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Sample records for protects brother fertile

  1. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes and the nuclear architecture of sperm - a study in a fertile and an infertile brother.

    PubMed

    Karamysheva, Tatyana; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Guediche, Narjes; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are found about four times more frequently in subfertile compared to the general population. The reason for this finding is still unclear. However, a connection of interphase architecture and genome function is suggested. And as we found in a previous study the presence of sSMC influences the nuclear architecture of peripheral blood cells and fibroblasts, we hypothesized that sSMC could have similar effects in sperm cells possibly leading to infertility. Here we applied for the first time 3-dimensional interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to characterize the position of an extra-chromosome with respect to its sister- and selected other chromosomes (6, 15, 18, 19, 21, X, and Y) in sperm. Two sSMC carrier brothers with the identical sSMC derived from chromosome 15 were studied. One of the brothers was fertile and the other brother was infertile. Deviations from the normal positioning of chromosomes 21 and Y were seen in both brothers and for chromosomes 19 and X only in the infertile brother. Most striking were high rates of nullisomy and/or disomy for chromosomes 15, including sSMC (15), and 18 exclusively seen in the infertile brother. Overall, further evidence is provided that sSMC influence the nuclear architecture of a cell, including sperm. Further studies are necessary in sperm of fertile and infertile sSMC carriers to elaborate if the detected aneuploidy like that seen in the infertile brother is due to sSMC presence and disturbance of nuclear architecture.

  2. My Brother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwartin, Ina

    I was lucky. I was born younger. My older brother has been with me my whole life. He was an altogether special person, very noble and generous, a foreigner to things kitsch and to banality. When I was a child, he spent a great deal of time with me. During that difficult period parents had to spend almost the whole day at work, and in many households children were l to themselves. At my home I had my brother, who was never a "babysitter" to me and never gave the impression that I was a burden to him. Being together was interesting…

  3. Big brother.

    PubMed

    Cross, M

    1993-04-15

    Both purchasers and providers will need to change the way they hold patient records on computer, or they could find themselves in breach of the law. Michael Cross examines a report by the Data Protection Registrar.

  4. Brothers of the Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Luke

    2007-01-01

    The Brothers of the Christian Schools, popularly known in the United States as Christian Brothers, have made numerous significant contributions to the development of Catholic education. Building and staffing schools, colleges, and orphanages, producing textbooks and catechetical materials, advocating for the poor, and creating new models of…

  5. 75 FR 71458 - Warner Brothers Entertainment, Inc., Warner Brothers Theatrical Enterprises, Including Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Brothers Consumer Products, Inc., Warner Brothers International Television Distribution, Inc., Warner... Facilities, and Warner Brothers Entertainment Company, Burbank, CA; Amended Certification Regarding... published in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59254). At the request of a company...

  6. 75 FR 80669 - Wright Brothers Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Proclamation 8617--Wright Brothers Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Proclamation 8617 of December 17, 2010 Wright Brothers Day, 2010 By the President of the United... conquered the age-old dream of manned flight. That day, the two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, could...

  7. 77 FR 75503 - Wright Brothers Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... December 20, 2012 Part II The President Proclamation 8918--Wright Brothers Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Brothers Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation After years of research... changed our way of life. On Wright Brothers Day, we reflect on their astonishing feat and celebrate...

  8. 78 FR 76969 - Wright Brothers Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... December 19, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 9071--Wright Brothers Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0... Brothers Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On December 17, 1903... boundaries of human imagination and paving the way for over a century of innovation. On Wright Brothers...

  9. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  10. Preventing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy, and safeguarding fertility: triple protection needs of young women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Martha

    2003-11-01

    The problems and risks of unprotected sex, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections are inextricably linked. In this context, the critical yet overlooked problem of infertility also needs to be addressed. Dual protection means concurrent protection against unintended pregnancy and STI/HIV. This paper argues for a more comprehensive notion of "triple protection" to include the safeguarding of fertility. This is intended explicitly to draw out the connection between infertility and STIs--using the "visibility" of fertility and infertility and people's immediate connection with them--and in so doing to bolster STI prevention and control efforts. It could also serve to highlight the connections between infertility and unsafe abortion and delivery practices, which still exist in many developing countries. Understanding differences in perception and weighting of protection concerns by young women and men, whether they wish to start, postpone or avoid pregnancy, is essential for the creation of effective programmes. Building on efforts to promote dual protection, a strategic opportunity exists to include prevention of infertility into safer sex messages and to address the fragmentation of reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programmes.

  11. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  12. 76 FR 79019 - Wright Brothers Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8767--Wright Brothers Day, 2011 Memorandum of... ] Proclamation 8767 of December 15, 2011 Wright Brothers Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of... this day, guide our jetliners to every corner of the world and our spacecraft to the farthest...

  13. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  14. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  15. Protective effect of honey against cigarette smoke induced-impaired sexual behavior and fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam

    2013-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with sexual dysfunction and impaired fertility in males. The aim of this study was to determine the potential protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on sexual behavior and fertility of male rats. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 rats/group) as control, honey (H), CS and H plus CS (H + CS) groups. Rats in control and CS groups received oral administration of distilled water daily while rats in H and H + CS groups received honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage. Rats in CS and H + CS groups were also exposed to CS for 8 min 3 times/day. From 10 to 13 weeks of treatment, each male rat was cohabited with 3 untreated female rats for sexual behavioral and reproductive performance studies. Honey significantly increased the percentages of rats achieving intromission and ejaculation as well as increased mating and fertility indexes of male rats exposed to CS. Thus, honey has a protective effect against CS-induced impaired sexual behavior and fertility in male rats.

  16. My Brother's Keeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Barack

    2014-01-01

    In a White House address, the president announced an initiative to reclaim young boys and men of color. The "My Brother's Keeper" initiative partners with businesses, foundations, and nonprofits to address disparities in education, justice, and employment. President Obama was introduced by Christian, one of a group of students from…

  17. Build Your Own Wright Brothers' Glider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Gordon; Hand, Jon; Ellis, Art

    2003-01-01

    A little more than one hundred years ago, Wilbur and Orville Wright began building models of airfoils and testing them in wind tunnels in their search for an efficient wing. Models continue to be used today by aerospace engineers to prove concepts and launch dreams. To celebrate the centennial of the Wright brothers' historic flight, the authors…

  18. Pleural mesothelioma in a couple of brothers

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura, epithelial type, were observed in two brothers. Both the patients had histories of severe exposure to asbestos, having worked as insulators. The latency periods in the two cases were 26 and 38 years, respectively. Available literature data suggest that mesothelioma occurrence among blood-related people is favored by a genetic predisposition. PMID:24872671

  19. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  20. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  1. Brotherly Love? The Manipulation of Body Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a street-wise boy who is unaware that his younger brother has been using clever manipulation to get him into trouble. Nicholas is a 12-year-old boy whose father was recently given a life sentence for murder. Nicholas is in a boxing league and uses his fighting skills on the streets. Angel is Nicholas' nine-year-old brother…

  2. Two brothers with keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans.

    PubMed

    Alfadley, Abdullah; Al Hawsawi, Khalid; Hainau, Bo; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2002-11-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is a rare, X-linked disorder affecting both the skin and eyes. There are few reports about this entity. The aim of this report is to describe 2 brothers with progressive scarring alopecia of the scalp, hypotrichosis with follicular prominence of the eyelashes, and extensive keratosis pilaris. The second patient has Down syndrome with palmoplantar keratoderma and partial alopecia of the eyebrows. We also reviewed the literature about this uncommon entity.

  3. The Mayo brothers: an American surgical legacy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Few in the history of surgery and just as few in the history of medicine can reach the level of clinical visibility as achieved by the Mayo brothers. The brothers changed the face of medicine while they were alive, and their fame and influence continued to grow after their death in 1939. The Mayo American surgical legacy had incredible proportions. The brothers systematically modified the field as few others had done before. They were great surgical innovators who took the surgical techniques of others and added a touch of their own to make the surgical procedure better and more secure. The Mayos were the stars regionally, nationally, and around the world. They attracted attention from their generation and occupied center stage long after. To speak of the Mayos is to speak of the quintessential American values of professionalism, respect, commitment, and caring for their fellow human beings. Their creation, the Mayo Clinic, surpassed the wildest hopes and predictions that anyone could have had regarding their best dreams.

  4. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  5. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... do to protect her fertility? What can a boy's cancer doctor do to protect his fertility? How ... families? What are the legal issues for young boys undergoing fertility preservation? What are the legal issues ...

  6. A GIS policy approach for assessing the effect of fertilizers on the quality of drinking and irrigation water and wellhead protection zones (Crete, Greece).

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Koubouris, Georgios C

    2017-03-15

    Fertilizers have undoubtedly contributed to the significant increase in yields worldwide and therefore to the considerable improvement of quality of life of man and animals. Today, attention is focussed on the risks imposed by agricultural fertilizers. These effects include the dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizer major- and trace-elements to the groundwater that deteriorate the quality of drinking and irrigation water. In this study, a map for the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) was generated for assessing the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking and irrigation water quality. The proposed methodology was applied to one of the most intensively cultivated with tree crops area in Crete (Greece) where potential pollutant loads are derived exclusively from agricultural activities and groundwater is the main water source. In this region of 215 km(2), groundwater sampling data from 235 wells were collected over a 15-year time period and analyzed for the presence of anionic (ΝΟ(-3), PO(-3)4) and cationic (K(+1), Fe(+2), Mn(+2), Zn(+2), Cu(+2), B(+3)) fertilizer trace elements. These chemicals are the components of the primary fertilizers used in local tree crop production. Eight factors/maps were considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for each fertilizer element. The eight factors combined were used to generate the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) map indicating the areas with drinking/irrigation water pollution due to the high groundwater contamination caused by excessive fertilizer use. Moreover, by taking into consideration the groundwater flow direction and seepage velocity, the pathway through which groundwater supply become polluted can be predicted. The groundwater quality results show that a small part of the study area, about 8 km(2) (3.72%), is polluted or moderately polluted by the excessive use of fertilizers. Considering that in this area drinking water sources

  7. Bram Stoker's brother, the brain surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the life and work of Sir William Thornley Stoker, 1st Baronet (1845-1912), the eldest brother of Bram Stoker (1847-1912), the author of Dracula (1897). Sir William or "Thornley," as he was commonly known, was one of Ireland's leading physicians. He performed some of the first brain surgeries in Ireland using Sir David Ferrier's maps of the cerebral cortex. From 1879 into the twentieth century, Thornley served as inspector for Ireland under the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act. In this role, Thornley was responsible for granting licenses to researchers who performed experiments on live animals. Due to his reservations about animal experimentation, Thornley eventually became an advocate for the antivivisection cause, testifying at the second Royal Commission on Vivisection (1906-1912). Thornley also influenced Irish literature, albeit indirectly. Bram Stoker's composition notes for Dracula show that he consulted his older brother about the medical scenes in his novel. Thornley's knowledge of cerebral localization and his animal rights advocacy both surface in Dracula.

  8. Authentic Expression of Edmund Rice Christian Brother Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercruysse, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1802, Edmund Rice directed the laying of the foundation stone for Mount Sion Monastery and School. After several previous attempts of instructing poor boys in Waterford, this was to be the first permanent home for the Congregation of Christian Brothers. Rice's dream of founding a religious community of brothers was becoming a reality with a…

  9. Two Dutch brothers with Borrone dermato-cardio-skeletal syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, M A M; Ceulen, R P M; Delhaas, T; de Die-Smulders, C

    2007-06-01

    In 1993, Borrone et al. described two Italian brothers affected by a syndrome of severe acne, mitral valve prolapse, dysmorphic facies, and Scheuermann-like changes of the vertebral column. Since then, no further cases have been reported. Here, we report on two Dutch brothers with many features suggestive of this rare syndrome.

  10. 36 CFR 7.76 - Wright Brothers National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.76 Section 7.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.76 Wright Brothers National Memorial. (a) Designated airstrip. Wright Brothers National Memorial Airstrip, located at Kill Devil Hills,...

  11. 36 CFR 7.76 - Wright Brothers National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.76 Section 7.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.76 Wright Brothers National Memorial. (a) Designated airstrip. Wright Brothers National Memorial Airstrip, located at Kill Devil Hills,...

  12. One sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Eung Suk; Kim, Ungsoo S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of one sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia. One sister and brother complained visual disturbance. The sister was 10 years 11 months old, and brother was 8 years 4 months old. Full ophthalmic examinations were performed, including slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure, keratometry, anterior chamber depth, axial length, fundus examination and the cycloplegic refraction. The cycloplegic refractive power was -15.50 dpt cyl.+4.50 dpt Ax 85 degrees (right eye), -1.00 dpt cyl.+0.50 dpt Ax 90 degrees (left eye) in the sister; -1.75 dpt cyl.+2.25 dpt Ax 90 degrees (right eye), -9.50 dpt cyl.+4.00 dpt Ax 80 degrees (left eye) in the brother. The co-occurrence of severe myopic anisometropia in a sister and brother is extremely rare. The present case suggests that severe myopic anisometropia may be related by genetic inheritance.

  13. Neurological and architectural sinuosities: the Niemeyer brothers.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Guasti, José Antonio D; Preul, Mark C

    2010-11-01

    In a family of 7 siblings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2 of the most remarkable national personalities decided to follow different fields at the beginning of the 20th century. Their life's work would, however, intersect in at least 2 respects: the quest for innovation and a passion for sinuosity. The achievements of Paulo and Oscar Niemeyer are landmarks in the history of neurosurgery and architecture in Brazil. Among his many innovations in neurosurgery, Paulo Niemeyer first described the transventricular amygdalohippocampectomy in 1957 and introduced the operating microscope to neurosurgery in Brazil in 1971. His brother Oscar became a world-renowned representative of the modern architecture movement, sculpting graceful curves from concrete.

  14. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  15. 17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers Commercial Photographers, Madison Heights, Michigan, Negative No. 38750). SOUTHERN PORTION OF WEST FACADE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWN ON EXTREME LEFT, 24 NOVEMBER 1920. - Basso Building, 7338 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  16. 18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers Commercial Photographers, Madison Heights, Michigan, Negative No. 67707). SOUTHERN PORTION OF WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST, SHOWN ON EXTREME LEFT, 3 June 1925. - Basso Building, 7338 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  17. Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas: report of occurrence in half brothers.

    PubMed

    Fangman, William L; Prose, Neil S

    2004-01-01

    Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas are uncommon, congenital, nontender papules located on the medial plantar aspects of the heel. We report the occurrence of this rare disorder in two half brothers, suggesting that it may occur in a familial pattern.

  18. Different course of silicosis in four brothers of one family.

    PubMed

    Danila, Edvardas; Sileikiene, Virginija; Nargela, Remigijus; Zurauskas, Edvardas; Loskutoviene, Greta

    2009-01-01

    Silicosis remains a common occupational respiratory disease. Even in this era of highly sophisticated hygiene in European countries, new occupational cases of silicosis continue to be reported. Four cases of silicosis which developed after a relatively short occupational exposure to respirable silica among the members of one family are described. Four young men worked illegally abroad in mining in one of European countries. All of them were employed together in the same working conditions. One of the brothers died due to the acute form of the disease (lipoproteinosis). Two of the brothers suffered from simple nodular silicosis, and the fourth brother developed very early nodular silicosis and small airway dust disease. A one year follow-up revealed moderate/severe worsening of the disease in all surviving brothers.

  19. Protect Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Do? Avoid Risky Behaviors Steroids, smoking and alcohol Drugs such as steroids, cigarettes, marijuana and alcohol can ... about substance abuse, visit the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information’s website at www.health.org. exposure to ...

  20. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-06

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  1. Photosynthesis mediated decrease in cadmium translocation protect shoot growth of Oryza sativa seedlings up on ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress responses in seedlings of two Indian rice cultivars, MTU 7029 and MO 16 were investigated under ammonium-based fertilizer amendment. Cd translocation was reduced by fertilizer treatment. An increase in the production of organic acids as well as nitrogenous compounds and maintenance of nutrient status were implicated for decrease in Cd translocation which in turn promoted shoot growth. Fertilizer treatment increased photosynthetic pigments and activity of antioxidant enzymes that ensured steady photosynthetic rate during Cd stress. MO 16 showed Cd exclusion characteristics when compared with MTU 7029. Photosynthesis performance of MO 16 was not affected by Cd treatments. These findings suggest that photosynthesis influenced decrease in Cd translocation enhanced shoot growth of seedlings during ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilizer supplementation.

  2. Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2006-07-11

    The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total n = 944), including one sample of men raised in nonbiological and blended families (e.g., raised with half- or step-siblings or as adoptees) were studied. Only biological older brothers, and not any other sibling characteristic, including nonbiological older brothers, predicted men's sexual orientation, regardless of the amount of time reared with these siblings. These results strongly suggest a prenatal origin to the fraternal birth-order effect.

  3. 3 CFR 8466 - Proclamation 8466 of December 16, 2009. Wright Brothers Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... December 16, 2009 Proc. 8466 Wright Brothers Day, 2009By the President of the United States of America A... Carolina, lifting two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, to their place in history. Their singular triumph... America, do hereby proclaim December 17, 2009, as Wright Brothers Day. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have...

  4. Family Constellations: Teaching Dave Etter's "Brother" (Modern Poetry in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totherow, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Dave Etter's poem "Brother" involves students by focusing on the themes of guilt and the love/hate complexity of a sibling relationship. Notes that Gina Berriault's story "The Stone Boy" and Harley Elliot's poem "Brothers Together in Winter" work well in conjunction with "Brother" as a thematic…

  5. 75 FR 46864 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... this proposed AD, contact Short Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3... new AD: Short Brothers PLC: Docket No. FAA-2010-0225; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-203-AD....

  6. 75 FR 12154 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3 9DZ Northern Ireland; telephone +44(0... 16, 2006) and adding the following new AD: Short Brothers PLC: Docket No. FAA-2010-0225;...

  7. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  8. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  9. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  10. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  11. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  12. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  13. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  14. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  15. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  16. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  17. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  18. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  19. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  20. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  1. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  2. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  3. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  4. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.

  5. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  6. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. The brothers Lumière. Pioneers in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Aterman, K; Grimaud, J A

    1983-10-01

    A brief historical sketch of the brothers Lumière, the inventors of the cinématographe, is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on their perfection of "Autochromes," photographic plates suitable for color photography, and on their foresight in putting these advances to use in medical illustrations.

  8. Propaganda in Warner Brothers World War II Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William

    To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…

  9. A Unique Case of Allogeneic Fat Grafting Between Brothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Samuel; Edelson, Richard L.; Sumpio, Brandon; Kwei, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient’s unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain. Our unique case study supports the use of fat grafting for its restorative purposes and for its ability to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Additionally, it appears that our case provides a basis of a general approach to the treatment of radiation-induced ulcers in chimeric patients with lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27757347

  10. Coloured sweat in two brothers: First report of familial chromhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Daniel C; Cooper, Hywel L

    2016-02-01

    The uncommon diagnosis of chromhidrosis is most frequently made in young adults. This sweat gland disease, although benign, may impact significantly on the patient's quality of life. We describe the first report of familial chromhidrosis of pseudo-eccrine type (pseudochromhidrosis) occurring in two brothers aged 9 and 12 years. The classification and causality of chromhidrosis is described and approaches to assessment and management are outlined.

  11. [Metabolic studies in brothers affected by alcaptonuria (ochronosis)].

    PubMed

    Pugge, H R; Orozco, M; Toledo, A; Ripoll, J; Katz, J; Toledo, I; Pellanda, R

    1978-01-01

    The case of two brothers affected by alcaptonurie is reported. The activity of the homogenthisycasa enzyme has been determined by the material obtained through percutaneous biopsy. Concentrations of the aminoacids producing fenilalanina and thiroxina in their parents' blood have been investigated, the tests showing lack of liver enzyme and normal concentration of the amount of aminoacids in blood. Some aspects of skin lesion have been briefly reported and methods for treatment presented.

  12. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  13. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  14. 77 FR 24554 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Quay Brothers: On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Pharmacist's Prescription for Lip-Reading Puppets'' AGENCY: State Department. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Quay Brothers: On Deciphering the Pharmacist's Prescription...

  15. Propane tank explosion (2 deaths, 7 injuries) at Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, Albert City, Iowa, April 9, 1998. Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report explains the explosion/BLEVE that took place on April 9, 1998, at the Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, located in Albert City, Iowa. Two volunteer fire fighters were killed and seven other emergency response personnel were injured. Safety issues covered in the report include protection of propane storage tanks and piping, state regulatory oversight of such installations, and fire fighter response to propane storage tank fires.

  16. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  17. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  18. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  19. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  20. Protective effect of royal jelly on fertility and biochemical parameters in bleomycin-‎induced male rats

    PubMed Central

    Amirshahi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bleomycin (BL) is a glycopeptide antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus which is routinely used for treatment of human cancers. Royal jelly (RJ) is a production from the hypo pharyngeal, mandibular and post cerebral glands of nurse bees. RJ consists of 66% water, 15% sugars, 5% lipids, and 13% proteins, essential amino acids and vitamins. Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rat. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male wistar rats (220±20gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). Control group (CG) received normal saline 10 ml/kg twice a week with Intraperitoneal (I.P) for 48 days (0.3 ml/rat(. Royal Jelly group (RJG) received jelly (100 mg/kg daily) for 48 days orally. Bleomycin group (BLG) received BL (10 mg/kg twice a week) with I.P for 48 days. Royal Jelly+ Bleomycin group (RJ+BLG) received royal Jelly (100 mg/kg /day) orally concomitant with BL administration. Sperm count, motility, and viability were investigated and chromatin quality and DNA integrity were also analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were measured as well. Results: BL caused decline significantly (p<0.05) sperm count, sperm viability, motility as well as testosterone concentration compared to control group while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration were announced in BL in comparison with CG and RJ+BLG. Royal jelly improved Bleomycin-induced toxicity on sperm parameters and testosterone and MDA concentrations. Conclusion: The present results support the idea that BL adversely affects sperm parameters and MDA and the RJ with antioxidant properties has positive effects on these parameters. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Tayebeh amirshahi) PMID:24799882

  1. Human factors of powered flight: the Wright brothers' contributions.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Stanley R

    2004-02-01

    Orville and Wilbur Wright of Dayton, OH, not only were the first to fly a powered aircraft, but also pioneered many human factors considerations. While others tried to develop aircraft with a high degree of aerodynamic stability, the Wrights intentionally designed unstable aircraft with "cerebralized" control modeled on bird flight. During 1901-03, the brothers worked with large gliders at Kill Devil Hills, near Kitty Hawk, NC, to develop the first practical human-interactive controls for aircraft pitch, roll, and yaw. On December 17, 1903, they made four controlled, powered flights over the dunes at Kitty Hawk with their Wright Flyer. During the next 2 yr, the Wrights made numerous flights in the Wright Flyers II and III at Huffman Prairie near Dayton. They later developed practical in-flight control of engine power, plus an angle-of-attack sensor and stick-pusher that reduced pilot workload. The brothers' flight demonstrations in the U.S. and Europe during 1908-09 awakened the world to the new age of controlled flight. Orville was the first aviator to use a seat belt. He also introduced a rudder boost/trim control that gave the pilot greater control authority. The Wrights' flight training school in Dayton included a flight simulator of their own design. The Wrights patented their practical airplane and flight control concepts, many of which are still in use today.

  2. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    .... Painter. Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010- 0447 or Site name Cooksey... AGENCY Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd...

  3. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: The Wrights and Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Hansen, Jennifer; Martin, Cam

    2007-01-01

    Viewgraphs showing glider experiments of the Wright Brothers from 1899-1908 are presented. The slides review the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that preceeded the first powered flight.

  4. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Cole, Jennifer Hansen; Martin, John Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Presentation showing glider experiments of the Wright Brothers from 1899-1908 are presented. The slides review the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905, Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that preceeded the first powered flight.

  5. Brothers and Sisters: A Source of Support for Children in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Lucy; Edwards, Rosalind; Mauthner, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Whilst UK schools move towards U.S "big brother" style mentoring systems for children, are actual brothers and sisters becoming an invisible source of support to deal with bullying in everyday life? This paper reports on research with children aged 7-13 about their experiences and understandings of their relationships with their brothers…

  6. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  7. 20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. An individual is entitled to benefits if: (a) Such individual: (1) Is the parent,...

  8. 20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. An individual is entitled to benefits if: (a) Such individual: (1) Is the parent,...

  9. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  10. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  11. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  12. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  13. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  14. Christ-siemens-touraine syndrome: case report of 2 brothers.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Chaudhari, Arvind; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2014-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disorder. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome (Hypohidrotic Ectodermal dysplasia (HED)) is a diffuse, non-progressive disease present at birth and involves at least two tissues of ectodermal origin. It is caused by mutation in gene ectodysplasin (EDA, EDA1) located at Xq12-13. Main clinical feature of HED is sparse or absent eccrine gland as well as hypotrichosis, nail, and teeth abnormality with characteristic faces. The absence or diminished activity of sweat gland results in patients having more chances of developing hyperthermia and with intolerance to warm environment. Most do well with simple measures such as wet clothes, air conditioning, wet bands etc. We present cases of two brothers, born of non-consanguineous marriage, who presented to us with complaints of heat intolerance and abnormal facial features.

  15. [History of the Cracow Brothers of Mercy Hospital].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, H

    1995-01-01

    The oldest of existing Cracow hospitals was founded in 1609. The paper discusses the origins, development and decay of the hospital-cloister in its first seat at St. John's and St. Mark's streets. Later the author describes the fate of the hospital-cloister from 1812 after its translocation to the second residence at the Krakowska street. In 1906 the third seat became a new buildings' complex at the Trynitarska street. The work remembers the role of the hospital during several epidemies, Ist and IInd World War and its activity during peace times. The author emphasizes the great merits of Brothers of Mercy for Cracow medicine and hospital system in bringing medical and charitable help to sick and poor.

  16. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when ovulation happens. Couples use a calendar, a thermometer to measure body temperature, the thickness of cervical ... fertility awareness — such as ovulation detection kits and thermometers, for example — are available in drugstores. But they ...

  17. Predicting fertility.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Abha; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Johnson, Neil P

    2008-06-01

    Various predictors of fertility have been described, suggesting that none are ideal. The literature on tests of ovarian reserve is largely limited to women undergoing in vitro fertilization, and is reliant on the use of surrogate markers, such as cycle cancellation and number of oocytes retrieved, as reference standards. Currently available prediction models are far from ideal; most are applicable only to subfertile women seeking assisted reproduction, and lack external validation. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of predictors of fertility are limited by their heterogeneity in terms of the population sampled, predictors tested and reference standards used. There is an urgent need for consensus in the design of these studies, definition of abnormal tests, and, above all, a need to use robust outcomes such as live birth as the reference standard. There are no reliable predictors of fertility that can guide women as to how long childbearing can be deferred.

  18. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... time the couple using only fertility awareness for birth control who does not want to get pregnant should ... period. In general, how well each type of birth control method works depends on a lot of things. ...

  19. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: The Wrights and Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Cole, Jennifer Hansen; Martin, Cam

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Wright Brothers's flight research during the 10 years between 1899 and 1908. The Wright Brothers began their research in flight with gliders. The presentation shows pictures, replicas and characteristics of the gliders that the Wright Brothers used. This presentation is not just a history lesson. In the end it investigates "What Does Flight Research Accomplish?" Flight research can serve many uses, such as Separates the Real from the Imagined, Uncovers the Unexpected and the Overlooked, Forces the Realistic Integration of the Pilot, Forces the Development of Reliable Prediction and Test Processes, Requires Every Problem to Be Addressed, Promotes Technology Transfer, and Builds a Core Technical Team,

  20. Proposed Penalty Against Wood Brothers Trucking & Construction and Jason Carnahan for Clean Water Act Violations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public notice of EPA's proposed penalty against Wood Brothers Trucking & Construction and Jason Carnahan for violations of the Clean Water Act at their construction site located outside of Boise, Idaho.

  1. The role of brothers and sisters in the gender development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Rust, J; Golombok, S; Hines, M; Johnston, K; Golding, J

    2000-12-01

    The study examined whether the sex of older siblings influences the gender role development of younger brothers and sisters of age 3 years. Data on the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a measure of gender role behavior that discriminates within as well as between the sexes, were obtained in a general population study for 527 girls and 582 boys with an older sister, 500 girls and 561 boys with an older brother, and 1665 singleton girls and 1707 singleton boys. It was found that boys with older brothers and girls with older sisters were more sex-typed than same-sex singletons who, in turn, were more sex-typed than children with other-sex siblings. Having an older brother was associated with more masculine and less feminine behavior in both boys and girls, whereas boys with older sisters were more feminine but not less masculine and girls with older sisters were less masculine but not more feminine.

  2. Band of Brothers - Warrior Ethos, Unit Effectiveness and the Role of Initial Entry Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    happy few, we band of brothers; for he today that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother. William Shakespeare Initial Entry Training (IET) in the...the U.S. Army.”52 Unable to strike at the Army, who they felt had forgotten them, the men struck at the inhabitants of Mai Lai 4, a hamlet in the Quang

  3. The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Charles B.

    The first hot air balloon ascension over Paris in September 1783 has been described so many times that it and its passengers—the sheep, the rooster, and the duck—have joined Benjamin Franklin and his kite in the folklore of our culture. Not so well known is the earlier history of ballooning; that the brothers Montgolfier had demonstrated their hot air balloons repeatedly for several months prior to the ascent over Paris; or that the physicist Charles, urged onward and financed by an enthusiast, Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, launched successfully the first fabric balloon filled with hydrogen over Paris more than 3 weeks prior to the memorable ascent of the sheep, and rooster, and the duck.For all of its well-documented detail, the book is readable and enjoyable. It is a well-written but complex book in which Professor Gillispie develops a number of subjects to recreate the era in perspective. The origins and the disposition of the Montgolfiers, the industry of the period, the idea of capturing heated air are all reported in detail. The attempts to obtain government funding and the promotional activities in Paris were forerunners of the modern techniques for obtaining support of research activities.

  4. [Familial, structural aberration of the Y chromosome with fertility disorders].

    PubMed

    Gall, H; Schmid, M; Schmidtke, J; Schempp, W; Weber, L

    1985-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies on a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome revealed an inherited, structural aberration of the Y-chromosome which has not been described before. The aberrant Y-chromosome was characterized by eight different banding methods. The value of individual staining techniques in studies on Y-heterochromatin aberrations is emphasized. Analysis of the cytogenetic studies (banding methods, restriction endonuclease of DNA, and measurement of the length of the Y-chromosome) permits an interpretation to be made on how the aberrant Y-chromosome originated. The functions of the Y-chromosome are discussed. The decrease in fertility (cryptozoospermia) in the two brothers with the same aberrant Y-chromosome was striking.

  5. Evidence for gonadotrophin secretory and steroidogenic abnormalities in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D.M.; Torchen, L.C.; Sung, Y.; Paparodis, R.; Legro, R.S.; Grebe, S.K.; Singh, R.J.; Taylor, R.L.; Dunaif, A.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there abnormalities in gonadotrophin secretion, adrenal steroidogenesis and/or testicular steroidogenesis in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER Brothers of women with PCOS have increased gonadotrophin responses to gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation and alterations in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY PCOS is a complex genetic disease. Male as well as female first-degree relatives have reproductive features of the syndrome. We previously reported that brothers of affected women have elevated circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was a case–control study performed in 29 non-Hispanic white brothers of 22 women with PCOS and 18 control men. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS PCOS brothers and control men were of comparable age, weight and ethnicity. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and GnRH agonist stimulation tests were performed. Gonadotrophin responses to GnRH agonist as well as changes in precursor-product steroid pairs (delta, Δ) across steroidogenic pathways in response to ACTH and GnRH agonist were examined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Basal total (T) levels did not differ, but dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels (0.13 ± 0.08 brothers versus 0.22 ± 0.09 controls, nmol/l, P = 0.03) were lower in brothers compared with control men. ACTH-stimulated Δ17-hydroxypregnenolone (17Preg)/Δ17-hydroxyprogesterone (17Prog) (7.8 ± 24.2 brothers versus 18.9 ± 21.3 controls, P = 0.04) and ΔDHEA/Δandrostenedione (AD) (0.10 ± 0.05 brothers versus 0.14 ± 0.08 controls, P = 0.04) were lower in brothers than in the controls. GnRH agonist-stimulated Δ17Prog/ΔAD (0.28 ± 8.47 brothers versus 4.79 ± 10.28 controls, P = 0.003) was decreased and luteinizing hormone (38.6 ± 20.6 brothers versus 26.0 ± 9.8 controls, IU/l, P = 0.02), follicle-stimulating hormone (10.2 ± 7.5 brothers versus 4.8 ± 4

  6. Extreme right-handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation in men.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most consistent correlates of sexual orientation in men are handedness and fraternal birth order (i.e., number of older brothers). In the present study, the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation was studied in 4 samples of heterosexual and gay or bisexual men (N = 944). Unlike previous studies, which have only observed an increased rate of non-right-handedness in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men, an elevated rate of extreme right-handedness was found in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men. The results also demonstrated that older brothers moderate the relationship between handedness and sexual orientation. Specifically, older brothers increase the odds of being gay or bisexual in moderate right-handers only; in both non-right-handers and extreme right-handers, older brothers do not affect (or decrease) the odds of being gay or bisexual. The results have implications for an early neurodevelopmental origin to sexual orientation in men.

  7. Fragile X syndrome: Discordant levels of CGG repeat mosaicism in two brothers

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, O.T.; Hartsfield, J.K. Jr.; Amar, M.J.A.

    1995-08-14

    Fragile X syndrome is associated with an unstable repeated CGG trinucleotide sequence in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR-1 gene. A significant number of individuals with a mild or atypical presentation are mosaics for the CGG expansion. We report a family with two brothers. The proband had severe mental retardation as well as most of the Fragile X syndrome stigmata, whereas his brother shows only mild learning difficulties. Both inherited a 80 x CGG trinucleotide premutation from the mother. They were negative for the FRAXA fragile site in over 100 metaphases examined. Flanking markers verified that both had inherited the same FMR-1 allele and Xq27-q28 flanking sequences from the mother. The methylation status of the brothers indicated active FMR-1 transcription as determined by using StB12.3/EcoRI + Eagl blots. CGG size or methylation mosaicism was not apparent from Southern blots. Polymerase chain reaction and chemiluminescent detection identified that both brothers had different degrees of mosaicism for the CGG expansion. Large expansions amounting to 70% of the total were visible in the proband, whereas less than 5% of the signal was larger than the premutation in his mildly affected brother. These findings suggest that mosaicism may be responsible for some of the variation in penetrance in this disorder. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  9. Legal consequences for torture in children cases: the Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers vs Peru case.

    PubMed

    Tinta, Monica Feria

    2009-01-01

    The Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers case, before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, was the first international case concerning the protection of children in the context of armed conflict where an international court stated the law concerning the duties of States towards children even in the context of war, and provided for reparations. As such it represents a landmark decision. The case arose from the illegal detention, torture and extrajudicial execution of two minors, Emilio and Rafael Gomez Paquiyauri, at the hands of Peruvian Police in 1991, under the Fujimori Administration at a time when the internal war in Peru was at its peak. Unlike most cases coming to the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court, the case had been subject to domestic criminal investigations that had led to the convictions of two low ranking policemen. Yet a more subtle pattern of impunity lied at the root of the case. Torture had been denied by the State, and the prosecutions of low ranking policemen had intended to cover up the responsibility of those who ordered a policy of torture and executions (including the existence of secret codes for the torture and elimination of suspects of "terrorism") during the years of the internal armed conflict in Peru. The joint work of legal and medical expertise in the litigation of the case permitted the establishment of the facts and the law, obtaining an award of 740,500 dollars for the victims and a number of measures of reparation including guarantees of non-repetition and satisfaction, such as the naming of a school after the victims.

  10. Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome: Brothers with a homozygous STAMBP mutation, uncovered by exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Sogaty, Sameera; Rasool, Mahmood; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abutalib, Yousif Ahmed; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R; Merico, Daniele; Carter, Melissa T; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H; Zarrei, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    We describe two brothers from a consanguineous family of Egyptian ancestry, presenting with microcephaly, apparent global developmental delay, seizures, spasticity, congenital blindness, and multiple cutaneous capillary malformations. Through exome sequencing, we uncovered a homozygous missense variant in STAMBP (p.K303R) in the two siblings, inherited from heterozygous carrier parents. Mutations in STAMBP are known to cause microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MIC-CAP) and the phenotype in this family is consistent with this diagnosis. We compared the findings in the present brothers with those of earlier reported patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. "Our Boys": The Christian Brothers and the Formation of Youth in the "New Ireland"1914-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Daire

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the development of the boys' magazine, "Our Boys," and how this became a powerful auxiliary to the Christian Brothers' work in schools. It championed the values that the Christian Brothers had propagated since their foundation in 1802. Often characterised as Celtic and Romantic, it was neither, but aimed at…

  12. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  13. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  14. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  15. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...

  16. 77 FR 46439 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in Toledo, Ohio, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Bakers Brothers site in...

  17. Severe complications in wound healing and fracture treatment in two brothers with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Marion; Spiegler, Juliane; Härtel, Christoph; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabrielle; Kaiser, Martin M

    2013-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 (NTRK1) gene, which encodes the receptor for nerve growth factor. We report the clinical and radiological pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of two brothers, aged 5 and 8 years, with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, the older brother having a proven NTRK1 mutation. In the neonatal period, both presented with recurrent episodes of fever of unknown origin, but their clinical problems changed later. In addition to severe mental retardation and self-harming behaviour, the older brother developed recurrent nonbacterial destructive infections of both the calcaneus and later the talus. No immunodeficiency was found. The younger brother had three complex fractures with a long history of healing problems: overwhelming production of callus, osteomyelitis and movement restrictions. He has less mental retardation than his older brother and shows no self-mutilation.

  18. TCRC Fertility Page

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually ... Orchiectomy: As I mentioned, many men who have testicular cancer also already have fertility problems. In some, the ...

  19. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  20. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  1. The Irish Christian Brothers and the National Board of Education: Challenging the Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    For close to 170 years the general consensus from historians has been that Edmund Rice, who founded the Irish Christian Brothers in 1802, was an unenthusiastic applicant to the National Board of Education in Ireland in 1832 and later withdrew his schools because he believed his education was incompatible with the philosophy underpinning the…

  2. Gliding Experiments of the Wright Brothers: The Wrights and Flight Research 1899-1908

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Cole, Jennifer Hansen; Martin, Cam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that preceeded the first powered flight.

  3. A Thousand Lights [and] A Thousand Lights: Teacher and Parent Guide. Brothers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of two brothers, one of whom has a severe hearing impairment, who climb up Mt. Fuji in Japan. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage the reader to relate more personally and foster a deeper level of acceptance…

  4. 3 CFR 8918 - Proclamation 8918 of December 17, 2012. Wright Brothers Day, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... December 17, 2012 Proc. 8918 Wright Brothers Day, 2012By the President of the United States of America A... example inspired the kind of businesses and industries that built and grew our middle class. As we mark... requested the President to issue annually a proclamation inviting the people of the United States to...

  5. Another Look at Vividness in the Trial of Two Vietnamese Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnahan, Mary I.

    A study examined the trial of People v. Tien (two Vietnamese brothers named defendants in an assault case). In order to understand better the relationship between supportive speech acts and credibility, the study examined how the attorney elicited vivid testimony. One of the ways in which an attorney yields control of testimony to a witness is by…

  6. "Brothers and Sisters": A Novel Way to Teach Human Resources Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumpus, Minnette

    2000-01-01

    The novel "Brothers and Sisters" by Bebe Moore Campbell was used in a management course to explore human resource management issues, concepts, and theories. The course included prereading and postreading surveys, lecture, book review, and examination. Most of the students (92%) felt the novel was an appropriate way to meet course…

  7. The Wright Brothers and the Future of Bio-Inspired Flight: 1899 through to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that proceeded the first powered flight.

  8. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  9. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  10. Sibling Communication in "Star Trek: The Next Generation": Conflicts between Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn

    "Star Trek: The Next Generation" depicts sibling relationships between Data and Lore (android), Worf and Kurn (Klingon) and Jean-Luc and Robert (human) that illustrate conflictual communication and suggest teaching applications. The most disturbing empirical communication research on conflict between brothers reports that male sibling…

  11. Brothers in Excellence: An Empowerment Model for the Career Development of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The author describes Brothers in Excellence (BE), a conceptual model for understanding African American boys and helping them to be successful. BE addresses 3 domains of development proposed to be essential to the success of all African American boys: identity development, social development, and career development. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Evidence of environmental suppression of familial resemblance: height among US Civil War brothers.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Rathouz, P J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines, with historical data, whether within family correlations in height varied across environments and whether variability in height was greater in worse environments. To investigate these hypotheses, brothers were identified who were mustered into the Union Army of the US Civil War, using linked records from the 1850 and 1860 censuses and military and medical records. Heights were available for 3898 men aged 18 and older, of whom 595 were further identified as belonging to 288 family sets of two, three or four brothers. Generalized estimating equations were used to concurrently model the mean height, the variance and the correlation between brothers as a function of county population. Heights decreased as county population size increased (p<0.001). The correlation between brothers' heights decreased significantly (p = 0.032) with increasing county population, and the variance increased (p = 0.026). The correlation ranged approximately from 0.63 in the least populous to 0.24 in the most populous counties. The degree of familial resemblance was lower in environments where mean height was lower, and the variability in height was greater, suggesting that the environmental contribution to the variability in height is of greater relative importance in populations reared, on average, in worse environments.

  13. Learning English through Social Interaction: The Case of "Big Brother 2006," Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaanta, Leila; Jauni, Heidi; Leppanen, Sirpa; Peuronen, Saija; Paakkinen, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In line with recent Conversation Analytic work on language learning as situated practice, this article investigates how interactants can create language learning opportunities for themselves and others in and through social interaction. The study shows how the participants of "Big Brother Finland," a reality TV show, whose main…

  14. Two Brothers, Two Cities: Music Education in Boston and Cincinnati from 1830-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzo, Terri Brown; Resta, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The birth of American music education is often attributed solely to Lowell Mason in Boston. His younger brother Timothy, however, was also active at the same time in Cincinnati. This study traces the roots of music education in both cities, but highlights the rarely cited accomplishments of Timothy Mason and his colleagues. Using historical…

  15. Brief Report: Comparative ABA and DIR Trials in Twin Brothers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jane C.; Seal, Brenda C.

    2007-01-01

    Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted…

  16. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...

  17. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...

  18. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...

  19. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...

  20. My Brother as "Problem": Neoliberal Governmentality and Interventions for Black Young Men and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…

  1. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  2. Quantitative and theoretical analyses of the relation between older brothers and homosexuality in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2004-09-21

    Meta-analysis of aggregate data from 14 samples representing 10,143 male subjects shows that homosexuality in human males is predicted by higher numbers of older brothers, but not by higher numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The relation between number of older brothers and sexual orientation holds only for males. This phenomenon has therefore been called the fraternal birth order effect. Research on birth order, birth weight, and sexual orientation suggests that the developmental pathway to homosexuality initiated by older brothers operates during prenatal life. Calculations assuming a causal relation between older brothers and sexual orientation have estimated the proportion of homosexual men who owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order at 15% in one study and 29% in another. The maternal immune hypothesis proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male fetus and the increasing effects of such immunization on sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. There are at least three possible mechanisms by which the mother's immune response could influence the fetus: the transfer of anti-male antibodies across the placenta from the maternal into the fetal compartment, the transfer of maternal cytokines across the placenta, and maternal immune reactions affecting the placenta itself. This hypothesis is consistent with recent studies showing that the quantity of fetal cells that enter the maternal circulation is greater than previously thought, and that the number of male-specific proteins encoded by Y-chromosome genes is greater than previously thought.

  3. Effects of free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE), N fertilization and poplar genotype on the physical protection of carbon in the mineral soil of a polar plantation after five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoosbeek, M. R.; Vos, J. M.; Bakker, E. J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E.

    2006-11-01

    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading forests and plantations have demonstrated significant increases in net primary production (NPP) and C storage in forest vegetation. The extra C uptake may also be stored in forest floor litter and in forest soil. After five years of FACE treatment at the EuroFACE short rotation poplar plantation, the increase of total soil C% was larger under elevated than under ambient CO2. However, the fate of this additional C allocated belowground remains unclear. The stability of soil organic matter is controlled by the chemical structure of the organic matter and the formation of micro-aggregates (within macro-aggregates) in which organic matter is stabilized and protected. FACE and N-fertilization treatment did not affect the micro- and macro-aggregate weight, C or N fractions obtained by wet sieving. However, Populus euramericana increased the small macro-aggregate and free micro-aggregate weight and C fractions. The obtained macro-aggregates were broken up in order to isolate recently formed micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates (iM-micro-aggregates). FACE increased the iM-micro-aggregate weight and C fractions, although not significantly. This study reveals that FACE did not affect the formation of aggregates. We did, however, observe a trend of increased stabilization and protection of soil C in micro-aggregates formed within macro-aggregates under FACE. Moreover, the largest effect on aggregate formation was due to differences in species, i.e. poplar genotype. P. euramericana increased the formation of free micro-aggregates which means that more newly incorporated soil C was stabilized and protected. The choice of species in a plantation, or the effect of global change on species diversity, may therefore affect the stabilization and protection of C in soils.

  4. Hyperechogenicity of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease: Insights from Two Brothers with Markedly Different Disease Durations

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Julie M.; Georgiades, Matthew J.; Hammond, Deborah A.; Feng, Xiaoting; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Todd, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    We present clinical features and substantia nigra morphology for two brothers with Parkinson's disease (PD) aged 60 and 59 years. The brothers were diagnosed at 41 and 50 years of age, respectively. Both patients exhibited an abnormally large area of substantia nigra echogenicity bilaterally when viewed with transcranial ultrasound. The abnormality was similar in both brothers despite one having a much longer disease duration than the other. These findings further highlight that transcranial ultrasound is not associated with severity of clinical symptoms, but it might assist in the diagnosis of PD provided that it is combined with other variables known to precede PD. PMID:28168069

  5. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  6. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Mary Ellen; CONFINO, Rafael; STEINBERG, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  7. Radiation protection of male fertility in mouse and rat by a combination of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and a thiol compound (AET).

    PubMed

    George, S; Chuttani, K; Basu, S K

    1992-01-01

    Sperm abnormalities and fall in total sperm count following different doses (4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy) of whole body gamma irradiation (WBGR) were studied in adult male Swiss strain A mice. The protecting ability of a combination of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, 100 mg/kg) and 2-aminoethyl isothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET, 20 mg/kg) was also investigated. Pretreatment with a 5-HTP+AET formulation i.p., 30 min before irradiation modified the fall in sperm counts significantly. Exposures to 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy WBGR caused marked increase of sperm abnormalities which could be significantly reduced by pretreatment with 5-HTP-AET. WBGR with 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy produced a short period of sterility associated with oligospermia but these abnormalities were corrected by pretreatment with 5-HTP+AET. This finding was supported by breeding experiments in pretreated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which showed delivery of normal offsprings in drug-protected irradiated groups in contrast to irradiated controls.

  8. TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate rock is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Due to its chemical properties, phosphate rock may contain significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  9. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero.

  10. Brotherly Advice: Letters from Hugo to Paul Ehrenfest in his Final Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2006-03-01

    At the start of the 1930s, theoretician Paul Ehrenfest spent much of his time traveling through America and Europe while engaged in a steady stream of lectures. This traveling phase coincided with a frantic and intense period of negative self-examination, financial difficulty, and various other personal concerns that would ultimately lead to his 1933 suicide. Throughout these final years, he kept up a steady correspondence with his brother Hugo, a physician based in Saint Louis. Ten years older than Paul, Hugo freely doled out frank psychological advice about subjects ranging from the proper treatment of children to the dangers of self-pity. Through a look at some of the letters exchanged between the two brothers, this talk will examine the role Hugo played during the dark final years of Paul Ehrenfest's life.

  11. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  12. Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

  13. Learning to Fly: The Wright Brothers' Adventure. A Guide for Educators and Students with Activities in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R.; Benson, T.; Galica, C.; McCredie, P.

    2003-01-01

    This guide was produced by the NASA Glenn Research Center Office of Educational Programs in Cleveland, OH, and the NASA Aerospace Educational Coordinating Committee. It includes activity modules for students, including the history of the Wright Brothers and their family in Dayton, Ohio and flight experimentation in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Student activities such as building models of the Wright Brothers glider and writing press releases of the initial flight are included.

  14. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  15. Renal tubular dysgenesis, absent nipples, and multiple malformations in three brothers: a new, lethal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hisama, F M; Reyes-Mugica, M; Wargowski, D S; Thompson, K J; Mahoney, M J

    1998-12-04

    We report on three brothers with renal tubular dysgenesis and absent nipples, each also had other malformations including pre-auricular pits and a preauricular tag, branchial clefts, choanal atresia, pulmonary lobation anomaly, ventricular septal defect, type IIB interrupted aortic arch, absent gallbladder, absent thymus, parathyroid gland, accessory spleen, imperforate anus, clinodactyly, and broad digits and small nails. All three infants died neonatally. This pattern of clinical malformations appears to be a previously unreported syndrome.

  16. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  17. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-men [top] ASCO. (2016). ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-women [top] National Cancer ...

  18. Respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization.

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, J W; Shapiro, B M

    1989-01-01

    Partially reduced oxygen species are toxic, yet sea urchin eggs synthesize H2O2 in a "respiratory burst" at fertilization, as an extracellular oxidant to crosslink their protective surface envelopes. To study the biochemical mechanism for H2O2 production, we have isolated an NADPH-specific oxidase fraction from homogenates of unfertilized Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs that produces H2O2 when stimulated with Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Concentrations of free Ca2+ previously implicated in regulation of egg activation modulate the activity of the oxidase. Inhibitors were used to test the relevance of this oxidase to the respiratory burst of fertilization. Procaine, two phenothiazines, and N-ethylmaleimide (but not iodoacetamide) inhibited H2O2 production by the oxidase fraction and oxygen consumption by activated eggs. The ATP requirement suggested that protein kinase activity might regulate the respiratory burst of fertilization; consonant with this hypothesis, H-7 and staurosporine were inhibitory. The respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization is an NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase that appears to be regulated by a protein kinase; although it bears a remarkable resemblance to the neutrophil oxidase, unlike the latter it does not form O2- as its initial product. PMID:2537493

  19. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  20. Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant. I've seen many ads for fertility herbs and supplements. Do they work? Answers from Jani ... it's not surprising that some people look to herbs and supplements as a possible alternative treatment to ...

  1. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  2. Comparison between human sperm preservation medium and TEST-yolk buffer on protecting chromatin and morphology integrity of human spermatozoa in fertile and subfertile men after freeze-thawing procedure.

    PubMed

    Hammadeh, M E; Greiner, S; Rosenbaum, P; Schmidt, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the detrimental effect of the freeze-thaw process on chromatin integrity and morphology of human spermatozoa, and to determine whether human sperm preservation medium (HSPM) or TEST-yolk buffer (TYB) offers a better protection to spermatozoa from cryodamage after the freeze-thaw procedure. Thirty-five semen samples obtained from couples childless because of male factor infertility (subfertile men, group 1) and 25 semen samples from healthy, normal volunteers of proven fertility (group 2) were included in the study. Each semen sample was divided into 2 parts, the first part was mixed with HSPM and the other with TYB (1:1), and frozen with a controlled slow-stage freezer, before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Twelve smears from each semen sample were made before (n = 4) and after (n = 8) the freeze-thaw process. Chromatin structure was evaluated after staining using the acridine orange (AO) test, whereas morphology was analyzed according to strict criteria. The mean percentage of spermatozoa that exhibited normal morphology and intact chromatin structure was decreased after freeze-thaw in all samples treated with HSPM or TYB in comparison with the value observed in the native semen samples of both groups. However, TYB preserved chromatin and morphology significantly better than HSPM did (9.3% +/- 5.6% and 88.7% +/- 11.2% vs. 7.8% +/- 4.2% and 85.5% +/- 12.5%, respectively). Therefore, TYB could be recommended as a first choice cryoprotectant for semen preservation in order to avoid extra chromatin structure damage and morphology alterations of spermatozoa not only for patients pursuing assisted reproduction, but also for donor samples.

  3. Cross-cousin marriage among the Yanomamö shows evidence of parent-offspring conflict and mate competition between brothers.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Napoleon A; Lynch, Robert F; Shenk, Mary K; Hames, Raymond; Flinn, Mark V

    2017-03-28

    Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins-marriage with the child of a parent's opposite-sex sibling-but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do. Therefore, individuals seem to benefit when their children or opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but suffer costs when they, their parents, or same-sex siblings do. These asymmetric fitness outcomes suggest conflicts between parents and offspring and among siblings over optimal mating strategies. Parental control of marriages is reinforced by cultural norms prescribing cross-cousin marriage. We posit that local mate competition combined with parental control over marriages may escalate conflict between same-sex siblings who compete over mates, while simultaneously forging alliances between opposite-sex siblings. If these relationships are carried forward to subsequent generations, they may drive bilateral cross-cousin marriage rules. This study provides insights into the evolutionary importance of how kinship and reciprocity underlie conflicts over who controls mate choice and the origins of cross-cousin marriage prescriptions.

  4. The KBG syndrome: follow-up data on three affected brothers.

    PubMed

    Soekarman, D; Volcke, P; Fryns, J P

    1994-10-01

    In this report we present follow-up data on a family in which several members were found to have short stature, craniofacial anomalies and dento-skeletal abnormalities (KBG-syndrome). As adults, the three affected brothers of the original report are moderately to severely mentally retarded. Their phenotype with a distinct craniofacial appearance did not change much from that seen during childhood and adolescence. Adult height is far below the third centile, with arm spans exceeding stature by at least 9 cm.

  5. Joubert syndrome with bilateral polymicrogyria: clinical and neuropathological findings in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Giordano, L; Vignoli, A; Pinelli, L; Brancati, F; Accorsi, P; Faravelli, F; Gasparotti, R; Granata, T; Giaccone, G; Inverardi, F; Frassoni, C; Dallapiccola, B; Valente, E M; Spreafico, R

    2009-07-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and a typical neuroimaging finding, the so-called "molar tooth sign" (MTS). The association of MTS and polymicrogyria (PMG) has been reported as a distinct JS-related disorder (JSRD). So far, five patients have been reported with this phenotype, only two of them being siblings. We report on one additional family, describing a living child with JS and PMG, and the corresponding neuropathological picture in the aborted brother. No mutations were detected in the AHI1 gene, the only so far associated with the JS + PMG phenotype. Moreover, linkage analysis allowed excluding all known gene loci, suggesting further genetic heterogeneity.

  6. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: novel pathogenic mutations in thymidine phosphorylase gene in two Italian brothers.

    PubMed

    Libernini, Laura; Lupis, Chiara; Mastrangelo, Mario; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Leuzzi, Vincenzo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE, MIM 603041) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder occurring due to mutations in a nuclear gene coding for the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP). Clinical features of MNGIE include gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis or ophthalmoparesis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, and signs of mitochondrial dysfunction in tissues. We report the clinical and molecular findings in two brothers in whom novel TYMP gene mutations (c.215-13_215delinsGCGTGA; c.1159 + 2T > A) were associated with different clinical presentations and outcomes.

  7. Klinefelter's syndrome in nontwin brothers and maternal XX/XXX mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Lodi, A; Monti, D; Gaspari, G; Ravaglia, G; Guadagni, C; Businello, M; Lamedica, R; Lenzi, S

    1979-01-01

    A case of two nontwin brothers, 19 and 17 years old, who had both Klinefelter's syndrome with a chromosomal mosaicism 46 XY/47 XXY, is reported here. The analysis of their mother's karyotype revealed a 46 XX/47 XXX mosaicism. It is hypothesized that the presence of an extra X chromosome in all three subjects could depend on the transmission of two X chromosomes from the mother to the sons or, less likely, on an increased liability to nondisjunction of the X chromosomes during one of the early mitotic divisions in the zygotes.

  8. 40 CFR 798.4700 - Reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reproduction and fertility effects... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Specific Organ/Tissue Toxicity § 798.4700 Reproduction and fertility effects. (a) Purpose. This guideline for two-generation...

  9. 40 CFR 798.4700 - Reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reproduction and fertility effects. 798... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Specific Organ/Tissue Toxicity § 798.4700 Reproduction and fertility effects. (a) Purpose. This guideline for two-generation...

  10. 40 CFR 798.4700 - Reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reproduction and fertility effects....4700 Reproduction and fertility effects. (a) Purpose. This guideline for two-generation reproduction... during the study or whether animals survived to termination. (iv) Toxic or other effects on...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9380 - TSCA reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TSCA reproduction and fertility... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9380 TSCA reproduction and fertility effects. (a... section is for two-generation reproduction testing and is designed to provide general...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9380 - TSCA reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TSCA reproduction and fertility... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9380 TSCA reproduction and fertility effects. (a... section is for two-generation reproduction testing and is designed to provide general...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9380 - TSCA reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA reproduction and fertility... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9380 TSCA reproduction and fertility effects. (a... section is for two-generation reproduction testing and is designed to provide general...

  14. 40 CFR 798.4700 - Reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reproduction and fertility effects....4700 Reproduction and fertility effects. (a) Purpose. This guideline for two-generation reproduction... during the study or whether animals survived to termination. (iv) Toxic or other effects on...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9380 - TSCA reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA reproduction and fertility... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9380 TSCA reproduction and fertility effects. (a... section is for two-generation reproduction testing and is designed to provide general...

  16. 40 CFR 798.4700 - Reproduction and fertility effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reproduction and fertility effects....4700 Reproduction and fertility effects. (a) Purpose. This guideline for two-generation reproduction... during the study or whether animals survived to termination. (iv) Toxic or other effects on...

  17. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  18. Fertilization in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T

    2012-08-31

    For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization.

  19. Familial orthostatic tremor and essential tremor in two young brothers: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Das, D

    2013-04-01

    Orthostatic tremor (OT), is usually a disease of old age and is characterized by quivering movements of the legs during quiet standing or in the state of isometric contraction in the lower limbs. This is relieved on walking or on lying down. It is diagnosed by surface electromyography, particularly over the quadriceps femoris muscles which shows a distinctive frequency of 13 to 18 Hz on standing. Some investigators consider it as a variant of essential tremor (ET) and the two conditions often co-exist. The disease is usually non-familial. Two brothers presented with tremor in the lower limbs on standing and on the outstretched hands without any family history. Subsequently, they were proved to be suffering from OT and ET by clinical examination and surface EMG. Simultaneous occurrence of OT and ET in two young brothers without any family history in the previous generation has not been described before and they also appeared at a much earlier age than what is described in the literature.

  20. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  1. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  2. Special Review of Smart Start Expenditures by Save Our Brothers, Inc. (Pittsboro, North Carolina) and Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ (Moncure, North Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Office of the State Auditor, Raleigh.

    This report of the Office of the State Auditor in North Carolina details audit findings regarding allegations of misuse of Smart Start funds by Save Our Brothers, Inc. and the Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ. Save Our Brothers, Inc., a nonprofit agency, received two contracts totaling $46,327 from the Chatham County Partnership for Children…

  3. Are stepfathers' education levels associated with the intelligence of their stepsons? A register-based study of Norwegian half-brothers.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    We examined the relationship between the parents' education levels and the adult intelligence of their children in a population-based, nationwide sample of Norwegian half-brothers with different fathers (2,016 pairs of half-brothers). In a family where the mother has two children with different men, the firstborn child usually lives with the younger child's father during a period of their childhood. This makes it possible to study the non-genetic effects of paternal education on children's development. Results showed that the education level of the younger half-brother's father was positively associated with the intelligence score of the older half-brother. The education level of the older half-brother's father was not associated with the intelligence score of the younger half-brother. Firstborn men whose half-brothers' fathers had high levels of education had intelligence scores that were 33% (95% confidence interval: 18-47%) of a standard deviation higher than those of firstborn men whose half-brothers' fathers had low levels of education, after adjustment for the biological fathers' education levels, mothers' education levels, and other background factors. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that a child's family environment exerts an effect on the cognitive abilities of the child that lasts into adulthood.

  4. Fertility Treatments for Females

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  5. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  6. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  7. First Submersible Dives on Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc, Offshore New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Ishibashi, J.; Embley, R. W.; Lupton, J. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Yamanaka, T.; Evans, L. J.; Takai, K.

    2005-12-01

    Previous NZAPLUME and other cruises between 1999 and 2004 established that at least three major hydrothermal sites occur at Brothers; the NW caldera and cone sites are actively venting while the SE caldera site is extinct. In October 2004, the submersible Shinkai 6500 did 4 dives on Brothers as part of the SWEEP Vents expedition, the first dives anywhere along the 2,500 Kermadec-Tonga arc. Between April and May, 2005, an additional 5 dives were made at Brothers using the HURL submersible Pisces V as part of a New Zealand and NOAA co-sponsored expedition. In total, 6 dives have been done at the NW caldera site and 3 at the cone site. The NW caldera site is host to a significant sulfide deposit. It mainly crops out along a zone of discrete, narrow, fault bounded ledges between ~1600 and 1680 m, over strike lengths up to ~500 m. Locally, bands of active and extinct black smoker chimneys up to 7 m tall occur in this zone and strike orthogonal to the caldera walls, indicative of cross structures. Abundant sulfide talus and subcropping massive sulfides also occur at this site. The submersible dives recorded extensive alteration of the caldera walls and sampled individual chimneys, Fe-oxide crusts, and altered rocks. The cone site is hosted by ash and talus and is dominated near its summit by extensive deposition of elemental S and Fe-oxide crusts. No sulfides have been recovered from this site. Preliminary vent fluids results are from samples collected by the Shinkai 6500. They show two very different hydrothermal fluids. Those from the NW caldera site have temperatures up to 302°C, pH down to 2.8, low Mg and SO4 values, Cl between 510 and 760 mM, elevated Si and increasing Fe and Mn values with increasing Cl concentrations, consistent with a Cl-enriched endmember. By contrast, vent fluids from the cone site are gas-rich (up to 220 mM total gas), have temperatures <70°C, pH down to 1.9, Mg values near seawater concentrations and higher, Cl <550 mM and low levels of Si

  8. A Critical Study of the Effectiveness of the Seven Christian Brothers' College Art Departments in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Giles

    The effectiveness of the seven Christian Brothers' college art departments in the United States was studied. Attention was directed to: programs being offered in the arts, the effectiveness of these programs, approaches to upgrade weak programs, trends in the number of art majors during 1978-1983, and trends in the number of students registered in…

  9. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  10. High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Kauh, Tina J.; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; McMaken, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age…

  11. My Brother's Keeper: How Commerce Has Created Pathways to Success in the Workforce for Our Nation's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2017

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, President Obama launched the My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative to address persistent opportunity gaps faced by boys and young men of color and to ensure that all young people can reach their full potential. Through this initiative, the Administration has partnered with cities, towns, businesses, and foundations to connect young people…

  12. Russia: despite legislative and procedural barriers, HIV-positive woman fights for custody of ten-year-old brother.

    PubMed

    Utyasheva, Leah

    2009-12-01

    Svetlana Izambaeva, a well-known HIV-activist and educator in Russia, is seeking to obtain custody of her ten-year-old brother, Sasha. After their mother died, regional official refused Izambaeva custody because of her HIV-positive status. Consequently, the local child custody agency (organ opeki) decided to give Sasha to a foster family.

  13. The Critical Importance of Technology Integration in the Business School Curriculum: How Christian Brothers University is Meeting This Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, James S.

    This paper details the importance of a successful implementation of technology into the business school curriculum and the Christian Brothers University's (CBU) (Tennessee) approach to such integration. The technology awareness of students and technology planning with regard to facilities, and curriculum are outlined. An overview of the following…

  14. The Prophet of Revealed Knowledge: Richard Brother, the Prince of the Hebrews and Nephew of the Almighty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Jon F.; Stroud, Scott R.

    Seeking the answers as to what makes one speaker more charismatic than another and why some speeches are merely effective while others move audiences to a transcendent state is a difficult task. This paper follows up on this challenge and seeks to provide some answers as to how the prophetic works of Richard Brothers moved his followers to a…

  15. Growth and Education: A Strategic Report to the Rockefeller Brothers Fund on the Implications of Growth Policy for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelman, Lewis J.; Berquist, William, H.

    This document attempts to identify for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund how it may best invest its resources in postsecondary education to facilitate transformation to an equilibrium state. As the work of the project developed, it was found that the issue of "limits to growth and higher education" had two facets: (1) what role can the postsecondary…

  16. [Preliminary study on N, P, K fertilizer to control of root rot of Bupleurum chinense].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zai-biao; Liang, Zong-suo; Wei, Xin-rong; Shu, Zhi-ming; Wang, Wei-ling

    2006-10-01

    The application of N and K fertillizer could improve the sensibility of Bupleurvum chinense DC. to Root Rot, while large application of P fertilizer could decrase the sensibility. The fertilizer measure which could obtain highest yield but could not increase its disease resistense. To protect Bupleurum chinense against root rot, more phosphorous fertilizer, certain nitrogen and potassium ferilizer should be applied in early elongation stage in the second growing year.

  17. Fertilizer nitrogen isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D

    2007-09-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the potential application of nitrogen isotope analysis in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops. A prerequisite of this approach is that there is a difference in the nitrogen isotope compositions of the fertilizers used in organic and conventional agriculture. We report new measurements of delta15N values for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and present a compilation of the new data with existing literature nitrogen isotope data. Nitrogen isotope values for fertilizers that may be permitted in organic cultivation systems are also reported (manures, composts, bloodmeal, bonemeal, hoof and horn, fishmeal and seaweed based fertilizers). The delta15N values of the synthetic fertilizers in the compiled dataset fall within a narrow range close to 0 per thousand with 80% of samples lying between-2 and 2 per thousand and 98.5% of the data having delta15N values of less than 4 per thousand (mean=0.2 per thousand n=153). The fertilizers that may be permitted in organic systems have a higher mean delta15N value of 8.5 per thousand and exhibit a broader range in delta15N values from 0.6 to 36.7 per thousand (n=83). The possible application of the nitrogen isotope approach in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops is discussed in light of the fertilizer data presented here and with regard to other factors that are also important in determining crop nitrogen isotope values.

  18. Exon 44 nonsense mutation in two-Duchenne muscular dystrophy brothers detected by heteroduplex analysis.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartolo, C; Mendell, J R

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a heteroduplex method, we screened the dystrophin exon 43-45 region for point mutations, including small deletions and insertions. The method depends upon the formation of a heteroduplex between wild-type and mutant DNA PCR products. DNA specimens from one hundred and four DMD patients without detected deletions or duplications were multiplexed amplified for exons 43, 44, and 45. The PCR products were mixed with the PCR products from nonaffected controls, electrophoresed, and examined for the presence of altered mobility heteroduplex bands. An exon 44 nonsense mutation in two DMD brothers and a common intron 44 polymorphism were identified using this approach. Although the exon 44-45 region is a hotspot for deletion breakpoints, it does not appear to be prone to point mutations. The technique is extremely useful for screening several exons simultaneously and it allowed us to screen a large number of patients.

  19. [The brothers of Jumiege--the peripheral nervous system in early French mythology].

    PubMed

    Brean, Are

    2002-03-20

    This article reviews the process of discovery of the nervous system from Pythagoras (570-500 BC) to Galen (130-201 AD). After Galen, no anatomical studies were performed before the renaissance. According to a legend, probably produced for political reasons, two brothers, sons of the French king Clovis II, revolted against their father and were sentenced to loose their physical powers by having the nerves of their arms and legs cut. They were then set adrift on the river Seine, stranding at the Jumiège monastery. The earliest written version of this legend stems from the fourteenth century; it was probably a part of the local French mythology. This indicates that the existence of the peripheral nervous system, and therefore also in part the knowledge contained in the early anatomical works, quite early may have been more or less known outside academic circles.

  20. [1896: How nascent radiotherapy gathered Roentgen, Pasteur and the Lumière brothers].

    PubMed

    Foray, N

    2016-12-01

    On the 4th July, 1896, in his medical office of Les Échelles (Savoie, France), Victor Despeignes performed the very first radiotherapy against cancer, documented by indisputable proofs. However, the intellectual and practical approach that leads to this first radiotherapy may appear unexpected to date. Indeed, it is likely that the treatment that Despeignes applied to his neighbour, who did not suffer from stomach cancer, was born with the indirect support of the Lumière brothers, on the basis of a biological theory (the parasitory theory of cancer) that is irrelevant today, with an experimental protocol based on experiments performed on tuberculosis et in a bifractionated model linked by the constraints of a district medical doctor.

  1. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leijer, Gert JM; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related behavioral disturbances. PMID:22570549

  2. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  3. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  4. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... heavy alcohol consumption (> 2 drinks per day), heavy caffeine consumption, and the use of recreational drugs such as marijuana have all been associated with reduced fertility. Therefore, women (and ... alcohol and caffeine use, and avoid smoking and all recreational drugs ...

  5. Cross-cousin marriage among the Yanomamö shows evidence of parent–offspring conflict and mate competition between brothers

    PubMed Central

    Chagnon, Napoleon A.; Lynch, Robert F.; Shenk, Mary K.; Hames, Raymond; Flinn, Mark V.

    2017-01-01

    Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins—marriage with the child of a parent’s opposite-sex sibling—but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do. Therefore, individuals seem to benefit when their children or opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but suffer costs when they, their parents, or same-sex siblings do. These asymmetric fitness outcomes suggest conflicts between parents and offspring and among siblings over optimal mating strategies. Parental control of marriages is reinforced by cultural norms prescribing cross-cousin marriage. We posit that local mate competition combined with parental control over marriages may escalate conflict between same-sex siblings who compete over mates, while simultaneously forging alliances between opposite-sex siblings. If these relationships are carried forward to subsequent generations, they may drive bilateral cross-cousin marriage rules. This study provides insights into the evolutionary importance of how kinship and reciprocity underlie conflicts over who controls mate choice and the origins of cross-cousin marriage prescriptions. PMID:28289230

  6. Novel PIGT Variant in Two Brothers: Expansion of the Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia Seizures Syndrome 3 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Skauli, Nadia; Wallace, Sean; Chiang, Samuel C. C.; Barøy, Tuva; Holmgren, Asbjørn; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Strømme, Petter; Frengen, Eirik; Misceo, Doriana

    2016-01-01

    Biallelic PIGT variants were previously reported in seven patients from three families with Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia Seizures Syndrome 3 (MCAHS3), characterized by epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and skeletal, ophthalmological, cardiac, and genitourinary abnormalities. We report a novel homozygous PIGT missense variant c.1079G>T (p.Gly360Val) in two brothers with several of the typical features of MCAHS3, but in addition, pyramidal tract neurological signs. Notably, they are the first patients with MCAHS3 without skeletal, cardiac, or genitourinary anomalies. PIGT encodes a crucial subunit of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase complex, which catalyzes the attachment of proteins to GPI-anchors, attaching the proteins to the cell membrane. In vitro studies in cells from the two brothers showed reduced levels of GPI-anchors and GPI-anchored proteins on the cell surface, supporting the pathogenicity of the novel PIGT variant. PMID:27916860

  7. Trust and Fertility Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Billari, Francesco C.; Pessin, Léa

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in women’s educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals’ and couples’ willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as women’s increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009. Multilevel statistical analyses reveal that the interaction between national-level generalized trust and cohort-level women’s education is positively associated with completed fertility. As education among women expands, high levels of generalized trust moderate fertility decline. PMID:28003707

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Mathis Brothers Landfill (South Marble Top Road), Walker County, GA, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This decision document (Record of Decision) presents the selected remedial action for the Mathis Brothers - South Marble Top Road Landfill site, Walker County, Georgia. At this time the remedial action is proposed as both the first, and the final remedial action for the site. The function of this remedy is to treat contamination and reduce it to health based levels. Source material and contaminated soils are the principal threat at the site.

  9. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  10. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  11. Declining fertility in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Das Dangol, B; Retherford, R D; Thapa, S

    1997-03-01

    This article relies on data from the 1991 Nepal Fertility, Family Planning, and Health Survey (NFFPHS) and the 1996 Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS) to assess trends in fertility in Nepal. The NFFPHS shows heaping at ages 5, 8, 10, and 12 years and a larger proportion of infants. The NLSS shows a different pattern of misreporting of youth and a stronger but similar pattern of age heaping as the NFFPHS for adults. Children ever born by maternal age indicates a degree of completeness and the deletion by older women of deceased children and married children living outside the household. Findings suggest less complete reporting in the NLSS. Age-specific fertility rates are calculated based on birth histories (BH) and the own-children (OC) method based on life tables. Findings indicate that BH and OC estimates of the cumulative fertility rate (CFR) derived from the NLSS and the NFFPHS were comparable for estimating trends in the total fertility rate (TFR). The trends from the two data sets overlapped fairly well during 1983-89. Fertility trends by single years of age showed considerably annual fluctuations due to age misreporting. The CFR and TFR for aggregated time periods showed little or no decline for the earlier 5-year period, a steeper decline in the second period, and variations in trends by data set for the third period from 1983 to 1989. One curve showed no decline and the other showed fertility decline. Fitting a straight line to the trend for 1977-91 shows that CFR declined by 1.61 children from 5.29 children in 1977 to 3.68 children in 1991. TFR declined by 1.90 children from 6.68 children in 1977 to 4.78 children in 1991. The author cautions that the point of fertility decline was not determined exactly, but data suggest that decline occurred around 1980, and the rate was fast thereafter. TFR declined by 2.70 children in urban areas and 1.83 children in rural areas.

  12. Kisspeptin and fertility.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Saira; Jayasena, Channa N; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2011-02-01

    The kisspeptins are a family of peptide hormones, which in recent years have been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus in turn influencing fertility and reproduction. This review examines the physiological role of kisspeptin and the kisspeptin receptor in the control of gonadotrophin and gonadal steroid hormone secretion and the implications of these findings with respect to fertility. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of kisspeptin in the treatment of reproductive disorders will be examined.

  13. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    on-line advertising rm DoubleClick and consumer data company Abacus Direct was \\the most danger- ous assault against anonymity on the Internet since...registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...Brother, Big `Fun’ at Amazon", Wired News, Aug. 25, 1999. www.wired.com/news/news/ business /story/21417.html [18] David Mazieres and M. Frans Kaashoek. \\The

  14. Two brothers' alleged paternity for a child: who is the father?

    PubMed

    Dogan, Muhammed; Kara, Umut; Emre, Ramazan; Fung, Wing Kam; Canturk, Kemal Murat

    2015-06-01

    In paternity cases where individuals are close relatives, it may be necessary to evaluate mother's DNA profile (trio test) and to increase the number of polymorphic STR loci that are analyzed. In our case, two alleged fathers who are brothers and the child (duo case) were analyzed based on 20 STR loci; however, no exclusions could be achieved. Then trio test (with mother) was performed using the Identifiler Plus kit (Applied Biosystems) and no exclusions could be achieved again. Analysis performed with the ESS Plex Plus kit (Qiagen), the paternity of one of the two alleged fathers was rejected only on 2 STR loci. We made the calculations of power of exclusion values to interpret our results more properly. The probability of exclusion (PE) is calculated as 0.9776546 in 15 loci of Identifiler Plus kit without mother. The PE is calculated as 0.9942803, if 5 additional loci from ESS Plex Plus kit are typed. The PE becomes 0.9961048 for the Identifiler Plus kit in trio analysis. If both Identifiler Plus and ESS Plex Plus kits are used for testing, the PE is calculated as 0.999431654, which indicates that the combined kits are highly discriminating.

  15. Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) suppresses apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Mengdie; Song, Yongfei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-01-01

    Identifying oncogenes that promote cancer cell proliferation or survival is critical for treatment of colorectal cancer. The Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) is frequently expressed in most types of cancer, but rarely in normal tissues. Aberrantly expressed BORIS relates to colorectal cancer, but its function in colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. In addition, previous studies indicated the significance of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in cancer cells. However, none of them investigated its function. Herein, we investigated the functions of BORIS in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and the role of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in colorectal cancer. BORIS expression correlated with colorectal cancer proliferation. BORIS overexpression promoted colorectal cancer cell growth, whereas BORIS knockdown suppressed cell proliferation. Sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was inversely correlated with BORIS expression. These data suggest that BORIS functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer. BORIS silencing induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis, whereas BORIS supplementation inhibited apoptosis induced by BORIS short interfering RNA (siRNA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 5-FU. Introduction of BORIS-ZFdel showed that cytoplasmic localization of BORIS inhibited apoptosis but not ROS production. Our study highlights the anti-apoptotic function of BORIS in colorectal cancer. PMID:28098226

  16. Non-autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism due to a mutation in TSH receptor: report on two brothers.

    PubMed

    Cerbone, Manuela; Agretti, Patrizia; De Marco, Giuseppina; Improda, Nicola; Pignata, Claudio; Santamaria, Francesca; Tonacchera, Massimo; Salerno, Mariacarolina

    2013-01-19

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is a condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The main cause is represented by autoimmune thyroiditis, but mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in TSH pathway are thought to be responsible for SH, particularly in cases arising in familial settings. Patients with the syndrome of TSH unresponsiveness may have compensated or overt hypothyroidism with a wide spectrum of clinical and morphological alterations depending on the degree of impairment of TSH-receptor (TSH-R) function. We describe the case of two brothers with non autoimmune SH carrying the same heterozygous mutation in the extracellular domain of TSH-R and presenting with different clinical, biochemical and morphological features. The first one had only a slight persistent elevation of TSH, a normal thyroid ultrasound and did never require l- thyroxine (L-T4) replacement treatment. The second one had a neonatal persistent moderate TSH levels increase associated with a thyroid gland hypoplasia and was treated with L-T4 since the first months of life.These two cases support the recent association of TSH-R mutations inheritance as an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and suggest that the decision to start replacement therapy in patients with persistent SH due to TSH resistance should be individualized.

  17. Vitamin D intoxication in two brothers: be careful with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Conti, Giovanni; Chirico, Valeria; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Silipigni, Lorena; Fede, Claudia; Vitale, Agata; Fede, Carmelo

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) intoxication, a well-known cause of hypercalcaemia in children, has renal, cardiac and neurological consequences. Iatrogenic or accidental administrations are the most common causes. We present two cases of hypervitaminosis D due to over-the-counter VitD supplement self-medication. A 12-year-old boy was hospitalised for abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Routine biochemistry indicated severe hypercalcaemia and renal failure. Plasma 25-OH VitD level was very high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound showed nephrolithiasis. Hydration, diuretics and prednisone induced a progressive reduction of calcium levels. His brother, who was receiving the same treatment, was hospitalised although asymptomatic. Normal serum calcium and renal function were revealed, while 25-OH VitD was high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound was within the normal range. Examination of the VitD content of the over-the-counter supplement revealed a higher amount than declared. VitD administration implies several risks and must be prescribed only when needed and under strict medical control.

  18. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in twin brothers: an unusual occurrence with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Anchlia, Sonal; Vyas, Siddharth; Bahl, Sumit; Nagavadiya, Vipul

    2015-08-21

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is caused by genetic alteration produced by a mutation in the 'patched' tumour suppressor gene, and is inherited in a dominant autosomal way. Although sporadic cases have been found, this syndrome has rarely been reported in twin patients. The syndrome is characterised by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and has a predisposition to neoplasms such as multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas and keratocysts in jaws; it also has other features such as palmar and/or plantar pits and calcification of falx cerebri. Owing to the critical oral and maxillofacial manifestations of this syndrome, it is important to recognise its characteristics in order to make a diagnosis, and to plot early preventive treatment and establish the right genetic evidence. Based on a combination of imaging, clinical and histopathological findings, we present a diagnosed case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in 18-year-old twin brothers. All cystic lesions were enucleated and 1 year follow-up showed no recurrence.

  19. Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & Sisters.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2014-12-01

    The TV series, Brothers & Sisters, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series.

  20. Super Mario brothers and sisters: Associations between coplaying video games and sibling conflict and affection.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Jensen, Alexander C; Smith, Nathan J; Erickson, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Video games can be played in many different contexts. This study examined associations between coplaying video games between siblings and levels of affection and conflict in the relationship. Participants were 508 adolescents (M age = 16.31 years of age, SD = 1.08) who completed questionnaires on video game use and sibling relationships. Participants were recruited from a large Northwestern city and a moderate city in the Mountain West of the United States. Video games played between siblings were coded by an independent sample to assess levels of physical aggression and prosocial behavior in each game. Playing video games with a sibling was associated with higher levels of sibling affection for both boys and girls, but higher levels of conflict for boys only. Playing a violent video game with a brother was associated with lower levels of conflict in the sibling relationship, whereas playing a prosocial video game was not related to any sibling outcome. The value of video games in sibling relationships will be discussed, with a focus on the type of game and the sex of the adolescent.

  1. Reconstructing the Brothers Grimm: new tales for step-family life.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A C

    1999-01-01

    Step-families are situated within the sociopolitical context of family change and are examined as a prototype of the "post-modern" family. This essay looks at the cultural construction of step-family life and proposes a model for collaboratively reconstructing stories that liberate step-relationships from the legacy of the Brothers Grimm, deconstructing the stories of failure, insufficiency, and neglect. Building on narrative and social constructionist ways of thinking about families, the concept of side-shadowing (a hermeneutic approach from literary/historical criticism) is introduced to elucidate how therapists can help family members discover ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are both more personally satisfying and more congruent with the changed context of family life. Two therapeutic challenges are high-lighted: reconceptualizing what it means to be a step-family and coming to terms with differential attachment in relationships while working with step-families. The essay ends with a fairy tale for the 21st century.

  2. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  3. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  4. Genetics, genomics and fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to enhance the sustainability of dairy businesses, new management tools are needed to increase the fertility of dairy cattle. Genomic selection has been successfully used by AI studs to screen potential sires and significantly decrease the generation interval of bulls. Buoyed by the success...

  5. Nutrition and fertility.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  6. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  7. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  8. Dune Grass Fertilization and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    plants often suffer, thereafter, from neglect. PURPOSE: To recommend a fertilization and maintenance program to sustain healthy dune grasses in coastal...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1982 to 00-00-1982 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dune Grass Fertilization and Maintenance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...TO APPLY: Apply a granular or pelletized agricultural type fertilizer . It need not be a costly, slow- release material. A.t\\!OUNT OF FERTILIZER TO

  9. Fertility and the family.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1991-09-01

    The developed countries of Asia include Japan and the newly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. These 5 societies share various similarities that have helped in their socioeconomic development. The 1st includes a significant and quite rapid socioeconomic development (per capita gross national product, urbanization, demographic transition, educational attainment, and industrialization). The 2nd similarity is the extremely high levels of education. Indeed those 5 societies boast the most highly educated populations in Asia. 3rd, they have achieved below replacement fertility. In fact, they never really had very high birth rates anyhow. 4th, extended families are the norm despite rapid transformation of their societies. Confucianism, the 5th similarity, advocates multigenerational families. Children understand that it is their duty to always take care of their parents. Parents know that they have a right to ask for their children's help at any time. In 1981, a demographer hypothesized that 1 of the leading signs of fertility decline is the nucleation of the family. yet in these 5 societies nucleation did not appear before fertility decline. In fact, in Japan, fertility is higher in those homes where the grandmother watches her grandchildren while the daughter or daughter-in-law is at work. Some have compared the role of Confucianism in socioeconomic development with that of Protestantism in the industrialization of Europe. Both stress hard work, simplicity, frugality, discipline, and regularity in daily life. Yet Confucianism sees women as bearers of children and servants to men. Women in these societies protest this mindset by postponing marriage and having few children. If these societies wish to increase fertility, they need to restructure their male oriented societies.

  10. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  11. Major Fertilizer Producer Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC to Ensure Proper Handling, Storage and Disposal of 60 Billion Pounds of Hazardous Waste / Manufacturer committing close to $2 billion in funding to address environmental impacts from fertilizer production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC that will ensure the proper treatment, storage, and disposal of an estimated 60 bill

  12. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms.

  13. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  14. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L; Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium-induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all, of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, and rendezvin. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs decreased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, but different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation for cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis, and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species-sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxons in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization.

  15. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  16. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  17. Memoir of fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    Fertility preservation has been practiced for at least 50 years using semen banking, pelvic surgery, and radiation shields, but in the past 20 years it has emerged as a rapidly growing subspecialty of reproductive medicine. A dramatic rise in survivorship of young cancer patients and the widespread postponement of family building to the later years of the female reproductive lifespan have been major driving forces. Throughout the history of fertility preservation, low temperature banking has played a pivotal role, first for gametes and later for embryos and immature germ cells, while ovarian transplantation recently began to contribute and spermatogonial stem cell transfer holds future promise for men and prepubertal boys. But there are significant risks with some diseases from reimplanting residual disease, which hopefully can be eliminated by new methods for purging the tissue and germ cell culture. Since all technologies are interim, cryopreservation as a mainstay in this field will likely be swept aside eventually by a stream of progress aimed at managing fertility preservation in vivo.

  18. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  19. How well are lesbians treated in UK fertility clinics?

    PubMed

    Priddle, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Legislation regulating fertility treatment in the United Kingdom originally discouraged treatment without a father, resulting in many clinics denying access to lesbian couples. Lesbians now enjoy rights to legal union, dual parenthood and protection against discrimination. Consequently, increasing numbers seek fertility treatment. This is a growing stakeholder group, but it is unknown whether UK licensed centres are serving them adequately. Data from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority suggests live birth rates after in vitro fertilisation for lesbians is comparable to estimates for natural attempt at pregnancy for heterosexuals, whereas success rates with donor insemination are lower. Unsurprisingly, live birth rates for lesbians after in vitro fertilisation are higher compared with heterosexual couples (the latter attending with fertility issues). However, outcomes for lesbians after donor insemination are slightly lower, potentially due to increased female age. Rather than adopting a one-heterosexual-size-fits-all approach, lesbian couples may benefit from new treatment pathways. They also have a different experience of fertility treatment, some reporting a wish to be presumed fertile rather than medicalised, and others encountering heterosexism by fertility professionals. Additionally, some lesbians with known fertility issues have needed to resort to legal action to obtain the publicly funded treatment they are entitled to.

  20. Plant-microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, Anthony O; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2009-11-01

    The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components of such management systems. This review is a critical summary of the efforts in using microbial inoculants, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for increasing the use efficiency of fertilizers. Studies with microbial inoculants and nutrients have demonstrated that some inoculants can improve plant uptake of nutrients and thereby increase the use efficiency of applied chemical fertilizers and manures. These proofs of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  1. Severe hypertelorism, midface prominence, prominent/simple ears, severe myopia, borderline intelligence, and bone fragility in two brothers: new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Hamamy, Hanan A; Teebi, Ahmad S; Oudjhane, Kamaldine; Shegem, N N; Ajlouni, K M

    2007-02-01

    We report on two brothers, born to double first cousin Jordanian Arab parents, with a syndrome comprising severe hypertelorism with upslanted palpebral fissures, brachycephaly, abnormal ears, sloping shoulders, enamel hypoplasia, and osteopenia with repeated fractures. Both have severe myopia, mild to moderate sensori-neural hearing loss and borderline intelligence. Results of chromosome analysis were normal as was a FISH assay for subtelomeric rearrangements. The father has mild hypertelorism but the family history is otherwise unremarkable. We think that this represents a previously unrecognized autosomal or X-linked recessive syndrome.

  2. Familial vasculitides: granulomatosis with polyangitis and microscopic polyangitis in two brothers with differing anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody specificity

    PubMed Central

    Prendecki, Maria; Cairns, Tom; Pusey, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare autoimmune diseases. Although the aetiology of AAV is uncertain, it is likely that genetic and environmental factors contribute. We report the unusual case of two brothers presenting with AAV with differing clinical pictures and differing ANCA specificity. There is a recently identified difference in genetic risk factors associated with ANCA specificity, making it surprising that first-degree relatives develop AAV with differing clinical and serological features. Our report illustrates the complex aetiology of AAV and suggests that further research on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors is needed. PMID:27274829

  3. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  4. HLA and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.

    1995-11-01

    The recent paper by Jin et al., reporting that class 11 region major histocompatibility complex genes may influence embryonic loss in outbred couples supports previous results of our studies of HLA and fertility in the Hutterites. However, the authors have incorrectly cited our work and have omitted the reference that is most relevant to their results. The paper by Kostyu et al. is incorrectly referred to in the introduction as providing evidence for HLA sharing being associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion. The Kostyu et al. paper does not include any data on fertility or reproduction but reports frequencies of individuals who are homozygous at the HLA-A, -C, -B, -DR, and -DQ loci in the Hutterite population. In fact, recurrent spontaneous abortion has not been observed in any of the couples in our sample of >500 Hutterite couples. References more appropriate to the association between HLA sharing and recurrent miscarriage are those by Komlos et al., Schacter et al., Gerencer and Kastelan, and Beer et al. It might also be worth pointing out that many studies of recurrent miscarriage in outbred couples have not found an association with HLA sharing; examples include the studies of Ergolu et al., Oksenberg et al., and Christiansen et al., among others. 11 refs.

  5. Income, education, and fertility.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A study based on data from the National Impact Survey (1968-69) delineates the impact of family planning programs on the demography of Pakistan. Son preference was found to be a strong factor in deciding the desire for an additional child. Raising the status of women would decrease the fertility rate. In the rural areas higher income had a positive effect on fertility; in the urban areas it had a negative effect. Policies explicitly directed at actual distribution of income would have a positive effect. The educational level of the family, especially the wife, was related to lower family size. Families with at least one child in school had a lower completed family size. Couples who married later in life did not tend to have smaller families but smaller intervals between births. Rural nuclear families have more children than non-nuclear families or kinship groups, presumably because they need children for labor and old age security. Incentives and disincentives to motivate couples to limit family size should be offered by the Pakistan government.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  7. Internal fertilization in an oviparous frog.

    PubMed

    Townsend, D S; Stewart, M M; Pough, F H; Brussard, P F

    1981-04-24

    Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.

  8. Reduced Environmental Impact of Fertilizers Using PGPR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of fertilizers is becoming a threat to sustainability in agriculture. Inorganic fertilizer is linked to nitrate contamination of groundwater and phosphorus runoff. Even with organic fertilizers, such as poultry litter, high phosphorus bioavailability, nitrogen accumulation, and leaching may ...

  9. Obesity and fertility.

    PubMed

    Best, Damian; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years. Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples, and female obesity is associated with anovulation. The mechanisms by which excessive fat delays time to pregnancy (TTP) appear rooted in ovulatory problems and direct effects on oocytes, causing poorer embryo development, as well as in effects on the endometrium. Weight loss in women has been shown to improve conception, but not necessarily live birth rates following fertility treatment, and further research in this area is needed. The obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a potential rise in male infertility, which has been attributed to hormonal disturbances and compromised semen parameters.

  10. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  11. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…

  12. Development of Boys and Young Men of Color: Implications of Developmental Science for My Brother's Keeper Initiative. Social Policy Report. Volume 29, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Murry, Velma McBride; Tolan, Patrick; Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Boys and men of color (BMOC) are at significant risks for poor outcomes across multiple domains including education, health, and financial well-being with little promise of improvement in the near future. Out of concern for this situation, President Obama instituted the My Brother's Keeper Initiative (MBKI) to enlist the combined resources of…

  13. Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L.

    1996-01-02

    Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size, although columnar crystals up to 80 μm long have been observed. The tellurides commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. They also are found at the contact between chalcopyrite and pyrite grains. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. One Cu

  15. A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Keala; Wilton, Leo; Wheeler, Darrell; Fogel, Jessica; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study’s findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching African American MSM who may not be accessed by traditional recruitment methods or who are well-integrated in health care systems. PMID:25874753

  16. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

    PubMed Central

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as ‘critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model. PMID:23719567

  17. Determinants of fertility in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J E; Morris, L; Pineda, A; Santiso, R

    1980-01-01

    The 1978 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey for Guatemala provides an opportunity to examine fertility levels and a number of determinants of fertility for three broad segments of the country: the Department of Guatemala and, in the remainder of the country, the Ladino and Indian populations. While Ladinos had a much higher rate of contraceptive use than did Indians, the two groups had similar birth rates. The lack of difference in fertility appears to be due to the pattern of prolonged breastfeeding among Indians and perhaps to differences in the rate of conception due to nutrition, coital frequency, or other factors.

  18. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  19. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  20. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  1. Glucocorticoids, Stress, and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Whirledge, Shannon; Cidlowski, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifications of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids form a key component of the response of an organism to stressful challenges. Increased levels of glucocorticoids promote gluconeogenesis, mobilization of amino acids, and stimulation of fat breakdown to maintain circulating levels of glucose necessary to mount a stress response. In addition to profound changes in the physiology and function of multiple tissues, stress and elevated glucocorticoids can also inhibit reproduction, a logical effect for the survival of self. Precise levels of glucocorticoids are required for proper gonadal function; where the balance is disrupted, so is fertility. Glucocorticoids affect gonadal function at multiple levels in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: 1) the hypothalamus (to decrease the synthesis and release of GnRH); 2) the pituitary gland (to inhibit the synthesis and release of LH and FSH); 3) the testis/ovary (to modulate steroidogenesis and/or gametogenesis directly). Furthermore, maternal exposure to prenatal stress or exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function and stress-related behaviors in offspring. Glucocorticoids are vital to many aspects of normal brain development, but fetal exposure to superabundant glucocorticoids can result in life-long effects on neuroendocrine function. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms believed to mediate glucocorticoid inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place. PMID:20595939

  2. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops.

  3. Global fertility and population trends.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends.

  4. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  5. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  6. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your ... as a laptop, might enhance sperm quality. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things ...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Crop Fertilization and Soil Fertility in the Loess Plateau in China from the 1970s to the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  8. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole.

  9. Improvement of natural pastures using liquid organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Gabedava, Giorgi; Abuladze, Paata

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays natural pastures remains the main source to supply livestock with fresh feed material in Georgia. Due to that common pasturelands are under continues grazing pressure and normally no measures are taken in order to improve pasture productivity and to protect soil from erosion. Unregulated stocking rate leads to overutilization of natural pastures causing reduction in productivity and soil fertility. It is especially evident in arid regions, where bare soil after removal of vegetation dries out and is subject to wind erosion. In many areas even with regulated stocking rate plant available soil nutrient pool is already diminished and vegetation cannot be recovered easily after grazing. Therefore it is essential to improve soil fertility, which provide adequate amount of nutrients to plants to regenerate. Ongoing study aims to compare effect of different types of organic fertilizers on natural pastures in combination with pasture rotation scheme in order to maintain soil fertility and prepare the basis for its gradual improvement. Initial results shows positive impact of liquid organic fertilizers which increased aboveground biomass production by 200-300 kg per hectare.

  10. The economics of fertility.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  11. Courtship rate signals fertility in an externally fertilizing fish

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Laura K.; Grant, James W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Sperm limitation is widespread across many animal species. Several mechanisms of sperm allocation have been proposed, including optimal allocation according to clutch size and equal allocation across females. However, considerably less effort has been directed at investigating the behavioural signals associated with sperm limitation in males, which may include mating rate and the intensity of courtship. We investigated whether multiple successive spawnings affect individual male fertilization success, mating rates and courtship rates in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Across an average of 17 spawning events per male, fertilization success decreased from 83.7 per cent for the first spawning to 40 per cent for the last spawning while courtship rate decreased from 3.4 to 1.5 min−1. Females appeared to respond to male sperm depletion by reducing clutch size. Our results suggest that male Japanese medaka are sperm-limited, and that courtship rate may be an honest indication of fertilization ability. PMID:20410031

  12. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  13. Fertilization and early seed formation.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Christian; Rogowsky, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The double fertilization of flowering plants is a complex process, encompassing multiple steps. From its discovery more than a century ago, many useful descriptive approaches have been employed to better unveil specific steps/mechanisms. More recently, the development of an in vitro assay developed in our laboratory, has allowed a better understanding of this phenomenon. However, in vitro methods may show some limitations. The search for complementary strategies, especially with the search of mutants affected in the fertilization step allowed one to elucidate this critical and unique phenomenon in living organisms. Genes involved in pollen tube guidance or pollen discharge in synergids have been identified, as well as genes exhibiting differential expression in sperm, egg and central cells before and after fertilization. A calcium wave proved to correspond to the first cellular event seen after cytoplasmic fusion in the fertilized egg cell or zygote, which develops into a multi-cellular organism with an elaborate body plan. The development of the fertilized central cell into a nourishing tissue (endosperm) starts with the formation of the coenocyte, a multinuclear single cell unique in the plant kingdom, cellularization occurring later on. The balance of the paternal and maternal genomes, which is under the control of the FIS polycomb group complex, was found to be of the utmost importance for the successful development of the seed.

  14. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients.

  15. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  16. Familial cryptic translocation with deletion 4q33-->4qter and duplication 7q34-->7qter in brothers with mental retardation, macrocephaly and iris coloboma.

    PubMed

    Moog, Ute; Engelen, John J M; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Driessen, Sandra D; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The association of moderate mental retardation, behavioural problems, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features with iris coloboma, and supernumerary nipples was observed in two brothers with a terminal deletion 4q33-->4qter and a terminal duplication 7q34-->7qter. The aberration was detected by subtelomere FISH screening and (probably) resulted from a cryptic familial translocation (4;7)(q33;q34).

  17. Non-marfan idiopathic medionecrosis (cystic medial necrosis) presenting with multiple visceral artery aneurysms and diffuse connective tissue fragility: Two brothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Jun; Tsunemura, Mami; Amano, Shigeko; Tokizawa, Shigemi; Oowada, Susumu; Shinkai, Hiroko; Maehara, Yasunobu; Endo, Keigo

    1997-05-15

    Two brothers with multiple visceral artery aneurysms or dilatations and diffuse connective tissue fragility who did not have clinical features of Marfan syndrome are reported. One presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage during angiography, and idiopathic medionecrosis was proved by resection of the aneurysms. These cases belong to the heterogeneous group of Marfan syndrome. The angiographical features (multiple dilation of visceral arteries) suggests fragility of connective tissue and is predictive of hazards during and after a catheterization and operation.

  18. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View ...

  19. Potential fertility and averted births.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J C

    1981-01-01

    The natural fertility of a group of contraceptive acceptors is the fertility they would have experienced in the absence of any sort of birth control. Their net potential fertility is what their fertility would be in the absence of a defined family planning program. In this work it is assumed that there was no birth control prior to acceptance of contraception in a defined family planning strategy. Thus, reference is to natural potential fertility and to the gross births averted as the difference from the subsequent actual fertility of the group in question, e.g., contraceptive acceptors. A Monte Carlo microsimulation model is used to estimate the selection for natural fecundability that has taken place in a synthetic group of contraceptive acceptors. In this microanalytic simulation, events are represented individually so that parameters may vary between women (or couples) and can be made to depend on their ages or any other variables. The reproductive histories of a cohort of women are simulated from the marriage (at a fixed age of 25 in the present runs) to the end of the reproductive span. Events occur only at intervals of 1 "lunar" month (1/13th year), so all fecundabilities should be multiplied by 13/12 if risks per calendar month are wanted. The natural fecundability p varies between women and declines with age. Each woman's history is simulated through a series of states in turn. Induced abortion, voluntary sterilization, divorce, and death (of the child or the parent) are not represented in the present runs. A formula is derived for the births subsequently averted by contraception. The result is compared with the potential fertility found from further simulation runs, with various desired family sizes, by permitting contraceptive acceptors (limiters) to revert to nonuser status at defined durations of marriage. The distribution of naturally sterile women is also analyzed by their contraceptive status. It is argued that both variations in and selection for

  20. Interstitial deletion 1p36.32 in two brothers with a distinct phenotype--overgrowth, macrocephaly and nearly normal intellectual function.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, N; Klink, B; Hahn, G; Schrock, E; Hackmann, K

    2014-09-01

    We report on two adult patients, who both presented with overgrowth and one of them additionally with macrocephaly while carrying an 1p36 microdeletion of about 2.1 Mb. They are full brothers born to unaffected parents. Although both brothers attended special schools, they lived independently without a legal guardian and were able to succeed in regular jobs. One of the brothers received a professional education. Genetic analysis of the parents revealed neither the microdeletion nor a cryptical translocation or inversion. We suggest that the recurrent deletion is a result of germline mosaicism, a phenomenon reported only once in the context of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome. Our report confirms the recurrence of the apparently de novo 1p36 microdeletion due to a likely germline mosaicism of one of the parents. Furthermore, it illustrates the possibility of the distinct phenotype with a nearly normal intellectual outcome of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome that might be due to the region involved in our patients.

  1. How Will Emerging Aerial Surveillance and Detection Technology Contribute to the Mission of U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Protection and my brothers and sisters from the United States Border Patrol–Honor First ! vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE...provide a framework to recommend which technologies should be the emphasis of CBP procurement. First , research must answer the question, what are...responsibilities along the U.S. border and the ports of entry. Under CBP the three agencies have become one face on the border, serving as the “ first line of

  2. A dictionary without definitions: romanticist science in the production and presentation of the Grimm brothers' German dictionary, 1838-1863.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Between 1838 and 1863 the Grimm brothers led a collaborative research project to create a new kind of dictionary documenting the history of the German language. They imagined the work would present a scientific account of linguistic cohesiveness and strengthen German unity. However, their dictionary volumes (most of which were arranged and written by Jacob Grimm) would be variously criticized for their idiosyncratic character and ultimately seen as a poor, and even prejudicial, piece of scholarship. This paper argues that such criticisms may reflect a misunderstanding of the dictionary. I claim it can be best understood as an artifact of romanticist science and its epistemological privileging of subjective perception coupled with a deeply-held faith in inter-subjective congruence. Thus situated, it is a rare and detailed case of Romantic ideas and ideals applied to the scientific study of social artifacts. Moreover, the dictionary's organization, reception, and legacy provide insights into the changing landscape of scientific practice in Germany, showcasing the difficulties of implementing a romanticist vision of science amidst widening gaps between the public and professionals, generalists and specialists.

  3. Deception and the death of Ilyusha: truth and the best interest of a dying child in The Brothers Karamazov.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clancy

    2014-10-01

    For centuries, many physicians and parents assumed that it was ethically justifiable to lie to a dying child. The reasoning was clear. Because the lie would likely eliminate or prevent a concrete harm (the child's fear), and the lie is about a harm that is unavoidable anyway, a lie appeared to be the morally desirable thing to do. Today, the ethical consensus has shifted. Many doctors and other health professionals now argue that we have an obligation to tell children the cold, hard truth. In this article, I argue that "the cold, hard truth" (assuming we can know it with certainty) might not always be in the best interest of the patient. To illustrate the point, I analyze an episode in Dostoevsky's novel, The Brothers Karamazov, in which a child is dying, his father lies to him about it, and 2 doctors take very different approaches to the truth. Each of these individuals has a particular interest when it comes to the question of "the truth" about the death of Ilyusha. I use this story to ask whether it is ethically permissible to lie to a dying child and, if so, who has the moral authority to tell that lie.

  4. The floral repressor BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) modulates flowering initiation under high salinity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Park, Chung-Mo; Seo, Pil Joon

    2011-09-01

    Floral transition is coordinately regulated by both endogenous and exogenous cues to ensure reproductive success under fluctuating environmental conditions. Abiotic stress conditions, including drought and high salinity, also have considerable influence on this developmental process. However, the signaling components and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of floral transition by environmental factors have not yet been defined. In this work, we show that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) gene, which encodes a member of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) family, regulates floral transition under conditions of high salinity. The BFT gene was transcriptionally induced by high salinity in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Transgenic plants overexpressing the BFT gene (35S:BFT) and BFT-deficient mutant (bft-2) plants were phenotypically indistinguishable from Col-0 plants in seed germination and seedling growth under high salinity. In contrast, although the floral transition was delayed significantly in Col-0 plants under high salinity, that of the bft-2 mutant was not affected by high salinity. We also observed that expression of the APETALA1 (AP1) gene was suppressed to a lesser degree in the bft-2 mutant than in Col-0 plants. Taken together, our observations suggest that BFT mediates salt stress-responsive flowering, providing an adaptive strategy that ensures reproductive success under unfavorable stress conditions.

  5. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  6. The marginal valuation of fertility

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrates that fertility entails economic, physiological, and demographic trade-offs. The existence of trade-offs suggests that fitness should be maximized by an intermediate level of fertility, but this hypothesis has not had much support in the human life-history literature. We suggest that the difficulty of finding intermediate optima may be a function of the way fitness is calculated. Evolutionary analyses of human behavior typically use lifetime reproductive success as their fitness criterion. This fitness measure implicitly assumes that women are indifferent to the timing of reproduction and that they are risk-neutral in their reproductive decision-making. In this paper, we offer an alternative, easily-calculated fitness measure that accounts for differences in reproductive timing and yields clear preferences in the face of risky reproductive decision-making. Using historical demographic data from a genealogically-detailed dataset from 19th century Utah, we show that this measure is highly concave with respect to reproductive effort. This result has three major implications: (1) if births are properly timed, a lower-fertility reproductive strategy can have the same fitness as a high-fertility strategy, (2) intermediate optima are far more likely using fitness measures that are strongly concave with respect to effort, (3) we expect mothers to have strong investment preferences with respect to the risk inherent in reproduction. PMID:24778546

  7. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  8. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271

  9. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals.

  10. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... decide whether a couple should use in vitro fertilization (IVF) to attempt a pregnancy. It is best ... genetic material. Once the sperm enters the egg, fertilization has a good chance of taking place. However, ...

  11. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Neri, Queenie V; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described.

  12. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744

  13. How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney Disease Food Allergies Healthy Aging Fertility and Reproduction Top Articles High-and Moderate-Potassium Foods Kidney ... Reviewed November 2014 Tags Health Pregnancy Fertility and Reproduction For Men Latest Content 1 2 3 4 ...

  14. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  15. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  16. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia

    2016-11-01

    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  17. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  18. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  19. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Cassidy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  20. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  1. Combined fertility and embryotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Lucie; Marsden, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Under normal circumstances, fertility and embryotoxicity studies are run separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guideline for the detection of toxicity to reproduction of medicinal products (1). However, the flexible approach of the S5(R2) guideline also allows the reproduction stages covered in the fertility and embryo-fetal development studies (stages A to D) to be combined into a single study design. The administration period covers the pre-mating and gestation phases through to closure of the hard palate. The principal advantages of the combined study include reductions in the number of animals required and cost. Although the rat is the routine species of choice, the mouse may also be used.

  2. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  3. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  4. Polygamy and fertility in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N E; Elmi, A M

    1989-04-01

    The 1983 Somali Family Health Survey showed that polygamy and monogamy selected women with different social characteristics. Wives in polygamous unions were prone to be younger at first martial cohabitation and to have previous marital disruptions. Since a young age at first cohabitation and number of previous marriages have opposite effects on the cumulative fertility rate of women, the difference in this rate between wives in polygamous and monogamous unions vanished when both factors were controlled in a multivariate analysis.

  5. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  6. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  7. [Fertility will have noticeably fallen].

    PubMed

    N'diaye, S

    1988-09-01

    The Demographic and Health Survey of Senegal carried out in 1986 with the collaboration of Westinghouse and the funding of USAID. Focused on marriage, fertility, family planning, and infant mortality. The data in this survey was compared to that of a survey conducted on fertility in 1978. All women marry before age 35 and 50% have their 1st marriage before the age of 17. A high 89% of women stay married, but 46% are in polygamous marriage (urban and literate women have lower incidence). Most births are legitimate. 5% of 1st births occur before age 15, 31% between 15-17, and urban women have their 1st child between 19-21 years of age. The average number of live births/woman is 3.3, and the synthetic index of fertility calculated for births to women aged 15-44 is 6.4 children, which has dropped from 7.0 in 1978. Contraception is known to 90% of women as opposed to 60% in 1978, and 69% are familiar with a modern method (again urban and educated women aged 20-40 score better). 12% use contraception regularly vs. 4% in 1978, and 75% of nonusers do not intend to use it. The ideal number of children has dropped from 8,8 in 1978 to 7,2. Infant mortality has steadily declined from 120 per thousand in 1971-75 to 96 in 1976-80 to 86 in 1981-85.

  8. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  9. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees. PMID:27764099

  10. Immunization to regulate fertility: biological and cultural frameworks.

    PubMed

    Schrater, A F

    1995-09-01

    Deliberate immunization to control fertility differs from that to control disease. Those differences can be discussed within various frameworks, e.g., intent, recipient population, biological bases, and immunological targets. Others include differing perspectives of developers, providers and users, and rights of the state to impose programs of control. Almost all of the differences are grounded in the social, economic, and gendered aspects of societies. The intent of providing a fertility-regulating vaccine is to prevent pregnancy. In theory, men as well as women could receive such vaccines; in reality, most are designed for women. Traditional vaccines are intended to prevent disease and are generally given to susceptible individuals whether male or female, child or adult. The biological bases of contraceptive vaccines are molecules specific to reproduction. The immune response generated by most anti-fertility vaccines is directed toward 'self', one's own cells and molecules. In contrast, the bases of traditional vaccines are materials derived from non-self, disease-causing microorganisms; the immunological targets are those microorganisms or their toxic products. From a developer perspective vaccines that regulate fertility differ little from those that control disease; both prevent a particular condition. Developers cite these advantages to contraceptive vaccines: non-invasive, no serious side-effects, easy to use, reduced patient failure, and long-lasting but naturally reversible. Because anti-fertility vaccines have been tested only in small-scale clinical trials, information on user reactions and experiences is limited. Not surprisingly, the perspectives of women's health advocates and of potential users (mostly women) often differ markedly from those of developers. Women cite as disadvantages the cryptic nature of immunity which leaves one without an obvious signal for the beginning of protection (against pregnancy) and its decline, and the inability to 'turn

  11. Comparison between high-resolution climate simulations using single- and double-nesting approaches within the Big-Brother experimental protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Dominic; Laprise, René; Thériault, Julie Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Regional climate models (RCM) are widely used to downscale global climate models' (GCMs) simulations. As the resolution of RCM increases faster than that of GCM used for climate-change projections till the end of this century, the resolution jump will become an issue. Cascade with multiple nesting offers an approach to reach high resolution while keeping reasonable computational cost. Few studies have addressed whether the best results are obtained with the single- or multiple-nesting approaches. In this study the results obtained with single and double nesting are compared within the idealised "perfect model" framework of the Big-Brother Experiment. This method consists in first realizing a simulation, nicknamed the Big-Brother (BB) simulation, on a relatively large domain at the desired resolution, to serve as reference dataset. The BB results are then processed by a low-pass filter to emulate a coarse-resolution dataset to be used as LBC to drive further simulations, nicknamed the Little-Brother (LB) simulations, using an identical model formulation and resolution as the BB simulation. For the single nesting, the LB simulations are directly simulated, while for the double nesting a surrogate intermediate-resolution simulation is used. The study of the time-mean (stationary) component shows that little difference is noted between the single- and double-nesting approaches. The time-deviation (transient-eddy) component, however, shows important differences. The double-nesting approach weakly degrades the large scales but allows a significant reduction of the required domain size to allow adequate spin-up of fine-scale features. This results in an important saving in the computational cost.

  12. Fertility rates in women with asthma, eczema, and hay fever: a general population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tata, L J; Hubbard, R B; McKeever, T M; Smith, C J P; Doyle, P; Smeeth, L; West, J; Lewis, S A

    2007-05-01

    The protective association between having older siblings and the risk of subsequent allergic disease may be due to decreased fertility among women with allergic disease. In this study, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with those in the general female population. Computerized primary-care data from the United Kingdom were used to conduct a cohort analysis of 491,516 women. General fertility rates and age-specific fertility rates for 1994-2004 were estimated. Using Poisson regression, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with rates in women without these diagnoses. Fertility rates were 53.0 and 52.3 livebirths per 1,000 person-years in women with and without asthma, respectively. The fertility rate ratio for women with asthma compared with women without asthma was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.04) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Equivalent fertility rate ratios for eczema and hay fever were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.10), respectively. The authors found no evidence that the fertility rates of women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever are lower than those of women in the general population.

  13. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

  14. Bayesian inference of baseline fertility and treatment effects via a crop yield-fertility model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer.

  15. Hispanic Assimilation and Fertility in New Destinations

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Johnson, Kenneth M.; Turner, Richard N.; Churilla, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates comparative patterns of fertility in new Hispanic destinations and established gateways using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2005–2009 microdata files of the American Community Survey. Changing Hispanic fertility provides a useful indicator of cultural incorporation. Analyses show that high fertility among Hispanics has been driven in part by the Mexican-origin and other new immigrant populations (e.g., noncitizens, those with poor English language skills, etc.). However, high fertility rates among Hispanics – and Mexican-origin Hispanics in particular – cannot be explained entirely by socio-demographic characteristics that place them at higher risk of fertility. For 2005–2009, Hispanic fertility rates were 48 percent higher than fertility among whites; they were roughly 25 percent higher after accounting for differences in key social characteristics, such as age, nativity, county of origin, and education. Contrary to most previous findings of spatial assimilation among in-migrants, fertility rates among Hispanics in new destinations exceeded fertility in established gateways by 18 percent. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanics in new destinations were roughly 10 percent more likely to have had a child in the past year than those living in established gateways. Results are consistent with sub-cultural explanations of Hispanic fertility and raise new questions about the spatial patterning of assimilation and the formation of ethnic enclaves outside traditional settlement areas. PMID:23325987

  16. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk.

  17. Renal transplantation from living donor parents in two brothers with Alport syndrome. Can asymptomatic female carriers of the Alport gene be accepted as kidney donors?

    PubMed

    Sessa, A; Pietrucci, A; Carozzi, S; Torri Tarelli, L; Tazzari, S; Giordano, F; Meroni, M; Battini, G; Valente, U; Renieri, A

    1995-01-01

    Renal transplantation from living donor parents was performed in two brothers with end-stage renal failure due to Alport syndrome (AS). Two years later, the patient receiving the kidney graft from the mother, obligate carrier of AS, presented persistent microhematuria and proteinuria with normal renal function. The histological study demonstrated ultrastructural glomerular lesions consistent with AS. The authors conclude that: (1) Alport patients should not be deprived of renal transplantation from living donors, since anti-GBM nephritis is a rare complication; (2) an oligosymptomatic female carrier of the Alport gene may be considered as living renal donor, although a longer follow-up is needed in order to draw definitive conclusions.

  18. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Walczak–Jedrzejowska, Renata; Wolski, Jan Karol

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress results from the imbalance between production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the protective effect of the antioxidant system responsible for their neutralization and removal. An excess of ROS causes a pathological reaction resulting in damage to cells and tissues. Spermatozoa are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of ROS. Oxidative stress affects their activity, damages DNA structure, and accelerates apoptosis, all of which consequently decrease their numbers, hinders motility and development of normal morphology, and impairs function. This leads to disturbances in fertility or embryo development disorder. The main cellular source of ROS in the semen are immature sperm cells and white blood cells. The increase in the number of leukocytes may be due to infection and inflammation, but can also be secondary to harmful environmental factors, long sexual abstinence, or varicocele. The protective antioxidant system in the semen is composed of enzymes, as well as nonenzymatic substances, which closely interact with each other to ensure optimal protection against ROS. Non–enzymatic antioxidants include vitamins A, E, C, and B complex, glutathione, pantothenic acid, coenzyme Q10 and carnitine, and micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, and copper. It seems that a deficiency of any of them can cause a decrease in total antioxidant status. In vitro and in vivo that studies demonstrate many antioxidants possess a beneficial effect on fertility and, therefore, their use is recommended as supportive therapy for the treatment of infertility in men. PMID:24578993

  19. Fertility Potential in Adult Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher Singh; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract characterized by abnormal location of the external urethral meatus over ventral aspect of penis. The ideal time to correct primary hypospadias is when aged 6-12 months. However, in some developing countries, such as ours, this anomaly may be left untreated until adulthood. There are multiple risk factors responsible for development of this anomaly, out of which paternal sub fertility is one of them. As the child grows into adulthood, fertility status becomes an important issue, frequently raised by patients. Aim To evaluate the fertility potential of adult hypospadiac patients and to rule out the effect of age of surgical correction over fertility potential. Materials and Methods Seventy three adult patients of hypospadias were prospectively evaluated, out of which 43 were operated during adulthood. All patients underwent measurement of penile length and circumference in both flaccid and erect positions along with testicular volume, serum LH, FSH and testosterone and semen analysis. A set of questionnaire was given to all the patients which included assessment of erectile function (IIEF-5), ejaculatory function, strength of libido and level of satisfaction after sexual intercourse. Results were compared with an age matched control group of 70 healthy person. Results Out of 73 patients with a mean age of 23.73 years, 14(19.17%) had proximal and rest 59(80.82%) had distal type of hypospadias. Mean penile length in both type of hypospadiac patients under both flaccid and erect conditions (7.92±1.33 and 9.62±1.31cm) were significantly shorter than those of control (10.78±0.94 and 13.15±1.15 cm) (p<0.001). In spite of short penile length, the level of satisfaction of all patients and their partner after penetrating intercourse were comparable to control (p>0.05). The strength of libido (p>0.05) was comparable with control in both type of hypospadiac patients; however IIEF-5 scores was poor in

  20. Fertility regulation in the male

    PubMed Central

    de Kretser, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of research into new methods of male contraception is reviewed, with special emphasis on the efforts of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. The article concentrates mainly on the development of orally administered or injectable substances capable of either (a) interfering with the hormonal control of testicular function, (b) disrupting spermatogenesis by direct influence on testis function, or (c) interfering with the fertilizing ability of the sperm and their transport. It is concluded that, despite the numerous areas of research currently being pursued, the availability of a new male contraceptive remains several years away. PMID:308403

  1. Endogenous fertility, mortality and growth.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, K; Cipriani, G P

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model that illustrates the joint determination of population and development. "Economic and demographic outcomes are determined jointly in a choice-theoretic model of fertility, mortality and capital accumulation.... In addition to choosing savings and births, parents may reduce (infant) deaths by incurring expenditures on health-care which is also provided by the government. A generalised production technology accounts for long-run endogenous growth with short-run transitional dynamics. The analysis yields testable time series and cross-section implications which accord with the empirical evidence on the relationship between demography and development."

  2. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  3. Big Brother Not Needed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Cites the recent United States State Department's labeling of recent Canadian films--one on nuclear war and two on acid rain--as political propaganda as a sign of the need to review the nature of propaganda. Suggests that teaching students to intelligently evaluate propaganda is preferable to submitting to government dictum. (MM)

  4. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm–egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes. PMID:26246493

  5. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  6. The fertility impact of spousal separation.

    PubMed

    Millman, S R; Potter, R G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of spousal separation on marital fertility in a natural fertility context is investigated. REPMOD, a procedure for computer simulation of reproductive processes, is employed. A given length of separation affects fertility more, the less it overlaps with time during which the woman is not at risk of conception. Thus the "efficiency" of separation as a constraint on fertility increases as its duration increases, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea decreases, and fecundability decreases. Effects of spousal separation in actual situations can be estimated using results of these simulations as inputs.

  7. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  8. Winter wheat yield, quality, and nitrogen removal following compost- or manure-fertilized sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To efficiently use N while protecting water quality, one must know how a second-year crop, without further N fertilization, responds in years following a manure application. In an Idaho field study of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), we determined the resi...

  9. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  10. Development of a forecasting tool to guide field management decisions related to fertilizer and manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the timing of fertilizer and manure application is critical to protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While modern nutrient management tools are designed to help farmers with their long-term field management planning, they do not support daily decisions on when and where...

  11. Process improvement for regulatory analyses of custom-blend fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical testing of custom-blend fertilizers is essential to ensure that the products meet the formulation requirements. For purposes of proper crop nutrition and consumer protection, regulatory oversight promotes compliance and particular attention to blending and formulation specifications. Analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products must be performed and reported within a very narrow window in order to be effective. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Biochemistry Laboratory is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and conducts analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products primarily during the spring planting season. Using the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process, the Biochemistry Laboratory has reduced turnaround times from as much as 45 days to as little as 3 days. The LSS methodology focuses on waste reduction through identifying: non-value-added steps, unneeded process reviews, optimization of screening and confirmatory analyses, equipment utilization, nonessential reporting requirements, and inefficient personnel deployment. Eliminating these non-value-added activities helped the laboratory significantly shorten turnaround time and reduce costs. Key improvement elements discovered during the LSS process included: focused sample tracking, equipment redundancy, strategic supply stocking, batch size optimization, critical sample paths, elimination of nonessential QC reviews, and more efficient personnel deployment.

  12. Mexican plants and human fertility.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, P

    1979-07-01

    Synthetic steroids are obtainable cheaply and in abundance from sapogenins, substances originating from plants of the Discorea family. Some 40 years ago, Russell Marker, an American chemist, discovered this source, which grows abundantly in Mexican jungles and is now exploited and cultivated commercially. Today synthetic steroids prepared from extracts from a wide range of vegetable sources are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, inflammatory diseases, sterility, and various heart conditions, and form the basis of modern oral contraceptives. Nevertheless, oral contraceptives in current use are still fairly costly, and women have to be educated in their use. What is needed urgently is a cheaper contraceptive pill with a long-term effect, and research is continuing. For example, scientists from the People's Republic of China have reported significant anti-fertility effects associated with 2 substances, anordin and dinordin, prepared with steroids derived from the sisal plants Agave sisilana and Agave americana. These agents, whose anti-fertility properties have been confirmed by scientists in Sweden and the United States, constitute a new family of contraceptives with the great advantage of having to be taken only once or twice instead of 20 times per month necessary with the ordinary pill. Also from China, scientists have reported the effectiveness of gossypol as an orally administered male contraceptive, although gossypol is not a steroid. It may become, however, a leading candidate for a male contraceptive.

  13. Sexuality and fertility after cancer.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As more people achieve long-term survival after cancer, sexual dysfunction and infertility have increasingly been recognized as negative consequences that impact quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is a frequent long-term side effect of cancer treatment, but damage to different underlying physiological systems is salient in men versus women. Men frequently have erectile dysfunction (ED) related to damage to the autonomic nervous system and/or reduced circulation of blood to the penis. Hormonal impairment of sexual function is less common. Women, in contrast, are able to overcome damage to autonomic nerves if genital tissues remain structurally intact and estrogenized. Female sexual dysfunction is frequently associated with sudden premature ovarian failure or direct effects of radiation fibrosis or scar tissue causing pain with sexual activity. The lack of validated interventions for sexual rehabilitation after cancer is a major problem, as is finding cost-effective ways of providing services. Concerns about fertility are also a major source of distress to people treated for cancer during childhood or young adulthood, yet many young survivors do not recall any discussion about future childbearing potential with their oncology team. Since fertility preservation is becoming more practical for both men and women, producing patient and professional educational materials and developing professional practice guidelines should be high priorities for oncology societies.

  14. Dynamics of maize carbon contribution to soil organic carbon in association with soil type and fertility level.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jiubo; Li, Hui; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Farmer, John; Fu, Shifeng; Wang, Jingkuan

    2015-01-01

    Soil type and fertility level influence straw carbon dynamics in the agroecosystems. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamic processes of straw-derived and soil-derived carbon and the influence of the addition of straw carbon on soil-derived organic carbon in different soils associated with different fertility levels. In this study, we applied the in-situ carborundum tube method and 13C-labeled maize straw (with and without maize straw) at two cropland (Phaeozem and Luvisol soils) experimental sites in northeast China to quantify the dynamics of maize-derived and soil-derived carbon in soils associated with high and low fertility, and to examine how the addition of maize carbon influences soil-derived organic carbon and the interactions of soil type and fertility level with maize-derived and soil-derived carbon. We found that, on average, the contributions of maize-derived carbon to total organic carbon in maize-soil systems during the experimental period were differentiated among low fertility Luvisol (from 62.82% to 42.90), high fertility Luvisol (from 53.15% to 30.00%), low fertility Phaeozem (from 58.69% to 36.29%) and high fertility Phaeozem (from 41.06% to 16.60%). Furthermore, the addition of maize carbon significantly decreased the remaining soil-derived organic carbon in low and high fertility Luvisols and low fertility Phaeozem before two months. However, the increasing differences in soil-derived organic carbon between both soils with and without maize straw after two months suggested that maize-derived carbon was incorporated into soil-derived organic carbon, thereby potentially offsetting the loss of soil-derived organic carbon. These results suggested that Phaeozem and high fertility level soils would fix more maize carbon over time and thus were more beneficial for protecting soil-derived organic carbon from maize carbon decomposition.

  15. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  16. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    PubMed

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  17. [Evaluation of nitrogen loss way in summer maize system under different fertilizer N managements].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Hu, Ke-Lin; Li, Guang-De; Wang, Huan-Yuan

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems under different fertilizer N managements, and to provide some suggestions on optimizing fertilizer management practices. The experiment was carried in high yield production area of Huantai county in Shandong province in 2009. Four kinds of fertilizer N application practices were designed, including CK, farmer practice (FP), optimizing fertilizer application (OPT) and controlled release fertilizer (CRT) for studying the fate of N during the maize growth season in 2009. The water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was used to simulate the dynamics of soil water and N fate. The results indicated that the ratio of nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization accounting of fertilizer N ranged from 6% to 18% and 5% to 34%, and their means were 12.7% and 20.7%, respectively. The amount of N leaching under OPT was 14.5 kg x hm(-2), was the lowest in all treatments. The amount of NH3 volatilization under CRT was 7.6 kg x hm(-2), respectively, was the lowest in all treatments. The order of total N loss under four treatments followed as: FP > OPT > CRF approximately CK. Both OPT and CRT treatments are the best management practices considering their high grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and environmental protection.

  18. Chemical Conversion of Nitrocellulose for Fertilizer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    economical and nonpolluting method of decomposing waste nitrocellulose, and secondly to determine whether a useful product, such as a fertilizer ...A C5 CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF NITROCELLULOSE FOR FERTILIZER September 1976 Approved for public release; distribution unlimit’,d. Food Sciences...research was to develop economical, nonpolluting methods for dec~mposlng waste nitrocellulose and to determiine the most efficient procedure for chemically

  19. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  20. Perennial crop phase effects on soil fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop agricultural management systems that enhance soil fertility and reduce reliance on external inputs. Perennial phases in crop rotations are effective at restoring soil fertility, though little information exists in the northern Great Plains regarding soil-based outcomes re...

  1. The World Fertility Survey: Charting Global Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbourne, Robert, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported in this bulletin are major results from an ongoing study conducted by the World Fertility Survey (WFS) to examine fertility levels and trends and contraceptive use in developing and developed countries. Major results were available by early 1982 from 29 developing countries and 16 developed countries. These results indicated that while…

  2. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  3. Carbon Cost of Applying Nitrogen Fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Mcgill, William B.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    2000-05-05

    When the addition of nitrogen (N) fertilizer leads to increased crop biomass, it also augments carbon (C)inputs to the soil and, hence often increases soil organic matter. Consequently, the efficient use of fertilizer N to increase crop production has also been found valuable for sequestering atmospheric carbon in soil.

  4. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  5. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > NEI for Kids > Protective Eyewear All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  6. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  7. Attitudes about Children and Fertility Limitation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between attitudes and individual behavior is at the core of virtually all demographic theories of fertility. This paper extends our understanding of fertility behavior by exploring how psychic costs of childbearing and contraceptive use, conceptualized as attitudes about children and contraception, are related to the transition from high fertility and little contraceptive use to lower fertility and wide spread contraceptive use. Using data from rural Nepal I examine models of the relationship between multiple, setting-specific attitudes about children and contraception and the hazard of contraceptive use to limit childbearing. Specific attitude measures attempt to capture the relative value of children versus consumer goods, the religiously based value of children, and the acceptability of contraceptive use. Findings demonstrate that multiple measures of women’s attitudes about children and contraception were all independently related to their fertility limitation behavior. PMID:23745013

  8. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    MedlinePlus

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... Many cancer treatments can cause sexual side effects. But you are more likely to have these side effects if ...

  9. Fertilizer Nutrient Leaching and Nutrient Mobility: A Simple Laboratory Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, D. S.; Johnson, G. V.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an exercise developed to demonstrate the degree to which nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers move through different soils. The results support the common practices of broadcasting nitrogen fertilizer and banding phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. (DDR)

  10. Agriculture causes nitrate fertilization of remote alpine lakes

    PubMed Central

    Hundey, E. J.; Russell, S. D.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Moser, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have altered Earth's nitrogen cycle so dramatically that reactive nitrogen (Nr) has doubled. This has increased Nr in aquatic ecosystems, which can lead to reduced water quality and ecosystem health. Apportioning sources of Nr to specific ecosystems, however, continues to be challenging, despite this knowledge being critical for mitigation and protection of water resources. Here we use Δ17O, δ18O and δ15N from Uinta Mountain (Utah, USA) snow, inflow and lake nitrate in combination with a Bayesian-based stable isotope mixing model, to show that at least 70% of nitrates in aquatic systems are anthropogenic and arrive via the atmosphere. Moreover, agricultural activities, specifically nitrate- and ammonium-based fertilizer use, are contributing most (∼60%) Nr, and data from other North American alpine lakes suggest this is a widespread phenomenon. Our findings offer a pathway towards more effective mitigation, but point to challenges in balancing food production with protection of important water resources. PMID:26853267

  11. Agriculture causes nitrate fertilization of remote alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundey, E. J.; Russell, S. D.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Moser, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    Humans have altered Earth's nitrogen cycle so dramatically that reactive nitrogen (Nr) has doubled. This has increased Nr in aquatic ecosystems, which can lead to reduced water quality and ecosystem health. Apportioning sources of Nr to specific ecosystems, however, continues to be challenging, despite this knowledge being critical for mitigation and protection of water resources. Here we use Δ17O, δ18O and δ15N from Uinta Mountain (Utah, USA) snow, inflow and lake nitrate in combination with a Bayesian-based stable isotope mixing model, to show that at least 70% of nitrates in aquatic systems are anthropogenic and arrive via the atmosphere. Moreover, agricultural activities, specifically nitrate- and ammonium-based fertilizer use, are contributing most (~60%) Nr, and data from other North American alpine lakes suggest this is a widespread phenomenon. Our findings offer a pathway towards more effective mitigation, but point to challenges in balancing food production with protection of important water resources.

  12. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  13. Phytochemical mimicry of reproductive hormones and modulation of herbivore fertility by phytoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, C L

    1988-01-01

    Plants have physical and chemical mechanisms for defense from attack by animals. Phytochemical defenses that protect plants from attack by insects include antifeedants, insecticides, and insect growth regulators. Phytochemical options exist by which plants can modulate the fertility of the other major group of plant predators, vertebrate herbivores, and thereby reduce cumulative attacks by those herbivores. The success of such a defense depends upon phytochemical mimicry of vertebrate reproductive hormones. Phytoestrogens do mimic reproductive hormones and are proposed to be defensive substances produced by plants to modulate the fertility of herbivores. PMID:3203635

  14. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth.

  15. Birth delays skew developing world's fertility figures.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    This article explains that birth delays skew developing world's fertility figures. When successive groups of women who have delayed childbearing start having children, the rapid fertility decline stalls. Such change in the timing of childbearing skews the total fertility rate (TFR). Analysis of the tempo component of TFR trends in Taiwan suggests that tempo effects reduced its TFR by about 10% in the late 1970s and early 1990s and by about 19% in the late 1980s. In Colombia, on the basis of increasing mean maternal age at childbirth between the 1970s and the late 1980s, tempo distortions of the TFR during the most of the 1980s seem likely. Moreover, many developing countries are now experiencing rapid fertility declines that are in part attributable to tempo changes. These changes have accelerated past fertility transitions, but they also make these countries vulnerable to future stalls in fertility when the delays in childbearing end. Since fertility reductions caused by tempo effects lead to real declines in birth rates and hence in population growth, countries that wish to reduce birth rates can take actions that encourage women to delay marriage and the onset of childbearing.

  16. Inconceivable? Deducting the costs of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Katherine T

    2004-07-01

    This Article considers whether infertile taxpayers can deduct their fertility treatment costs as medical expenses under Internal Revenue Code section 213 and whether they should be able to deduct them. Internal Revenue Code section 213 defines medical expenses as "amounts paid-for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body." This definition is interpreted by reference to a baseline of normal biological functioning, which includes reproductive functioning. Most people conceive and bear children without having to incur expenses for fertility treatment. Expenses incurred to approximate the baseline of normal reproductive health are deductible, even if the taxpayer winds up better off, with a child, after the fertility treatment. The medical profession recognizes that infertility is a disease or condition. Infertility is a loss, just as a broken leg is a loss. Fertility treatment costs are thus medical expenses under section 213. In addition, given the existence of the medical expense deduction, taxpayers should be able to deduct the cost of fertility treatments, including IVF, egg donor, and surrogate procedures, under either an "ability-to-pay" or consequentialist normative approach. Reproduction is extremely important to most people. In addition, allowing taxpayers to deduct the costs of fertility treatment will encourage infertile taxpayers to elect the most effective treatment option and reduce the rate of risky multifetal pregnancies. This Article concludes that fertility treatment costs are deductible as medical expenses under current law and should be deductible as medical expenses.

  17. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.

    PubMed

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2013-07-16

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

  18. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

  19. Religiosity, nationalism and fertility in Israel.

    PubMed

    Anson, J; Meir, A

    1996-03-01

    It is suggested that Israel's high fertility can be explained by a collective national conscience rather than the traditional interpretation of Jewish religiosity. It is suggested that religiosity is a proxy for a national consciousness and daily living standards. It is argued that normative orientations or cultural explanations of the value of children are intervening variables according to the framework established by Davis and Blake. The collective conscience reflects Israel's special position in the Middle East and within the world economy. The nationalist feelings reflect a range in political views. The author disputes the ethnic and religious explanations for high fertility. Fertility increased since the 1960s even among low fertility European-American born women. During the early 1980s fertility was 2.75, which was high compared to European levels at the same standard of living. Reference is made to the literature on the association between high fertility and survival strategies in insecure or discriminatory settings. This study's analysis is based on a macro- rather than individual-level approach to understanding behavior. The theoretical framework is based on the theories of Durkheim and Gane. The analysis uses data from the 1983 census on Jewish fertility in urban statistical areas and Jewish voting patterns in national elections in 1984. Correspondence analysis is used to identify voting patterns by area. The four political postures are identified as religious and conciliatory (71 areas), religious and nationalist (142 areas), nonreligious and nationalist, and nonreligious and conciliatory. Women in nationalist areas had 35% more children than women in conciliatory areas. Although both religiosity and nationalism were positively correlated with high fertility, nationalist commitment was a better predictor. The model including religiosity, nationalism, and income showed no independent effect of religiosity on fertility.

  20. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Jordan O.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Barnes, Anne; Collins, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There are various fertility control methods (modalities) currently available that aim to reduce the abundance of problematic free-ranging mammalian wildlife. Here, we propose that dissimilarities in the mechanism of action indicate these methods produce great variation in animal welfare outcomes. We present a framework to assist managers in minimising animal welfare risks. Abstract Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities), each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression”) for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control. PMID:26506395

  1. [The appreciation of the handicap in the brothers of the coast (1664-1675), according to Alexandre-Olivier Exmelin, surgeon of the privateers].

    PubMed

    Hamonet, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The reparation of corporeal damages, consequences of intentional or no intentional violence is a part of measurement of stability and progress in the human societies interested by a dignity life for the victims. Initiated by Hammourabi Code and continued by the Jews in the Bible, the reference was (now and still its) the amputed or impaired part of body (hand, arm, leg, eye...). For every part a fare in money was indicated or a rate in percentage. The Coast brothers translate in ecus or in slaves. This code indicates the originality of a society founded on violence, the robbery and murder with introduction of cooperative if not democratic modalities of functioning. The role of Bertrand d'Ogeron, governor of the Turtle Island was very beneficent.

  2. Transgender Reproductive Choice and Fertility Preservation.

    PubMed

    Mitu, Khadija

    2016-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young transgender people are now using medical technologies to achieve a physical gender transition. However, the procedures of physical gender transition might cause temporary or permanent sterility. Thus many transgender people are now using fertility preservation technologies. Nonetheless, they can experience dilemmas in making reproductive and family-building decisions and face challenges in gaining access to and utilizing fertility preservation services. Based on qualitative research conducted with transgender men and women who used reproductive technologies for preserving their fertility before or during their physical transition, this paper contributes to the discourse of reproductive choice by the inclusion of transgender people's experience.

  3. Oncofertility and the Rights to Future Fertility.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Ehren M

    2016-02-01

    The field of oncofertility, or fertility preservation for patients facing a cancer diagnosis, has seen significant scientific breakthroughs that allow adults and children undergoing fertility-threatening cancer treatment to preserve their fertility for a life after cancer. These breakthroughs also raise complex legal issues for patients and clinicians. While the current scholarship tangentially discusses the disposition of genetic material in regards to pediatric patients, this Special Communication examines the current legal framework as applied to disputes regarding the disposition of genetic material between the oncofertility patient and donor, and provides a potential new solution for courts to use in determining the rights of parties in disputes involving donated genetic material.

  4. On the horizon for fertility preservation in domestic and wild carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Comizzoli, P; Wildt, DE

    2012-01-01

    Innovations are emerging from the growing field of fertility preservation for humans and laboratory animals that are relevant to protecting and propagating valuable domestic and wild carnivores. These extend beyond the `classical' approaches associated with sperm, oocyte and embryo freezing to include gonadal tissue preservation combined with in vitro culture or xenografting, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused and wasted germplasm. Here, we review approaches under development and predicted to have applied value within the next decade, including the: 1) direct use of early stage gametes for in vitro fertilization; 2) generation of more mature gametes from gonadal tissue or stem cells; 3) simplification, enhanced safety and efficacy of cryopreservation methods; and 4) biostabilization of living cells and tissues at ambient temperatures. We believe that all of these fertility preservation strategies will offer knowledge and tools to better manage carnivores that serve as human companions, valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment. PMID:23279514

  5. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Xu, Dongdong; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-08-01

    Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization in echinoderms was tested both functionally in sea stars, and computationally throughout the echinoderm phylum. We find that the inhibitor of serine protease (soybean trypsin inhibitor) effectively blocks proper transition of the sea star fertilization envelope into a protective sperm repellent, whereas inhibitors of the other main types of proteases had no effect. Scanning the transcriptomes of 15 different echinoderm ovaries revealed sequences of high conservation to the originally identified sea urchin cortical serine protease, CGSP1. These conserved sequences contained the catalytic triad necessary for enzymatic activity, and the tandemly repeated LDLr-like repeats. We conclude that the protease involved in the slow block to polyspermy is an essential and conserved element of fertilization in echinoderms, and may provide an important reagent for identification and testing of the cell surface proteins in eggs necessary for sperm binding.

  6. On the horizon for fertility preservation in domestic and wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Wildt, D E

    2012-12-01

    Innovations are emerging from the growing field of fertility preservation for humans and laboratory animals that are relevant to protecting and propagating valuable domestic and wild carnivores. These extend beyond the 'classical' approaches associated with sperm, oocyte and embryo freezing to include gonadal tissue preservation combined with in vitro culture or xenografting, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused and wasted germplasm. Here, we review approaches under development and predicted to have applied value within the next decade, including the following: (i) direct use of early-stage gametes for in vitro fertilization; (ii) generation of more mature gametes from gonadal tissue or stem cells; (iii) simplification, enhanced safety and efficacy of cryopreservation methods; and (iv) biostabilization of living cells and tissues at ambient temperatures. We believe that all of these fertility preservation strategies will offer knowledge and tools to better manage carnivores that serve as human companions, valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  7. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Xu, Dongdong; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization in echinoderms was tested both functionally in sea stars, and computationally throughout the echinoderm phylum. We find that the inhibitor of serine protease (soybean trypsin inhibitor) effectively blocks proper transition of the sea star fertilization envelope into a protective sperm repellent, whereas inhibitors of the other main types of proteases had no effect. Scanning the transcriptomes of 15 different echinoderm ovaries revealed sequences of high conservation to the originally identified sea urchin cortical serine protease, CGSP1. These conserved sequences contained the catalytic triad necessary for enzymatic activity, and the tandemly repeated LDLr-like repeats. We conclude that the protease involved in the slow block to polyspermy is an essential and conserved element of fertilization in echinoderms, and may provide an important reagent for identification and testing of the cell surface proteins in eggs necessary for sperm binding. PMID:24878526

  8. Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Matt; Sanders, Richard; Zhou, Meng

    2011-08-01

    Modeling and Synthesis of Southern Ocean Natural Iron Fertilization; Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 27-29 June 2011; For many years a major paradox in ocean science was the existence of regions where the major nutrients are present in nonlimiting concentrations yet phytoplankton biomass is low. Pioneering experiments in the 1990s firmly established that the likely cause of this high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition is a deficit of iron relative to other nutrients. Iron is required for numerous processes within the cell, including photosynthesis, respiration, and nutrient uptake, yet because of its chemical properties, in seawater it is present at vanishingly small concentration levels. Elucidating the role of iron in governing ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration is in its infancy; however, one promising approach is to make observations in regions where landmasses act as point sources of iron. In 2004-2006, three separate expeditions targeted the southern Indian Ocean around the Crozet and Kerguelen Islands and in the southern Scotia Sea around the southern Drake Passage. Representatives from all three programs met recently to compare findings and identify critical gaps in existing knowledge.

  9. Chimera and other fertilization errors.

    PubMed

    Malan, V; Vekemans, M; Turleau, C

    2006-11-01

    The finding of a mixture of 46,XX and 46,XY cells in an individual has been rarely reported in literature. It usually results in individuals with ambiguous genitalia. Approximately 10% of true human hermaphrodites show this type of karyotype. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. It may be the result of mosaicism or chimerism. By definition, a chimera is produced by the fusion of two different zygotes in a single embryo, while a mosaic contains genetically different cells issued from a single zygote. Several mechanisms are involved in the production of chimera. Stricto sensu, chimerism occurs from the post-zygotic fusion of two distinct embryos leading to a tetragametic chimera. In addition, there are other entities, which are also referred to as chimera: parthenogenetic chimera and chimera resulting from fertilization of the second polar body. Furthermore, a particular type of chimera called 'androgenetic chimera' recently described in fetuses with placental mesenchymal dysplasia and in rare patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is discussed. Strategies to study mechanisms leading to the production of chimera and mosaics are also proposed.

  10. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.

  11. The molecular basis of fertilization (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Georgadaki, Katerina; Khoury, Nikolas; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Zoumpourlis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization is the fusion of the male and female gamete. The process involves the fusion of an oocyte with a sperm, creating a single diploid cell, the zygote, from which a new individual organism will develop. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization has fascinated researchers for many years. In this review, we focus on this intriguing process at the molecular level. Several molecules have been identified to play a key role in each step of this intriguing process (the sperm attraction from the oocyte, the sperm maturation, the sperm and oocyte fusion and the two gamete pronuclei fusion leading to the zygote). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the cell-cell interactions will provide a better understanding of the causes of fertility issues due to fertilization defects. PMID:27599669

  12. Coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Devassine, M; Henry, F; Guerin, P; Briand, X

    2002-08-21

    The conventional agriculture leads to some important pollution of ground water (particularly, by nitrates). The solution is the coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. In this work, we have studied the water vapour and liquid diffusion through polymer films detached from their support. Therefore, we may classify polymers as a function of their properties like water vapour and liquid barrier. We may choose the best polymer(s) for coating.coated fertilizers by chosen polymer(s) with mechanical techniques such as fluidised bed and pan coating. Moreover, the electron microscopy used to see the quality of the wall has showed the presence of pores due to the rapid evaporation of solvent. A drying in air current and an annealing could be done to avoid this problem.followed the ions release of fertilizers immersed in distilled water by conductimetry. The more interesting result was obtained with fertilizers coated by polylactic acid. In effect, the total release reached three weeks.

  13. Diseases and Conditions That Influence Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Conditions That Influence Fertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Many different health issues can affect a woman's ability to get pregnant. Some of the more common ...

  14. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... use advanced therapies and the choices of timing, technologies and other key issues should be discussed by ... used advanced fertility treatments are ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) and COH (Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation). ART is defined ...

  15. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates.

  16. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming.

    PubMed

    Mäder, Paul; Fliessbach, Andreas; Dubois, David; Gunst, Lucie; Fried, Padruot; Niggli, Urs

    2002-05-31

    An understanding of agroecosystems is key to determining effective farming systems. Here we report results from a 21-year study of agronomic and ecological performance of biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming systems in Central Europe. We found crop yields to be 20% lower in the organic systems, although input of fertilizer and energy was reduced by 34 to 53% and pesticide input by 97%. Enhanced soil fertility and higher biodiversity found in organic plots may render these systems less dependent on external inputs.

  17. [Fertility, employment, and migration. Differential fertility according to migration experience using census data].

    PubMed

    Clerici, R

    1989-03-01

    Differential fertility in Italy by occupation is analyzed using census data. The author uses the own-children method to develop retrospective estimates of period fertility for women in 1976 and 1981. The occupational status categories used are "employed in the same sector, employed in a different sector, no longer employed, new employed, never employed. A strong relation appears between work status changes and fertility trends: the women who recently obtained a new job touch the lowest level of fertility, while those who left their job reach the highest level." The impact of migration and nuptiality is also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  18. The molecular complexity of fertilization: Introducing the concept of a fertilization synapse

    PubMed Central

    Krauchunas, A.R.; Marcello, M.R.; Singson, A.

    2016-01-01

    The details of sperm-egg interactions remain a relative mystery despite many decades of research. As new molecular complexities are being discovered, we need to revise the framework in which we think about fertilization. As such, we propose that fertilization involves the formation of a synapse between the sperm and egg. A cellular synapse is a structure that mediates cell adhesion, signaling, and secretion through specialized zones of interaction and polarity. In this review, we draw parallels between the immune synapse and fertilization and argue that we should consider sperm-egg recognition, binding, and fusion in the context of a “fertilization synapse”. PMID:26970099

  19. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  20. Simulating Ocean Fertilization: Effectiveness and Unintended Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K

    2002-11-03

    The primary objectives of this project are to assess, and improve our understanding of: (1) The effectiveness of various proposals to intentionally store carbon in the ocean through fertilization of the surface ocean with iron and/or macronutrients; and (2) Biologically relevant consequences of long-term and extensive ocean fertilization. The PISCES ocean biogeochemistry model, developed at the MPI in Hamburg, Germany, and IPSL in Saclay, France will be used in this study. This model considers Fe, N, P, O{sub 2}, Si, alkalinity, and carbon, in organic and inorganic, dissolved and particulate forms. The model represents diatoms, coccolithophorids, nitrogen fixers, and two classes of zooplankton. This model will be incorporated into the LLNL ocean GCM, which is already being applied to other problems in ocean carbon sequestration. After coupling the ocean biogeochemistry and circulation models, the reliability of this model will be evaluated by comparison to observations. These include observations of natural ecological and biogeochemical variation and observations of small-scale iron fertilization experiments (e.g. SOFeX, IRONEx). This strategy will produce a tested model with predictive capability that we will use to address the following important questions: What is the long-term effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration via different ocean fertilization strategies? What are the long-term environmental consequences of prolonged or widespread ocean fertilization? What processes need to be included in the models, to better reproduce effects observed in iron fertilization experiments? What should the next experiment measure to better aid the models?

  1. Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ajala, Tosin; Rafi, Junaid; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Howell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation. PMID:20379357

  2. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).

    PubMed

    Franz, M

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.

  3. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  4. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  5. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  6. Demand impact and policy implications from taxing nitrogen fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    Recent concern has focused on nitrogen fertilizer as a potential contaminant of groundwater. A demand function for fertilizer was developed using the quantity of fertilizer purchased, corn yield, real price of nitrogen fertilizer, lagged fertilizer purchases, a land value variable and the real price of corn as explanatory variables. Short and long-run price elasticities of demand were estimated to be inelastic. Support was found for the hypothesis that demand for nitrogen fertilizer has become more price inelastic over time. From a policy standpoint, a tax on nitrogen fertilizer may not be the most effective method to reduce consumption.

  7. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  8. [Fertility and contraception in Maghreb].

    PubMed

    Lacoste-dujardin, C

    1987-01-01

    In analyzing the historical and cultural factors defining the specific situation of women in Maghreb, it is shown that economic, political, and structural changes are occurring in the countries of Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya), but that the traditional patriarchal conception of life is even more conservative in reaction to these changes. In the patriarchal lineage structure, where the power of a family depends on the number of its males, the role of women is essentially reproductive. A woman has a social value once she becomes the mother of several sons. This was, and still is, the only way out of the lowest position in the social hierarchy for women. This situation has been leading to an intensive fertility (The birth rate was 50% in Morocco, in 1975; it was 46% in Algeria, in 1981; 32% in Tunisia, in 1983; and 47% in Libya, in 1981). It also has led to a high rate of maternal mortality, and morbidity, as well as puerperal psychosis. The sexual discrimination in favour of men in this reproductive context, has been immobilizing the relation between the sexes. The only affective relation between woman and man has been the relation between mother and son. The perpetuation of this conception in people's mind, by the weight of habits and of religius ideology, has been the strongest obstacle to demographic transition and to the necessary decline of the birth rate in these countries. Nevertheless, the possibility of changes in mentality has been growing through the slow development of women's education, and through State demographic policies favoring birth limitation.

  9. Soil with a short history of poultry litter fertilization remains superior to normally fertilized soil for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton and other row crops. The productivity of soil that had received poultry litter as a fertilizer is not known after cessation of litter application and returning to conventional fertilization with inorganic fertilizers. This study ...

  10. Effects of Dietary Vitamin E on Fertility Functions in Poultry Species

    PubMed Central

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E is found in high quantities in vegetable oils. Although vitamin E has multiple functions in humans and animals, its key function is protecting cells from oxidative damage. Since its discovery, several studies have demonstrated that vitamin E deficiency causes impaired fertility in humans and lab animals. However, the effects of vitamin E deficiency or of its supplementation on the fertility of farm animals, particularly on poultry, are less well studied. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the effects of dietary vitamin E on the fertility of poultry species is needed in order to understand the beneficial role of vitamin E in the maintenance of sperm and egg qualities. Based on the observations reviewed here, we found that a moderate amount of vitamin E in poultry diet significantly protects semen/sperm qualities in male birds and egg qualities in female birds via decreasing the lipid peroxidation in semen/sperms and eggs. This review provides an overall understanding of the effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species. PMID:25941932

  11. Properties of maximum likelihood male fertility estimation in plant populations.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M T

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulations are used to evaluate maximum likelihood methods for inferring male fertility in plant populations. The maximum likelihood method can provide substantial power to characterize male fertilities at the population level. Results emphasize, however, the importance of adequate experimental design and evaluation of fertility estimates, as well as limitations to inference (e.g., about the variance in male fertility or the correlation between fertility and phenotypic trait value) that can be reasonably drawn. PMID:9611217

  12. Determinants of aggregate fertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Soomro, G Y

    1986-01-01

    Data were obtained from the government of Pakistan's Census Organization and the Population Welfare Division to investigate and identify policy-relevant factors which influence fertility at an aggregate level by examining the supply, demand, and cost factors of fertility regulation. Information on fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and other socioeconomic variables was gathered for the 63 districts of Pakistan. The 3 districts of Karachi division were taken together as there appeared to be no appreciable variation among those districts. The unit of analysis was a district, which, as an administrative unit, ranks in importance after a province and a division. The dependent variable of an aggregate fertility measure is Total Fertility Rate (TFR). The TFR was measured indirectly from the age structure through the application of the stable population model. Only 2 variables appeared significant in their effect on fertility, i.e., enrollment ratio and marriage age, which tended to show a negative effect on fertility when controlled for other socioeconomic development variables. The effect of urbanization, although insignificant, showed a positive association with fertility; it was expected to have a negative association. The mean age at marriage was dropped from the equation in Table 2 because of its association with infant mortality. Only enrollment appeared to be a significant variable. In Table 3, only 3 variables, including urbanization, were controlled to rank individual variables in regard to their effect on their fertility. The results did not show any change from those of the 1st equation. In the 4th equation (Table 4), electrification substituted for the variable of urbanization; the results did not differ from those of the previous equation. In the 5th equation (Table 5), the composite variable was controlled with the family planning clinics variable. The effect of family planning clinics was insignificant. The enrollment variable appeared to be the most

  13. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  14. Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency and Fertility Needs.

    PubMed

    Aghajanova, Lusine; Hoffman, Jacquelyn; Mok-Lin, Evelyn; Herndon, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a common reproductive disease, with a prevalence of 9% to 18% of the general population. To date, no studies have attempted to examine the prevalence and experience of infertility among resident physicians in the United States. In female obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents of age where infertility becomes more prevalent, ability to seek fertility may be influenced by rigorous professional demands and low remuneration. We seek to understand the prevalence of infertility, as well as experience and utilization of infertility services among Ob/Gyn residents. Cross-sectional descriptive survey was distributed among US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited Ob/Gyn programs. Demographics, intentions to conceive during residency, fertility problems, fertility treatment, affordability of care, and perceptions of support were surveyed. A total of 241 responses were received in an equal distribution between junior (n = 120) and senior (n = 121) residents. The majority of respondents were female (91%), 25 to 35 years old (94%), and married (54%). Eighty-five percent (195 of 230) did not actively pursue fertility during residency. Twenty-nine percent (68 of 235) considered fertility preservation, but only 2% sought consultation. Twenty-nine percent of those interested in fertility (22 of 75) experienced infertility of some degree. Sixty-three percent felt low or no support from the program. Thirty-five percent reported stigma associated with their infertility. In conclusion, infertility is a prevalent reproductive health impairment among Ob/Gyn residents. The majority of residents defer childbearing during residency despite advancing reproductive age. A majority felt little or no support from training programs in addressing their fertility care. Further studies are indicated to understand the barriers and impact among resident trainees.

  15. Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically Isolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell.

    PubMed Central

    Holm, P. B.; Knudsen, S.; Mouritzen, P.; Negri, D.; Olsen, F. L.; Roue, C.

    1994-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from ~75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the protoplasts of the fertilized egg cells developed into embryo-like structures that gave rise to fully fertile plants. On average, 75% of cocultivated protoplasts of fertilized egg cells developed into embryo-like structures. Fully fertile plants were regenerated from ~50% of the embryo-like structures. The isolation-regeneration techniques may be largely genotype independent, because similar frequencies were obtained in two different barley varieties with very different performance in anther and microspore culture. Protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized eggs of wheat were isolated by the same procedure, and a fully fertile wheat plant was regenerated by cocultivation with barley microspores. PMID:12244247

  16. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  17. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  18. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  19. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  20. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  1. Matrix-based fertilizer: A new fertilizer formulation concept to reduce nutrient leaching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the efficacy of matrix based fertilizers (MBFs) formulated to reduce nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus (TP) leaching, with Osmocoate® 14-14-14, a conventional commercial slow release fertilizer (SRF), and with an unamended control in greenhouse column studies. The MBF formulations...

  2. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  3. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  4. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Eye protection means more than just ... after cataract surgery? Aug 30, 2015 Scleritis Symptoms Mar 01, 2015 Anti-reflective Coating Feb 27, 2015 ...

  5. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  6. Perpetual postponers? Women's, men's and couple's fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Ann

    2004-01-01

    In this article data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) are used to analyse gender differences in fertility intentions, and the correspondence between fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour. By exploiting couple-level data, we examine whether partners have conflicting preferences for future fertility. Focusing on women who remain childless in their thirties we look at socio-demographic factors related to the intention to remain childless, or to start a family later on in life. By following up women over time, the characteristics of women who go on to have a child later on in life are considered. The importance of having a partner and the fertility intention of that partner in predicting whether a birth will occur are also examined.

  7. Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF): a green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-yun; Sun, Ke-jun; Wang, De-han; Liao, Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas (N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs, the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  8. Trace element distribution, with a focus on gold, in copper-rich and zinc-rich sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size and they commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. The occurrence of specular hematite and Bi- or Au-tellurides associated with chalcopyrite are consistent with magmatic contributions to the NW Caldera vent site

  9. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    which are used for suspension fertilizers manufacturing meet these requirements as well. In the presented studies lignite coal was applied as a component of mineral-organic preparations. The advantages of lignite coal are positive influence on the soil heat balance and reduction of the temperature fluctuations influence as well as humic acids contents that are extracted during its decomposition improving the soil structure and enrichment with humus substances. The lignite coal used in examinations contained 50 - 60 wt. % of Corg, about 45 cmol/kg Ca, 18.5 cmol/kg Mg and P, K, N in the ppm amount. Unfortunately the fertilizer components included in the lignite coal are rather unavailable for plants. It seems, that progress of lignite coal mineralization and humification can be expressed in the increasing content of humus substances. Humus acids are of great importance for plants on account of their solubility. During examination on the selection of fertilizer components a Corg content was analyzed as a parameter determining the quality of mineral-organic preparations. As the analytical technique for Corg determination particularly a Tiurin method was applied. Apart from lignite coal and peat as the source of organic substance the poultry droppings and compost on their basis were analyzed. Poultry droppings depending on bird species as well as feeding and breeding method are characterized by variable composition. A high pH values and a large content of nitrogen are their distinctive features, sometimes too high on account of plant nutritional requirements, and toxic as well as limiting cropping. Taking environmental protection requirements into consideration as well as on account of proper plants nutrition an appropriate preparation of mineral-organic fertilizer is recommended what can be obtained by applying lignite coal and poultry droppings as components of fertilizer using appropriate proportion. Adapting composted poultry droppings is more beneficial, but requires

  10. Claims for fertility interventions: a systematic assessment of statements on UK fertility centre websites

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, E A; Mahtani, K R; Goldacre, B; Heneghan, C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fertility services in the UK are offered by over 200 Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA)-registered NHS and private clinics. While in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) form part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance, many further interventions are offered. We aimed to record claims of benefit for interventions offered by fertility centres via information on the centres' websites and record what evidence was cited for these claims. Methods We obtained from HFEA a list of all UK centres providing fertility treatments and examined their websites. We listed fertility interventions offered in addition to standard IVF and ICSI and recorded statements about interventions that claimed or implied improvements in fertility in healthy women. We recorded which claims were quantified, and the evidence cited in support of the claims. Two reviewers extracted data from websites. We accessed websites from 21 December 2015 to 31 March 2016. Results We found 233 websites for HFEA-registered fertility treatment centres, of which 152 (65%) were excluded as duplicates or satellite centres, 2 were andrology clinics and 5 were unavailable or under construction websites. In total, 74 fertility centre websites, incorporating 1401 web pages, were examined for claims. We found 276 claims of benefit relating to 41 different fertility interventions made by 60 of the 74 centres (median 3 per website; range 0 to 10). Quantification was given for 79 (29%) of the claims. 16 published references were cited 21 times on 13 of the 74 websites. Conclusions Many fertility centres in the UK offer a range of treatments in addition to standard IVF procedures, and for many of these interventions claims of benefit are made. In most cases, the claims are not quantified and evidence is not cited to support the claims. There is a need for more information on interventions to be made available by fertility centres

  11. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  12. Fertility management for women with cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjay K; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    With time, great strides are being made in the care of cancer sufferers. The longevity and quality of life of these unfortunate individuals continues to improve and the word "cure" is more commonly being heard. In a similar manner, there is also much reason for optimism regarding the future fertility options for patients with cancer as well as for those with other diseases that have a high likelihood of rendering a female infertile prior to completing her family. Figure 2.4 outlines the various cryopreservation technologies currently available. While IVF and embryo freezing remain the gold standard at the present, refinements in in vitro maturation of oocytes and cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian cortex will lead to improved results and availability of these technologies. Counseling patients of child-bearing age or their parents regarding future fertility when faced with a life-threatening cancer diagnosis is difficult but extremely important. With modern approaches to cancer care, survival rates have improved significantly. Therefore, the health care team has a responsibility to provide screening to identify these patients, provide education so that an informed decision can be made as rapidly as possible, and have a team ready to preserve fertility once a decision has been made. With the improvements in fertility outcomes for these patients, appropriate education of key communities, including cancer sufferers and their health care providers, will be necessary to ensure that the issue of fertility after cancer is at least discussed and offered to those in whom it is appropriate.

  13. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  14. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  15. Discrimination and Chinese fertility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z; Trovato, F

    1998-01-01

    The study examines Chinese fertility in Canada in the context of minority-status and fertility. Chinese-Canadians are compared with British-Canadians, who are considered in this analysis as the majority group. The study is unique in three ways. First, we argue that discrimination brings a minority group not only psychological insecurity but also social-economic insecurity, which can be measured by Chinese husbands' economic status relative to the British. Second, we analyze the relationship between discrimination against the Chinese at the social class level and Chinese fertility behavior at the individual level, which has been ignored by most previous studies. Third, we describe "insecurities" effects to explain the fertility behavior of the Chinese across social classes, including the lower classes to which many researchers believe the minority status hypothesis is not applicable. We conclude that discrimination variations over social classes combined with normative influence are a major factor in causing class fertility differentials between the Chinese and the British in Canada.

  16. The role of SPRASA in female fertility.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Angela; Holland, Olivia J; Tong, Mancy; Shelling, Andrew N; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2015-04-01

    Fertility is a complex process and infertility can have many causes. Sperm protein reactive with antisperm antibody (SPRASA)/sperm lysozyme-like protein 1 is a protein discovered as the target of autoantibodies in infertile men and previously thought to be expressed only in sperm. Using a bovine in vitro fertilization model, we have shown that SPRASA antiserum reduced sperm binding to zona-free oocytes and the development of embryos to morulae but did not affect the postfertilization cleavage rate to 2 cells or sperm motility. We demonstrated that SPRASA was expressed in ovarian follicles, corpora lutea, and oocytes by a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Female mice immunized with SPRASA had profound infertility following timed matings and those mice that did become pregnant had reduced fetal viability. The levels of antibodies reactive with SPRASA in 204 fertile and 202 infertile couples were elevated in 3 infertile but no fertile women. Together, these results indicate that SPRASA has a role in female fertility.

  17. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  18. [Inheritance rights fo the child born from post-mortem fertilization].

    PubMed

    Iniesta Delgado, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Law allows in the possibility of post mortem fertilization, recognizing the paternity of the deceased male. The most prominent legal effects of this fact have to do with the succession of his father. The way of fixing the child's portion in the forced succession and its protection, the question of determining his share in the inheritance and the necessity of defending his rights until the verification of the birth are some of the issues that are discussed in this article.

  19. Two novel mutations on exon 8 and intron 65 of COL7A1 gene in two Chinese brothers result in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Chen, Xue-Jun; Liu, Wei; Gong, Bo; Xie, Jun; Xiong, Jun-Hao; Cheng, Jing; Duan, Xi-Ling; Lin, Zhao-Chun; Huang, Lu-Lin; Wan, Hui-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Qi; Song, Lin-Hong; Yang, Zheng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an inherited bullous dermatosis caused by the COL7A1 gene mutation in autosomal dominant or recessive mode. COL7A1 gene encodes type VII collagen - the main component of the anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction. Besides the 730 mutations reported, we identified two novel COL7A1 gene mutations in a Chinese family, which caused recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). The diagnosis was established histopathologically and ultrastructurally. After genomic DNA extraction from the peripheral blood sample of all subjects (5 pedigree members and 136 unrelated control individuals), COL7A1 gene screening was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct DNA sequencing of the whole coding exons and flanking intronic regions. Genetic analysis of the COL7A1 gene in affected individuals revealed compound heterozygotes with identical novel mutations. The maternal mutation is a 2-bp deletion at exon 8 (c.1006_1007delCA), leading to a subsequent reading frame-shift and producing a premature termination codon located 48 amino acids downstream in exon 9 (p.Q336EfsX48), consequently resulting in the truncation of 2561 amino acids downstream. This was only present in two affected brothers, but not in the other unaffected family members. The paternal mutation is a 1-bp deletion occurring at the first base of intron 65 (c.IVS5568+1delG) that deductively changes the strongly conserved GT dinucleotide at the 5' donor splice site, results in subsequent reading-through into intron 65, and creates a stop codon immediately following the amino acids encoded by exon 65 (GTAA→TAA). This is predicted to produce a truncated protein lacking of 1089 C-terminal amino acids downstream. The latter mutation was found in all family members except one of the two unaffected sisters. Both mutations were observed concurrently only in the two affected brothers. Neither mutation was discovered in 136 unrelated Chinese control

  20. Development of a web-based runoff forecasting tool to guide fertilizer and manure application in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the land application of fertilizers and manures is critical to protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While modern nutrient management tools are designed to help farmers with their long-term field management planning, they do not support daily decisions such as when to a...

  1. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  2. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  3. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia.

  4. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    The cross-sectional picture of urban and rural fertility which emerges from recently published Indonesian national level data from the 1976 Intercensal Survey are described. The data reveal only small differences in the average numbers of children ever born or children surviving of ever married women (or mothers) in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. In urban areas, ever married mothers had a standardized average of 3.4 children ever born, and in rural areas 3.3 These averages cannot reveal any differences in past and present childbearing levels. The fertility of urban women, as opposed to rural women, appeared more highly associated with indicators which tend to directly or indirectly depress the average number of children ever born: a higher age at 1st marriage; a higher level of "sterility;" a higher survival ratio of children born; and a higher level of educational attainment. At least some of these factors might be regarded as associated with modernizing trends in the urban areas: increased accessibility to educational facilities; the opening of female opportunities outside the home so that marriage occurs later in life; and a better health environment so that there is less pregnancy wastage and time spent in bearing children. These factors help to provide an incentive to women to limit their fertility; knowledge of contraception methods provides a means. The depressing factors most highly associated with average rural fertility do not appear associated with modernization but with traditional folk customs regarding acceptable behavior. The inflating effects of early marriage are offset by a greater prevalence of marital disruption. This may reflect a cultural acceptability. The reasons may include adolescent or true sterility leading to disunion, the outmigration of a partner, or some other form of disharmony. Female labor force participation is more prevalent in rural than urban areas. There are both traditional and modern aspects to be seen in its

  5. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  6. Production of an innovative fertilizer from organic waste: process monitoring by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Dall'Ara, Alice; Garcia Izquierdo, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The European directive 2008/98/CE establishes a legal framework for the treatment of waste within the Community. It aims at protecting the environment and human health through the prevention of the harmful effects of waste generation and waste management. In order to better protect the environment, the Member States should adopt measures for the treatment of their waste according to a hierarchy as outlined: prevention, preparing for reuse, recycling, energy recovery, disposal. In this context, the European project LIFE12 ENV/IT/000356 "RESAFE" is addressed to produce and utilize a new class of fertilizers characterized by reduced salinity in order to substitute chemical and mineral fertilizers through a technological route based on Urban Organic Waste (UOW), Farm Organic Residues (FOR), Bio-Chars (BC) and Vegetable Active Principles (VAP) processing. Following this approach, it will be possible for farmers and urban waste managers to reduce costs and to obtain environmental and economic incomes. Furthermore, environmental impacts will be also reduced contributing to decrease the greenhouse emissions from landfills and from the production of mineral fertilizers. In this paper, specific innovative sensing architectures, based on Hyper-Spectral Imaging (HSI) devices working in the near infrared (NIR) range, and related detection architectures, is presented and discussed in order to define and apply smart detection engines to follow the transformations of the complex material, resulting from UOW, FOR, BC and VAP based recipes during the different stages of the fertilizer production process. Results show as the fertilizer production process can be monitored adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  7. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm.

  8. Impact of fertilizing pattern on the biodiversity of a weed community and wheat growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds.

  9. A novel test of the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis reveals independent components of fertility.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Jensen, Per; Cornwallis, Charles K.

    2004-01-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis predicts that male sexual ornaments signal fertilizing efficiency and that the coevolution of male ornaments and female preference for such ornaments is driven by female pursuit of fertility benefits. In addition, directional testicular asymmetry frequently observed in birds has been suggested to reflect fertilizing efficiency and to covary with ornament expression. However, the idea of a phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and fertilizing efficiency is often tested in populations where environmental effects mask the underlying genetic associations between ornaments and fertilizing efficiency implied by this idea. Here, we adopt a novel design, which increases genetic diversity through the crossing of two divergent populations while controlling for environmental effects, to test: (i) the phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and both, gonadal (testicular mass) and gametic (sperm quality) components of fertilizing efficiency; and (ii) the extent to which these components are phenotypically integrated in the fowl, Gallus gallus. We show that consistent with theory, the testosterone-dependent expression of a male ornament, the comb, predicted testicular mass. However, despite their functional inter-dependence, testicular mass and sperm quality were not phenotypically integrated. Consistent with this result, males of one parental population invested more in testicular and comb mass, whereas males of the other parental population had higher sperm quality. We found no evidence that directional testicular asymmetry covaried with ornament expression. These results shed new light on the evolutionary relationship between male fertilizing efficiency and ornaments. Although testosterone-dependent ornaments may covary with testicular mass and thus reflect sperm production rate, the lack of phenotypic integration between gonadal and gametic traits reveals that the expression of an ornament is unlikely to reflect the

  10. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  11. Structures protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

  12. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  13. Ozone Layer Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to EPA's ozone layer protection web ...

  14. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  15. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Sylvia; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P2O5. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P2O5 for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products.

  16. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information on the BioPreferred Web site of qualifying biobased products about the intended uses of the product, information on whether or not the product contains any recovered material, in addition to.... Note to paragraph (d): Fertilizers within this designated item can be made with recycled...

  17. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information on the BioPreferred Web site of qualifying biobased products about the intended uses of the product, information on whether or not the product contains any recovered material, in addition to.... Note to paragraph (d): Fertilizers within this designated item can be made with recycled...

  18. Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging oil-seed crops calendula (Calendula officinalis) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can provide a domestic, renewable, non-food alternative to imported oil sources for bioenergy and industrial purposes. However, very little information exists concerning nitrogen (N) fertilizer guidelines...

  19. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  20. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  1. [Adolescent Fertility]. Facts-at-a-Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.

    This fact sheet reports the most recent information available on adolescent fertility in the United States. The following information is included: (1) the number of births to all adolescents, except those 14 years old and younger, has declined between 1980 and 1986; (2) the smaller number of births is due to a smaller number of adolescents and a…

  2. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Jacqueline M; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  3. Male Influences on Fertility: Needs for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa Donati

    1979-01-01

    A study comparing the processes of arriving at fertility decisions in marriage shows that the husband's preference for children or for childlessness controls more often than the wife's preference in either case. Using two childless samples and one sample with children, the strong effect of male preference was found. (Author)

  4. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millable stalks of a forty-ton sugarcane crop contain up to 75 pounds of N. Total above and below ground biomass to achieve that yield level, of course, requires appreciably more N. Knowing the crop requirements for N, however, is not the same as knowing how much fertilizer N to apply. Nitrogen fert...

  5. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  6. Organic tomato transplant production and supplemental fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing healthy transplants for organic production systems is an essential step in the process of maximizing crop yields. All components entering into the organic crop production system must be approved for organic use, including the seed, soil media, and fertilizer used in transplant production....

  7. The cultural evolution of fertility decline

    PubMed Central

    Colleran, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cultural evolutionists have long been interested in the problem of why fertility declines as populations develop. By outlining plausible mechanistic links between individual decision-making, information flow in populations and competition between groups, models of cultural evolution offer a novel and powerful approach for integrating multiple levels of explanation of fertility transitions. However, only a modest number of models have been published. Their assumptions often differ from those in other evolutionary approaches to social behaviour, but their empirical predictions are often similar. Here I offer the first overview of cultural evolutionary research on demographic transition, critically compare it with approaches taken by other evolutionary researchers, identify gaps and overlaps, and highlight parallel debates in demography. I suggest that researchers divide their labour between three distinct phases of fertility decline—the origin, spread and maintenance of low fertility—each of which may be driven by different causal processes, at different scales, requiring different theoretical and empirical tools. A comparative, multi-level and mechanistic framework is essential for elucidating both the evolved aspects of our psychology that govern reproductive decision-making, and the social, ecological and cultural contingencies that precipitate and sustain fertility decline. PMID:27022079

  8. Female labour supply and fertility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Carliner, G; Robinson, C; Tomes, N

    1980-02-01

    This paper develops a 1-period household production model in which lifetime female labor supply and completed fertility are simultaneously determined. The parameters of the model are estimated on 1971 Canadian census data, using techniques suitable for the discrete nature of the dependent variables (number of children and labor force participation) or their concentration at zero (hours and weeks worked). The major empirical findings are that more educated women, and women living in cities, have fewer children and supply more labor to the market than other women. Nonlabor income and husband's wage have no significant effect on fertility, but husband's wage decreases female labor supply. Catholic women have significantly more children but supply the same amount of labor as nonCatholic women, other things being equal. Other results are of interest in a Canadian context: holding religion and urban/rural location constant, no English/French difference in fertility or labor supply was found. Only Newfoundland exhibits a fertility pattern that differs from other provinces. And women in Ontario and Prairie provinces supply more labor to the market than women elsewhere.

  9. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  10. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?

    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.

    1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  11. FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICEMAN. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIGGS, J.T.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENTS PREPARING TO BE FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICEMEN IN A COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM. IT WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF RECOMMENDATIONS BY A STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE, TESTED IN OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS, AND REFINED BY A VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHER. UNITS…

  12. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  13. PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS?: ANALYSIS BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, we and others found perchlorate at high levels (approximately 500 - 8000 mg/kg) in 90+% of 25+ fertilizers (primarily lawn-and-garden products) that are not identified as containing components derived from mined Chile saltpeter, which is known to contain perchlorate as ...

  14. Fertilization Affects Branching Pattern in Norway Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmroth, S.; Stenberg, P.; Smolander, H.

    2001-12-01

    The increase in stand productivity from fertilization can be attributed to an increase in photosynthetic capacity, and a faster accumulation of leaf area index (LAI). Differences in the steady-state LAI are likely to reflect differences in PAR interception and/or conversion efficiency at shoot and leaf level. Furthermore, shoots ability to export carbohydrates to developing buds could be the mechanism responsible for light dependent branching. Within-canopy distribution of PAR and leaf area form the core in process-based models that are used to assess impacts of changes in the environment on production and resource use efficiency of forest stands. However, feedback between structure and radiation environment is not often incorporated in the models. We studied the relationships between light availability, shoot structure and branching pattern in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at a long-term fertilization experiment at Flakaliden research area in northern Sweden. Sampling of shoots was designed to cover the variation in canopy exposure within the live crown zone, where current shoots were still found. Canopy openness was used as a measure of the light availability at the shoot?s position. Our data showed that, at similar canopy openness, shoots of fertilized trees were longer and the number and total length of daughters were higher than in control trees. Fertilization increased the steady-state LAI and resulted in a deeper canopy, i.e. foliage is produced and survive at much lower light levels.

  15. Successful external fertilization in turbulent environments.

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, E A; Pearson, G; Kautsky, L; Brawley, S H

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high water motion. A key assumption of such predictions is that gametes are released in hydrodynamic regimes that quickly dilute gametes. We used fucoid seaweeds to examine whether marine organisms in intertidal and subtidal habitats might achieve high levels of fertilization by restricting their release of gametes to calm intervals. Fucus vesiculosus L. (Baltic Sea) released high numbers of gametes only when maximal water velocities were below ca. 0.2 m/s immediately prior to natural periods of release, which occur in early evening in association with lunar cues. Natural fertilization success measured at two sites was always close to 100%. Laboratory experiments confirmed that (i) high water motion inhibits gamete release by F. vesiculosus and by the intertidal fucoids Fucus distichus L. (Maine) and Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) DeToni (California), and (ii) showed that photosynthesis is required for high gamete release. These data suggest that chemical changes in the boundary layer surrounding adults during photosynthesis and/or mechanosensitive channels may modulate gamete release in response to changing hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, sensitivity to environmental factors can lead to successful external fertilization, even for species living in turbulent habitats. PMID:11607682

  16. [The population of China, fertility and urbanization].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y

    1985-04-01

    China is a huge country with more than 1 billion population. During some 30 years since 1949 when the new China was established, the population of China experienced several influences from political, economic, and social fluctuations on its fertility, mortality, and migration. Recently, the government of China is taking a unique policy for its fertility, so-called "only 1 child per couple" policy, having remarkable effects on actual birthrate. Trend of migration in China is also noteworthy. The number of migrants from rural to urban areas has not been large, and the proportion of urban population has not risen rapidly. There are several reasons behind this. Recently, the government has started policies to encourage sideline business of farmers to utilize effectively surplus labor in agriculture. By this way not only transfer of labor force from agriculture can be realized but also transfer of population from rural to urban areas can be realized. The target of urbanization in China is not the establishment of large cities but the creation of small cities and towns related closely with villages. The author was given the opportunity to attend the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development, which was held in December 1984. At that Symposium many valuable papers were presented by Chinese scholars, using the latest demographic data of population census, fertility survey, and civil registration. The author shares this information with those who are concerned with the population of China in this short paper, especially putting focus on China's fertility and urbanization.

  17. Improving continuous monitoring of VOC emissions from alternative fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of alternative fertilizers, such as biosolids, to agricultural fields is an environmentally beneficial practice. Biosolids provide producers with a ready source of organic matter and plant nutrients instead of using commercial fertilizers. However, concerns regarding nuisance odors cause...

  18. Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for crop management system scenarios

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for CMAQ is a high-end computer interface that simulates daily fertilizer application information for any gridded domain. It integrates the Weather Research and Forecasting model and CMAQ.

  19. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: I. Sources of Agronomic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers which was conducted to: assess where and from whom local fertilizer dealers obtain agronomic training; evaluate the effectiveness of various dealer training; and determine the needs and objectives of future training programs. (TW)

  20. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2016-10-19

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg(-1)), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg(-1) (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg(-1)), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg(-1), min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg(-1)) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg(-1). The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg(-1), with the average of 254 Bq kg(-1), measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P2O5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content.

  1. Soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues: Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.

  2. Fertility preservation and breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, María; Otero, Borja; Martín, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and its incidence increases with age, with the majority of patients diagnosed after menopause. However, in 15–25% of cases, patients are premenopausal at the time of diagnosis, and about 7% of them are below the age of 40. Therefore, a considerable amount of young women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their reproductive life. Within this group, most cancer cases require cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy, which are responsible for a decrease in the patients’ reproductive function, along with their age. The efficacy of such treatments, among other factors, has led to a high five-year-survival rate, which results in an increasing number of young women who survive breast cancer before having fulfilled their reproductive wishes, especially considering the current trend to delay pregnancy until the late 30s or early 40s in developed countries. The combination of these factors justifies the importance of fertility preservation and reproductive counselling at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in young women. A wide range of fertility preservation techniques has been developed, such as ovarian suppression, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, immature oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Early counselling and referral of these patients to fertility specialists are fundamental factors in order to maximise their chances of pregnancy. This review aims to update the knowledge about the influence of breast cancer in fertility, the influence of pregnancy and fertility preservation techniques in breast cancer patients and assessment of ovarian reserve for a better treatment choice. A special section dedicated to BRCA-mutation carriers has been included because of their specific features. A comprehensive literature search has been conducted, including publications from the last five years. PMID:25729416

  3. [Multivariate analysis of marital fertility in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nohara Atoh, M

    1981-05-01

    Drawing on the data from the 7th Japanese National Fertility Survey held by the Institute of Population Problems, JMHW, in 1977, multiple classification analysis (MCA) was done for the number of children ever born (NCEB) of currently married women to identify social determinants of marital fertility in contemporary Japan. These are the major findings. 1) Among all of the explanatory variables included in the MCA model, spouses' age at marriage has the largest explanatory power. The proportion of the total variance of NCEB explained by social variables is relatively small. 2) Although wife's work before marriage did not have any significant relation to NCEB, wife's work during the early reproductive years has the largest negative effect on NCEB among social variables. This relationship holds even after controlling for fecundity status. 3) Variables such as wife's education, nature of place of residence, and husband's occupation have a small but systematic effect on NCEB even after MCA adjustment. Higher education, urban place of residence, and husband's status as an employee are associated with lower NCEB. 4) Among such variables relevant to the family system as type of marriage, spouses' number of siblings, and birth order, and locality type, only locality type is significantly associated with NCEB. Married couples who cohabit with their parents at marriage have higher fertility than those who do not. 5) Wife's sex role norms and type of conjugal relationship role have been regarded as an important determinant of fertility. This does not hold true for Japan; a highly segregated role relationship between husband and wife coexists with low fertility. (author's modified)

  4. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility.

    PubMed

    Bello-Akinosho, Maryam; Makofane, Rosina; Adeleke, Rasheed; Thantsha, Mapitsi; Pillay, Michael; Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  5. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. PMID:27774456

  6. Toward developing a training pathway for fertility nurses: report of the 2010 training and educational survey.

    PubMed

    Peddie, Valerie L; Denton, Jane; Barnett, Victoria

    2011-09-01

    Fertility nursing and its role extension has increasingly been referred to as 'specialist' or 'advanced nursing practice'. Nevertheless, Government initiatives have prompted a review of 'Advanced Nursing Practice' and the Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) has taken steps to address the disparity of roles, job titles, training and competence of nurse practitioners, concluding that advanced nursing practice should be subject to revalidation in the same way as professional registration. Fertility nurses form an integral part of the multidisciplinary team. Yet no formal or nationally recognised framework or training pathway exists. In this paper, we present the findings of a recent online survey of training and educational needs of fertility nurses; its aim being to work toward developing a national training pathway. Our findings identify the relationship between fertility nurse competencies, advanced nursing practice and medical sub-specialist training, at the same time, highlighting the difference in accessibility, funding and levels of training, as well as assessment and expertise within clinical practice. We conclude that it is essential to protect role extension through regonised Higher Educational Institution (HEI) accreditation, by appropriate, role-focussed training. Notwithstanding a national review, the diverse list of job titles also needs to be addressed adequately to encompass and respect role extension.

  7. Functional incompatibility between the fertilization systems of two allopatric populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Brown, D V; Eady, P E

    2001-11-11

    Recent studies indicate that postcopulatory sexual selection may represent an important component of the speciation process by initiating reproductive isolation via the evolutionary divergence of fertilization systems. Using two geographically isolated populations of the polyandrous beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we investigated divergence in fertilization systems by determining the extent of postcopulatory functional incompatibility. Through reciprocal, cross-population matings we were able to separately estimate the effects of male and female population origin and their interaction on the extent of last-male sperm precedence, female receptivity to further copulation and female oviposition. Our results indicate partial incompatibility between the fertilization systems of the two populations at all three functional levels. Males derived from the same population as females outcompete rival, allopatric males with respect to sperm preemption, sperm protection, and ability to stimulate female oviposition. This pattern is reciprocated in both populations indicating that postcopulatory, prezygotic events represent important mechanisms by which between-population gene flow is reduced. We suggest the partial gametic isolation observed is a by-product of the coevolution of male and female fertilization systems by a process of cryptic female choice. Our results are consistent with a mechanism akin to conventional mate choice models although they do not allow us to reject antagonistic sexual coevolution as the mechanism of cryptic female choice.

  8. Response of microbial communities to long-term fertilization depends on their microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dominik; Heuer, Anke; Hemkemeyer, Michael; Martens, Rainer; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial communities attached to clay (< 2 μm), fine silt (2-20 μm), coarse silt (20-63 μm) and sand-sized fractions [> 63 μm; including particulate organic matter (POM)] of an arable soil and analyse their response to more than 100 years of two different fertilization regimes. Mild ultrasonic dispersal, wet-sieving and centrifugation allowed the separation of soil particles with the majority of bacterial cells and DNA still attached. Fertilizations increased soil organic carbon (SOC), total DNA and the abundance of bacterial, archaeal and fungal rRNA genes more strongly in the larger-sized fractions than in fine silt, and no effect was seen with clay, the latter representing above 70% of the total microbial populations. A highly positive correlation was found between microbial rRNA genes and the surface area provided by the particles, while the correlation with SOC was lower, indicating a particle-size-specific heterogeneous effect of SOC. The prokaryotic diversity responded more strongly to fertilization in the larger particles but not with clay. Overall, these results demonstrate that microbial responsiveness to long-term fertilization declined with smaller particle sizes and that especially clay fractions exhibit a high buffering capacity protecting microbial cells against changes even after 100 years under different agricultural management.

  9. Potential substitution of mineral P fertilizer by manure: EPIC development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Vadas, Peter A.; Balkovič, Juraj; Skalský, Rastislav; Folberth, Christian; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Sources of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers are non-renewable. Although the longevity of P mines and the risk of future P depletion are highly debated P scarcity may be detrimental to agriculture in various ways. Some of these impacts include increasing food insecurity and nitrogen (N) and P imbalances, serious fluctuations in the global fertilizer and crop market prices, and contribution in geopolitical conflicts. P-rich waste produced from livestock production activities (i.e. manure) are an alternative to mineral P fertilizer. The substitution of mineral fertilizer with manure (1) delays the depletion of phosphate rock stocks, (2) reduces the vulnerability of P fertilizer importing countries to sudden changes in the fertilizer market, (3) reduces the chances of geopolitical conflicts arising from P exploitation pressures, (4) avoids the need for environmental protection policies in livestock systems, (5) is an opportunity for the boosting of crop yields in low nutrient input agricultural systems, and (6) contributes to the inflow of not only P but also other essential nutrients to agricultural soils. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) is a widely used process-based, crop model integrating various environmental flows relevant to crop production as well as environmental quality assessments. We simulate crop yields using a powerful computer cluster infra-structure (known as EPIC-IIASA) in combination with spatially-explicit EPIC input data on climate, management, soils, and landscape. EPIC-IIASA contains over 131,000 simulation units and it has 5 arc-min resolution. In this work, we implement two process-based models of manure biogeochemistry into EPIC-IIASA, i.e. SurPhos (for P) and Manure DNDC (for N and carbon) and a fate model model describing nutrient outflows from fertilizer via runoff. For EGU, we will use EPIC-IIASA to quantify the potential of mineral P fertilizer substitution with manure. Specifically, we will estimate the relative

  10. Validating potassium fertilizer guidelines in alfalfa-corn rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2008 to 2010, on-farm research was conducted on 10 fields with medium soil test K (STK) to validate Minnesota K fertilizer guidelines by determining the effect of K fertilizer applications on alfalfa yield and quality in its last production year and estimating the carryover of excess fertilizer...

  11. Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…

  12. Food Safety Issues: Mineral fertilizers and soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizers and other soil amendments are required to maintain soil fertility, but some may be naturally rich in trace elements, or contaminated. Thus, as part of the overall consideration of using fertilizers and soil amendments, one should consider the levels of trace elements present in relation...

  13. 46 CFR 148.227 - Calcium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcium nitrate fertilizers. 148.227 Section 148.227... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.227 Calcium nitrate fertilizers. This part does not apply to commercial grades of calcium nitrate fertilizers consisting mainly...

  14. 46 CFR 148.227 - Calcium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcium nitrate fertilizers. 148.227 Section 148.227... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.227 Calcium nitrate fertilizers. This part does not apply to commercial grades of calcium nitrate fertilizers consisting mainly...

  15. 46 CFR 148.227 - Calcium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcium nitrate fertilizers. 148.227 Section 148.227... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.227 Calcium nitrate fertilizers. This part does not apply to commercial grades of calcium nitrate fertilizers consisting mainly...

  16. 46 CFR 148.227 - Calcium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcium nitrate fertilizers. 148.227 Section 148.227... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.227 Calcium nitrate fertilizers. This part does not apply to commercial grades of calcium nitrate fertilizers consisting mainly...

  17. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer types on nitrous oxide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The factors controlling nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after fertilizer nitrogen (N) applications are well studied. This information can be used to choose appropriate fertilizer sources and placement methods in order to minimize direct fertilizer-induced N2O emissions in cropping systems. Several fie...

  18. The effects of semen collection on fertility in captive, naturally fertile, sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested to see if semen collection interferes with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile, Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had previously produced fertile eggs. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection had minimal effect on semen quality and semen quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm viability, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation. Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we did not observe differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no statistically significant differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. However, 4 eggs were broken by adults during the disturbance associated with capturing birds for semen collection. We found that females with mates from which we consistently gathered better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than females with sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60). We interpret these results to mean that males that were successfully breeding with their mates had little left at the time of our collection.

  19. Soil fertility management and pest responses: a comparison of organic and synthetic fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Tzu; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fertilization (organic or synthetic) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., cultivars ('K-Y cross' and 'Summer Summit') on the chemistry of cabbage and on the responses of a cabbage specialist Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval. Cabbages were grown from seeds in the greenhouse with either organic, synthetic, or no fertilizer treatments. Trials of ovipositional preference and larval feeding were conducted to evaluate the effect of foliage quality on insect responses. In addition, the foliar chemistry (water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, sinigrin, and anthocyanin) was measured during the insect bioassays. The results indicated that butterflies preferred to lay eggs on foliage of fertilized plants. The larvae grew faster on plants fertilized with synthetic fertilizer, but there was no evidence that contents of sinigrin delayed the developmental time of the larvae. However, plants that received organic fertilizer had higher biomass. In summary, the results of this study suggested that proper organic treatment can increase a plant's biomass production and may have a lower pest occurrence.

  20. Stable aggregate fertility in a time of family change: a decomposition of trends in American fertility, 1970-1999.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R

    2005-01-01

    Population-level birth rates in the United States were largely stable between 1970 and 1999. This stability contrasts with rapid change in marriage rates and fertility timing during the same period. In this article, I use decomposition techniques to analyze this seeming paradox. I decompose the general fertility rate into four components: age distribution, marital status, age-specific nonmarital fertility, and age-specific marital fertility. Absent other changes, declining time spent married would have led to substantial decline in fertility. Several factors combined to counterbalance these changes in marital behavior. Among white women in the 1970s and 1980s, marital fertility rates increased at older ages, consistent with a scenario in which women postponed both marriage and childbearing; increased nonmarital birth rates during this period were not a driving factor in overall fertility trends. Increased nonmarital fertility was more important in compensating for declining time spent married among African American women and among white women in the 1990s.

  1. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  2. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of bovine spermatozoa of varying fertility rates and identification of biomarkers associated with fertility

    PubMed Central

    Peddinti, Divyaswetha; Nanduri, Bindu; Kaya, Abdullah; Feugang, Jean M; Burgess, Shane C; Memili, Erdogan

    2008-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a major problem for mammalian reproduction. However, molecular details including the underlying mechanisms of male fertility are still not known. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms is essential for obtaining consistently high reproductive efficiency and to ensure lower cost and time-loss by breeder. Results Using high and low fertility bull spermatozoa, here we employed differential detergent fractionation multidimensional protein identification technology (DDF-Mud PIT) and identified 125 putative biomarkers of fertility. We next used quantitative Systems Biology modeling and canonical protein interaction pathways and networks to show that high fertility spermatozoa differ from low fertility spermatozoa in four main ways. Compared to sperm from low fertility bulls, sperm from high fertility bulls have higher expression of proteins involved in: energy metabolism, cell communication, spermatogenesis, and cell motility. Our data also suggests a hypothesis that low fertility sperm DNA integrity may be compromised because cell cycle: G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation was most significant signaling pathway identified in low fertility spermatozoa. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive description of the bovine spermatozoa proteome. Comparative proteomic analysis of high fertility and low fertility bulls, in the context of protein interaction networks identified putative molecular markers associated with high fertility phenotype. PMID:18294385

  3. Growth and fruit production of highbush blueberry fertilized with ammonium sulfate and urea applied by fertigation or as granular fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of granular sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including ammonium sulfate and urea, were compared to fertigation with liquid forms of the fertilizers in northern highbush blueberry during the first 5 years of fruit production. The granular fertilizers were banded on each side of t...

  4. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  5. BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) has TFL1-like activity and functions redundantly with TFL1 in inflorescence meristem development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seong Jeon; Chung, Kyung Sook; Jung, Seung Hye; Yoo, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Seob; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2010-07-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) family is a small gene family that encodes important regulators that control flower development in Arabidopsis. Here, we investigated the biological role of the product of BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT), a member of this family, whose function remains unknown. Comparison of the critical residues that play a role in distinguishing FT- or TFL1-like activity revealed that BFT is more similar to FT. Similar to FT expression, BFT expression showed a diurnal oscillation pattern, peaking in the evening. In situ hybridization revealed BFT expression in the shoot apical meristem, young leaf and axillary inflorescence meristem. Transgenic plants over-expressing BFT exhibited delayed flowering and severe floral defects (floral indeterminacy and compact inflorescences surrounded by serrate leaves), similar to 35S::TFL1 plants. LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) expression was significantly reduced in 35S::BFT plants. BFT over-expression failed to rescue the terminal flower phenotype of tfl1 mutants; however, it delayed both terminal flower formation in the primary inflorescence and axillary inflorescence development in the tfl1 mutant background. Consistent with this, the loss-of-function BFT alleles, bft-2 and an BFT RNAi line, accelerated termination of the primary inflorescence and formation of axillary inflorescences in the tfl1 mutant background. Taken together, our results suggest that, despite similarities in the critical residues of BFT and FT, BFT possesses a TFL1-like activity and functions redundantly with TFL1 in inflorescence meristem development, and possibly contributes to the regulation of plant architecture.

  6. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is a novel target of lung cancer stem-like cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Ryota; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Mariya, Tasuku; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takaya, Akari; Saijo, Hiroshi; Shionoya, Yosuke; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Watanabe, Kazue; Atsuyama, Eri; Toji, Shingo; Hirano, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high rate of mortality. Lung cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/ cancer-initiating cells (CICs) play major role in resistance to treatments, recurrence and distant metastasis and eradication of CSCs/CICs is crucial to improve recent therapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are major effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and CTLs recognize antigenic peptides derived from antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we analyzed the potency of a cancer-testis (CT) antigen, brother of the regulator of the imprinted site variant subfamily 6 (BORIS sf6), in lung CSC/CIC immunotherapy. BORIS sf6 mRNA was expressed in lung carcinoma cells (9/19), especially in sphere-cultured lung cancer stem-like cells, and in primary lung carcinoma tissues (4/9) by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining using BORIS sf6-specific antibody revealed that high expression of BORIS sf6 is related to poorer prognosis. CTLs could be induced by using a human leukocyte antigen, (HLA)-A2 restricted antigenic peptide (BORIS C34_24(9)), from all of 3 HLA-A2-positive individuals, and CTL clone cells specific for BORIS C34_24(9) peptide could recognize BORIS sf6-positive, HLA-A2-positive lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that BORIS sf6 is a novel target of lung cancer immunotherapy that might be useful for targeting treatment-resistant lung cancer stem-like cells.

  7. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is a novel target of lung cancer stem-like cell immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Horibe, Ryota; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Mariya, Tasuku; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takaya, Akari; Saijo, Hiroshi; Shionoya, Yosuke; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Watanabe, Kazue; Atsuyama, Eri; Toji, Shingo; Hirano, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high rate of mortality. Lung cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/ cancer-initiating cells (CICs) play major role in resistance to treatments, recurrence and distant metastasis and eradication of CSCs/CICs is crucial to improve recent therapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are major effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and CTLs recognize antigenic peptides derived from antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we analyzed the potency of a cancer-testis (CT) antigen, brother of the regulator of the imprinted site variant subfamily 6 (BORIS sf6), in lung CSC/CIC immunotherapy. BORIS sf6 mRNA was expressed in lung carcinoma cells (9/19), especially in sphere-cultured lung cancer stem-like cells, and in primary lung carcinoma tissues (4/9) by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining using BORIS sf6-specific antibody revealed that high expression of BORIS sf6 is related to poorer prognosis. CTLs could be induced by using a human leukocyte antigen, (HLA)-A2 restricted antigenic peptide (BORIS C34_24(9)), from all of 3 HLA-A2-positive individuals, and CTL clone cells specific for BORIS C34_24(9) peptide could recognize BORIS sf6-positive, HLA-A2-positive lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that BORIS sf6 is a novel target of lung cancer immunotherapy that might be useful for targeting treatment-resistant lung cancer stem-like cells. PMID:28248963

  8. BARBERSHOP TALK WITH BROTHERS: USING COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH TO DEVELOP AND PILOT TEST A PROGRAM TO REDUCE HIV RISK AMONG BLACK HETEROSEXUAL MEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tracey E.; Fraser-White, Marilyn; Williams, Kim M.; Pinto, Angelo; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Henny, Kirk; Browne, Ruth C.; Gousse, Yolene; Taylor, Tonya; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela; Joseph, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible, evidence-based interventions that support HIV risk reduction among heterosexual Black men. In this article, we describe the process for development of the Barbershop Talk With Brothers (BTWB) program and evaluation. The BTWB program is a theoretically grounded and community-based HIV prevention program that seeks to improve individual skills and motivation to decrease sexual risk, and that builds men’s interest in and capacity for improving their community’s health. Formative data collection included barbershop observations and barber focus groups, brief behavioral risk assessments of men in barbershops, and focus groups and individual interviews. Based on this information and in consultation with our steering committee, we developed the BTWB program and accompanying program evaluation. From April through November 2011, 80 men were recruited and completed a baseline assessment of a pilot test of the program; 78 men completed the program and 71 completed a 3-month assessment. The pilot evaluation procedures were feasible to implement, and assessments of pre- and post-test measures indicate that key behavioral outcomes and proposed mediators of those outcomes changed in hypothesized directions. Specifically, attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use improved, and respondents reported lower levels of sexual risk behavior from baseline to follow-up (all p < 0.05). Perceptions of community empowerment also increased (p = 0.06). While HIV stigma decreased, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Our approach to community-engaged program development resulted in an acceptable, feasible approach to reaching and educating heterosexual Black men about HIV prevention in community settings. PMID:25299804

  9. Protecting Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  10. [Effects of different fertilization modes on vegetable growth, fertilizer nitrogen utilization, and nitrogen loss from vegetable field].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-feng; Wang, Guo; Li, Wei-hua; Qiu, Xiao-xuan

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment with Chinese cabbage, water spinach, and three-colored amaranth cropped three times in one year was conducted to study the effects of seven fertilization modes, i.e., none fertilization, basal application of chemical fertilizers, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers, basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, and basal application of organic manure, on the plant height, yield, nitrogen accumulation, and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of the vegetables, and the loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N from vegetable field under natural rainfall condition. The results showed that comparing with none fertilization, the fertilization modes '1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure' and 'basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide' improved the agronomic properties of test vegetables, increased their yields by 103%-219% and 93%-226%, and nitrogen accumulation by 153% -216% and 231%-320%, respectively, and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen utilization rate. They also decreased the surface runoff loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N by 48.1% and 46.5%, respectively, compared with the mode 'basal application of chemical fertilizers', and hence, reduced the risk of agricultural non-point pollution. Therefore, these two fertilization modes could be popularized in vegetable production.

  11. The effect on fertility, libido and sexual function of post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy for cancer of the testicle.

    PubMed

    Levison, V

    1986-03-01

    Forty-six patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for cancer of the testicle were investigated to study the effect of this adjuvant treatment on fertility, potency and libido. In general, no change occurred in either libido or potency, even when the remaining testis was atrophic. The post-operative treatment was the cause of sterility in 17 patients known to be previously fertile. An atrophic testis after treatment denotes irreversible sterility. Current methods of shielding to protect the normal testis using a cobalt beam are unsatisfactory, and consideration should be given to treating all such patients on a linear accelerator. When normal fertility is retained there is no contraindication to parenthood. No evidence of increased abnormality has been found in any baby born to a man treated for testicular cancer.

  12. Fertilizer use and price statistics, 1960-1991. Statistical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Vroomen, H.; Taylor, H.

    1992-11-01

    Fertilizer consumption grew rapidly throughout the 1960's and 1970's and peaked at 23.7 million nutrient tons in 1981. After falling to 18.1 million tons in 1983, use has remained relatively stable, ranging from 19.1 million to 21.8 million tons in 1984-91. Use declined from its peak level because of fewer planted acres and stabilizing rates of application. Retail fertilizer prices, while stable or declining during the 1960's, have varied widely since 1973. The bulletin includes quarterly or semiannual time series for retail fertilizer prices, annual retail and wholesale fertilizer price indexes, fertilizer consumption by plant nutrient and major selected products, consumption of mixed fertilizers and secondary and micronutrients, and statistics on fertilizer use per acre by nutrient in the major producing States for corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat.

  13. Adenomyosis and its impact on women fertility

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Audrey, Serafini; Annalisa, Inversetti; Stefano, Ferrari; Iacopo, Tandoi; Laura, Corti; Massimo, Candiani

    2015-01-01

    Adenomyosis is a widespread disease affecting the reproductive period of women’s life. In the last ten years, different pathogenetic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the initiation and development of the disease. This article aims to present and discuss the most important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying adenomyosis development in order to clarify the relationship between adenomyosis and infertility. A PubMed search was undertaken for English language literature using the MeSH terms ‘adenomyosis’, ‘infertility’, ‘treatment’, and ‘pathogenesis’. Although the exact etiology of adenomyosis is unknown, many theories have been proposed. We analysed the most important pathogenic theories expressed and evaluated the potential consequences on women fertility. A better comprehension of the adenomyosis pathogenesis has allowed realizing that adenomyosis may affect young women and may have a great impact on their fertility through different mechanisms. The understanding of these mechanisms helps to clarify the potential usefulness of current therapies. PMID:26330846

  14. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    PubMed

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  15. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  16. [Obesity: argument for withholding fertility treatment?].

    PubMed

    Koning, Aafke M H; Mol, Ben Willem; Dondorp, Wybo J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity can lead to anovulation and subfertility. Around the world fertility treatment is withheld from women above a certain BMI, ranging from 25 to 40 kg/m2. The proponents of this policy use three different arguments to justify their restrictions: risks to the woman, health and wellbeing of the future child, and importance for society. In this article we critically appraise these arguments. In conclusion, we think obese women should be informed about the consequences of their weight on fertility and pregnancy complications and encouraged to lose weight. If, however, a woman is unable to lose weight despite effort, we feel there is no argument to withhold treatment from her. This would be unjustified with respect to the treatment of other women with a high risk of complications.

  17. Indomethacin and fertility in experimental endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Dargenio, R; Corbucci, M G; Lamanna, M A; Garcea, N

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence showed an increased concentration of prostaglandins in peritoneal fluid in cases of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to verify whether an antiprostaglandin drug can restore fertility in cases of endometriosis. For this reason endometriosis was induced in 4 groups of 10 rats. Group A was treated with indomethacin both in the pre-ovulatory and in the post-ovulatory phase. Group B was treated in the pre-ovulatory phase. Group C was treated in the post-ovulatory phase. Group D was not treated. Ten other rats (group E) underwent a sham operation and were used as a control. Twelve days after mating, gestational sacs and corpora lutea were counted and the nidation index was calculated. Only indomethacin administered during the pre-ovulatory phase completely restored fertility in these rats.

  18. Fertility and female employment in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, B J

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between fertility and female employment in a Nigerian urban center, Lagos. The study is built upon the data derived from the Survey of Household Structure, Family Employment, and the Small Family Ideal carried out in 1974. The study centered around currently married women aged 15-49, living in 2 residential areas chosen to include wage-earning and non wage-earning workers. It is principally a test of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis, whose major tenet is that the maternal role and function of worker are incompatible with each other. On the basis of the assumption, the fertility and female employment equations are estimated by the 2 stage least squares procedure and estimated results compared to those derived from the ordinary least squares procedure. The results demonstrate that mothering and working tend to conflict only if employment is undertaken in the formal sector of the labor market; a positive association is discernable between the proclivity to engage in non-domestic but irregular activities of the informal sector and the bearing and rearing of children. While the conflict between fertility and female employment in the formal sector suggests possible trade-offs between the number of children and employment, the positive association between fertility and female employment in the informal sector suggests the compatibility of the roles of a mother and of a worker in that sector. The results further demonstrate the inadequacy of using a mere rural-urban dichotomy in the examination of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis as done in some earlier works. The urban labor market, especially in a less developed country like Nigeria, needs formal disaggregation into formal and informal sectors on the basis of the activities being undertaken.

  19. UN projections assume fertility decline, mortality increase.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1998-12-01

    This article summarizes the latest findings from the UN Population Division's 1998 review of World Population Estimates and Projections. The revisions reflect lower future population size and faster rates of fertility and mortality decline. The medium variant of population projection for 2050 indicates 8.9 billion, which is 458 million lower than projected in 1996 and 924 million lower than projected in 1994. The changes are due to changes in developing countries. Africa's changes accounted for over 50% of the change. The UN medium projection assumes that the desire for fewer children and effective contraceptive practice will continue and that the availability of family planning services will increase. The revisions are also attributed to the widespread prevalence of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and greater chances for lower fertility in developing countries. AIDS mortality may decrease average life expectancy in 29 African countries by 7 years. The UN medium projection assumes a decline in fertility from 2.7 children/woman during 1995-2000 to 2.0 children/woman by 2050. The UN high variant is 10.7 billion by 2050; the low variant is 7.3 billion. It is concluded that efforts of national governments and international agencies have contributed to increased access to reproductive health services and subsequent fertility decline. Future declines will depend on accessibility issues. Despite declines, world population is still growing by 78 million annually. Even countries such as Botswana, with 25% of the population infected with HIV/AIDS, will double in size by 2050.

  20. Fertility of Technosols constructed with urban wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokia, Sarah; Sere, Geoffroy; Deeb, Maha; Fournier, Frantz; Nehls, Thomas; Damas, Olivier; Vidal-Beaudet, Laure; Schwartz, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Growing plants in urban areas requires large amounts of arable earth that is a non-renewable resource. Increase of urban population leads to the production of large qunatities of wastes and by-products that are only partly recycled as a resource and quite systematically exported out of urban areas. To preserve more natural soil resources (forest and agricultural soils), a strategy of waste recycling as fertile substrates is proposed. Eleven wastes are selected for their environmental harmlessness and their contrasted physico-chemical properties for their potential use in pedological engineering. The aim is (i) to demonstrate the feasibility of the construction of fertile substrates exclusively with wastes and by-products and (ii) to model their physico-chemical properties following various types, number and proportions of constitutive wastes. Twenty-five binary and ternary combinations are tested at different ratios for total carbon, Olsen available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, water pH, water retention capacity and bulk density. Dose-response curves describe the variation of physico-chemical properties of mixtures depending on the type and ratio of selected wastes. Quite all of the mixtures have properties very near to those of natural soils. Some of them present more extreme urban soil features, especially for pH and POlsen. The fertility of the new substrates is modelled by multilinear regressions for the main soil properties. This allows to predict the fertility of constructed Technosols and participates to the development of soil eco-conception in urban and industrial areas (Rokia et al., Modelling agronomic properties of Technosols constructed with urban wastes, Waste Management (2013), 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.12.016). Keywords: constructed Technosol, pedological engineering, agronomic properties