselves and others in and through social interaction. The study shows how the participants of "Big Brother Finland," a reality TV show, whose main…

  15. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  16. "Brothers and Sisters": A Novel Way to Teach Human Resources Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumpus, Minnette

    2000-01-01

    The novel "Brothers and Sisters" by Bebe Moore Campbell was used in a management course to explore human resource management issues, concepts, and theories. The course included prereading and postreading surveys, lecture, book review, and examination. Most of the students (92%) felt the novel was an appropriate way to meet course…

  17. My Brother as "Problem": Neoliberal Governmentality and Interventions for Black Young Men and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…

  18. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  19. The Irish Christian Brothers and the National Board of Education: Challenging the Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    For close to 170 years the general consensus from historians has been that Edmund Rice, who founded the Irish Christian Brothers in 1802, was an unenthusiastic applicant to the National Board of Education in Ireland in 1832 and later withdrew his schools because he believed his education was incompatible with the philosophy underpinning the…

  20. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  1. Effects of free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE), N fertilization and poplar genotype on the physical protection of carbon in the mineral soil of a polar plantation after five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoosbeek, M. R.; Vos, J. M.; Bakker, E. J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E.

    2006-11-01

    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading forests and plantations have demonstrated significant increases in net primary production (NPP) and C storage in forest vegetation. The extra C uptake may also be stored in forest floor litter and in forest soil. After five years of FACE treatment at the EuroFACE short rotation poplar plantation, the increase of total soil C% was larger under elevated than under ambient CO2. However, the fate of this additional C allocated belowground remains unclear. The stability of soil organic matter is controlled by the chemical structure of the organic matter and the formation of micro-aggregates (within macro-aggregates) in which organic matter is stabilized and protected. FACE and N-fertilization treatment did not affect the micro- and macro-aggregate weight, C or N fractions obtained by wet sieving. However, Populus euramericana increased the small macro-aggregate and free micro-aggregate weight and C fractions. The obtained macro-aggregates were broken up in order to isolate recently formed micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates (iM-micro-aggregates). FACE increased the iM-micro-aggregate weight and C fractions, although not significantly. This study reveals that FACE did not affect the formation of aggregates. We did, however, observe a trend of increased stabilization and protection of soil C in micro-aggregates formed within macro-aggregates under FACE. Moreover, the largest effect on aggregate formation was due to differences in species, i.e. poplar genotype. P. euramericana increased the formation of free micro-aggregates which means that more newly incorporated soil C was stabilized and protected. The choice of species in a plantation, or the effect of global change on species diversity, may therefore affect the stabilization and protection of C in soils.

  2. Quantitative and theoretical analyses of the relation between older brothers and homosexuality in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2004-09-21

    Meta-analysis of aggregate data from 14 samples representing 10,143 male subjects shows that homosexuality in human males is predicted by higher numbers of older brothers, but not by higher numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The relation between number of older brothers and sexual orientation holds only for males. This phenomenon has therefore been called the fraternal birth order effect. Research on birth order, birth weight, and sexual orientation suggests that the developmental pathway to homosexuality initiated by older brothers operates during prenatal life. Calculations assuming a causal relation between older brothers and sexual orientation have estimated the proportion of homosexual men who owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order at 15% in one study and 29% in another. The maternal immune hypothesis proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male fetus and the increasing effects of such immunization on sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. There are at least three possible mechanisms by which the mother's immune response could influence the fetus: the transfer of anti-male antibodies across the placenta from the maternal into the fetal compartment, the transfer of maternal cytokines across the placenta, and maternal immune reactions affecting the placenta itself. This hypothesis is consistent with recent studies showing that the quantity of fetal cells that enter the maternal circulation is greater than previously thought, and that the number of male-specific proteins encoded by Y-chromosome genes is greater than previously thought.

  3. Fertilization To Accelerate Loblolly Pine Foliage Growth For Erosion Control

    Treesearch

    Paul D. Duffy

    1977-01-01

    On the southern Coastal Plain, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) can be used to help control erosion because it produces abundant soil-protecting litter. The species requires several years to produce enough litter for adequate soil protection, but on loamy soils fertilization can reduce the time by a year or more. When five fertilizer combinations...

  4. Hyperechogenicity of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease: Insights from Two Brothers with Markedly Different Disease Durations

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Julie M.; Georgiades, Matthew J.; Hammond, Deborah A.; Feng, Xiaoting; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Todd, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    We present clinical features and substantia nigra morphology for two brothers with Parkinson's disease (PD) aged 60 and 59 years. The brothers were diagnosed at 41 and 50 years of age, respectively. Both patients exhibited an abnormally large area of substantia nigra echogenicity bilaterally when viewed with transcranial ultrasound. The abnormality was similar in both brothers despite one having a much longer disease duration than the other. These findings further highlight that transcranial ultrasound is not associated with severity of clinical symptoms, but it might assist in the diagnosis of PD provided that it is combined with other variables known to precede PD. PMID:28168069

  5. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  6. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  7. Radiation protection of male fertility in mouse and rat by a combination of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and a thiol compound (AET).

    PubMed

    George, S; Chuttani, K; Basu, S K

    1992-01-01

    Sperm abnormalities and fall in total sperm count following different doses (4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy) of whole body gamma irradiation (WBGR) were studied in adult male Swiss strain A mice. The protecting ability of a combination of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, 100 mg/kg) and 2-aminoethyl isothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET, 20 mg/kg) was also investigated. Pretreatment with a 5-HTP+AET formulation i.p., 30 min before irradiation modified the fall in sperm counts significantly. Exposures to 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy WBGR caused marked increase of sperm abnormalities which could be significantly reduced by pretreatment with 5-HTP-AET. WBGR with 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy produced a short period of sterility associated with oligospermia but these abnormalities were corrected by pretreatment with 5-HTP+AET. This finding was supported by breeding experiments in pretreated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which showed delivery of normal offsprings in drug-protected irradiated groups in contrast to irradiated controls.

  8. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.

    PubMed

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G G; Mortensen, M S; Oturai, P S; Mortensen, J; Hojman, P; Helge, J W; Daugaard, G

    2017-07-01

    Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular cancer survivors included, 24 had a biological brother who accepted to participate in the study. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria and National Cholesterol Education Program (Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria comprised the main outcome measures of the study. Median age was similar in testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers [44 years (IQR 39-50) vs. 46 (40-53) years respectively (p = 0.1)]. In testicular cancer survivors, follow-up since treatment was 12 years (7-19). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart from HDL-cholesterol, which was lower in testicular cancer survivors (p = 0.01); there were no differences in the individual components of the metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their brothers. In conclusion, gonadal function was impaired in testicular cancer survivors, while we did not detect any difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers. © 2017 American

  9. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Mary Ellen; CONFINO, Rafael; STEINBERG, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  10. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation.

  11. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  12. TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate rock is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Due to its chemical properties, phosphate rock may contain significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  13. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  14. The influence of big brothers on the separation-individuation of adolescents from single-parent families.

    PubMed

    Saintonge, S; Achille, P A; Lachance, L

    1998-01-01

    The separation-individuation process involving children and their mothers is facilitated by fathers. Divorce complicates this process. This study investigated whether substitute father figures can aid male adolescents from single-parent families with separation-individuation. Twenty-nine adolescents matched to Big Brothers were compared with two control groups (adolescents from single-parent families without Big Brothers and those from intact families) on relevant variables. Findings indicated that the adolescents with Big Brothers were less affected by parental rejection than were adolescents in the two control groups. They also appeared to have healthier narcissism than did adolescents from single-parent families without Big Brothers, but were more anxious when relating to male teachers than were adolescents from intact families.

  15. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  16. Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

  17. Brotherly Advice: Letters from Hugo to Paul Ehrenfest in his Final Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2006-03-01

    At the start of the 1930s, theoretician Paul Ehrenfest spent much of his time traveling through America and Europe while engaged in a steady stream of lectures. This traveling phase coincided with a frantic and intense period of negative self-examination, financial difficulty, and various other personal concerns that would ultimately lead to his 1933 suicide. Throughout these final years, he kept up a steady correspondence with his brother Hugo, a physician based in Saint Louis. Ten years older than Paul, Hugo freely doled out frank psychological advice about subjects ranging from the proper treatment of children to the dangers of self-pity. Through a look at some of the letters exchanged between the two brothers, this talk will examine the role Hugo played during the dark final years of Paul Ehrenfest's life.

  18. Learning to Fly: The Wright Brothers' Adventure. A Guide for Educators and Students with Activities in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R.; Benson, T.; Galica, C.; McCredie, P.

    2003-01-01

    This guide was produced by the NASA Glenn Research Center Office of Educational Programs in Cleveland, OH, and the NASA Aerospace Educational Coordinating Committee. It includes activity modules for students, including the history of the Wright Brothers and their family in Dayton, Ohio and flight experimentation in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Student activities such as building models of the Wright Brothers glider and writing press releases of the initial flight are included.

  19. Renal tubular dysgenesis, absent nipples, and multiple malformations in three brothers: a new, lethal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hisama, F M; Reyes-Mugica, M; Wargowski, D S; Thompson, K J; Mahoney, M J

    1998-12-04

    We report on three brothers with renal tubular dysgenesis and absent nipples, each also had other malformations including pre-auricular pits and a preauricular tag, branchial clefts, choanal atresia, pulmonary lobation anomaly, ventricular septal defect, type IIB interrupted aortic arch, absent gallbladder, absent thymus, parathyroid gland, accessory spleen, imperforate anus, clinodactyly, and broad digits and small nails. All three infants died neonatally. This pattern of clinical malformations appears to be a previously unreported syndrome.

  20. X-linked mental retardation syndrome: Three brothers with the Brooks-Wisniewski-Brown syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Morava, E.; Storcz, J.; Kosztolanyi, G.

    1996-07-12

    We report on 3 brothers with growth and mental retardation, bifrontal narrowness, short palpebral fissures, deeply set eyes with entropion, wide bulbous nose, small mouth, myopia, and spastic diplegia. The patients were born to normal and non-consanguineous parents. The similarity of our cases with those recently reported by Brooks et al. supports their suggestion that these patients are representative of a distinct entity. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Osteosclerosis in two brothers with autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b: bone histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Rauch, Frank; Lawson, Margaret L; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Lawrence, Sarah; Bastepe, Murat; Jüppner, Harald; Ward, Leanne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia resulting from selective renal resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). One autosomal dominant form of PHP type 1b (PHP-Ib) is most frequently caused by a maternally inherited 3-kb deletion within STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin 16. To date, increased bone mineral density (BMD) has been described only in PHP type 1a, and there is a lack of detailed information on bone histomorphometry in PHP-Ib. The objective of this report was to present trans-iliac static and dynamic histomorphometry in two brothers with the 3-kb deletion in the STX16 region and elevated BMD. Observational study of two brothers (age 18.0 and 22.7 years) with the 3-kb STX16 deletion and increased BMD. The brothers had elevated PTH (146 pg/ml (15.6 pmol/l) and 102 pg/ml (10.9 pmol/l); normal: 10-64 pg/ml (1.1-6.8 pmol/l)) and striking osteosclerosis (lumbar spine areal BMD Z-scores: +5.4 and +4.9). Bone histomorphometry showed marked elevations in cortical width for both brothers (241 and 209% of the mean result expected for age), with elevations in the bone formation rate on the endocortical (119 and 260% of the healthy mean) and trabecular (220 and 190% of mean) surfaces. Our findings suggest that PTH in this PHP-Ib genotype can increase cortical thickness due to its anabolic effect on endocortical bone, and underscore the heterogeneity in the skeletal phenotype among patients with PHP-Ib.

  2. Brother-sister incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-sister incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse).

  3. Two otherwise healthy young brothers present with intermittent claudication, just a coincidence?

    PubMed

    Clifford, Thomas; Moore, Jonathan

    2017-07-06

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a recognised cause of lower limb peripheral arterial disease in young adults. We describe the cases of two otherwise healthy brothers who presented with the condition 5 years apart. The first brother, who is also the first author of this case report, presented aged 19 with worsening, right-sided, exercise-induced lower leg pain and transient foot pallor. Imaging confirmed PAES and irreversible localised arterial damage. Surgery was performed to release the entrapment and resect the section of diseased artery. The limb was revascularised using an autologous interposition saphenous vein graft. The second brother began experiencing left-sided, exercise-induced lower leg pain aged 24. Again, imaging revealed PAES and irreversible arterial damage. A similar revascularisation procedure was performed. Both siblings fully recovered and are symptom free. Arterial duplex scans have confirmed patent grafts. A correlation in siblings has only been reported in the literature five times previously. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-men [top] ASCO. (2016). ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-women [top] National Cancer ...

  5. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are available ...

  6. Female Fertility Issues

    Cancer.gov

    Fertility issues are common in women getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include egg freezing, embryo freezing, ovarian tissue freezing, ovarian shielding and ovarian transposition. Resources, support, and clinical trials are listed.

  7. Male Fertility Issues

    Cancer.gov

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  8. Fertilizer trends 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Contents of this publication are as follows: TVA fertilizer program; the fertilizer market; trends in nutrient use; nitrogen; phosphate; potash; sulfur; Canada; North American production capacity data; and statistical sources and suggested references.

  9. Commercial Fertilizers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

  10. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007279.htm In vitro fertilization (IVF) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg ...

  11. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  12. Respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization.

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, J W; Shapiro, B M

    1989-01-01

    Partially reduced oxygen species are toxic, yet sea urchin eggs synthesize H2O2 in a "respiratory burst" at fertilization, as an extracellular oxidant to crosslink their protective surface envelopes. To study the biochemical mechanism for H2O2 production, we have isolated an NADPH-specific oxidase fraction from homogenates of unfertilized Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs that produces H2O2 when stimulated with Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Concentrations of free Ca2+ previously implicated in regulation of egg activation modulate the activity of the oxidase. Inhibitors were used to test the relevance of this oxidase to the respiratory burst of fertilization. Procaine, two phenothiazines, and N-ethylmaleimide (but not iodoacetamide) inhibited H2O2 production by the oxidase fraction and oxygen consumption by activated eggs. The ATP requirement suggested that protein kinase activity might regulate the respiratory burst of fertilization; consonant with this hypothesis, H-7 and staurosporine were inhibitory. The respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization is an NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase that appears to be regulated by a protein kinase; although it bears a remarkable resemblance to the neutrophil oxidase, unlike the latter it does not form O2- as its initial product. PMID:2537493

  13. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from 2002-2006 to 2007-2011. Fertilizer information is reported by state fertilizer control offices and excludes livestock manure, liming materials, peat, potting soils, soil amendments, soil additives, and soil conditioners.

  14. Who fertilizes the forest?

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Tree fertilization is a common service provided by commercial arborists and landscapers. Customers and clients are familiar with fertilization from the care of house or garden plants. Any hardware or garden supply store has attractive packages of colored crystals or liquid solutions that promise rapid growth and abundant blossoms. This familiarity with fertilization of...

  15. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  16. Commercial fertilizers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    Fertilizer consumption information in the USA for 1992 submitted by state regulatory officials is presented. This includes total sales or shipments for farm and non-farm use. Liming materials were excluded. Materials used for manufacture or blending of reported fertilizers or for use in other fertilizers are excluded to avoid double-counting. The consumption of multiple-nutrient and single-nutrient fertilizers is listed. Dry bulk, fluid, and bagged classes are given. Typical fertilizers include: anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium nitrates, ammonium sulfates, phosphoric acid, superphosphates, potassium chlorides, and potassium sulfates.

  17. Comparison between human sperm preservation medium and TEST-yolk buffer on protecting chromatin and morphology integrity of human spermatozoa in fertile and subfertile men after freeze-thawing procedure.

    PubMed

    Hammadeh, M E; Greiner, S; Rosenbaum, P; Schmidt, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the detrimental effect of the freeze-thaw process on chromatin integrity and morphology of human spermatozoa, and to determine whether human sperm preservation medium (HSPM) or TEST-yolk buffer (TYB) offers a better protection to spermatozoa from cryodamage after the freeze-thaw procedure. Thirty-five semen samples obtained from couples childless because of male factor infertility (subfertile men, group 1) and 25 semen samples from healthy, normal volunteers of proven fertility (group 2) were included in the study. Each semen sample was divided into 2 parts, the first part was mixed with HSPM and the other with TYB (1:1), and frozen with a controlled slow-stage freezer, before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Twelve smears from each semen sample were made before (n = 4) and after (n = 8) the freeze-thaw process. Chromatin structure was evaluated after staining using the acridine orange (AO) test, whereas morphology was analyzed according to strict criteria. The mean percentage of spermatozoa that exhibited normal morphology and intact chromatin structure was decreased after freeze-thaw in all samples treated with HSPM or TYB in comparison with the value observed in the native semen samples of both groups. However, TYB preserved chromatin and morphology significantly better than HSPM did (9.3% +/- 5.6% and 88.7% +/- 11.2% vs. 7.8% +/- 4.2% and 85.5% +/- 12.5%, respectively). Therefore, TYB could be recommended as a first choice cryoprotectant for semen preservation in order to avoid extra chromatin structure damage and morphology alterations of spermatozoa not only for patients pursuing assisted reproduction, but also for donor samples.

  18. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  19. 40 CFR 799.9380 - TSCA reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA reproduction and fertility... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9380 TSCA reproduction and fertility effects. (a... section is for two-generation reproduction testing and is designed to provide general information...

  20. Cross-cousin marriage among the Yanomamö shows evidence of parent-offspring conflict and mate competition between brothers.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Napoleon A; Lynch, Robert F; Shenk, Mary K; Hames, Raymond; Flinn, Mark V

    2017-03-28

    Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins-marriage with the child of a parent's opposite-sex sibling-but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do. Therefore, individuals seem to benefit when their children or opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but suffer costs when they, their parents, or same-sex siblings do. These asymmetric fitness outcomes suggest conflicts between parents and offspring and among siblings over optimal mating strategies. Parental control of marriages is reinforced by cultural norms prescribing cross-cousin marriage. We posit that local mate competition combined with parental control over marriages may escalate conflict between same-sex siblings who compete over mates, while simultaneously forging alliances between opposite-sex siblings. If these relationships are carried forward to subsequent generations, they may drive bilateral cross-cousin marriage rules. This study provides insights into the evolutionary importance of how kinship and reciprocity underlie conflicts over who controls mate choice and the origins of cross-cousin marriage prescriptions.

  1. Hoarding, hermitage, and the law: why we love the collyer brothers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in hoarding behavior has intensified, as it works its way through DSM-V deliberations and treatment models. Meanwhile, both documentarians and fiction writers have embraced accounts of individuals with disposophobia and romanticized versions of the Collyer brothers, the Hermits of Harlem. In this article, I examine the range of media and professional attention given to hoarders and their problems and then focus on a potential role for forensic mental health professionals. The psycholegal problems of hoarders include health and zoning code violations that evolve into criminal charges, civil commitment, questions of animal cruelty, landlord-tenant disputes, divorce and custody evaluations, testamentary capacity, and child-neglect charges.

  2. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: novel pathogenic mutations in thymidine phosphorylase gene in two Italian brothers.

    PubMed

    Libernini, Laura; Lupis, Chiara; Mastrangelo, Mario; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Leuzzi, Vincenzo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE, MIM 603041) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder occurring due to mutations in a nuclear gene coding for the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP). Clinical features of MNGIE include gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis or ophthalmoparesis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, and signs of mitochondrial dysfunction in tissues. We report the clinical and molecular findings in two brothers in whom novel TYMP gene mutations (c.215-13_215delinsGCGTGA; c.1159 + 2T > A) were associated with different clinical presentations and outcomes.

  3. The KBG syndrome: follow-up data on three affected brothers.

    PubMed

    Soekarman, D; Volcke, P; Fryns, J P

    1994-10-01

    In this report we present follow-up data on a family in which several members were found to have short stature, craniofacial anomalies and dento-skeletal abnormalities (KBG-syndrome). As adults, the three affected brothers of the original report are moderately to severely mentally retarded. Their phenotype with a distinct craniofacial appearance did not change much from that seen during childhood and adolescence. Adult height is far below the third centile, with arm spans exceeding stature by at least 9 cm.

  4. Joubert syndrome with bilateral polymicrogyria: clinical and neuropathological findings in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Giordano, L; Vignoli, A; Pinelli, L; Brancati, F; Accorsi, P; Faravelli, F; Gasparotti, R; Granata, T; Giaccone, G; Inverardi, F; Frassoni, C; Dallapiccola, B; Valente, E M; Spreafico, R

    2009-07-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and a typical neuroimaging finding, the so-called "molar tooth sign" (MTS). The association of MTS and polymicrogyria (PMG) has been reported as a distinct JS-related disorder (JSRD). So far, five patients have been reported with this phenotype, only two of them being siblings. We report on one additional family, describing a living child with JS and PMG, and the corresponding neuropathological picture in the aborted brother. No mutations were detected in the AHI1 gene, the only so far associated with the JS + PMG phenotype. Moreover, linkage analysis allowed excluding all known gene loci, suggesting further genetic heterogeneity.

  5. Klinefelter's syndrome in nontwin brothers and maternal XX/XXX mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Lodi, A; Monti, D; Gaspari, G; Ravaglia, G; Guadagni, C; Businello, M; Lamedica, R; Lenzi, S

    1979-01-01

    A case of two nontwin brothers, 19 and 17 years old, who had both Klinefelter's syndrome with a chromosomal mosaicism 46 XY/47 XXY, is reported here. The analysis of their mother's karyotype revealed a 46 XX/47 XXX mosaicism. It is hypothesized that the presence of an extra X chromosome in all three subjects could depend on the transmission of two X chromosomes from the mother to the sons or, less likely, on an increased liability to nondisjunction of the X chromosomes during one of the early mitotic divisions in the zygotes.

  6. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  7. [Fertility trends in Haiti].

    PubMed

    Guengant, J; May, J F

    1992-01-01

    5 surveys and the 1971 and 1981 censuses have provided differing and apparently contradictory assessments of fertility levels in Haiti over the past 2 decades. This work surveys the published fertility estimates to ascertain whether any trends are discernable and analyzes to what extent variations in total fertility rates can be explained by variations in proximate fertility determinants. 3 methods of data collection were used in the surveys. The 1971-73 survey was conducted in multiple rounds. The 1977 Haiti Fertility Survey, the 1987 Survey of Mortality, Morbidity, and Service Utilization, and the 1989 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey involved partial or total reconstruction of the respondents' fertility histories. The 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey only included the date of the most recent birth. The data corresponding to the 1970s suggest an overall fertility decline from 6 children per women in the late 1960s to slightly over 5 in the mid-1970s. Results of the 1983 and 1987 surveys, on the other hand, indicate a fertility increase, with total fertility rates of 6.2 for 1982-83, 6.3 for 1982-86, and 7.0 for the first half of 1987. The 1989 survey indicated a total fertility rate of 4.6 for 1984-89. Two somewhat different conclusions may be drawn from the data. The first is that, taking into account the variable quality and precision of the data, Haitian total fertility rates appear to have remained between 5.5 and 6.5 during the past 20 years. This conclusion is supported by the fact that almost all of the observed and adjusted total fertility rates fall within the range of 5.5-6.5. The second possible conclusion is that after a decline from around 6 in the late 1960s to 5.5 in the mid-1970s, the total fertility rate increased again to over 6 in the early 1980s. The linear adjustment of observed and adjusted results of the 5 surveys lends support to this conclusion. Analysis of results of the 1977, 1983, and 1987 surveys using Brass's method tends to

  8. Age and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  9. Optimizing Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  10. Weight and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  11. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  12. Models of fertilization kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization functions describe how the number of realized fertilizations depends on gamete numbers or density. They provide insight into the fertilization process, and are important components in models on the evolution of reproductive and sex-specific traits. Existing fertilization functions generally examine the proportion of fertilized eggs as a function of sperm numbers or density in a given fertilization environment. Because these functions have been developed for species with highly diverged gametes, there is an inbuilt (and well justified) asymmetry in them: they treat eggs and sperm, and therefore the two sexes, differently. Although very useful, such functions cannot therefore be used to consistently model early stages in the evolution of the two sexes, or extant species where sex-specific gamete sizes and numbers are similar. Here, I derive fertilization functions that describe the fertilization process without making prior assumptions about the two sexes, and are therefore consistent under any level of gamete dimorphism. These functions are compatible with simpler fertilization functions under appropriate conditions. Such functions can be particularly useful in understanding the early stages in the differentiation of the two sexes, as well as its consequences, where the gametes from the two sexes should be treated on an equal basis. PMID:26473043

  13. Fertilization in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T

    2012-08-31

    For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization.

  14. Siblings' experiences of their brother's or sister's cancer death: a nationwide follow-up 2-9 years later.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Malin; Jalmsell, Li; Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine siblings' experiences of their brother's or sister's cancer death and if these experiences influenced levels of anxiety 2-9 years later. This nationwide survey was conducted in Sweden in 2009. All siblings who had a brother/sister who was diagnosed with cancer before the age of 17 years and who died before the age of 25 years during 2000-2007 were invited. Of those, 174 siblings participated (participation rate: 73%). Mixed data from the survey about the siblings' experiences of death were included as well as data from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To examine the experiences, descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted to investigate if the experiences influenced anxiety 2-9 years later. The siblings reported poor knowledge and experienced a lack of communication about their brother's/sister's death, for example, about the time frame, bodily changes near death, and about their own experiences. Siblings who reported that no one talked with them about what to expect when their brother/sister was going to die reported higher levels of anxiety 2-9 years after the loss. Seventy percent reported that they witnessed their brother/sister suffering in the last hours in life. Many of those who were not present during the illness period and at the time of death expressed regret. It is important to prepare siblings for their brother's/sister's illness and death as it may decrease anxiety and regrets later on. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Living kidney transplantation between brothers with unrecognized renal amyloidosis as the first manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Afonso, Sara; Peces, Carlos; Nevado, Julián; Selgas, Rafael

    2017-08-31

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and polyserositis and by the onset of reactive amyloid-associated amyloidosis. Amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever can lead to end-stage renal disease, culminating in kidney transplantation for some patients. In this study, we report the clinical outcome of two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever who were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. Subsequently, they were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis secondary to familial Mediterranean fever and were successfully treated with anakinra and colchicine. Two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever and renal amyloidosis were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. The recipient had presented recurrent acute febrile episodes of familial Mediterranean fever, developed nephrotic syndrome secondary to amyloidosis and needed bilateral nephrectomy and chronic dialysis. His elder brother, in apparent good health, donated his left kidney to his brother. Immediately after the kidney transplantation, both the donor and recipient presented massive proteinuria, impaired renal function and elevated serum amyloid A levels. Biopsies of the brothers' kidneys showed amyloidosis. Genetic studies thereafter revealed a homozygous variant for the MEFV gene (NM_000243.2.c.2082G > A; p.M694I) in both brothers. At this point, both the donor and recipient were treated with colchicine and anakinra, resulting in improved renal function, decreased proteinuria, undetectable serum amyloid A levels and stable renal function at 62 months of follow-up and no major adverse effects. In familial Mediterranean fever, analyses of the MEFV gene should be performed in potential live kidney donors from a direct family member (either between siblings or between parents and children). In addition, genetic studies are required when consanguinity is suspected between members involved in

  16. Traits of ADHD and autism in girls with a twin brother: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Attermann, Jørn; Obel, Carsten; Bilenberg, Niels; Nordenbæk, Claudia Maria; Skytthe, Axel; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that prenatal exposure to testosterone may be associated with traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a population-based study of dizygotic female twins to elucidate this hypothesis, assuming that the sex of the co-twin influences the level of prenatal exposure to testosterone. We invited parents of 24,552 3- to 15-year-old twins to answer questionnaires on traits of ADHD and ASD. We analysed the data using a proportional odds model with sex of the co-twin as an instrumental variable for prenatal exposure to testosterone of female twins. We received responses for 6,339 girls from dizygotic twin pairs. Odds ratios for male versus female co-twin were 0.71 (95 % confidence interval 0.61-0.81) for ADHD traits and 0.74 (0.66-0.83) for ASD traits, indicating that a twin brother reduces traits of ADHD and ASD in females. In conclusion, we found that female twins with a twin brother scored significantly lower in parent-reported traits of ADHD and ASD than those with a twin sister. The reason for this may be parental reporting bias, or confounding by unmeasured variables, or a causal effect of an intrauterine environment modified by the sex of the co-twin in the opposite direction of what we expected.

  17. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  18. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  19. Familial orthostatic tremor and essential tremor in two young brothers: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Das, D

    2013-04-01

    Orthostatic tremor (OT), is usually a disease of old age and is characterized by quivering movements of the legs during quiet standing or in the state of isometric contraction in the lower limbs. This is relieved on walking or on lying down. It is diagnosed by surface electromyography, particularly over the quadriceps femoris muscles which shows a distinctive frequency of 13 to 18 Hz on standing. Some investigators consider it as a variant of essential tremor (ET) and the two conditions often co-exist. The disease is usually non-familial. Two brothers presented with tremor in the lower limbs on standing and on the outstretched hands without any family history. Subsequently, they were proved to be suffering from OT and ET by clinical examination and surface EMG. Simultaneous occurrence of OT and ET in two young brothers without any family history in the previous generation has not been described before and they also appeared at a much earlier age than what is described in the literature.

  20. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    PubMed

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-03-22

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future.

  1. Special Review of Smart Start Expenditures by Save Our Brothers, Inc. (Pittsboro, North Carolina) and Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ (Moncure, North Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Office of the State Auditor, Raleigh.

    This report of the Office of the State Auditor in North Carolina details audit findings regarding allegations of misuse of Smart Start funds by Save Our Brothers, Inc. and the Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ. Save Our Brothers, Inc., a nonprofit agency, received two contracts totaling $46,327 from the Chatham County Partnership for Children…

  2. Are stepfathers' education levels associated with the intelligence of their stepsons? A register-based study of Norwegian half-brothers.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    We examined the relationship between the parents' education levels and the adult intelligence of their children in a population-based, nationwide sample of Norwegian half-brothers with different fathers (2,016 pairs of half-brothers). In a family where the mother has two children with different men, the firstborn child usually lives with the younger child's father during a period of their childhood. This makes it possible to study the non-genetic effects of paternal education on children's development. Results showed that the education level of the younger half-brother's father was positively associated with the intelligence score of the older half-brother. The education level of the older half-brother's father was not associated with the intelligence score of the younger half-brother. Firstborn men whose half-brothers' fathers had high levels of education had intelligence scores that were 33% (95% confidence interval: 18-47%) of a standard deviation higher than those of firstborn men whose half-brothers' fathers had low levels of education, after adjustment for the biological fathers' education levels, mothers' education levels, and other background factors. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that a child's family environment exerts an effect on the cognitive abilities of the child that lasts into adulthood.

  3. Long-Term Responses of Understory Vegetation on a Highly Erosive Louisiana Soil to Fertilization

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Ronald E. Thill

    1995-01-01

    Responses of vegetation on highly eroded Kisatchie soils to a broadcast application of 600 lb/acre of 16-30-l 3 granular fertilizer were monitored for 12 years. Understory woody and herbaceous vegetation responded to fertilization immediately, and thus the soil surface was protected from erosion sooner in the fertilized area than in the two unfertilized areas. After 1...

  4. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  5. Fertilizing natural stands

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody

    1989-01-01

    Given our present knowledge, and under current costs and returns, there appears to be little reason to fertilize natural stands of central hardwoods. Yet, some of the numerous fertilizer tests conducted with hardwoods over the past 50 years have shown very positive--but short-lived-growth responses. One "operational" (nonexperimental) use of nitrogen and...

  6. TVA fertilizer patents

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

  7. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  8. [Brothers of children with a neurological disease: difficulties and affective needs. Study of a clinical sample].

    PubMed

    Balottin, U; Termine, C; Quadrelli, M; Brondolo, S; Baratelli, S; Zambonin, F

    2006-01-01

    Feelings of envy and jealousy among brothers belonging to families with a child affected by a chronic neuromotor impairment have rarely been studied and literature on this subject is sparce. The interest of this work arises in particular from our experience with families and children suffering from this kind of disability. The individuation of frequency and characteristics of overt or "hidden" emotional problems in brothers of handicapped children. Needs of the handicapped child lead to the partial disinvestment of the "healthy" one. We therefore focused our attention on the defensive mechanisms involved. The work was carried out in the Rehabilitation Unit of our Department of Child Neuropsychiatry. We selected all the families in which a son exhibited severe neuromotor impairment, and we proposed some sessions with the parents and the healthy children. Only 10 families with 11 children accepted these sessions. We asked the other families to fill-in the Achenbach checklist (CBCL). Assessment of the 11 children seen was made with talks, drawing and playing sessions, and with an interview of the parents at the beginning and at the end of the sessions. We present the data of 33 CBCL filled-in and returned and of 11 psychodiagnostic observations. The CBCL showed 6 pathological and 5 borderline (with high psychopathological risk) total T scores. Among the 11 clinically observed children, 4 revealed a relevant psychopathological profile, so an individual psychotherapeutic therapy was proposed. These children expressed their emotional problems by difficult peer relationships, attention and concentration deficits and failure at school. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between a relevant child psychopathology, the fragile personality structure of the parents, and problems in the parental couple. These data stress the importance that must be given to emotional problems of handicapped children's brothers. Very often these children aren't able to express these

  9. First Submersible Dives on Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc, Offshore New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Ishibashi, J.; Embley, R. W.; Lupton, J. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Yamanaka, T.; Evans, L. J.; Takai, K.

    2005-12-01

    Previous NZAPLUME and other cruises between 1999 and 2004 established that at least three major hydrothermal sites occur at Brothers; the NW caldera and cone sites are actively venting while the SE caldera site is extinct. In October 2004, the submersible Shinkai 6500 did 4 dives on Brothers as part of the SWEEP Vents expedition, the first dives anywhere along the 2,500 Kermadec-Tonga arc. Between April and May, 2005, an additional 5 dives were made at Brothers using the HURL submersible Pisces V as part of a New Zealand and NOAA co-sponsored expedition. In total, 6 dives have been done at the NW caldera site and 3 at the cone site. The NW caldera site is host to a significant sulfide deposit. It mainly crops out along a zone of discrete, narrow, fault bounded ledges between ~1600 and 1680 m, over strike lengths up to ~500 m. Locally, bands of active and extinct black smoker chimneys up to 7 m tall occur in this zone and strike orthogonal to the caldera walls, indicative of cross structures. Abundant sulfide talus and subcropping massive sulfides also occur at this site. The submersible dives recorded extensive alteration of the caldera walls and sampled individual chimneys, Fe-oxide crusts, and altered rocks. The cone site is hosted by ash and talus and is dominated near its summit by extensive deposition of elemental S and Fe-oxide crusts. No sulfides have been recovered from this site. Preliminary vent fluids results are from samples collected by the Shinkai 6500. They show two very different hydrothermal fluids. Those from the NW caldera site have temperatures up to 302°C, pH down to 2.8, low Mg and SO4 values, Cl between 510 and 760 mM, elevated Si and increasing Fe and Mn values with increasing Cl concentrations, consistent with a Cl-enriched endmember. By contrast, vent fluids from the cone site are gas-rich (up to 220 mM total gas), have temperatures <70°C, pH down to 1.9, Mg values near seawater concentrations and higher, Cl <550 mM and low levels of Si

  10. [Preliminary study on N, P, K fertilizer to control of root rot of Bupleurum chinense].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zai-biao; Liang, Zong-suo; Wei, Xin-rong; Shu, Zhi-ming; Wang, Wei-ling

    2006-10-01

    The application of N and K fertillizer could improve the sensibility of Bupleurvum chinense DC. to Root Rot, while large application of P fertilizer could decrase the sensibility. The fertilizer measure which could obtain highest yield but could not increase its disease resistense. To protect Bupleurum chinense against root rot, more phosphorous fertilizer, certain nitrogen and potassium ferilizer should be applied in early elongation stage in the second growing year.

  11. Fertilizer nitrogen isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D

    2007-09-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the potential application of nitrogen isotope analysis in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops. A prerequisite of this approach is that there is a difference in the nitrogen isotope compositions of the fertilizers used in organic and conventional agriculture. We report new measurements of delta15N values for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and present a compilation of the new data with existing literature nitrogen isotope data. Nitrogen isotope values for fertilizers that may be permitted in organic cultivation systems are also reported (manures, composts, bloodmeal, bonemeal, hoof and horn, fishmeal and seaweed based fertilizers). The delta15N values of the synthetic fertilizers in the compiled dataset fall within a narrow range close to 0 per thousand with 80% of samples lying between-2 and 2 per thousand and 98.5% of the data having delta15N values of less than 4 per thousand (mean=0.2 per thousand n=153). The fertilizers that may be permitted in organic systems have a higher mean delta15N value of 8.5 per thousand and exhibit a broader range in delta15N values from 0.6 to 36.7 per thousand (n=83). The possible application of the nitrogen isotope approach in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops is discussed in light of the fertilizer data presented here and with regard to other factors that are also important in determining crop nitrogen isotope values.

  12. An Evaluation of Parental Assessment of the Big Brothers/Big Sisters Program in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frecknall, Peter; Luks, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Parents rated impact of Big Brother/Big Sister program on children along variables of school attendance, grades, family relationship, friendship, self-esteem, staying out of trouble, being responsible, frequency of contact, and length of time in program. Although children were rated as benefiting significantly from program, children's frequency of…

  13. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  14. High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Kauh, Tina J.; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; McMaken, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age…

  15. Russia: despite legislative and procedural barriers, HIV-positive woman fights for custody of ten-year-old brother.

    PubMed

    Utyasheva, Leah

    2009-12-01

    Svetlana Izambaeva, a well-known HIV-activist and educator in Russia, is seeking to obtain custody of her ten-year-old brother, Sasha. After their mother died, regional official refused Izambaeva custody because of her HIV-positive status. Consequently, the local child custody agency (organ opeki) decided to give Sasha to a foster family.

  16. The Influence of Big Brothers on the Separation-Individuation of Adolescents from Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saintonge, Serge; Achille, Pier Angelo; Lachance, Lise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether substitute father figures can aid male adolescents from single-parent families (N=29) with separation-individuation. Findings indicate that the adolescents with Big Brothers were less affected by parental rejection and appear to have healthier self-images, but they were more anxious when relating to male teachers. (Author/MKA)

  17. A Critical Study of the Effectiveness of the Seven Christian Brothers' College Art Departments in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Giles

    The effectiveness of the seven Christian Brothers' college art departments in the United States was studied. Attention was directed to: programs being offered in the arts, the effectiveness of these programs, approaches to upgrade weak programs, trends in the number of art majors during 1978-1983, and trends in the number of students registered in…

  18. The Critical Importance of Technology Integration in the Business School Curriculum: How Christian Brothers University is Meeting This Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, James S.

    This paper details the importance of a successful implementation of technology into the business school curriculum and the Christian Brothers University's (CBU) (Tennessee) approach to such integration. The technology awareness of students and technology planning with regard to facilities, and curriculum are outlined. An overview of the following…

  19. My Brother's Keeper: How Commerce Has Created Pathways to Success in the Workforce for Our Nation's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2017

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, President Obama launched the My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative to address persistent opportunity gaps faced by boys and young men of color and to ensure that all young people can reach their full potential. Through this initiative, the Administration has partnered with cities, towns, businesses, and foundations to connect young people…

  20. Will Obama's "My Brother's Keeper" and Similar Initiatives Have a Positive Impact on Low-Income Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Barack Obama's "My Brother's Keeper" is designed to narrow persistent gaps that boys and young men of color confront often and to help all young people achieve their potential in college and career. An important part of this initiative is comprehensive mentoring that supports students in schools and in communities. Because…

  1. Growth and Education: A Strategic Report to the Rockefeller Brothers Fund on the Implications of Growth Policy for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelman, Lewis J.; Berquist, William, H.

    This document attempts to identify for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund how it may best invest its resources in postsecondary education to facilitate transformation to an equilibrium state. As the work of the project developed, it was found that the issue of "limits to growth and higher education" had two facets: (1) what role can the postsecondary…

  2. The Prophet of Revealed Knowledge: Richard Brother, the Prince of the Hebrews and Nephew of the Almighty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Jon F.; Stroud, Scott R.

    Seeking the answers as to what makes one speaker more charismatic than another and why some speeches are merely effective while others move audiences to a transcendent state is a difficult task. This paper follows up on this challenge and seeks to provide some answers as to how the prophetic works of Richard Brothers moved his followers to a…

  3. [1896: How nascent radiotherapy gathered Roentgen, Pasteur and the Lumière brothers].

    PubMed

    Foray, N

    2016-12-01

    On the 4th July, 1896, in his medical office of Les Échelles (Savoie, France), Victor Despeignes performed the very first radiotherapy against cancer, documented by indisputable proofs. However, the intellectual and practical approach that leads to this first radiotherapy may appear unexpected to date. Indeed, it is likely that the treatment that Despeignes applied to his neighbour, who did not suffer from stomach cancer, was born with the indirect support of the Lumière brothers, on the basis of a biological theory (the parasitory theory of cancer) that is irrelevant today, with an experimental protocol based on experiments performed on tuberculosis et in a bifractionated model linked by the constraints of a district medical doctor.

  4. [The brothers of Jumiege--the peripheral nervous system in early French mythology].

    PubMed

    Brean, Are

    2002-03-20

    This article reviews the process of discovery of the nervous system from Pythagoras (570-500 BC) to Galen (130-201 AD). After Galen, no anatomical studies were performed before the renaissance. According to a legend, probably produced for political reasons, two brothers, sons of the French king Clovis II, revolted against their father and were sentenced to loose their physical powers by having the nerves of their arms and legs cut. They were then set adrift on the river Seine, stranding at the Jumiège monastery. The earliest written version of this legend stems from the fourteenth century; it was probably a part of the local French mythology. This indicates that the existence of the peripheral nervous system, and therefore also in part the knowledge contained in the early anatomical works, quite early may have been more or less known outside academic circles.

  5. Brief report: comparative ABA and DIR trials in twin brothers with autism.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Jane C; Seal, Brenda C

    2007-07-01

    Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted gains and losses occurred in six of the seven CSBS clusters. Results from this pilot research are discussed with additional communication and behavior data from the intervention period. Careful interpretation of CSBS outcomes in counseling parents and graduate students is strongly advised. Continued research in comparative outcomes for intervention programs is strongly encouraged.

  6. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-002-1551, Salomon Brothers, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fannick, N.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon-monoxide (630080) and carbon-dioxide (124389) concentrations were measured at Salomon Brothers, Incorporated (SIC-6711), New York, New York, in September and October, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the firm's medical department because of complaints of headache and eye, nose, and sinus irritation among employees who worked on the 40th floor, trading center. Ventilation surveys were also performed. After additional ventilation equipment was installed, a second survey found that the outdoor air supplied exceeded the ASHRAE recommendations. Following installation of the supplemental ventilation equipment, the employees complaints abated. The author concludes that in the preliminary survey, a potential health hazard existed due to an inadequate supply of fresh air. Installation of additional ventilation equipment removed the potential hazard.

  7. Phenotypic variation among brothers with the McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth H; Jung, Hans H; Tison, François; Lee, Soohee; Danek, Adrian

    2007-01-15

    McLeod syndrome is an X-linked multisystem disorder affecting red blood cells, the peripheral and central nervous systems, and skeletal and cardiac muscle. No clear correlations of the clinical findings with the genotype of XK mutations have yet been uncovered. Here, we report the clinical features and progression in 10 affected brothers from 4 families with McLeod syndrome. There is significant variation in clinical presentation within families, including in causes of morbidity and mortality. This phenotypic variation, despite shared mutations, suggests the action of disease-modifying factors that may explain some of the difficulties with genotype-phenotype correlation in McLeod syndrome. (c) 2006 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Exon 44 nonsense mutation in two-Duchenne muscular dystrophy brothers detected by heteroduplex analysis.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartolo, C; Mendell, J R

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a heteroduplex method, we screened the dystrophin exon 43-45 region for point mutations, including small deletions and insertions. The method depends upon the formation of a heteroduplex between wild-type and mutant DNA PCR products. DNA specimens from one hundred and four DMD patients without detected deletions or duplications were multiplexed amplified for exons 43, 44, and 45. The PCR products were mixed with the PCR products from nonaffected controls, electrophoresed, and examined for the presence of altered mobility heteroduplex bands. An exon 44 nonsense mutation in two DMD brothers and a common intron 44 polymorphism were identified using this approach. Although the exon 44-45 region is a hotspot for deletion breakpoints, it does not appear to be prone to point mutations. The technique is extremely useful for screening several exons simultaneously and it allowed us to screen a large number of patients.

  9. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leijer, Gert JM; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related behavioral disturbances. PMID:22570549

  10. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... heavy alcohol consumption (> 2 drinks per day), heavy caffeine consumption, and the use of recreational drugs such as marijuana have all been associated with reduced fertility. Therefore, women (and ... alcohol and caffeine use, and avoid smoking and all recreational drugs ...

  11. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  12. Fertility Treatments for Females

    MedlinePlus

    ... not become pregnant after taking clomiphene for six menstrual cycles, a health care provider may prescribe other fertility ... Patients take clomiphene in the beginning of the menstrual cycle. Clomiphene causes ovulation to occur in 80% of ...

  13. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  14. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  15. Colorectal endometriosis and fertility.

    PubMed

    Daraï, Emile; Cohen, Jonathan; Ballester, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this review was to assess the impact of colorectal endometriosis on spontaneous fertility and the potential benefit of Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR) (in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination) and surgery on fertility outcomes. MEDLINE search for articles on fertility in women with DIE published between 1990 and December 2015 using the following terms: "deep endometriosis", "deep infiltrating endometriosis", "bowel endometriosis", "colorectal endometriosis", "fertility", "infertility", "IVF-ICSI", "Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART)", and "MAR". Spontaneous pregnancy rate (PR) in patients undergoing resection of DIE but leaving in situ colorectal endometriosis was 26.5% (95% CI=14-39). PR after MAR was 27.4% (95% CI=19-35) and the overall PR was 37.9% (95% CI=29-37). After colorectal surgery, among the 855 patients with and without proved infertility, the spontaneous PR was 31.4% (95% CI=28-34) without difference between the groups. PR after MAR was 19.8% (95% CI=17-22). PR after MAR in patients with and without proved infertility was 21.4% (95% CI=18-25) and 15.5% (95% CI=11-20), respectively. The overall PR after colorectal surgery was 51.1% (95% CI=48-54). Our review supports a potential benefit of surgery on fertility outcomes for women with colorectal endometriosis. Further studies are required to determine whether surgical management should be first-intention or restricted to failure of MAR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Frustrated fertility: a population paradox.

    PubMed

    Mcfalls Ja, J

    1979-05-01

    This Bulletin examines the causes of subfecundity -- the diminished ability to reproduce -- and its effect today and in the past on the fertility, or actual reproductive performance, of individuals and, hence, populations. By definition, all real populations are subfecund since all experience some degree of involuntary biological factors affecting coitus, conception, or the ability to carry a conceptus to live birth which reduces their fecundity below the estimated biological population maximum of 15 children per woman. Affecting both men and women, these factors fall into 5 categories: genetic factors such as blood group incompatibilities and inherited sickle cell anemia or diabetes; psychopathology, including psychic stress and behavioral disorders (e.g., drug and alcohol abuse); infectious diseases such as gonorrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, and postabortion infection; malnutrrition, including the chronic undernutrition of the 3rd World and the overnutrition of developed societies; and hazards posed by increasing amounts of radiation and toxic chemicals in the environment. Reducing subfecundity requires improved living conditions, avoidance of or protection from known hazards, and adoption of medical advances which now can help 40 to 60% of subfecund couples. But even in the U.S. fertility would certainly rise among the 15% of couples now estimated to be involuntarily childless and the 10% who have fewer children than they want, and among disadvantaged groups, and teenagers.

  17. Cross-cousin marriage among the Yanomamö shows evidence of parent–offspring conflict and mate competition between brothers

    PubMed Central

    Chagnon, Napoleon A.; Lynch, Robert F.; Shenk, Mary K.; Hames, Raymond; Flinn, Mark V.

    2017-01-01

    Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins—marriage with the child of a parent’s opposite-sex sibling—but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do. Therefore, individuals seem to benefit when their children or opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but suffer costs when they, their parents, or same-sex siblings do. These asymmetric fitness outcomes suggest conflicts between parents and offspring and among siblings over optimal mating strategies. Parental control of marriages is reinforced by cultural norms prescribing cross-cousin marriage. We posit that local mate competition combined with parental control over marriages may escalate conflict between same-sex siblings who compete over mates, while simultaneously forging alliances between opposite-sex siblings. If these relationships are carried forward to subsequent generations, they may drive bilateral cross-cousin marriage rules. This study provides insights into the evolutionary importance of how kinship and reciprocity underlie conflicts over who controls mate choice and the origins of cross-cousin marriage prescriptions. PMID:28289230

  18. Oviduct: roles in fertilization and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Winuthayanon, Wipawee

    2017-01-01

    Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients. Finally, the review compares different aspects of naturally occurring fertilization and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-achieved fertilization and embryo development, giving insight into potential areas for improvement in this technology. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Trust and Fertility Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Billari, Francesco C.; Pessin, Léa

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in women’s educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals’ and couples’ willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as women’s increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009. Multilevel statistical analyses reveal that the interaction between national-level generalized trust and cohort-level women’s education is positively associated with completed fertility. As education among women expands, high levels of generalized trust moderate fertility decline. PMID:28003707

  20. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  1. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  2. Number of older brothers and sexual orientation: new tests and the attraction/behavior distinction in two national probability samples.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2003-03-01

    The extent to which number of older brothers or "fraternal birth order" predicted the 2 main components that researchers have traditionally used to conceptualize sexual orientation-that is, psychological attraction and sexual behavior-was examined in 2 recent national probability samples. In both studies, fraternal birth order predicted same-sex attraction in men, with each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexual attraction by an average of 38%. Results also indicated that the fraternal birth order/same-sex attraction relationship in men was independent of sexual behavior, including early same-sex behavior. No sibling characteristics predicted sexual orientation in women. Results suggest experience-based theories (e.g., early same-sex play) of the fraternal birth order effect in men are unlikely to be correct.

  3. Novel PIGT Variant in Two Brothers: Expansion of the Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia Seizures Syndrome 3 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Skauli, Nadia; Wallace, Sean; Chiang, Samuel C. C.; Barøy, Tuva; Holmgren, Asbjørn; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Strømme, Petter; Frengen, Eirik; Misceo, Doriana

    2016-01-01

    Biallelic PIGT variants were previously reported in seven patients from three families with Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia Seizures Syndrome 3 (MCAHS3), characterized by epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and skeletal, ophthalmological, cardiac, and genitourinary abnormalities. We report a novel homozygous PIGT missense variant c.1079G>T (p.Gly360Val) in two brothers with several of the typical features of MCAHS3, but in addition, pyramidal tract neurological signs. Notably, they are the first patients with MCAHS3 without skeletal, cardiac, or genitourinary anomalies. PIGT encodes a crucial subunit of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase complex, which catalyzes the attachment of proteins to GPI-anchors, attaching the proteins to the cell membrane. In vitro studies in cells from the two brothers showed reduced levels of GPI-anchors and GPI-anchored proteins on the cell surface, supporting the pathogenicity of the novel PIGT variant. PMID:27916860

  4. Declining fertility in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Das Dangol, B; Retherford, R D; Thapa, S

    1997-03-01

    This article relies on data from the 1991 Nepal Fertility, Family Planning, and Health Survey (NFFPHS) and the 1996 Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS) to assess trends in fertility in Nepal. The NFFPHS shows heaping at ages 5, 8, 10, and 12 years and a larger proportion of infants. The NLSS shows a different pattern of misreporting of youth and a stronger but similar pattern of age heaping as the NFFPHS for adults. Children ever born by maternal age indicates a degree of completeness and the deletion by older women of deceased children and married children living outside the household. Findings suggest less complete reporting in the NLSS. Age-specific fertility rates are calculated based on birth histories (BH) and the own-children (OC) method based on life tables. Findings indicate that BH and OC estimates of the cumulative fertility rate (CFR) derived from the NLSS and the NFFPHS were comparable for estimating trends in the total fertility rate (TFR). The trends from the two data sets overlapped fairly well during 1983-89. Fertility trends by single years of age showed considerably annual fluctuations due to age misreporting. The CFR and TFR for aggregated time periods showed little or no decline for the earlier 5-year period, a steeper decline in the second period, and variations in trends by data set for the third period from 1983 to 1989. One curve showed no decline and the other showed fertility decline. Fitting a straight line to the trend for 1977-91 shows that CFR declined by 1.61 children from 5.29 children in 1977 to 3.68 children in 1991. TFR declined by 1.90 children from 6.68 children in 1977 to 4.78 children in 1991. The author cautions that the point of fertility decline was not determined exactly, but data suggest that decline occurred around 1980, and the rate was fast thereafter. TFR declined by 2.70 children in urban areas and 1.83 children in rural areas.

  5. Fertility and the economy.

    PubMed

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  6. Kisspeptin and fertility.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Saira; Jayasena, Channa N; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2011-02-01

    The kisspeptins are a family of peptide hormones, which in recent years have been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus in turn influencing fertility and reproduction. This review examines the physiological role of kisspeptin and the kisspeptin receptor in the control of gonadotrophin and gonadal steroid hormone secretion and the implications of these findings with respect to fertility. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of kisspeptin in the treatment of reproductive disorders will be examined.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Mathis Brothers Landfill (South Marble Top Road), Walker County, GA, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This decision document (Record of Decision) presents the selected remedial action for the Mathis Brothers - South Marble Top Road Landfill site, Walker County, Georgia. At this time the remedial action is proposed as both the first, and the final remedial action for the site. The function of this remedy is to treat contamination and reduce it to health based levels. Source material and contaminated soils are the principal threat at the site.

  8. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    on-line advertising rm DoubleClick and consumer data company Abacus Direct was \\the most danger- ous assault against anonymity on the Internet since...registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...Brother, Big `Fun’ at Amazon", Wired News, Aug. 25, 1999. www.wired.com/news/news/ business /story/21417.html [18] David Mazieres and M. Frans Kaashoek. \\The

  9. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  10. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  11. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  12. Two brothers' alleged paternity for a child: who is the father?

    PubMed

    Dogan, Muhammed; Kara, Umut; Emre, Ramazan; Fung, Wing Kam; Canturk, Kemal Murat

    2015-06-01

    In paternity cases where individuals are close relatives, it may be necessary to evaluate mother's DNA profile (trio test) and to increase the number of polymorphic STR loci that are analyzed. In our case, two alleged fathers who are brothers and the child (duo case) were analyzed based on 20 STR loci; however, no exclusions could be achieved. Then trio test (with mother) was performed using the Identifiler Plus kit (Applied Biosystems) and no exclusions could be achieved again. Analysis performed with the ESS Plex Plus kit (Qiagen), the paternity of one of the two alleged fathers was rejected only on 2 STR loci. We made the calculations of power of exclusion values to interpret our results more properly. The probability of exclusion (PE) is calculated as 0.9776546 in 15 loci of Identifiler Plus kit without mother. The PE is calculated as 0.9942803, if 5 additional loci from ESS Plex Plus kit are typed. The PE becomes 0.9961048 for the Identifiler Plus kit in trio analysis. If both Identifiler Plus and ESS Plex Plus kits are used for testing, the PE is calculated as 0.999431654, which indicates that the combined kits are highly discriminating.

  13. Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) suppresses apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Mengdie; Song, Yongfei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-01-01

    Identifying oncogenes that promote cancer cell proliferation or survival is critical for treatment of colorectal cancer. The Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) is frequently expressed in most types of cancer, but rarely in normal tissues. Aberrantly expressed BORIS relates to colorectal cancer, but its function in colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. In addition, previous studies indicated the significance of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in cancer cells. However, none of them investigated its function. Herein, we investigated the functions of BORIS in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and the role of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in colorectal cancer. BORIS expression correlated with colorectal cancer proliferation. BORIS overexpression promoted colorectal cancer cell growth, whereas BORIS knockdown suppressed cell proliferation. Sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was inversely correlated with BORIS expression. These data suggest that BORIS functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer. BORIS silencing induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis, whereas BORIS supplementation inhibited apoptosis induced by BORIS short interfering RNA (siRNA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 5-FU. Introduction of BORIS-ZFdel showed that cytoplasmic localization of BORIS inhibited apoptosis but not ROS production. Our study highlights the anti-apoptotic function of BORIS in colorectal cancer. PMID:28098226

  14. Non-autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism due to a mutation in TSH receptor: report on two brothers.

    PubMed

    Cerbone, Manuela; Agretti, Patrizia; De Marco, Giuseppina; Improda, Nicola; Pignata, Claudio; Santamaria, Francesca; Tonacchera, Massimo; Salerno, Mariacarolina

    2013-01-19

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is a condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The main cause is represented by autoimmune thyroiditis, but mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in TSH pathway are thought to be responsible for SH, particularly in cases arising in familial settings. Patients with the syndrome of TSH unresponsiveness may have compensated or overt hypothyroidism with a wide spectrum of clinical and morphological alterations depending on the degree of impairment of TSH-receptor (TSH-R) function. We describe the case of two brothers with non autoimmune SH carrying the same heterozygous mutation in the extracellular domain of TSH-R and presenting with different clinical, biochemical and morphological features. The first one had only a slight persistent elevation of TSH, a normal thyroid ultrasound and did never require l- thyroxine (L-T4) replacement treatment. The second one had a neonatal persistent moderate TSH levels increase associated with a thyroid gland hypoplasia and was treated with L-T4 since the first months of life.These two cases support the recent association of TSH-R mutations inheritance as an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and suggest that the decision to start replacement therapy in patients with persistent SH due to TSH resistance should be individualized.

  15. BROTHER OF LUX ARRHYTHMO Is a Component of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shunhong; Wei, Xiaoping; Pei, Liping; Thompson, Rebecca L.; Liu, Yi; Heard, Jacqueline E.; Ruff, Thomas G.; Beachy, Roger N.

    2011-01-01

    BROTHER OF LUX ARRHYTHMO (BOA) is a GARP family transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana and is regulated by circadian rhythms. Transgenic lines that constitutively overexpress BOA exhibit physiological and developmental changes, including delayed flowering time and increased vegetative growth under standard growing conditions. Arabidopsis circadian clock protein CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) binds to the evening element of the BOA promoter and negatively regulates its expression. Furthermore, the period of BOA rhythm was shortened in cca1-11, lhy-21 (for LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL), and cca1-11 lhy-21 genetic backgrounds. BOA binds to the promoter of CCA1 through newly identified promoter binding sites and activates the transcription of CCA1 in vivo and in vitro. In transgenic Arabidopsis lines that overexpress BOA, the period length of CCA1 rhythm was increased and the amplitude was enhanced. Rhythmic expression of other clock genes, including LHY, GIGANTEA (GI), and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), was altered in transgenic lines that overexpress BOA. Rhythmic expression of BOA was also affected in mutant lines of toc1-1, gi-3, and gi-4. Results from these studies indicate that BOA is a critical component of the regulatory circuit of the circadian clock. PMID:21447790

  16. Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & Sisters.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2014-12-01

    The TV series, Brothers & Sisters, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D intoxication in two brothers: be careful with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Conti, Giovanni; Chirico, Valeria; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Silipigni, Lorena; Fede, Claudia; Vitale, Agata; Fede, Carmelo

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) intoxication, a well-known cause of hypercalcaemia in children, has renal, cardiac and neurological consequences. Iatrogenic or accidental administrations are the most common causes. We present two cases of hypervitaminosis D due to over-the-counter VitD supplement self-medication. A 12-year-old boy was hospitalised for abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Routine biochemistry indicated severe hypercalcaemia and renal failure. Plasma 25-OH VitD level was very high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound showed nephrolithiasis. Hydration, diuretics and prednisone induced a progressive reduction of calcium levels. His brother, who was receiving the same treatment, was hospitalised although asymptomatic. Normal serum calcium and renal function were revealed, while 25-OH VitD was high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound was within the normal range. Examination of the VitD content of the over-the-counter supplement revealed a higher amount than declared. VitD administration implies several risks and must be prescribed only when needed and under strict medical control.

  18. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in twin brothers: an unusual occurrence with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Anchlia, Sonal; Vyas, Siddharth; Bahl, Sumit; Nagavadiya, Vipul

    2015-08-21

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is caused by genetic alteration produced by a mutation in the 'patched' tumour suppressor gene, and is inherited in a dominant autosomal way. Although sporadic cases have been found, this syndrome has rarely been reported in twin patients. The syndrome is characterised by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and has a predisposition to neoplasms such as multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas and keratocysts in jaws; it also has other features such as palmar and/or plantar pits and calcification of falx cerebri. Owing to the critical oral and maxillofacial manifestations of this syndrome, it is important to recognise its characteristics in order to make a diagnosis, and to plot early preventive treatment and establish the right genetic evidence. Based on a combination of imaging, clinical and histopathological findings, we present a diagnosed case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in 18-year-old twin brothers. All cystic lesions were enucleated and 1 year follow-up showed no recurrence.

  19. Super Mario brothers and sisters: Associations between coplaying video games and sibling conflict and affection.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Jensen, Alexander C; Smith, Nathan J; Erickson, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Video games can be played in many different contexts. This study examined associations between coplaying video games between siblings and levels of affection and conflict in the relationship. Participants were 508 adolescents (M age = 16.31 years of age, SD = 1.08) who completed questionnaires on video game use and sibling relationships. Participants were recruited from a large Northwestern city and a moderate city in the Mountain West of the United States. Video games played between siblings were coded by an independent sample to assess levels of physical aggression and prosocial behavior in each game. Playing video games with a sibling was associated with higher levels of sibling affection for both boys and girls, but higher levels of conflict for boys only. Playing a violent video game with a brother was associated with lower levels of conflict in the sibling relationship, whereas playing a prosocial video game was not related to any sibling outcome. The value of video games in sibling relationships will be discussed, with a focus on the type of game and the sex of the adolescent.

  20. Reconstructing the Brothers Grimm: new tales for step-family life.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A C

    1999-01-01

    Step-families are situated within the sociopolitical context of family change and are examined as a prototype of the "post-modern" family. This essay looks at the cultural construction of step-family life and proposes a model for collaboratively reconstructing stories that liberate step-relationships from the legacy of the Brothers Grimm, deconstructing the stories of failure, insufficiency, and neglect. Building on narrative and social constructionist ways of thinking about families, the concept of side-shadowing (a hermeneutic approach from literary/historical criticism) is introduced to elucidate how therapists can help family members discover ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are both more personally satisfying and more congruent with the changed context of family life. Two therapeutic challenges are high-lighted: reconceptualizing what it means to be a step-family and coming to terms with differential attachment in relationships while working with step-families. The essay ends with a fairy tale for the 21st century.

  1. Fertilization [Chapter 11

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization is one of the most critical components of producing high-quality nursery stock. Seedlings rapidly deplete mineral nutrients stored within seeds, and cuttings have limited nutrient reserves. Therefore, to achieve desired growth rates, nursery plants must rely on root uptake of nutrients from the growing medium. Plants require adequate quantities of mineral...

  2. Nutrition and fertility.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  3. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  4. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  5. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  6. Genetics, genomics and fertility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to enhance the sustainability of dairy businesses, new management tools are needed to increase the fertility of dairy cattle. Genomic selection has been successfully used by AI studs to screen potential sires and significantly decrease the generation interval of bulls. Buoyed by the success...

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  8. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  9. Dune Grass Fertilization and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    plants often suffer, thereafter, from neglect. PURPOSE: To recommend a fertilization and maintenance program to sustain healthy dune grasses in coastal...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1982 to 00-00-1982 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dune Grass Fertilization and Maintenance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...TO APPLY: Apply a granular or pelletized agricultural type fertilizer . It need not be a costly, slow- release material. A.t\\!OUNT OF FERTILIZER TO

  10. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  11. Fertility and the family.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1991-09-01

    The developed countries of Asia include Japan and the newly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. These 5 societies share various similarities that have helped in their socioeconomic development. The 1st includes a significant and quite rapid socioeconomic development (per capita gross national product, urbanization, demographic transition, educational attainment, and industrialization). The 2nd similarity is the extremely high levels of education. Indeed those 5 societies boast the most highly educated populations in Asia. 3rd, they have achieved below replacement fertility. In fact, they never really had very high birth rates anyhow. 4th, extended families are the norm despite rapid transformation of their societies. Confucianism, the 5th similarity, advocates multigenerational families. Children understand that it is their duty to always take care of their parents. Parents know that they have a right to ask for their children's help at any time. In 1981, a demographer hypothesized that 1 of the leading signs of fertility decline is the nucleation of the family. yet in these 5 societies nucleation did not appear before fertility decline. In fact, in Japan, fertility is higher in those homes where the grandmother watches her grandchildren while the daughter or daughter-in-law is at work. Some have compared the role of Confucianism in socioeconomic development with that of Protestantism in the industrialization of Europe. Both stress hard work, simplicity, frugality, discipline, and regularity in daily life. Yet Confucianism sees women as bearers of children and servants to men. Women in these societies protest this mindset by postponing marriage and having few children. If these societies wish to increase fertility, they need to restructure their male oriented societies.

  12. Major Fertilizer Producer Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC to Ensure Proper Handling, Storage and Disposal of 60 Billion Pounds of Hazardous Waste / Manufacturer committing close to $2 billion in funding to address environmental impacts from fertilizer production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC that will ensure the proper treatment, storage, and disposal of an estimated 60 bill

  13. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  14. Dendrochemical response to soil fertilization

    Treesearch

    David R. DeWalle; Jeffrey S. Tepp; Bryan R. Swistock; Pamela J. Edwards; William E. Sharpe; Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochenderfer

    2003-01-01

    Use of chemical element content of tree rings to detect soil acid or base changes was tested at 13 sites of former forest fertilization trials in the eastern United States and Canada. Ammonium sulfate or nitrogen fertilization was the typical acidification treatment, while lime added with or without other fertilizer was the typical base treatment. Molar ratios of...

  15. Breast cancer and fertility: an update.

    PubMed

    Ronn, Ruth; Holzer, Hananel

    2015-09-01

    This review will summarize key fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. The detrimental effects of treatment modalities on ovarian and hormonal function will be reviewed. Options for fertility protection and preservation will also be outlined, as well as the unique issues facing women in pregnancy with a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues continue to be in debate for their protective impact on the ovaries during the time of gonadotoxic treatment. Success rates in the cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes and gonadal tissue continue to improve. Concurrently, advancing reproductive technologies are developing promising techniques for obtaining mature oocytes from ovarian tissue and from early ovarian follicles. The pursuit of a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment is an additional challenge. Increasing bodies of evidence support the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer and the possibly improved survival. Still, there is an uncertainty regarding recommended intervals from diagnosis to conception. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary breast cancer mutations is also becoming of increasing interest. The fertility impact of breast cancer treatment in young women is of ongoing concern. The effects should be universally addressed and options should be outlined with young women prior to commencement of treatment.

  16. [Stress and fertility].

    PubMed

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  17. Fertility in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results.

  18. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  19. Fertility considerations and the pediatric oncology patient.

    PubMed

    Lara, Raffoul; Carmen, Capito; Sabine, Sarnacki

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have witnessed marked improvement in cytotoxic treatments with a parallel increase in patient survival. Despite efforts done to minimize long-term side effects of these treatment regimens, it is estimated that 40% of survivors of pediatric cancer will suffer from those. Some will be mild whereas others such as impaired fertility will be a heavy load on parents׳ expectations and patient׳s quality of life. Gonadal damage and severe loss of function is not a rare condition among children cured for cancer. Despite the young age of those patients, methods exist to try to reduce gonadal insult or to preserve gonadal function. Some of them are well studied and controlled; others are more experimental with encouraging results so far. This article aims to summarize all the procedures that can be offered to young patients treated for cancer in order to protect, as possible, their fertility potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  1. Submarine hydrothermal activity and gold-rich mineralization at Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Massoth, Gary J.; Butterfield, David A.; Christenson, Bruce W.; Ishibashi, Junichiro; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Hannington, Mark D.; Brathwaite, Robert L.; Lupton, John E.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Graham, Ian J.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Dziak, Robert P.; Embley, Robert W.; Dekov, Vesselin M.; Munnik, Frank; Lahr, Janine; Evans, Leigh J.; Takai, Ken

    2011-07-01

    Brothers volcano, of the Kermadec intraoceanic arc, is host to a hydrothermal system unique among seafloor hydrothermal systems known anywhere in the world. It has two distinct vent fields, known as the NW Caldera and Cone sites, whose geology, permeability, vent fluid compositions, mineralogy, and ore-forming conditions are in stark contrast to each other. The NW Caldera site strikes for ˜600 m in a SW-NE direction with chimneys occurring over a ˜145-m depth interval, between ˜1,690 and 1,545 m. At least 100 dead and active sulfide chimney spires occur in this field and are typically 2-3 m in height, with some reaching 6-7 m. Their ages (at time of sampling) fall broadly into three groups: <4, 23, and 35 years old. The chimneys typically occur near the base of individual fault-controlled benches on the caldera wall, striking in lines orthogonal to the slopes. Rarer are massive sulfide crusts 2-3 m thick. Two main types of chimney predominate: Cu-rich (up to 28.5 wt.% Cu) and, more commonly, Zn-rich (up to 43.8 wt.% Zn). Geochemical results show that Mo, Bi, Co, Se, Sn, and Au (up to 91 ppm) are correlated with the Cu mineralization, whereas Cd, Hg, Sb, Ag, and As are associated with the dominant Zn-rich mineralization. The Cone site comprises the Upper Cone site atop the summit of the recent (main) dacite cone and the Lower Cone site that straddles the summit of an older, smaller, more degraded dacite cone on the NE flank of the main cone. Huge volumes of diffuse venting are seen at the Lower Cone site, in contrast to venting at both the Upper Cone and NW Caldera sites. Individual vents are marked by low-relief (≤0.5 m) mounds comprising predominately native sulfur with bacterial mats. Vent fluids of the NW Caldera field are focused, hot (≤300°C), acidic (pH ≥ 2.8), metal-rich, and gas-poor. Calculated end-member fluids from NW Caldera vents indicate that phase separation has occurred, with Cl values ranging from 93% to 137% of seawater values. By

  2. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L; Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium-induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all, of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, and rendezvin. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs decreased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, but different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation for cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis, and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species-sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxons in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization.

  3. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, rendezvin, and ovoperoxidase. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs deceased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, and different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation of the cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species–sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxa in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization. PMID:23331915

  4. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  5. Commercial fertilizers 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1990-12-01

    US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K{sub 2}O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

  6. Commercial fertilizers 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1990-12-01

    US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P[sub 2]O[sub 5]. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K[sub 2]O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

  7. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  8. Memoir of fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    Fertility preservation has been practiced for at least 50 years using semen banking, pelvic surgery, and radiation shields, but in the past 20 years it has emerged as a rapidly growing subspecialty of reproductive medicine. A dramatic rise in survivorship of young cancer patients and the widespread postponement of family building to the later years of the female reproductive lifespan have been major driving forces. Throughout the history of fertility preservation, low temperature banking has played a pivotal role, first for gametes and later for embryos and immature germ cells, while ovarian transplantation recently began to contribute and spermatogonial stem cell transfer holds future promise for men and prepubertal boys. But there are significant risks with some diseases from reimplanting residual disease, which hopefully can be eliminated by new methods for purging the tissue and germ cell culture. Since all technologies are interim, cryopreservation as a mainstay in this field will likely be swept aside eventually by a stream of progress aimed at managing fertility preservation in vivo.

  9. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  10. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  11. Female fertility loss and preservation: threats and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Salama, M; Winkler, K; Murach, K F; Seeber, B; Ziehr, S C; Wildt, L

    2013-03-01

    Ovarian aging and cytotoxic treatments are the most common causes for fertility loss in women. With increasing numbers of young female survivors following cytotoxic cancer treatments, the issue of fertility preservation has assumed greater importance. We review the literature on the causes of female fertility loss as well as the recent advances in fertility preservation options and strategies that might be of interest to oncologists. Currently, several methods and techniques exist for fertility preservation of female patients with cancer including embryo freezing, ovarian protection techniques, oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by autotransplantation, and recently in vitro culture of ovarian tissue, follicles, and oocytes. Each method or technique has advantages and disadvantages related to current success rate, required delay in cancer treatment, sperm requirement, and risk of reintroducing cancer cells. To date, embryo freezing is the only established method successfully and widely used for fertility preservation of female patients with cancer. The other methods are promising but still considered experimental. Patient awareness, physician knowledge, early counseling, costs management, international registry, interdisciplinary networks, and research development are necessary to improve the current care in the field of female fertility preservation.

  12. How well are lesbians treated in UK fertility clinics?

    PubMed

    Priddle, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Legislation regulating fertility treatment in the United Kingdom originally discouraged treatment without a father, resulting in many clinics denying access to lesbian couples. Lesbians now enjoy rights to legal union, dual parenthood and protection against discrimination. Consequently, increasing numbers seek fertility treatment. This is a growing stakeholder group, but it is unknown whether UK licensed centres are serving them adequately. Data from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority suggests live birth rates after in vitro fertilisation for lesbians is comparable to estimates for natural attempt at pregnancy for heterosexuals, whereas success rates with donor insemination are lower. Unsurprisingly, live birth rates for lesbians after in vitro fertilisation are higher compared with heterosexual couples (the latter attending with fertility issues). However, outcomes for lesbians after donor insemination are slightly lower, potentially due to increased female age. Rather than adopting a one-heterosexual-size-fits-all approach, lesbian couples may benefit from new treatment pathways. They also have a different experience of fertility treatment, some reporting a wish to be presumed fertile rather than medicalised, and others encountering heterosexism by fertility professionals. Additionally, some lesbians with known fertility issues have needed to resort to legal action to obtain the publicly funded treatment they are entitled to.

  13. Plant-microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, Anthony O; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2009-11-01

    The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components of such management systems. This review is a critical summary of the efforts in using microbial inoculants, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for increasing the use efficiency of fertilizers. Studies with microbial inoculants and nutrients have demonstrated that some inoculants can improve plant uptake of nutrients and thereby increase the use efficiency of applied chemical fertilizers and manures. These proofs of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  14. Familial vasculitides: granulomatosis with polyangitis and microscopic polyangitis in two brothers with differing anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody specificity

    PubMed Central

    Prendecki, Maria; Cairns, Tom; Pusey, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare autoimmune diseases. Although the aetiology of AAV is uncertain, it is likely that genetic and environmental factors contribute. We report the unusual case of two brothers presenting with AAV with differing clinical pictures and differing ANCA specificity. There is a recently identified difference in genetic risk factors associated with ANCA specificity, making it surprising that first-degree relatives develop AAV with differing clinical and serological features. Our report illustrates the complex aetiology of AAV and suggests that further research on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors is needed. PMID:27274829

  15. Severe hypertelorism, midface prominence, prominent/simple ears, severe myopia, borderline intelligence, and bone fragility in two brothers: new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Hamamy, Hanan A; Teebi, Ahmad S; Oudjhane, Kamaldine; Shegem, N N; Ajlouni, K M

    2007-02-01

    We report on two brothers, born to double first cousin Jordanian Arab parents, with a syndrome comprising severe hypertelorism with upslanted palpebral fissures, brachycephaly, abnormal ears, sloping shoulders, enamel hypoplasia, and osteopenia with repeated fractures. Both have severe myopia, mild to moderate sensori-neural hearing loss and borderline intelligence. Results of chromosome analysis were normal as was a FISH assay for subtelomeric rearrangements. The father has mild hypertelorism but the family history is otherwise unremarkable. We think that this represents a previously unrecognized autosomal or X-linked recessive syndrome.

  16. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  17. A Comparison of Trans Women, Trans Men, Genderqueer Individuals, and Cisgender Brothers and Sisters on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Ratings by Self and Siblings.

    PubMed

    Factor, Rhonda J; Rothblum, Esther D

    2017-01-01

    A U.S. national sample of 295 transgender adults (trans women, trans men, and genderqueer individuals) and their cisgender siblings completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory about their siblings as well as themselves, which enabled a comparison between self-perceptions and sibling's perceptions of personality characteristics. Self-reported personality characteristics scored as feminine of trans women were not statistically different from those of their cisgender sisters, but they were significantly higher than self-reported femininity scores of trans men, genderqueer individuals, and cisgender brothers. Self-reported personality characteristics scored as masculine of trans men did not differ significantly from those of their cisgender brothers, but they were higher than those of trans women. Trans men and cisgender brothers were viewed by their siblings in a more sex-typed way than they rated themselves, whereas trans women and cisgender sisters were rated by their siblings in a less sex-typed way than they viewed themselves.

  18. Income, education, and fertility.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A study based on data from the National Impact Survey (1968-69) delineates the impact of family planning programs on the demography of Pakistan. Son preference was found to be a strong factor in deciding the desire for an additional child. Raising the status of women would decrease the fertility rate. In the rural areas higher income had a positive effect on fertility; in the urban areas it had a negative effect. Policies explicitly directed at actual distribution of income would have a positive effect. The educational level of the family, especially the wife, was related to lower family size. Families with at least one child in school had a lower completed family size. Couples who married later in life did not tend to have smaller families but smaller intervals between births. Rural nuclear families have more children than non-nuclear families or kinship groups, presumably because they need children for labor and old age security. Incentives and disincentives to motivate couples to limit family size should be offered by the Pakistan government.

  19. Immunoregulation of mammalian fertility.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, W J

    1994-01-01

    Fertility management is a global issue of agricultural, medical, economic, and social consequence. Although many methods have been devised to both inhibit and assist reproduction, more acceptable alternatives are needed. Regulation by immune intervention is a promising technology as applied to livestock, pets, wildlife, and human beings. Outcome is dictated by site within the reproductive axis that is targeted. Fertility is suppressed by immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropins, prostaglandin F2 alpha, oxytocin, gonadotropin receptors, and gamete/embryonic antigens. It also is possible to lyse gonadal cells with ligand-antibody hybrid molecules. Ovulation rates are enhanced by vaccination with inhibin. Antibodies to sex steroid hormones have yielded mixed results. Perhaps recombinant viral vectors can be used to deliver reproductive immunogens. A new and simple technique to generate sustained autoimmune reactions to hormones and cellular antigens entails direct gene transfer into somatic cells. Evolving advances in reproductive immunology and biotechnology should furnish us with novel nonsurgical contraceptives and profertility agents that can be efficiently and safely implemented.

  20. HLA and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.

    1995-11-01

    The recent paper by Jin et al., reporting that class 11 region major histocompatibility complex genes may influence embryonic loss in outbred couples supports previous results of our studies of HLA and fertility in the Hutterites. However, the authors have incorrectly cited our work and have omitted the reference that is most relevant to their results. The paper by Kostyu et al. is incorrectly referred to in the introduction as providing evidence for HLA sharing being associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion. The Kostyu et al. paper does not include any data on fertility or reproduction but reports frequencies of individuals who are homozygous at the HLA-A, -C, -B, -DR, and -DQ loci in the Hutterite population. In fact, recurrent spontaneous abortion has not been observed in any of the couples in our sample of >500 Hutterite couples. References more appropriate to the association between HLA sharing and recurrent miscarriage are those by Komlos et al., Schacter et al., Gerencer and Kastelan, and Beer et al. It might also be worth pointing out that many studies of recurrent miscarriage in outbred couples have not found an association with HLA sharing; examples include the studies of Ergolu et al., Oksenberg et al., and Christiansen et al., among others. 11 refs.

  1. Slow release fertilizers in bareroot nurseries

    Treesearch

    J. G. Iyer; J. Dobrahner; B. Lowery; J. Vandettey

    2002-01-01

    Maintaining sufficient soil fertility in tree nurseries for good tree growth can be implemented by annually performing soil analyses and following a fertility maintenance program. Percentage recovery by trees of fertilizer applied indicates efficiency of fertilizer use. There is a wide variation in the recovery among the various fertilizer elements. Our research has...

  2. Triallelic digenic mutation in the prokineticin 2 and GNRH receptor genes in two brothers with normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Coronel, Agustín; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin Antonio; Valencia-Villalvazo, Elith Yazmín; Soderlund, Daniela; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canto, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: To date, different genes have been identified as responsible for the presence of normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH). Herein, we report the molecular findings regarding the analysis of PROK2, in two brothers with nCHH. Two siblings with nCHH, in whom mutations in GNRHR, PROKR2 and FGFR1 had been investigated previously, as well as their family were studied. DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced for the PROK2 gene. Controls were analyzed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism. The structure of PROK2 and its mutant protein were compared using a protein molecular model. Both affected siblings exhibited a heterozygous p.R117W mutation in PROK2, while their mother was a heterozygous carrier and their father, an unaffected brother and their sister were homozygous wild type. Besides, both patients presented a homozygous p.E90K mutation in GNRHR that had been previously reported. We found a novel mutation in PROK2 in two siblings in whom a mutation in the GNRHR gene had been previously reported.

  3. An Xp; Yq translocation causing a novel contiguous gene syndrome in brothers with generalized epilepsy, ichthyosis, and attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J; Glass, Ian A; Bennett, Craig L; Cotter, Phil D; Watson, Nate F; Mitchell, Anna L; Bird, Tom D; Farrell, Don F

    2003-12-01

    We describe two brothers with generalized epilepsy, attention deficits, congenital ichthyosis, and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis who harbor an unusual Xp; Yq translocation chromosome, resulting in a novel contiguous gene syndrome because of deletion of genes from the distal short arm of the X chromosome. Physical examination, neuropsychologic testing, EEG, and neuroimaging studies were performed. Because of their unusual phenotype, karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and further molecular analyses were carried out to refine the break points of the underlying unbalanced sex chromosome rearrangement. The subjects had generalized epilepsy, X-linked ichthyosis, Madelung deformities, mesomelia, normal intelligence, and attention deficits. The brothers' karyotype was unbalanced; they inherited a maternal derivative X chromosome. Deleted distal Xp genes included short-stature homeobox on the X chromosome (SHOX), aryl sulfatase E (ARSE), variably charged X-chromosome mRNA gene A (VCX-A), and steroid sulfatase (STS). The final karyotype was 46,Y,der(X)t(X; Y)(p22.3; q11.2).ish der(X) (DXZ1+, KAL+, STS-, SHOX-) mat. Loss of distal contiguous Xp genes resulted in a syndrome comprising bony deformities, ichthyosis, attention problems, and generalized epilepsy. Candidate epilepsy genes within the deleted segment, such as ASMT, a gene involved in the final synthesis of melatonin, are discussed. Cytogenetic analyses should be included in the clinical evaluation of patients with generalized epilepsy and complex phenotypes.

  4. Psychological health in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Eilegård, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Tommy; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term psychological distress in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier, as compared with a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population. During 2009, we conducted a nationwide follow-up study in Sweden by using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. Siblings who had lost a brother or sister to cancer between the years 2000 and 2007 and also a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population were invited to participate. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress, and to test for differences in the ordinal outcome responses between the groups, we used Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Among the bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated and 219/293 (75%) among the non-bereaved. Self-assessed low self-esteem (p = 0.002), difficulties falling asleep (p = 0.005), and low level of personal maturity (p = 0.007) at follow-up were more prevalent among bereaved siblings. However, anxiety (p = 0.298) and depression (p = 0.946), according to HADS, were similar. Bereaved siblings are at increased risk of low self-esteem, low level of personal maturity and difficulties falling asleep as compared with non-bereaved peers. Yet, the bereaved were not more likely to report anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    MedlinePlus

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... walls due to lower estrogen. Problems with fertility Radiation therapy can cause: Loss of sexual desire Changes ...

  6. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  7. Retained fertilizing capability in cryopreserved feline spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, K

    2017-04-01

    Sperm cryopreservation offers a long-term preservation of male genetic materials for future assisted reproductive technologies. However, dramatic changes in temperature during freezing and thawing injure sperm cells. While motility is essential for AI and membrane integrity is crucial for in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm DNA integrity is a common index of fertilizing capability required for AI, IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In endangered felids died unexpectedly, attempts have been made to recover as many DNA intact spermatozoa as possible from epididymis and testis to increase the opportunity to produce offspring in future. Although sperm from caudal epididymis has shown retained fertilizing capability after freezing and thawing (27.3% conception rate after unilateral intrauterine insemination), sperm recovery from the corpus epididymis has been suggested as an alternative to increase the amount of preserved genetic materials. To improve epididymal sperm quality, pre-treatment with single-layer centrifugation resulted in selection of sperm cells with intact DNA while post-thaw treatment with extracellular ATP incubation promoted the blastocyst rate. Cold storage of domestic cat testis for 7 days at 4°C demonstrated <1% of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. Moreover, isolated testicular sperm cells, stored for 7 days at 4°C, produced after ICSI poorer percentages of cleavage, morula and blastocyst than the fresh control. In wild felids, a death-to-necropsy time of 2 hr after a jungle cat (Felis chaus) aged 10 years died during anaesthesia plus another necropsy-to-sperm recovery time of 25 hr has been reported to yield the post-thawed testicular sperm with 22.2% intact DNA. In summary, the chromatin structure of feline ejaculated and epididymal sperm seems to be tolerated to cold storage and cryopreservation; thus, fertilizing capability is well protected. In contrast, the cat testicular sperm DNA is generally damaged through the

  8. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  9. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  10. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  11. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  13. Slow-release fertilizers 101

    Treesearch

    Robin Rose

    2002-01-01

    Slow release fertilizers have been in common use within the horticultural industry for decades. Probably the mostly commonly heard of product is Scott's Osmocote which has been around for a quite a long time. However, some time ago slow release fertilizers moved out of the potted greenhouse environment and onto golf courses, suburban lawns and bushes, and orchards...

  14. High fertility among Indochinese refugees.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, J R; Rumbaut, R G; Brindis, C; Korenbrot, C C; Minkler, D

    1989-01-01

    From 1975 to 1988, nearly 900,000 Indochinese refugees were resettled in the United States. This paper examines patterns of fertility among these refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who have exhibited high levels of reproduction since their arrival. Data are drawn from sample surveys in San Diego and San Francisco, CA. Fertility levels were found to exceed five children per ever-married woman, a level that is consistent with perceptions of ideal family size in the homeland. Fertility levels were significantly higher among rural second-wave refugees than in the more urban first-wave groups. One explanation for the high fertility is that couples have migrated from areas where fertility is high, and they have not yet adapted their reproductive behavior to the low fertility environment of the United States. This possibility is reinforced by a general gender preference for boys and exacerbated by the fact that, while a majority of women are aware of methods of fertility control, access is still limited by cultural and financial barriers, and the motivation to use family planning still appears to be relatively low. The data suggest that this refugee population will continue to put pressure on maternal and child health resources, and that continued residence in the United States could lead to desires to limit family size, thus increasing demand for methods of fertility control. PMID:2495548

  15. High fertility among Indochinese refugees.

    PubMed

    Weeks, J R; Rumbaut, R G; Brindis, C; Korenbrot, C C; Minkler, D

    1989-01-01

    From 1975 to 1988, nearly 900,000 Indochinese refugees were resettled in the United States. This paper examines patterns of fertility among these refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who have exhibited high levels of reproduction since their arrival. Data are drawn from sample surveys in San Diego and San Francisco, CA. Fertility levels were found to exceed five children per ever-married woman, a level that is consistent with perceptions of ideal family size in the homeland. Fertility levels were significantly higher among rural second-wave refugees than in the more urban first-wave groups. One explanation for the high fertility is that couples have migrated from areas where fertility is high, and they have not yet adapted their reproductive behavior to the low fertility environment of the United States. This possibility is reinforced by a general gender preference for boys and exacerbated by the fact that, while a majority of women are aware of methods of fertility control, access is still limited by cultural and financial barriers, and the motivation to use family planning still appears to be relatively low. The data suggest that this refugee population will continue to put pressure on maternal and child health resources, and that continued residence in the United States could lead to desires to limit family size, thus increasing demand for methods of fertility control.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  17. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  18. Helicopter fertilizing of Foothill Range

    Treesearch

    Don A. Duncan; Jack N. Reppert

    1966-01-01

    Helicopters may prove the best method of applying sulfur fertilizer on rangeland too steep for ground application, or with no nearby landing strip for fixed-wing aircraft. Helicopter fertilization of 457 acres of the San Joaquin Experimental Range in central California in 1960 and 1963 was fast and practical.

  19. Internal fertilization in an oviparous frog.

    PubMed

    Townsend, D S; Stewart, M M; Pough, F H; Brussard, P F

    1981-04-24

    Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.

  20. Reduced Environmental Impact of Fertilizers Using PGPR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of fertilizers is becoming a threat to sustainability in agriculture. Inorganic fertilizer is linked to nitrate contamination of groundwater and phosphorus runoff. Even with organic fertilizers, such as poultry litter, high phosphorus bioavailability, nitrogen accumulation, and leaching may ...

  1. Fertilizers and Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Amit H.

    Fertilizers provide plants with the nutrients they need for their growth and development. Plants live, grow, and reproduce by taking up water and nutrients, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the sun. Apart from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which collectively make up 90-95 percent of the dry matter of all plants, other nutrients needed by plants come essentially from the media in which they grow—essentially in the soil. The other nutrients are subdivided into primary nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and secondary nutrients (calcium, magnesium, and sulfur). In addition, plants also need other nutrients in much smaller amounts, and they are referred to as micro-nutrients (boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc).

  2. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

  3. Obesity and fertility.

    PubMed

    Best, Damian; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years. Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples, and female obesity is associated with anovulation. The mechanisms by which excessive fat delays time to pregnancy (TTP) appear rooted in ovulatory problems and direct effects on oocytes, causing poorer embryo development, as well as in effects on the endometrium. Weight loss in women has been shown to improve conception, but not necessarily live birth rates following fertility treatment, and further research in this area is needed. The obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a potential rise in male infertility, which has been attributed to hormonal disturbances and compromised semen parameters.

  4. Environmental handbook for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.H.

    1992-08-01

    The owner/operator of the retail fertilizer/agrichemical dealership is responsible for the management of the business. He is responsible for managing, supervising and controlling all aspects of the operation to achieve desired goals. A foundation goal is to provide needed products and helpful services to customers in the service area. An inherent goal, of course, is to make a reasonable profit on the products and services. Still another goal, as will be noted repeatedly in this book, should be to protect and enhance the environment. Information in this book is intended to reinforce dealers in their pursuit of the environmental objective. This involves a lot of things, including: Understanding how air and water can become contaminated; Assessing the vulnerability of the plant site; Implementing containment measures that are fully adequate for both fertilizer and agrichemical products; Knowledge of local, state and federal requirements related to safety and to protection of water and air quality; Development of effective plans for dealing with emergencies and for informing employees and others about the materials handled by the dealership.

  5. Increased male fertility using fertility-related biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Ryu, Do-Yeal; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Conventional semen analyses are used to evaluate male factor fertility/infertility in humans and other animals. However, their clinical value remains controversial. Therefore, new tools that more accurately assess male fertility based on sperm function and fertilization mechanism are of interest worldwide. While protein markers in spermatozoa that might help differentiate fertile and infertile sperm have been identified, studies are in their infancy, and the markers require validation in field trials. In the present study, to discover more sensitive biomarkers in spermatozoa for predicting male fertility, we assessed protein expression in capacitated spermatozoa. The results demonstrated that cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 2 (UQCRC2) was abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). On the other hand, equatorin, beta-tubulin, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1 (UQCRC1), speriolin, Ras-related protein Rab-2A (RAB2A), spermadhesin AQN-3, and seminal plasma sperm motility inhibitor were abundantly expressed in low-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). Moreover, RAB2A and UQCRC1 expression negatively correlated with litter size, while UQCRC2 expression positively correlated with litter size. Finally, the putative biomarkers predicted litter size in field trials. Our study suggests that biomarkers present in spermatozoa after capacitation can help differentiate superior male fertility from below-average fertility with high sensitivity. PMID:26489431

  6. Winter wheat fertilized with biogas residue and mining waste: yielding and the quality of grain.

    PubMed

    Różyło, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Różyło, Renata; Pałys, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Environmental protection problems and efforts to increase agricultural productivity result in attempts to use various organic and mineral wastes as fertilizers. This study aimed to determine the effect of biogas residue (BR) and mining waste (MS) fertilization on wheat yield as well as the nutritional and pro-health quality of grains produced. After the application of MS and BR wheat grain yield was increased compared to unfertilized wheat. The highest grain yield and thousand-grain weight were obtained after MS+BR fertilization. Grains of wheat fertilized with BR and MS+BR contained significantly more protein and wet gluten compared to no fertilization and conventional fertilization (NPK). The studied conditions did not statistically affect starch content. BR fertilization significantly increased the total phenolic content; however, grains of wheat fertilized with NPK were characterized by the highest content of flavonoids and syringic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Compared to NPK, waste fertilizations positively affect the reducing power and antiradical activity of wheat. These results suggest that the wastes evaluated can be an alternative to conventional fertilization in the soil tested that without any significant deterioration and in some cases significant improvement of yield and wheat quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…

  8. Development of Boys and Young Men of Color: Implications of Developmental Science for My Brother's Keeper Initiative. Social Policy Report. Volume 29, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Murry, Velma McBride; Tolan, Patrick; Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Boys and men of color (BMOC) are at significant risks for poor outcomes across multiple domains including education, health, and financial well-being with little promise of improvement in the near future. Out of concern for this situation, President Obama instituted the My Brother's Keeper Initiative (MBKI) to enlist the combined resources of…

  9. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…

  10. Extended Big-Brother experiments: the role of lateral boundary data quality and size of integration domain in regional climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Køltzow, Morten; Iversen, Trond; Haugen, Jan Erik

    2008-05-01

    Dynamical downscaling by atmospheric Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced with low-resolution data should produce fine scale climate details with skill. This is investigated by adopting and extending the Big-Brother approach of Denis et al. (2002). A reference climate is established from a fine resolution RCM simulation in a large domain (the Big-Brother). These Big-Brother (BB) data are degraded by removing small scales, and then used for downscaling by the RCM (the Little Brother) with the same resolution as the BB in three domains of different size. Differences between the Little- and BB are attributed to errors caused by the downscaling. We have furthermore extended the original BB method and investigated the impact of the quality of the driving data. The RCM manage to reproduce the general large scale climate features of the BB when forced with high quality data, but show deficiencies when the driving data differ both in phase and scale from the BB. Forced with data with lower quality on a sufficiently large integration domain and in regions influenced by strong local forcing, the RCM significantly improve the climate statistics for local variables (2 m air-temperature, 10 m wind speed, precipitation). We even found that the improvement increased with domain size.

  11. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  12. High School Mentors in Brief: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study. P/PV In Brief. Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; Herrera, Carla

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Public/Private Ventures (P/PV) In Brief" is based on "High School Students as Mentors," a report that examined the efficacy of high school mentors using data from P/PV's large-scale random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring programs. The brief presents an overview of the findings, which…

  13. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Dawit Getnet

    2015-06-01

    The most important elements to determine the rate of population growth is fertility. Fertility is the main element to affect the welfare of mother. The survival of a child can be affected by high fertility and shorter birth intervals. For this study, the linear mixed model was used to determine factors affecting fertility status of women in Ethiopia. The 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data was used for this study. From the result, materials used for roof, wall and floor were found to have a significant relation to fertility level of women in the last five years. Moreover, family size and births in the last five years were found to have a significant relationship. Significant variation in fertility level was observed among rural and urban residents of Ethiopia. To reduce the gap of fertility between rural and urban population, it is important to modernize different factors. These factors could be access to education, media, and providing employment opportunities in the modern economic sector. Besides this, it is important to develop and maintain the access of family planning services.

  14. Expression of miRNAs in Bull Spermatozoa Correlates with Fertility Rates.

    PubMed

    Fagerlind, M; Stålhammar, H; Olsson, B; Klinga-Levan, K

    2015-08-01

    Bull spermatozoa are rich in active miRNAs, and it has been shown that specific spermborne miRNAs can be linked to fertility. Thus, expression profiling of spermatozoa could be helpful for understanding male fertility and the ability of spermatozoa to initiate and sustain zygotic, embryonic and foetal development. Herein we hypothesized that bulls with moderate to high fertility can be identified by differences in amounts of certain miRNAs between their ejaculates. RNA samples from spermatozoa of eight brother pairs (one bull with high and one with moderate NRR in each pair) of the Holstein breed were prepared. miRNA was isolated, and the expression of 178 miRNAs was determined by RT-qPCR. Important findings were that highly expressed miRNAs, not linked to NRR status, were identified in the bull sperm samples, which indicate that these miRNAs have an important role in early embryogenesis. A large fraction of the targets genes were phosphoproteins and genes involved in the regulation of transcription. Seven miRNAs (mir-502-5p, mir-1249, mir-320a, mir-34c-3p, mir-19b-3p, mir-27a-5p and mir-148b-3p) were differentially expressed between bulls with moderate and high NRR with a strong tendency towards a higher expression of miRNAs in bulls with moderate fertility. Thus, bulls with a moderate NRR negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes, which leads to problems during the pregnancy. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Determinants of fertility in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J E; Morris, L; Pineda, A; Santiso, R

    1980-01-01

    The 1978 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey for Guatemala provides an opportunity to examine fertility levels and a number of determinants of fertility for three broad segments of the country: the Department of Guatemala and, in the remainder of the country, the Ladino and Indian populations. While Ladinos had a much higher rate of contraceptive use than did Indians, the two groups had similar birth rates. The lack of difference in fertility appears to be due to the pattern of prolonged breastfeeding among Indians and perhaps to differences in the rate of conception due to nutrition, coital frequency, or other factors.

  16. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

    PubMed Central

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as ‘critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model. PMID:23719567

  17. brother of cdo (umleitung) is cell-autonomously required for Hedgehog-mediated ventral CNS patterning in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Sadie A.; Tyurina, Oksana V.; Miller, Emily; Bagas, Andrea; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Brother of Cdo (Boc) has been implicated in Shh-mediated commissural axon guidance, and can both positively and negatively regulate Hedgehog (Hh) target gene transcription, however, little is known about in vivo requirements for Boc during vertebrate embryogenesis. The zebrafish umleitung (umlty54) mutant was identified by defects in retinotectal axon projections. Here, we show that the uml locus encodes Boc and that Boc function is cell-autonomously required for Hh-mediated neural patterning. Our phenotypic analysis suggests that Boc is required as a positive regulator of Hh signaling in the spinal cord, hypothalamus, pituitary, somites and upper jaw, but that Boc might negatively regulate Hh signals in the lower jaw. This study reveals a role for Boc in ventral CNS cells that receive high levels of Hh and uncovers previously unknown roles for Boc in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21115611

  18. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series.

    PubMed

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as 'critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model.

  19. A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Keala; Wilton, Leo; Wheeler, Darrell; Fogel, Jessica; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study’s findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching African American MSM who may not be accessed by traditional recruitment methods or who are well-integrated in health care systems. PMID:25874753

  20. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-05-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as `critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model.

  1. Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L.

    1996-01-02

    Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size, although columnar crystals up to 80 μm long have been observed. The tellurides commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. They also are found at the contact between chalcopyrite and pyrite grains. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. One Cu

  3. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  4. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  5. A novel AVPR2 splice site mutation leads to partial X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Adams, David; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Raygada, Margarita; Golas, Gretchen; Faucz, Fabio R; Nilsson, Ola; Nella, Aikaterini A; Dileepan, Kavitha; Lodish, Maya; Lee, Paul; Tifft, Cynthia; Markello, Thomas; Gahl, William; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-05-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI, OMIM#304800) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP, OMIM*192340) receptor type 2 (AVPR2, OMIM*300538) gene. A 20-month-old boy and his 8-year-old brother presented with polyuria, polydipsia, and failure to thrive. Both boys demonstrated partial DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D AVP or desmopressin) responses; thus, NDI diagnosis was delayed. While routine sequencing of AVPR2 showed a potential splice site variant, it was not until exome sequencing confirmed the AVPR2 splice site variant and did not reveal any more likely candidates that the patients' diagnosis was made and proper treatment was instituted. Both patients were hemizygous for two AVPR2 variants predicted in silico to affect AVPR2 messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. A minigene assay revealed that the novel AVPR2 c.276A>G mutation creates a novel splice acceptor site leading to 5' truncation of AVPR2 exon 2 in HEK293 human kidney cells. Both patients have been treated with high-dose DDAVP with a remarkable improvement of their symptoms and accelerated linear growth and weight gain. We present here a unique case of partial X-linked NDI due to an AVPR2 splice site mutation; patients with diabetes insipidus of unknown etiology may harbor splice site mutations that are initially underestimated in their pathogenicity on sequence analysis. • X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by AVPR2 mutations, and disease severity can vary depending on the functional effect of the mutation. What is New: • We demonstrate here that a splice site mutation in AVPR2 leads to partial X-linked NDI in two brothers. • Treatment with high-dose DDAVP led to improvement of polyuria and polydipsia, weight gain, and growth.

  6. Fertility knowledge and beliefs about fertility treatment: findings from the International Fertility Decision-making Study.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Laura; Tsibulsky, Ivan; Boivin, Jacky

    2013-02-01

    How good is fertility knowledge and what are treatment beliefs in an international sample of men and women currently trying to conceive? The study population had a modest level of fertility knowledge and held positive and negative views of treatment. Few studies have examined general fertility treatment attitudes but studies of specific interventions show that attitudes are related to characteristics of the patient, doctor and context. Further, research shows that fertility knowledge is poor. However, the majority of these studies have examined the prevalence of infertility, the optimal fertile period and/or age-related infertility in women, in university students and/or people from high-resource countries making it difficult to generalize findings. A cross-sectional sample completed the International Fertility Decision-making Study (IFDMS) over a 9-month period, online or via social research panels and in fertility clinics. Participants were 10 045 people (8355 women, 1690 men) who were on average 31.8 years old, had been trying to conceive for 2.8 years with 53.9% university educated. From a total of 79 countries, sample size was >100 in 18 countries. All 79 countries were assigned to either a very high Human Development Index (VH HDI) or a not very high HDI (NVH HDI). The IFDMS was a 45-min, 64-item English survey translated into 12 languages. The inclusion criteria were the age between 18 and 50 years and currently trying to conceive for at least 6 months. Fertility knowledge was assessed using a 13-item correct/incorrect scale concerned with risk factors, misconceptions and basic fertility facts (range: 0-100% correct). Treatment beliefs were assessed with positive and negative statements about fertility treatment rated on a five-point agree/disagree response scale. Average correct score for Fertility Knowledge was 56.9%, with greater knowledge significantly related to female gender, university education, paid employment, VH HDI and prior medical consultation

  7. Glucocorticoids, Stress, and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Whirledge, Shannon; Cidlowski, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifications of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids form a key component of the response of an organism to stressful challenges. Increased levels of glucocorticoids promote gluconeogenesis, mobilization of amino acids, and stimulation of fat breakdown to maintain circulating levels of glucose necessary to mount a stress response. In addition to profound changes in the physiology and function of multiple tissues, stress and elevated glucocorticoids can also inhibit reproduction, a logical effect for the survival of self. Precise levels of glucocorticoids are required for proper gonadal function; where the balance is disrupted, so is fertility. Glucocorticoids affect gonadal function at multiple levels in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: 1) the hypothalamus (to decrease the synthesis and release of GnRH); 2) the pituitary gland (to inhibit the synthesis and release of LH and FSH); 3) the testis/ovary (to modulate steroidogenesis and/or gametogenesis directly). Furthermore, maternal exposure to prenatal stress or exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function and stress-related behaviors in offspring. Glucocorticoids are vital to many aspects of normal brain development, but fetal exposure to superabundant glucocorticoids can result in life-long effects on neuroendocrine function. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms believed to mediate glucocorticoid inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place. PMID:20595939

  8. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  9. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  10. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  11. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  12. Global fertility and population trends.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends.

  13. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Crop Fertilization and Soil Fertility in the Loess Plateau in China from the 1970s to the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  16. Perspectives on access to in vitro fertilization in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Barros, H

    2012-04-01

    To analyze users' reasons for choosing in vitro fertilization treatment in public or private services and to identify their suggestions for improving fertility treatment. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach was conducted. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment (nine women, one man and five couples) at home or at their workplace in the districts of Viana do Castelo, Braga, Porto and Lisbon, Portugal, between July 2005 and February 2006. Users evaluated access to in vitro fertilization treatment in public and private services based mainly on their individual experiences and called for more access to less costly, faster and friendlier care with suitable facilities, appropriate time management and caring medical providers. These perceptions were also associated with views on the need for fighting stigmatization of infertility, protecting children's rights and guaranteeing sustainability of health care system. Interviewees sought to balance reduced waiting time and more attentive care with costs involved. The choice of services depended on the users' purchase power and place of residence and availability of attentive care. Current national policies on in vitro fertilization treatment meet user's demands of promoting access to, and quality, availability and affordability of in vitro fertilization treatment. However, their focus on legal regulation and technical-scientific aspects contrasts with the users' emphasis on reimbursement, insurance coverage and focus on emotional aspects of the treatment. The study showed these policies should ensure insurance coverage, participation of user representatives in the National Council for Assisted Reproductive Technology, promotion of infertility research and certification of fertility laboratories.

  17. Improvement of natural pastures using liquid organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Gabedava, Giorgi; Abuladze, Paata

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays natural pastures remains the main source to supply livestock with fresh feed material in Georgia. Due to that common pasturelands are under continues grazing pressure and normally no measures are taken in order to improve pasture productivity and to protect soil from erosion. Unregulated stocking rate leads to overutilization of natural pastures causing reduction in productivity and soil fertility. It is especially evident in arid regions, where bare soil after removal of vegetation dries out and is subject to wind erosion. In many areas even with regulated stocking rate plant available soil nutrient pool is already diminished and vegetation cannot be recovered easily after grazing. Therefore it is essential to improve soil fertility, which provide adequate amount of nutrients to plants to regenerate. Ongoing study aims to compare effect of different types of organic fertilizers on natural pastures in combination with pasture rotation scheme in order to maintain soil fertility and prepare the basis for its gradual improvement. Initial results shows positive impact of liquid organic fertilizers which increased aboveground biomass production by 200-300 kg per hectare.

  18. Reflections on fertility dynamics in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Eugenia Claudia; Minca, Dana Galieta

    2012-01-01

    Aims to highlight the changes occurred in the evolution of the fertility phenomenon in Romania, focusing on developments in the general fertility rate, total fertility rate, number of live births, and on the construction of specific indicators to reveal the source of demographic change. Several theories on the factors that may cause fertility decline it were outlined, underlining the presence of these factors during fertility dynamics in our country. After 1990, population decline may be explained by a close inter-relationship between economic theories (worsening economic conditions lead to decreased fertility) and the second demographic transition (postponement of births, fertility change model).

  19. Management of fertility preservation in young breast cancer patients in a large breast cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, B; Neunhoeffer, E; Henes, M; Lessmann-Bechle, S; Krämer, B; Fehm, Tanja

    2010-11-01

    The increase of breast cancer in young women under 40 years and the increasing age of women at the time of the birth of their first child underlines the importance to implement counselling for fertility-preserving strategies in the management of breast cancer care. We present the fertility-preserving procedures performed after routine counselling for primary breast cancer patients in a large certified breast cancer centre. Since November 2006, patients aged below 40 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer are routinely counselled on fertility-preserving possibilities before breast surgery and chemotherapy in the fertility centre of the University Women's Hospital in Tuebingen. The recommendations are based on the treatment recommendations of the network FertiPROTEKT. During the last 40 months, 56 primary breast cancer patients were counselled. Forty-one of these patients were hormone receptor positive. Thirty-four patients (63%) underwent fertility-preserving strategies. The majority of the patients (n = 22) decided on ovarian tissue cryopreservation. GnRH protection was performed in 14 patients. In 12 patients an ovarian stimulation protocol was initiated to cryopreserve fertilized or unfertilized oocytes. A combination of different fertility-preserving methods was performed in 12 patients. The preservation of ovarian function and fertility are of great importance to young breast cancer patients. Counselling on fertility-preserving strategies is therefore critical in these patients and should be routinely performed.

  20. [Fertility in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Mardones Restat, F; Jones Orellana, G

    1985-03-01

    Mortality rates among infants of mothers under 18 years old and their association with relevant variables were analyzed for the light they could shed on control of infant mortality and morbidity in Chile. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to maternal age, birth weight, and other risk factors in birth and death registration. Adolescent mothers who do not satisfy their own increased nutritional requirements are at greater risk of fetal malnutrition, often associated with low birth weight, high rates of infant mortality, and cerebral damages. 6% of all births in Chile in 1982 were to mothers aged 14-17. But the proportion of births to mothers under 20 has increased in Chile from 9% in 1965 to 17% in 1982. The age specific fertility rate declined for women 15-19 in the same years from 79 to 63/1000, while it declined by 1/2 for women aged 20-34. Infant mortality rates for children of adolescent mothers declined from 68.1/1000 in 1978 to 30/1000 in 1982, but marked rural-urban and regional differentials were noted. The infant mortality rate in 1978 we 43.8/1000 for children of married adolescent mothers and 96.5/1000 for children of unmarried adolescent mothers. Even higher rates were found in rural areas. By 1981, the rates and the magnitude of the differences had decreased, but rates continued to be higher for children of adolescent mothers. Malnutrition continues to be more prevalent among children of adolescent mothers, especially outside of the Santiago metropolitan region. Infant mortality increased with birth order among children of mothers under 18. Children weighing under 2 k can now be sent to centers for treatment of malnutrition when the household is judged to be incompetent for any reason. Such infants gain weight rapidly when they are well fed in a healthy environment. The mothers are instructed in child care at the center.

  1. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak.

    PubMed

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP). We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  2. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    PubMed Central

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP). We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels. PMID:28660192

  3. Identification of putative fertility markers in seminal plasma of crossbred bulls through differential proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M K Muhammad; Kumaresan, A; Sharma, Vinay K; Tajmul, Md; Chhillar, Shivani; Chakravarty, A K; Manimaran, A; Mohanty, T K; Srinivasan, A; Yadav, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Sub-fertility is a major problem in crossbred bulls leading to disintegration of breeding systems and huge economic loss. Identification of some potential biomarkers to determine the latent fertility of bulls accurately has long been the interest of researchers. In this study, we analyzed the proteome of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls with varying fertility to identify the fertility-associated proteins. The proteomic profile of high- and low-fertile bulls was compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry. Out of the 18 differentially expressed proteins (P < 0.05), 9 were overexpressed in SP of high-fertile bulls and 9 were overexpressed in SP of low-fertile bulls. The differential expressions ranged from 1.5- to 5.5-fold between the two groups, where protection of telomeres-1 protein (POT1) was highly overexpressed (2.9-fold) in high-fertile group and prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 (PTGER3) was highly abundant (5.5-fold) in low-fertile group. The protein interaction network was elucidated using STRING software tool, and the functional bioinformatics analysis was done using Blast2Go software. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cellular processes and biological regulation with binding and catalytic function. It is inferred that the expression of certain proteins in the SP varied with bull fertility, and concurrent appraisal of their expression along with other fertility assays may help in determining bull fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 48875 - Receipt of Petition To Reconcile Inconsistent Customs and Border Protection Decisions Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ..., as ``Mineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenous: Double salts and mixtures of calcium nitrate and... protection agents. It is a supplier of mineral fertilizers. As an importer of these products, Yara has... is primarily used as a fertilizer but is also used for waste water treatment. Yara entered...

  5. Evolution of fertility and mortality.

    PubMed

    1978-04-01

    Historical and current fertility trends in both Quebec and Canada as a whole are surveyed. While fertility among French Canadians was higher than that in neighboring provinces until the mid-20th century, in 1968 Quebec's crude birthrate was the lowest in Canada, and in 1972 it was 13.8 vs. 15.9 (the national birthrate). This reversal is explained in terms of the demographic transition theory, the declining influence of organized religion, and new opportunities for social mobility for minority groups. The birthrate throughout Canada is also declining. Although recent cohort studies are incomplete because women have not yet finished their reproductive years, it appears that completed family size will be lower than at any time in Canadian history. The period total fertility rate indicates an average family size of 1.8 children in 1976, but it is unclear whether this represents an actual reduction in family size or the postponement of childbearing. The sharpest fertility decline has been among women aged 35-49, but peak fertility rates have shifted from the 20-24 age group to those aged 25-29. Fertility is negatively related to education, and the lowest fertility is found among the intermediate income groups. Since the 1969 lifting of the ban on contraceptive sales and advertising, family planning activities have been stepped up. Also removed was the total ban on abortion. In 1975 there were 14.9 therapeutic abortions per 100 live births, but it has been charged that abortion standards are being applied inequitably from hospital to hospital.

  6. The economics of fertility.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  7. Courtship rate signals fertility in an externally fertilizing fish

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Laura K.; Grant, James W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Sperm limitation is widespread across many animal species. Several mechanisms of sperm allocation have been proposed, including optimal allocation according to clutch size and equal allocation across females. However, considerably less effort has been directed at investigating the behavioural signals associated with sperm limitation in males, which may include mating rate and the intensity of courtship. We investigated whether multiple successive spawnings affect individual male fertilization success, mating rates and courtship rates in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Across an average of 17 spawning events per male, fertilization success decreased from 83.7 per cent for the first spawning to 40 per cent for the last spawning while courtship rate decreased from 3.4 to 1.5 min−1. Females appeared to respond to male sperm depletion by reducing clutch size. Our results suggest that male Japanese medaka are sperm-limited, and that courtship rate may be an honest indication of fertilization ability. PMID:20410031

  8. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients.

  9. Fertilization and early seed formation.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Christian; Rogowsky, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The double fertilization of flowering plants is a complex process, encompassing multiple steps. From its discovery more than a century ago, many useful descriptive approaches have been employed to better unveil specific steps/mechanisms. More recently, the development of an in vitro assay developed in our laboratory, has allowed a better understanding of this phenomenon. However, in vitro methods may show some limitations. The search for complementary strategies, especially with the search of mutants affected in the fertilization step allowed one to elucidate this critical and unique phenomenon in living organisms. Genes involved in pollen tube guidance or pollen discharge in synergids have been identified, as well as genes exhibiting differential expression in sperm, egg and central cells before and after fertilization. A calcium wave proved to correspond to the first cellular event seen after cytoplasmic fusion in the fertilized egg cell or zygote, which develops into a multi-cellular organism with an elaborate body plan. The development of the fertilized central cell into a nourishing tissue (endosperm) starts with the formation of the coenocyte, a multinuclear single cell unique in the plant kingdom, cellularization occurring later on. The balance of the paternal and maternal genomes, which is under the control of the FIS polycomb group complex, was found to be of the utmost importance for the successful development of the seed.

  10. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    PubMed

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is <30% for BCS decreases over one unit). A serious energy deficit reduces (or suppresses) pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophins (ovarian dysfunction and/or smaller follicles): IGF-I and insulin plasma levels (slower follicle growth and higher embryonic mortality); and progesterone production from the corpus luteum (higher rate of embryonic abortions). The diet influences fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  11. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  12. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  13. Effects of organic fertilizers and biochar/organic fertilizer combinations on fertility and organic matter dynamics of a sandy soil in north-west Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Isabel; Kaiser, Michael; Polifka, Steven; Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Ludwig, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    biochar, and compost has been significantly increased by 43 to 88% in the 10-30 cm depth compared to the individual application of mineral fertilizer. The OC content of the water-stable macro- (2 mm - 250 µm) and micro-aggregates (250 - 53 µm) of the treatments receiving 40 t/ha biochar+fertilizer (digestate or mineral), 10 t/ha composted biochar, and compost was increased by 12 to 120% compared to the mineral fertilizer treatment. The magnitude of the demonstrated positive effect of biochar application on crop yield depends on the type and amount of the biochar+organic fertilizer mixture and the cultivated plant species. Besides benefiting biomass production, applications of 10 to 40 t/ha of biochar+fertilizer mixtures seem to result in increased bulk soil and aggregate protected OC contents, indicating a longer lasting positive effect on the OC storage and the structural stability of this sandy soil. Cost/benefit wise, the 10 t/ha composted biochar treatment seems to be most promising for improving soil properties and crop yield, while the compost treatment seems to be the best alternative for sandy soils where biochar is either unavailable or prohibitively expensive.

  14. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the former Baker Brothers, Inc., Site, Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1995-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Baker Brothers, Inc., site in Toledo, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluation indicates that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the former Baker Brothers site did not exceed 710 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 210 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident - municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 500 pCi/g for Scenario C (subsistence farmer - on-site well water, a plausible but unlikely future use).

  15. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  16. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA`s fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  17. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  18. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals With and Without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings About Their Brothers and Sisters.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Carolyn M; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward their brothers or sisters with and without IDD, as well as broader aspects of sibling empathy. Data were collected via a national, online survey from 97 parent-sibling pairs. Siblings of individuals with IDD reported higher levels of anxiety toward the target child than did siblings of typically developing individuals. Sibling feelings toward the target child were related to both parental and target child factors, but only among families of individuals with IDD.

  19. Siblings' experiences of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation: a case study of 14 siblings from five families.

    PubMed

    Benderix, Ylva; Sivberg, Bengt

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the present and past experiences of 14 siblings from five families in terms of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation. Personal interviews were conducted with the siblings before their brothers or sisters were moved to a newly opened group home. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis of the transcribed texts. The analysis resulted in seven content categories: precocious responsibility, feeling sorry, exposed to frightening behavior, empathetic feelings, hoping that a group home will be a relief, physical violence made siblings feel unsafe and anxious, and relations with friends were affected negatively. The conclusion is that these siblings' experiences revealed stressful life conditions. Counseling for the family and for siblings is recommended to help them deal with their feelings and problems. For the siblings in these five families, a group home was a relevant alternative as a temporary or permanent placement for the child with autism and mental retardation.

  20. Migration and fertility in Ticino.

    PubMed

    van de Walle, F

    1975-11-01

    Summary Migration in the Swiss canton of Ticino is one example of the wide variety of demographic systems that existed in pre-industrial Europe. The continuous movement of men was a consequence of economic, social and geographic conditions which restricted the demand for labour. Seasonal migration and overseas migration were both sex and age selective. They resulted in an imbalance of the sex ratio and a remarkably low female nuptiality. They also reduced fertility within marriage by separating husbands and wives during their childbearing years. The effect of long, medium and short-term migration on fertility can be isolated from census and vital registration sources.

  1. Potential fertility and averted births.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J C

    1981-01-01

    The natural fertility of a group of contraceptive acceptors is the fertility they would have experienced in the absence of any sort of birth control. Their net potential fertility is what their fertility would be in the absence of a defined family planning program. In this work it is assumed that there was no birth control prior to acceptance of contraception in a defined family planning strategy. Thus, reference is to natural potential fertility and to the gross births averted as the difference from the subsequent actual fertility of the group in question, e.g., contraceptive acceptors. A Monte Carlo microsimulation model is used to estimate the selection for natural fecundability that has taken place in a synthetic group of contraceptive acceptors. In this microanalytic simulation, events are represented individually so that parameters may vary between women (or couples) and can be made to depend on their ages or any other variables. The reproductive histories of a cohort of women are simulated from the marriage (at a fixed age of 25 in the present runs) to the end of the reproductive span. Events occur only at intervals of 1 "lunar" month (1/13th year), so all fecundabilities should be multiplied by 13/12 if risks per calendar month are wanted. The natural fecundability p varies between women and declines with age. Each woman's history is simulated through a series of states in turn. Induced abortion, voluntary sterilization, divorce, and death (of the child or the parent) are not represented in the present runs. A formula is derived for the births subsequently averted by contraception. The result is compared with the potential fertility found from further simulation runs, with various desired family sizes, by permitting contraceptive acceptors (limiters) to revert to nonuser status at defined durations of marriage. The distribution of naturally sterile women is also analyzed by their contraceptive status. It is argued that both variations in and selection for

  2. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  3. Lack of concordance and linkage disequilibrium among brothers for androgenetic alopecia and CAG/GGC haplotypes of the androgen receptor gene in Mexican families.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Vázquez, Jazmín; López-Hernández, María A; Svyryd, Yevgeniya; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M

    2015-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or common baldness is the most prevalent form of hair loss in males. Familial predisposition has been recognized, and heritability estimated in monozygotic twins suggests an important genetic predisposition. Several studies indicate that the numbers of CAG/GGC repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (AR) maybe associated with AGA susceptibility. To investigate a possible correlation between AR CAG/GGC haplotypes and the presence or not of alopecia in sibships with two or more brothers among them at least one of them has AGA. Thirty-two trios including an alopecic man, one brother alopecic or not, and their mother were enrolled. Sanger sequencing of the exon 1 of the AR gene was conducted to ascertain the number of CAG/GGC repeats in each individual. Heterozygous mother for the CAG/GGC haplotypes was an inclusion criterion to analyze the segregation haplotype patterns in the family. Concordance for the number of repeats and AGA among brothers was evaluated using kappa coefficient and the probability of association in the presence of genetic linkage between CAG and GGC repeats and AGA estimated by means of the family-based association test (FBAT). The median for the CAG and GGC repeats in the AR is similar to that reported in other populations. The CAG/GGC haplotypes were less polymorphic than that reported in other studies, especially due to the GGC number of repeats found. Kappa coefficient resulted in a concordance of 37.3% (IC 95%, 5.0-69.0%) for the AGA phenotype and identical CAG/GGC haplotypes. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Our results do not confirm a possible correlation or linkage disequilibrium between the CAG/GGC haplotypes of the AR gene and androgenetic alopecia in Mexican brothers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Familial cryptic translocation with deletion 4q33-->4qter and duplication 7q34-->7qter in brothers with mental retardation, macrocephaly and iris coloboma.

    PubMed

    Moog, Ute; Engelen, John J M; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Driessen, Sandra D; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The association of moderate mental retardation, behavioural problems, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features with iris coloboma, and supernumerary nipples was observed in two brothers with a terminal deletion 4q33-->4qter and a terminal duplication 7q34-->7qter. The aberration was detected by subtelomere FISH screening and (probably) resulted from a cryptic familial translocation (4;7)(q33;q34).

  5. Non-marfan idiopathic medionecrosis (cystic medial necrosis) presenting with multiple visceral artery aneurysms and diffuse connective tissue fragility: Two brothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Jun; Tsunemura, Mami; Amano, Shigeko; Tokizawa, Shigemi; Oowada, Susumu; Shinkai, Hiroko; Maehara, Yasunobu; Endo, Keigo

    1997-05-15

    Two brothers with multiple visceral artery aneurysms or dilatations and diffuse connective tissue fragility who did not have clinical features of Marfan syndrome are reported. One presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage during angiography, and idiopathic medionecrosis was proved by resection of the aneurysms. These cases belong to the heterogeneous group of Marfan syndrome. The angiographical features (multiple dilation of visceral arteries) suggests fragility of connective tissue and is predictive of hazards during and after a catheterization and operation.

  6. How Will Emerging Aerial Surveillance and Detection Technology Contribute to the Mission of U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Protection and my brothers and sisters from the United States Border Patrol–Honor First ! vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE...provide a framework to recommend which technologies should be the emphasis of CBP procurement. First , research must answer the question, what are...responsibilities along the U.S. border and the ports of entry. Under CBP the three agencies have become one face on the border, serving as the “ first line of

  7. [Sense of coherence and ways of coping in the relationship with brother or sister in healthy siblings of mentally ill persons].

    PubMed

    Osuchowska-Kościjańska, Anna; Charzyńska, Katarzyna; Chadzyńska, Małgorzata; Drozdzyńska, Anna; Kasperek-Zimowska, Beata; Bednarek, Agata; Sawicka, Maryla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate sense of coherence in healthy siblings of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their ways of coping in the relationship with ill brother or sister. 40 healthy brothers and sisters of persons with ICD- 10 diagnosis of F20 to F29 participated in the present study. Orientation to Life Scale (SOC- 29) was used to assess sense of coherence and Ways of Coping with Stress questionnaire (SRSS) was used to examine stress coping strategies. Mean global score of siblings of persons with schizophrenia was 111 points. Subjects used coping strategies focused on problem significantly more often than those focused on emotions. Therapeutic work with healthy siblings should focus on strengthening sense of personal competence, development of personal resources and different ways of coping with stress, investigation of emotions that healthy siblings experience in the relationship with ill brother or sister as well as supporting the process of accepting changes in the relationship with the ill sibling.

  8. Interstitial deletion 1p36.32 in two brothers with a distinct phenotype--overgrowth, macrocephaly and nearly normal intellectual function.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, N; Klink, B; Hahn, G; Schrock, E; Hackmann, K

    2014-09-01

    We report on two adult patients, who both presented with overgrowth and one of them additionally with macrocephaly while carrying an 1p36 microdeletion of about 2.1 Mb. They are full brothers born to unaffected parents. Although both brothers attended special schools, they lived independently without a legal guardian and were able to succeed in regular jobs. One of the brothers received a professional education. Genetic analysis of the parents revealed neither the microdeletion nor a cryptical translocation or inversion. We suggest that the recurrent deletion is a result of germline mosaicism, a phenomenon reported only once in the context of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome. Our report confirms the recurrence of the apparently de novo 1p36 microdeletion due to a likely germline mosaicism of one of the parents. Furthermore, it illustrates the possibility of the distinct phenotype with a nearly normal intellectual outcome of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome that might be due to the region involved in our patients.

  9. Are youth mentoring programs good value-for-money? An evaluation of the Big Brothers Big Sisters Melbourne Program.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Marjory L; Fisher, Jane

    2009-01-30

    The Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) program matches vulnerable young people with a trained, supervised adult volunteer as mentor. The young people are typically seriously disadvantaged, with multiple psychosocial problems. Threshold analysis was undertaken to determine whether investment in the program was a worthwhile use of limited public funds. The potential cost savings were based on US estimates of life-time costs associated with high-risk youth who drop out-of-school and become adult criminals. The intervention was modelled for children aged 10-14 years residing in Melbourne in 2004. If the program serviced 2,208 of the most vulnerable young people, it would cost AUD 39.5 M. Assuming 50% were high-risk, the associated costs of their adult criminality would be AUD 3.3 billion. To break even, the program would need to avert high-risk behaviours in only 1.3% (14/1,104) of participants. This indicative evaluation suggests that the BBBS program represents excellent 'value for money'.

  10. Sibling Supporters' Experiences of Giving Support to Siblings Who Have a Brother or a Sister With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt; Nilsson, Stefan

    Siblings of a child with a life-threatening disease, such as cancer, have a right to measures that promote their health and welfare. Siblings may find it hard to understand what is happening to the sick child with cancer and why he or she reacts as he or she does. The aim of the study was to explore sibling supporters' thoughts about the experiences they had in providing support for siblings with a brother or a sister with a life-threatening disease such as cancer. All the 12 sibling supporters currently working in Sweden participated in a qualitative, descriptive study from which 5 categories emerged, showing that the sibling supporters supported siblings from diagnosis until possible death. They enabled siblings who were in the same situation to meet each other and arranged activities suited to their ages, as well as offering an encouraging environment. To help the siblings, the sibling supporters found it necessary to interact with both the parents and the ward staff. The sibling supporters felt that their support was important and necessary in helping siblings promote their own health both when the sick child was alive and also after his or her death. The experience of the sibling supporters was that they listened to the siblings' stories and met them when they were in their crisis. The study confirms that sibling supporters should be a part of the health care team that treat and support the family when a child has cancer.

  11. Brothers with Chudley-McCullough syndrome: sensorineural deafness, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and other structural brain abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Elsebet; Pedersen, Vibeke Faurholt; Skriver, Elisabeth B; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen

    2004-01-01

    We describe two brothers with Chudley-McCullough syndrome who are 5 and 17 years old. They were born to healthy consanguineous parents of Pakistani descent. They had severe sensorineural deafness and neuroimaging showed corpus callosum agenesis and other structural brain abnormalities. The Chudley-McCullough syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, first described by Chudley et al. [1997: Am J Med Genet 68:350-356]. The original description of the syndrome includes hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the foramen of Monro and early-onset severe to profound sensorineural deafness. We review the findings in the two patients we describe, four children reported in the literature and two patients reported by Hendriks et al. [1999: Am J Med Genet 86:183-186] with sensorineural deafness, corpus callosum agenesis, and interhemispheric cysts, who may well have Chudley-McCullough syndrome. All patients had sensorineural deafness. The neuroimagings of all eight patients showed colpocephaly, which is most likely caused by corpus callosum agenesis. Three patients had other structural brain abnormalities: cortical dysplasia and gray matter heterotopia. We suggest a revision of the clinical description since the most likely basic developmental defect is corpus callosum agenesis and not foramen of Monro obstruction. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A dictionary without definitions: romanticist science in the production and presentation of the Grimm brothers' German dictionary, 1838-1863.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Between 1838 and 1863 the Grimm brothers led a collaborative research project to create a new kind of dictionary documenting the history of the German language. They imagined the work would present a scientific account of linguistic cohesiveness and strengthen German unity. However, their dictionary volumes (most of which were arranged and written by Jacob Grimm) would be variously criticized for their idiosyncratic character and ultimately seen as a poor, and even prejudicial, piece of scholarship. This paper argues that such criticisms may reflect a misunderstanding of the dictionary. I claim it can be best understood as an artifact of romanticist science and its epistemological privileging of subjective perception coupled with a deeply-held faith in inter-subjective congruence. Thus situated, it is a rare and detailed case of Romantic ideas and ideals applied to the scientific study of social artifacts. Moreover, the dictionary's organization, reception, and legacy provide insights into the changing landscape of scientific practice in Germany, showcasing the difficulties of implementing a romanticist vision of science amidst widening gaps between the public and professionals, generalists and specialists.

  13. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  14. Deception and the death of Ilyusha: truth and the best interest of a dying child in The Brothers Karamazov.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clancy

    2014-10-01

    For centuries, many physicians and parents assumed that it was ethically justifiable to lie to a dying child. The reasoning was clear. Because the lie would likely eliminate or prevent a concrete harm (the child's fear), and the lie is about a harm that is unavoidable anyway, a lie appeared to be the morally desirable thing to do. Today, the ethical consensus has shifted. Many doctors and other health professionals now argue that we have an obligation to tell children the cold, hard truth. In this article, I argue that "the cold, hard truth" (assuming we can know it with certainty) might not always be in the best interest of the patient. To illustrate the point, I analyze an episode in Dostoevsky's novel, The Brothers Karamazov, in which a child is dying, his father lies to him about it, and 2 doctors take very different approaches to the truth. Each of these individuals has a particular interest when it comes to the question of "the truth" about the death of Ilyusha. I use this story to ask whether it is ethically permissible to lie to a dying child and, if so, who has the moral authority to tell that lie. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. The floral repressor BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) modulates flowering initiation under high salinity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Park, Chung-Mo; Seo, Pil Joon

    2011-09-01

    Floral transition is coordinately regulated by both endogenous and exogenous cues to ensure reproductive success under fluctuating environmental conditions. Abiotic stress conditions, including drought and high salinity, also have considerable influence on this developmental process. However, the signaling components and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of floral transition by environmental factors have not yet been defined. In this work, we show that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) gene, which encodes a member of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) family, regulates floral transition under conditions of high salinity. The BFT gene was transcriptionally induced by high salinity in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Transgenic plants overexpressing the BFT gene (35S:BFT) and BFT-deficient mutant (bft-2) plants were phenotypically indistinguishable from Col-0 plants in seed germination and seedling growth under high salinity. In contrast, although the floral transition was delayed significantly in Col-0 plants under high salinity, that of the bft-2 mutant was not affected by high salinity. We also observed that expression of the APETALA1 (AP1) gene was suppressed to a lesser degree in the bft-2 mutant than in Col-0 plants. Taken together, our observations suggest that BFT mediates salt stress-responsive flowering, providing an adaptive strategy that ensures reproductive success under unfavorable stress conditions.

  16. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals.

  17. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  18. A National Sire Fertility Index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In May 2006, USDA’s Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory assumed the responsibility for producing evaluations for bull fertility. An intense research investigation led to a new procedure called “sire conception rate” (SCR), which was implemented in August 2008. Two approaches were used in developi...

  19. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271

  20. Determinants of fertility in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Indongo, Nelago; Pazvakawambwa, Lillian

    2012-12-01

    In-depth studies on fertility in Namibia have been lacking so far. This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades and examines fertility differentials across the various sub-groups of Namibia population, and factors affecting such differentials using NDHS data. Estimates of the amount of variance in the total number of children ever born that could be explained by each of the independent variables were made using multiple regression analysis for the three data sources. Overall, results from descriptive analysis show that fertility levels in Namibia have been decreasing over the past two decades. The decrease could be associated with an increased trend in the prevalence of use of modern contraceptives which doubled since 1992. Age at first birth has remained constant but age at first marriage continues to increase. As a result, postponement of marriage increases the probability that women remain childless or that they have fewer children than desired. Replacement level is projected to be attained much faster than expected and the study recommend for further research that focuses on policy implications of family planning programmes once replacement level has been achieved to maintain it.

  1. The marginal valuation of fertility

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrates that fertility entails economic, physiological, and demographic trade-offs. The existence of trade-offs suggests that fitness should be maximized by an intermediate level of fertility, but this hypothesis has not had much support in the human life-history literature. We suggest that the difficulty of finding intermediate optima may be a function of the way fitness is calculated. Evolutionary analyses of human behavior typically use lifetime reproductive success as their fitness criterion. This fitness measure implicitly assumes that women are indifferent to the timing of reproduction and that they are risk-neutral in their reproductive decision-making. In this paper, we offer an alternative, easily-calculated fitness measure that accounts for differences in reproductive timing and yields clear preferences in the face of risky reproductive decision-making. Using historical demographic data from a genealogically-detailed dataset from 19th century Utah, we show that this measure is highly concave with respect to reproductive effort. This result has three major implications: (1) if births are properly timed, a lower-fertility reproductive strategy can have the same fitness as a high-fertility strategy, (2) intermediate optima are far more likely using fitness measures that are strongly concave with respect to effort, (3) we expect mothers to have strong investment preferences with respect to the risk inherent in reproduction. PMID:24778546

  2. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744

  3. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments To help you achieve the best outcomes from fertility therapy, we review two of the most ... to your future baby: multiple pregnancy and premature birth. As you consider your options, you and your ...

  4. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Neri, Queenie V; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described.

  5. From My Own Brother in My Own Home: Children's Experiences and Perceptions Following Alleged Sibling Incest.

    PubMed

    Katz, Carmit; Hamama, Liat

    2015-08-30

    Sibling incest is an understudied field despite its high prevalence rates. The current study was designed to characterize the way children describe their experiences and perceptions following alleged sibling incest. The sample consisted of 20 forensic investigations with children who were referred to forensic investigation following suspected sibling incest. The age range of the children was between 6 and 12 years old, including 17 girls and three boys. Thematic analysis was conducted on all the interviews and the children's perceptions greatly echoed the ecological framework while they elaborated on three levels: family level, in which children discussed the context of the abuse and the disclosure; sibling level, in which children discussed their siblings' behaviors and the grooming process; and the child level, in which the children discussed their own behavior during the abuse. The discussion highlights the relevance of the ecological framework to the study's results and stresses the complexity of this phenomenon and the challenges it raises for practitioners in various contexts-child protective, forensic, and clinical. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Controlling animal populations using anti-fertility vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fayrer-Hosken, R

    2008-07-01

    The goal for fertility control of animal populations is the development of a safe, economical and effective contraceptive. One offshoot of the development of this technology is the acquisition of multiple therapeutic strategies for diseases, such as immunotherapy probes for cancer. In the long run, successful population control requires multifactorial strategies. One component of population control is immunocontraception. Development of effective antigens for immunocontraceptive vaccines has been remarkable and has greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization. The chasm between the discovery of an antigen in the laboratory, to the implementation of an effective field program, is immense. The zona pellucida (ZP) immunocontraceptive that has been most extensively evaluated as a fertility vaccine antigen and the porcine ZP has received particular attention. The long-term goal of population control would be the use of a synthetic vaccine, e.g. the ZP, tailored to a target species. In the future, if populations' levels are to be controlled by fertility vaccines, we should consider that the vaccinated animals could receive other health protective agents at the same time. For example, if a species were immunocontracepted, then they could be simultaneously vaccinated against habitat diseases such as rabies (Plumb et al., Rev Sci Tech, 26, 2007, 229).

  7. Artificial fertilization for amphibian conservation: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Kouba, A J; Vance, C K; Willis, E L

    2009-01-01

    Amphibian populations in the wild are experiencing massive die-offs that have led to the extinction of an estimated 168 species in the last several decades. To address these declines, zoological institutions are playing an important role in establishing captive assurance colonies to protect species in imminent danger of extinction. Many of the threatened species recently placed into captivity are failing to reproduce before they expire, and maintaining founder populations is becoming a formidable challenge. Assisted reproductive technologies, such as hormone synchronization, gamete storage and artificial fertilization, are valuable tools for addressing reproductive failure of amphibians in captive facilities. Artificial fertilization has been commonly employed for over 60 years in several keystone laboratory species for basic studies in developmental biology and embryology. However, there are few instances of applied studies for the conservation of threatened or endangered amphibian species. In this review, we summarize valuable technological achievements in amphibian artificial fertilization, identify specific processes that need to be considered when developing artificial fertilization techniques for species conservation, and address future concerns that should be priorities for the next decade.

  8. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  9. North American fertilizer capacity data. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  10. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  11. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  12. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  13. 7 CFR 3201.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fertilizers. 3201.22 Section 3201.22 Agriculture... Items § 3201.22 Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for... fertilizers, which are likely to consist mostly of biobased components, may include both biobased and...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fertilizers. 2902.22 Section 2902.22 Agriculture... Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for plant growth and/or beneficial bacteria to convert nutrients into plant usable forms. Biobased fertilizers, which are likely...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fertilizers. 3201.22 Section 3201.22 Agriculture... Items § 3201.22 Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for... fertilizers, which are likely to consist mostly of biobased components, may include both biobased and...

  16. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fertilizers. 2902.22 Section 2902.22 Agriculture... Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for plant growth and/or beneficial bacteria to convert nutrients into plant usable forms. Biobased fertilizers, which are likely...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fertilizers. 3201.22 Section 3201.22 Agriculture... Items § 3201.22 Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for... fertilizers, which are likely to consist mostly of biobased components, may include both biobased and...

  18. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  19. The Determinants of Low Fertility in India

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, A.; Rajan, Sowmya; Morgan, S. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework focusing on factors that enhance or reduce fertility relative to desired family size (see Bongaarts 2001), we study fertility variation across time (1992–2006) and space (states) in India. Our empirical analyses use data from three waves of the Indian National Family Health Surveys. We find that this framework can account for a substantial portion of the variation in the TFR across the states and over time. Our estimates focus attention on the critical components of contemporary Indian fertility, especially desired family size, unwanted fertility, son preference, and fertility postponement. PMID:24993746

  20. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia

    2016-11-01

    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  1. Big Brother Experiments with the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM in an Idealised Setup to Investigate Lateral Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leps, Nora; Brauch, Jennifer; Ahrens, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Our work aims at improving the regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model system COSMO-CLM/NEMO for decadal prediction. We address the different restricting conditions of regional climate modelling: Lower boundary conditions of the atmospheric system in the form of the coupled ocean, initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) are known to be an issue in dynamical downscaling with limited area regional climate models, and many studies have investigated the LBCs with regard to, e.g., frequency or resolution of LBCs, position of the domain and spurious effects. By default, the formulation of the LBCs in CCLM is a Davies relaxation scheme, which introduces a sponge layer at the lateral boundaries of the domain to dampen reflection of waves produced in the limited area domain at the prescribed boundaries. With idealised studies, it is possible to investigate the performance of this LBC formulation in CCLM in detail. The used framework is that of "big brother experiments" (BBEs). In a BBE, a high resolution simulation is performed over a larger domain, then its output is filtered to represent coarse-grid input, which is used to drive a nested smaller domain on the same high resolution. The differences between the two simulations can directly be attributed to the LBCs. Such experiments were performed in an idealised setup of a zonal flow over flat terrain or idealised hills with varying domain positions. First experiments show that for these idealised flows the relaxation works well for lateral boundary data on a high spatial resolution for different temporal resolutions. Next we plan to perform simulations with filtered lateral boundary data that only contains large scale features of the flow as well as different settings of the relaxation procedure.

  2. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  3. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  4. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Cassidy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  5. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  6. Fertilizer trends: Production, consumption, and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    By the end of crop year 1983, fertilizer use dropped 23% from the 1981 record of 54 million tons. In 1983, fertilizer use fell to 41.8 million tons. In 1984, fertilizer use turned upward. The resulting optimism, however, was short-lived. Following an 8-million-ton recovery, fertilizer use once again fell a million tons in 1985. The fertilizer industry faced the spring of 1986 with excess supplies. Preliminary estimates for the 1986 crop year, point to another significant decrease in fertilizer use. Instability of the domestic and export markets has caused serious trouble for the US fertilizer industry. Production capacities for all leading nitrogen products and potash have been reduced since the late 70's and early 80's. Because of increasing export demand for phosphates, capacities for the leading phosphate materials increased until 1985. However, operating rates have varied because of inconsistency in export demand.

  7. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  8. Combined fertility and embryotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Lucie; Marsden, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Under normal circumstances, fertility and embryotoxicity studies are run separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guideline for the detection of toxicity to reproduction of medicinal products (1). However, the flexible approach of the S5(R2) guideline also allows the reproduction stages covered in the fertility and embryo-fetal development studies (stages A to D) to be combined into a single study design. The administration period covers the pre-mating and gestation phases through to closure of the hard palate. The principal advantages of the combined study include reductions in the number of animals required and cost. Although the rat is the routine species of choice, the mouse may also be used.

  9. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  10. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  11. Polygamy and fertility in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N E; Elmi, A M

    1989-04-01

    The 1983 Somali Family Health Survey showed that polygamy and monogamy selected women with different social characteristics. Wives in polygamous unions were prone to be younger at first martial cohabitation and to have previous marital disruptions. Since a young age at first cohabitation and number of previous marriages have opposite effects on the cumulative fertility rate of women, the difference in this rate between wives in polygamous and monogamous unions vanished when both factors were controlled in a multivariate analysis.

  12. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  13. [Fertility will have noticeably fallen].

    PubMed

    N'diaye, S

    1988-09-01

    The Demographic and Health Survey of Senegal carried out in 1986 with the collaboration of Westinghouse and the funding of USAID. Focused on marriage, fertility, family planning, and infant mortality. The data in this survey was compared to that of a survey conducted on fertility in 1978. All women marry before age 35 and 50% have their 1st marriage before the age of 17. A high 89% of women stay married, but 46% are in polygamous marriage (urban and literate women have lower incidence). Most births are legitimate. 5% of 1st births occur before age 15, 31% between 15-17, and urban women have their 1st child between 19-21 years of age. The average number of live births/woman is 3.3, and the synthetic index of fertility calculated for births to women aged 15-44 is 6.4 children, which has dropped from 7.0 in 1978. Contraception is known to 90% of women as opposed to 60% in 1978, and 69% are familiar with a modern method (again urban and educated women aged 20-40 score better). 12% use contraception regularly vs. 4% in 1978, and 75% of nonusers do not intend to use it. The ideal number of children has dropped from 8,8 in 1978 to 7,2. Infant mortality has steadily declined from 120 per thousand in 1971-75 to 96 in 1976-80 to 86 in 1981-85.

  14. Cadmium in sludges used as fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Davis, R D

    1986-01-01

    In intensively populated countries efficient sewage treatment is essential to protect river quality. An inevitable by-product is sewage sludge which has to be disposed of safely and economically. Utilisation of sludge as a fertilizer of agricultural land is the most economic disposal route for inland sewage-treatment works and also benefits farmers by providing a cheap manure. Much of the cadmium in wastewater is concentrated into sludge which consequently contains higher concentration of cadmium than soil does. It is impracticable to reduce cadmium concentrations in sludge below certain levels. When sludge is used on farmland rates of application must be controlled so that cadmium concentrations in soil never reach levels that could significantly contaminate food crops. Cadmium is a principal factor limiting the use of sludge on land. Nevertheless, it is a local problem since agricultural land in general receives more cadmium from aerial deposition and phosphatic fertilizers. The significance of accumulations of cadmium in soil depends mainly on its availability for crop uptake. Investigations are described which have attempted to identify and to determine the availability of forms of cadmium in soil. There is considerable research interest in cadmium in soil solution which is likely to be directly available for crop uptake. Another area of interest is the apparent disappearance of cadmium from sludge-treated soil. Soil analysis often cannot fully account for the cadmium added in sludge. Apart from the effect of soil conditions, especially pH value, crop uptake varies according to the particular crop examined. Highest concentrations of cadmium occur in tobacco, lettuce, spinach and other leafy vegetables. Using crop uptake data from field trials it is possible to relate potential human dietary intake of cadmium, on which hazard depends, to soil concentrations of cadmium, which can be controlled by regulating applications of sludge. This provides an objective basis

  15. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees. PMID:27764099

  16. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  17. Immunization to regulate fertility: biological and cultural frameworks.

    PubMed

    Schrater, A F

    1995-09-01

    Deliberate immunization to control fertility differs from that to control disease. Those differences can be discussed within various frameworks, e.g., intent, recipient population, biological bases, and immunological targets. Others include differing perspectives of developers, providers and users, and rights of the state to impose programs of control. Almost all of the differences are grounded in the social, economic, and gendered aspects of societies. The intent of providing a fertility-regulating vaccine is to prevent pregnancy. In theory, men as well as women could receive such vaccines; in reality, most are designed for women. Traditional vaccines are intended to prevent disease and are generally given to susceptible individuals whether male or female, child or adult. The biological bases of contraceptive vaccines are molecules specific to reproduction. The immune response generated by most anti-fertility vaccines is directed toward 'self', one's own cells and molecules. In contrast, the bases of traditional vaccines are materials derived from non-self, disease-causing microorganisms; the immunological targets are those microorganisms or their toxic products. From a developer perspective vaccines that regulate fertility differ little from those that control disease; both prevent a particular condition. Developers cite these advantages to contraceptive vaccines: non-invasive, no serious side-effects, easy to use, reduced patient failure, and long-lasting but naturally reversible. Because anti-fertility vaccines have been tested only in small-scale clinical trials, information on user reactions and experiences is limited. Not surprisingly, the perspectives of women's health advocates and of potential users (mostly women) often differ markedly from those of developers. Women cite as disadvantages the cryptic nature of immunity which leaves one without an obvious signal for the beginning of protection (against pregnancy) and its decline, and the inability to 'turn

  18. Cancer and fertility preservation: international recommendations from an expert meeting.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C; Andersen, Claus Y; Azim, Hatem A; Peccatori, Fedro A; Costa, Mauro; Revelli, Alberto; Salvagno, Francesca; Gennari, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Filippo M; La Sala, Giovanni B; De Stefano, Cristofaro; Wallace, W Hamish; Partridge, Ann H; Anserini, Paola

    2016-01-04

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited in Genova (Italy) to participate in a workshop on the topic of "cancer and fertility preservation". A total of ten controversial issues were discussed at the conference. Experts were asked to present an up-to-date review of the literature published on these topics and the presentation of own unpublished data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great interest in this field, due to the lack of large prospective cohort studies and randomized trials on these topics, the level of evidence is not higher than 3 for most of the recommendations

  19. Fertility rates in women with asthma, eczema, and hay fever: a general population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tata, L J; Hubbard, R B; McKeever, T M; Smith, C J P; Doyle, P; Smeeth, L; West, J; Lewis, S A

    2007-05-01

    The protective association between having older siblings and the risk of subsequent allergic disease may be due to decreased fertility among women with allergic disease. In this study, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with those in the general female population. Computerized primary-care data from the United Kingdom were used to conduct a cohort analysis of 491,516 women. General fertility rates and age-specific fertility rates for 1994-2004 were estimated. Using Poisson regression, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with rates in women without these diagnoses. Fertility rates were 53.0 and 52.3 livebirths per 1,000 person-years in women with and without asthma, respectively. The fertility rate ratio for women with asthma compared with women without asthma was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.04) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Equivalent fertility rate ratios for eczema and hay fever were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.10), respectively. The authors found no evidence that the fertility rates of women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever are lower than those of women in the general population.

  20. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353