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Sample records for protects brother fertile

  1. A sterile sperm caste protects brother fertile sperm from female-mediated death in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Snook, Rhonda R

    2008-02-26

    Spermicide (i.e., female-mediated sperm death) is an understudied but potentially widespread phenomenon that has important ramifications for the study of sexual conflict, postcopulatory sexual selection, and fertility [1, 2]. Males are predicted to evolve adaptations against spermicide, but few antispermicidal mechanisms have been definitively identified. One such adaptation may be the enigmatic infertile sperm morphs or "parasperm" produced by many species, which have been hypothesized to protect their fertile brother "eusperm" from spermicide [2, 3]. Here, we show that female Drosophila pseudoobscura reproductive tracts are spermicidal and that the survival of eusperm after exposure to the female tract is highest when males produce many parasperm. This study clarifies the adaptive significance of infertile sperm castes, which has remained elusive in Drosophila and other taxa despite much recent interest [2-8]. We suggest that spermicide and male countermeasures against it are more common than is appreciated currently and discuss how spermicide could drive the evolution of several key male traits, including sperm size and number.

  2. Oncofertility in Canada: gonadal protection and fertility-sparing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ronn, R.; Holzer, H.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer can be a devastating diagnosis. In particular, malignancy and its indicated treatments have profoundly negative effects on the fertility of young cancer patients. Oncofertility has emerged as a new interdisciplinary field to address the issue of gonadotoxicity associated with cancer therapies and to facilitate fertility preservation. In Canada, fertility issues are often inadequately addressed despite the availability of resources. The goal of this four-part series is to facilitate systemic improvements in fertility preservation for adolescent and young adult Canadians with a new diagnosis of cancer. Methods Here, we review the fertility preservation measures currently available. Medical and surgical strategies are both outlined. Results Fertility-preserving strategies and gonadal protection have demonstrated variable success in a number of approaches. The value of hormone suppression is still in question for women. Progestins for endometrial cancer and alternative chemotherapies are other medical approaches. Gonadal shielding and protective surgical approaches have also been attempted. Conclusions The techniques discussed here may be selectively considered and integrated into patient care in an attempt to preserve future fertility before initiating cancer treatment. PMID:24311962

  3. Big brother.

    PubMed

    Cross, M

    1993-04-15

    Both purchasers and providers will need to change the way they hold patient records on computer, or they could find themselves in breach of the law. Michael Cross examines a report by the Data Protection Registrar. PMID:10126013

  4. Brother to Brother: Success for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Brother to Brother, a program designed to help African-American men stay in college and graduate. St. Petersburg College formed this program seven years ago as a means not only of recruiting male African-American students, but also to identify issues that cause them to be at risk for dropping out and to use retention…

  5. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  6. Three brothers with algodystrophy of the hip.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, J; Ott, H

    1983-01-01

    We describe the clinical features of algodystrophy of the hip in 3 brothers, probably the first familial presentation of this disease to be reported. The symptoms and evolution of the disease are as usually described. The familial presentation suggests a genetic predisposition. HLA typing showed an identity of antigenic formula in the 3 brothers, a rare coincidence. Images PMID:6882038

  7. 78 FR 76969 - Wright Brothers Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-30463 Filed 12-18-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... December 19, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 9071--Wright Brothers Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0... Brothers Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On December 17,...

  8. 77 FR 75503 - Wright Brothers Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... December 20, 2012 Part II The President Proclamation 8918--Wright Brothers Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Brothers Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation After years of...

  9. 75 FR 80669 - Wright Brothers Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-32402 Filed 12-21... Proclamation 8617--Wright Brothers Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Proclamation 8617 of December 17, 2010 Wright Brothers Day, 2010 By the President of the...

  10. Protective effects of cornus mas extract on in vitro fertilization potential in methotrexate treated male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Leila; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahmadi, Abbas; Bakhtiary, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Current study was aimed to evaluating protective effects of cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) in mice treated with methotrexate (MTX). For this purpose, 48 young mature male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received only normal saline (0.1 mL per day, intraperitoneally), and the second group was administered MTX (20 mg kg-1 per week, intraperitoneally). The third, fourth and fifth groups received MTX daily oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 CMFE as well as MTX. The sixth group was only given CMFE with a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 per day, orally, for 35 days. Then, the animals were anesthetically euthanized and the sperms were separated from epididymis. DNA damage level, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as in vitro fertility was evaluated. The number of sperms with damaged DNA and MDA level in MTX-treated group showed a significant increase compared to control group (p < 0.05). In groups receiving CMFE along with MTX, DNA damage level and MDA amount suggested a decrease in comparison with MTX group (p < 0.05). Also, in vitro fertilization and embryonic development in MTX-treated group was significantly lower than the control group, and the level of embryonic arresting was higher (p < 0.05). In groups which received CMFE along with MTX, in vitro fertility and embryonic development was higher than MTX group (p < 0.05) and the arrested embryos showed a decrease. This study suggested that cornus mas is able to ameliorate the side effects of MTX. PMID:25992252

  11. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy.

  12. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy. PMID:25991464

  13. Thromboangiitis obliterans in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi-Lin; He, Dan-Hua; Huang, Yong-Hua; Niu, Mu

    2013-08-01

    Two brothers (case 1 and case 2) with erythema nodosum were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). The patients were treated with compounds including Danshen Dripping Pills, Fufang Danshen Diwan and Salvia tetramethylpyrazine. The patients were also treated with fibro-blast growth factor to promote epidermal growth and Bayaspirin enteric-coated tablets to reduce platelet aggregation. The polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and compound glycyrrhizin tablets were taken to improve immune function. Following treatment, case 2 had reduced pain levels in the left foot. The ulcer on the first toe of the left foot had decreased in size, with a reduction in pus secretions and inflammation. Case 1 demonstrated a reduction in pus secretion from the ulcer. However, the area of the ulcer had increased, spreading to the fifth toe with gangrene. A tendon had become exposed on the right foot, which was broken and induced severe pain. PMID:24137181

  14. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ≫100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  15. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ≫100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies.

  16. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  17. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  18. 75 FR 71458 - Warner Brothers Entertainment, Inc., Warner Brothers Theatrical Enterprises, Including Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Warner Brothers Entertainment, Inc., Warner Brothers Theatrical... published in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59254). At the request of a company official... from India, China and Poland. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-71,775 is hereby issued as...

  19. Build Your Own Wright Brothers' Glider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Gordon; Hand, Jon; Ellis, Art

    2003-01-01

    A little more than one hundred years ago, Wilbur and Orville Wright began building models of airfoils and testing them in wind tunnels in their search for an efficient wing. Models continue to be used today by aerospace engineers to prove concepts and launch dreams. To celebrate the centennial of the Wright brothers' historic flight, the authors…

  20. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  1. Smile on Your Brother: Teaching Siblings Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Paula

    2008-01-01

    A multiage first, second, and third grade classroom includes brothers, sisters, cousins. Two teachers use a developmentally appropriate approach while juggling teaching responsibilities and administering the many tests required by No Child Left Behind. Carter explains their four priorities for children: attendance, responsibility, honesty, and…

  2. My Brother's Keeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Barack

    2014-01-01

    In a White House address, the president announced an initiative to reclaim young boys and men of color. The "My Brother's Keeper" initiative partners with businesses, foundations, and nonprofits to address disparities in education, justice, and employment. President Obama was introduced by Christian, one of a group of students from…

  3. Pleural mesothelioma in a couple of brothers

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura, epithelial type, were observed in two brothers. Both the patients had histories of severe exposure to asbestos, having worked as insulators. The latency periods in the two cases were 26 and 38 years, respectively. Available literature data suggest that mesothelioma occurrence among blood-related people is favored by a genetic predisposition. PMID:24872671

  4. Brotherly Love? The Manipulation of Body Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a street-wise boy who is unaware that his younger brother has been using clever manipulation to get him into trouble. Nicholas is a 12-year-old boy whose father was recently given a life sentence for murder. Nicholas is in a boxing league and uses his fighting skills on the streets. Angel is Nicholas' nine-year-old brother…

  5. The Mayo brothers: an American surgical legacy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Few in the history of surgery and just as few in the history of medicine can reach the level of clinical visibility as achieved by the Mayo brothers. The brothers changed the face of medicine while they were alive, and their fame and influence continued to grow after their death in 1939. The Mayo American surgical legacy had incredible proportions. The brothers systematically modified the field as few others had done before. They were great surgical innovators who took the surgical techniques of others and added a touch of their own to make the surgical procedure better and more secure. The Mayos were the stars regionally, nationally, and around the world. They attracted attention from their generation and occupied center stage long after. To speak of the Mayos is to speak of the quintessential American values of professionalism, respect, commitment, and caring for their fellow human beings. Their creation, the Mayo Clinic, surpassed the wildest hopes and predictions that anyone could have had regarding their best dreams. PMID:20874478

  6. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  7. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  8. Bram Stoker's brother, the brain surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the life and work of Sir William Thornley Stoker, 1st Baronet (1845-1912), the eldest brother of Bram Stoker (1847-1912), the author of Dracula (1897). Sir William or "Thornley," as he was commonly known, was one of Ireland's leading physicians. He performed some of the first brain surgeries in Ireland using Sir David Ferrier's maps of the cerebral cortex. From 1879 into the twentieth century, Thornley served as inspector for Ireland under the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act. In this role, Thornley was responsible for granting licenses to researchers who performed experiments on live animals. Due to his reservations about animal experimentation, Thornley eventually became an advocate for the antivivisection cause, testifying at the second Royal Commission on Vivisection (1906-1912). Thornley also influenced Irish literature, albeit indirectly. Bram Stoker's composition notes for Dracula show that he consulted his older brother about the medical scenes in his novel. Thornley's knowledge of cerebral localization and his animal rights advocacy both surface in Dracula.

  9. Authentic Expression of Edmund Rice Christian Brother Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercruysse, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1802, Edmund Rice directed the laying of the foundation stone for Mount Sion Monastery and School. After several previous attempts of instructing poor boys in Waterford, this was to be the first permanent home for the Congregation of Christian Brothers. Rice's dream of founding a religious community of brothers was becoming a reality with a…

  10. Who is the Effective Volunteer: Characteristics of Successful Big Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorelli, Irene M.; Appel, Victor H.

    The demographic characteristics of the typical volunteer, taken from the personnel files of 208 current and previous volunteers of a Big Brothers agency, indicate the following profile. The modal Big Brother is usually Anglo-American, is a young adult aged 18 to 25, is a student or a full-time employed person, has some college education, lives in…

  11. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  12. 18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers Commercial Photographers, Madison Heights, Michigan, Negative No. 67707). SOUTHERN PORTION OF WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST, SHOWN ON EXTREME LEFT, 3 June 1925. - Basso Building, 7338 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  13. 17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original Held by the Manning Brothers Commercial Photographers, Madison Heights, Michigan, Negative No. 38750). SOUTHERN PORTION OF WEST FACADE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWN ON EXTREME LEFT, 24 NOVEMBER 1920. - Basso Building, 7338 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  14. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa 1920. Courtesy Save Orchestra Hall, Inc. Photocopy by Jack E. Boucher, 1973 AUDITORIUM, LOOKING NORTH - Orchestra Hall, 3711 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  15. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Manning Brothers, Detroit, Photographers, circa 1920. Courtesy Save Orchestra Hall, Inc. Photocopy by Jack E. Boucher, 1973 EAST (FRONT) AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS - Orchestra Hall, 3711 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  16. Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, corner of Center and F Streets, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  17. Flow behavior in the Wright Brothers Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genn, S.

    1984-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that a reexamination of the flow characteristics in the low speed Wright Brothers Facility (WBF) is of some importance in view of recent improvements in the precision of the data acquisition system. In particular, the existence of local regions of separation, if any, in back portions of the circuit, and possible related unsteadiness, are of interest. Observations from that initial experiment did indicate some unsteady air flow problems in the cross leg, and thereafter the test region (Section A) was calibrated quantitatively. The intent was to learn something about the effect of upstream intermittent behavior flow on the test section flow, as well as to provide an extensive calibration as a standard for the effects induced by future alteration of the tunnel. Distributions of total pressure coefficients were measured first at one cross-section plane of the test section, namely the model station. Data were obtained for several tunnel speeds. The reduced data yielded an unexpected distribution involving larger pressures along the inside wall.

  18. The Lehman Brothers effect and bankruptcy cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, P.; Sornette, D.; Holyst, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    Inspired by the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers and its consequences on the global financial system, we develop a simple model in which the Lehman default event is quantified as having an almost immediate effect in worsening the credit worthiness of all financial institutions in the economic network. In our stylized description, all properties of a given firm are captured by its effective credit rating, which follows a simple dynamics of co-evolution with the credit ratings of the other firms in our economic network. The dynamics resembles the evolution of Potts spin-glass with external global field corresponding to a panic effect in the economy. The existence of a global phase transition, between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, explains the large susceptibility of the system to negative shocks. We show that bailing out the first few defaulting firms does not solve the problem, but does have the effect of alleviating considerably the global shock, as measured by the fraction of firms that are not defaulting as a consequence. This beneficial effect is the counterpart of the large vulnerability of the system of coupled firms, which are both the direct consequences of the collective self-organized endogenous behaviors of the credit ratings of the firms in our economic network.

  19. Can brothers share the same STR profile?

    PubMed

    Zaken, Naomi; Motro, Uzi; Berdugo, Reouven; Sapir, Liron Elkayam; Zamir, Ashira

    2013-09-01

    This report demonstrates the limits of DNA identification when siblings are involved. The Israeli DNA database routinely amplifies suspects samples using the PowerPlex(®) ESI16 system (Promega). While uploading a series of suspects into the database software, we found an unusual high number of shared alleles between two suspects 31 out of 32 alleles. Verification of their demographic data identified them as brothers. After confirmation of their paternity affiliation using the AmpFlSTR(®)YFiler™ (Applied Biosystems), we used two other multiplexes kits to improve the differentiation rate. The PowerPlex(®) ESX17 System (Promega) added one locus, SE33, who exhibits four different alleles. The second kit, the AmpFlSTR(®)MiniFiler™ (Applied Biosystems) added three more loci. Only one allele difference was found. In order to increase the discrimination power between related and unrelated individuals, we recommend that the DNA laboratories consider using a larger multiplex typing kit in cases like the one informed here.

  20. Photosynthesis mediated decrease in cadmium translocation protect shoot growth of Oryza sativa seedlings up on ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress responses in seedlings of two Indian rice cultivars, MTU 7029 and MO 16 were investigated under ammonium-based fertilizer amendment. Cd translocation was reduced by fertilizer treatment. An increase in the production of organic acids as well as nitrogenous compounds and maintenance of nutrient status were implicated for decrease in Cd translocation which in turn promoted shoot growth. Fertilizer treatment increased photosynthetic pigments and activity of antioxidant enzymes that ensured steady photosynthetic rate during Cd stress. MO 16 showed Cd exclusion characteristics when compared with MTU 7029. Photosynthesis performance of MO 16 was not affected by Cd treatments. These findings suggest that photosynthesis influenced decrease in Cd translocation enhanced shoot growth of seedlings during ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilizer supplementation.

  1. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  2. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  3. Brothers and Sisters: A Source of Support for Children in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Lucy; Edwards, Rosalind; Mauthner, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Whilst UK schools move towards U.S "big brother" style mentoring systems for children, are actual brothers and sisters becoming an invisible source of support to deal with bullying in everyday life? This paper reports on research with children aged 7-13 about their experiences and understandings of their relationships with their brothers and…

  4. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... AGENCY Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd County... Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow...

  5. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  6. The brothers Lumière. Pioneers in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Aterman, K; Grimaud, J A

    1983-10-01

    A brief historical sketch of the brothers Lumière, the inventors of the cinématographe, is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on their perfection of "Autochromes," photographic plates suitable for color photography, and on their foresight in putting these advances to use in medical illustrations.

  7. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  8. Some Effects of Having a Brother or Sister.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Gerald S.

    The data indicate that the influence of a brother or sister is considerably greater upon the second born than upon the first born. The magnitude of the sex of sibling effect is probably dependent upon whether a sibling is present during the first few years of life, a period during which many enduring response patterns are being acquired. The…

  9. inv(9)(p24q13) in three sterile brothers.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, I P; Rivas, F; Ramos, A L; Galaviz, C; Sandoval, L; Rivera, H

    2000-01-01

    Only nine non-polymorphic constitutional pericentric inversions of chromosome 9 have been described. We report on a familial inv(9)(p24q13) associated with sterility in three brothers. The mother's chromosomes were normal in blood lymphocytes (n=130); the father was already deceased and his karyotype unknown. However, the presence of any of the maternal chromosomes 9 (as assessed by C-banding) in her carrier children is inconsistent with the assumption of maternal mosaicism. Two single sisters were also carriers. The same rearranged chromosome 9 in the three sterile brothers can hardly be regarded as a fortuitous association, especially when the breakpoints are almost identical to those of the sole inversion previously found in an azoospermic male. If their father was a carrier, the observed sterility may be the result of 'chromosome anticipation', a phenomenon already invoked for certain familial chromosomal rearrangements.

  10. A Unique Case of Allogeneic Fat Grafting Between Brothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Samuel; Edelson, Richard L.; Sumpio, Brandon; Kwei, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient’s unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain. Our unique case study supports the use of fat grafting for its restorative purposes and for its ability to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Additionally, it appears that our case provides a basis of a general approach to the treatment of radiation-induced ulcers in chimeric patients with lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27757347

  11. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  12. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  13. Propane tank explosion (2 deaths, 7 injuries) at Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, Albert City, Iowa, April 9, 1998. Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report explains the explosion/BLEVE that took place on April 9, 1998, at the Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, located in Albert City, Iowa. Two volunteer fire fighters were killed and seven other emergency response personnel were injured. Safety issues covered in the report include protection of propane storage tanks and piping, state regulatory oversight of such installations, and fire fighter response to propane storage tank fires.

  14. Human factors of powered flight: the Wright brothers' contributions.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Stanley R

    2004-02-01

    Orville and Wilbur Wright of Dayton, OH, not only were the first to fly a powered aircraft, but also pioneered many human factors considerations. While others tried to develop aircraft with a high degree of aerodynamic stability, the Wrights intentionally designed unstable aircraft with "cerebralized" control modeled on bird flight. During 1901-03, the brothers worked with large gliders at Kill Devil Hills, near Kitty Hawk, NC, to develop the first practical human-interactive controls for aircraft pitch, roll, and yaw. On December 17, 1903, they made four controlled, powered flights over the dunes at Kitty Hawk with their Wright Flyer. During the next 2 yr, the Wrights made numerous flights in the Wright Flyers II and III at Huffman Prairie near Dayton. They later developed practical in-flight control of engine power, plus an angle-of-attack sensor and stick-pusher that reduced pilot workload. The brothers' flight demonstrations in the U.S. and Europe during 1908-09 awakened the world to the new age of controlled flight. Orville was the first aviator to use a seat belt. He also introduced a rudder boost/trim control that gave the pilot greater control authority. The Wrights' flight training school in Dayton included a flight simulator of their own design. The Wrights patented their practical airplane and flight control concepts, many of which are still in use today.

  15. Identical male twins and brother with Cockayne syndrome.

    PubMed

    Houston, C S; Zaleski, W A; Rozdilsky, B

    1982-10-01

    The clinical, radiological, and neuropathological findings in early onset Cockayne syndrome are illustrated in identical twins and their brother. Their appearance of dwarfism with small head and prominent beaked nose strongly resembled that seen in the Seckel syndrome, but unlike patients with that syndrome they had a normal birth weight (for twins), thick cranial vaults, intracranial calcification, and a severe degree of mental retardation. The twins were deaf and blind, with optic atrophy and retinal pigmentation, while their brother had cataracts. Their hands and feet were large in proportion to their small trunk. They had cutaneous sensitivity to any slight exposure to ultraviolet light and severe neurologic problems with incoordination and spasticity. Radiologic findings included microcephaly, a thick cranial vault, a small pelvis, coxa valga, and "ivory epiphyses" in terminal phalanges of hands and feet. Pathologic findings included atrophy of white matter with widespread patchy demyelination, and massive siderocalcific deposits in the brain, particularly in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. While autosomal recessive inheritance is most likely, formally X-linked inheritance cannot be excluded. PMID:6890311

  16. Matching osteochondritis dissecans lesions in identical twin brothers.

    PubMed

    Richie, Lucas B; Sytsma, Mark J

    2013-09-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans is a disorder of unknown etiology that can result in fragmentation of osteochondral surfaces, most commonly of the knee, shoulder, elbow, and ankle. This may lead to sequelae of pain and an inability to participate in desired activities. Multiple theories exist as to the true cause of the disorder, but none have been fully proven. One such proposed etiology is genetic causation. Familial cases of osteochondritis dissecans are rare, yet these cases offer support to growing evidence that may support a genetic link. This article describes osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the femoral trochlea in monozygotic (identical) twins. Both twins presented with similar symptoms 1 year apart. Neither twin had any clear inciting trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteochondral lesions in similar positions of the lateral trochlear of the same knee in both brothers. Osteochondral autograft transfer and tibial tubercle anteromedialization were performed on both patients. An identical postoperative protocol was followed, and recovery with full return to sport was comparable for the brothers. To the authors' knowledge, only 1 other case report exists of osteochondritis dissecans lesions in monozygotic twins. Although debate continues regarding the true etiology of this disorder, cases of identical twins presenting with a similar disease process are highly suggestive of a genetic component and may lead to early identification and treatment of these lesions. Continued research in the area of osteochondritis dissecans and its genetic basis is needed to completely understand this disorder. PMID:24025016

  17. Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Sister's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen

    2016-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or sister. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…

  18. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  19. Continuity & Change in Catholic Education: An Ethnography of Christian Brothers College. Research Monograph No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard; And Others

    Four papers on an ethnographic study of Christian Brothers College (CBC) in Australia, a Catholic college, are presented. In "Christian Brothers College: A View from Overseas," Louis M. Smith discusses research methods, the religious ethos, faculty heterogeneity, diversity in classroom organization, the organizational context of the college, and…

  20. The Perceptions and Experiences of Adolescent Siblings Who Have a Brother with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Reilly, Deirdre; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research on the perspectives of adolescent siblings growing up with a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Semistructured interviews were used to elicit the perceptions and experiences of 12 typically developing adolescents with a brother with an ASD. Interpretative phenomenological…

  1. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  2. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  3. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  4. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  5. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  6. Snapping annular ligament of the elbow joint in the throwing arms of young brothers.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Okamura, Kenji; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2003-10-01

    We examined young brothers with symptomatic snapping elbow in the throwing arm. Arthroscopic examination confirmed the mechanism of snapping, in which loose and protruded annular ligament-like tissue covered the volar half of the radial head in elbow extension and uncovered the radial head in deep elbow flexion. Arthroscopic resection of the annular ligament-like tissue was performed in one brother. Histologic examination of the removed tissue showed degenerated ligament tissue. Excision of loose annular ligament abolished snapping. Contralateral elbows of the brothers also showed similar asymptomatic snapping. Researchers suggest that a hereditary factor contributing to loose annular ligament and repetitive microtrauma from throwing is the cause of symptoms.

  7. [Discovery of a monoclonal gammopathy in 2 brothers and its classification by electroimmunodiffusion].

    PubMed

    Mari, S; Zepponi, E; Nardone, G; Milano, R; Guanciale, C; Ranieri, M

    1980-06-01

    In this work the finding of a monoclonal band in two brothers is communicated. The electroimmunoprecipitation has been used for the typification. This technique seemed to be simple, rapid and of immediate interpretation. PMID:6787654

  8. How to Prepare Your Child for A New Brother or Sister

    MedlinePlus

    ... html How to Prepare Your Child for a New Brother or Sister Children's reactions to family changes ... joy. Mom and Dad should talk about the new baby and let kids feel their enthusiasm. Parents ...

  9. 3 CFR 9071 - Proclamation 9071 of December 16, 2013. Wright Brothers Day, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seconds of flight. Wilbur and Orville Wright's airplane soared above the wind-blown banks of Kitty Hawk... brothers worked in Kitty Hawk. She went on to manage press, conduct business with foreign dignitaries...

  10. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the parent dies. (c) The last month for which such brother or sister is entitled to benefits is the month before the month in which any of the following events first occurs: (1) The individual dies;...

  11. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the parent dies. (c) The last month for which such brother or sister is entitled to benefits is the month before the month in which any of the following events first occurs: (1) The individual dies;...

  12. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning, periodic abstinence, and the rhythm method. How Does It Work? If a couple doesn't have ... get pregnant should not have sex. How Well Does It Work? Fertility awareness is not a reliable ...

  13. Performance of older versus younger brothers: data from major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2007-12-01

    Batting and pitching records and career lengths of 312 sets of brothers who became major league baseball players were compared. Older brothers at non-pitching positions (N = 262) had significantly higher batting averages and longer careers than their younger siblings. Differences for pitchers were not statistically significant. The results corroborate other studies that firstborns are more likely than later born siblings to be higher achievers, but different factors may be operative for pitchers.

  14. The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Charles B.

    The first hot air balloon ascension over Paris in September 1783 has been described so many times that it and its passengers—the sheep, the rooster, and the duck—have joined Benjamin Franklin and his kite in the folklore of our culture. Not so well known is the earlier history of ballooning; that the brothers Montgolfier had demonstrated their hot air balloons repeatedly for several months prior to the ascent over Paris; or that the physicist Charles, urged onward and financed by an enthusiast, Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, launched successfully the first fabric balloon filled with hydrogen over Paris more than 3 weeks prior to the memorable ascent of the sheep, and rooster, and the duck.For all of its well-documented detail, the book is readable and enjoyable. It is a well-written but complex book in which Professor Gillispie develops a number of subjects to recreate the era in perspective. The origins and the disposition of the Montgolfiers, the industry of the period, the idea of capturing heated air are all reported in detail. The attempts to obtain government funding and the promotional activities in Paris were forerunners of the modern techniques for obtaining support of research activities.

  15. Initial Investigations into the Microbial Diversity at Brothers Seamount, Kermadec-Tonga Arc, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, M. B.; Nakasone, E.; Saito, J.; Dunfield, P.; Malahoff, A.; Alam, M.

    2005-12-01

    Brothers Seamount, a submarine volcano located along the Kermadec-Tonga Arc in New Zealand, results from intraoceanic plate subduction and as such, exhibits substantially different chemistries to those found on mid-ocean spreading ridges. Furthermore, Brothers Seamount has two major venting sites that exhibit disparate geochemistries. Combined, these factors suggest that microbial diversity studies of Brothers Volcano have potential to identify an array of novel microbial species. Two manned submarine expeditions, the first in November 2004 with the JAMSTEC R/V Yokosuka and Shinkai 6500 and the second in April/May 2005 with the HURL R/V Kiamikai-o-Kanaloa and Picses V dove on the Brothers Seamount a total of 9 times collecting vent, sediment and fluid samples used, in part, for microbial enrichments and molecular diversity studies. Clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were generated using DNA extracts from multiple samples at the two venting sites on Brothers Volcano. So far, more than 60 unique bacterial sequence types have been found out of an overall clone count of greater than 200 including , a, and -Proteobacteria, and several Planctomycetes. The -Proteobacteria account for most of the diversity. Archaeal 16S rRNA clone banks, including amplifications using primers specific for the phylum Nanoarchaeota, are currently being constructed, with preliminary results showing a diverse range of archaeal species.

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  17. Legal consequences for torture in children cases: the Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers vs Peru case.

    PubMed

    Tinta, Monica Feria

    2009-01-01

    The Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers case, before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, was the first international case concerning the protection of children in the context of armed conflict where an international court stated the law concerning the duties of States towards children even in the context of war, and provided for reparations. As such it represents a landmark decision. The case arose from the illegal detention, torture and extrajudicial execution of two minors, Emilio and Rafael Gomez Paquiyauri, at the hands of Peruvian Police in 1991, under the Fujimori Administration at a time when the internal war in Peru was at its peak. Unlike most cases coming to the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court, the case had been subject to domestic criminal investigations that had led to the convictions of two low ranking policemen. Yet a more subtle pattern of impunity lied at the root of the case. Torture had been denied by the State, and the prosecutions of low ranking policemen had intended to cover up the responsibility of those who ordered a policy of torture and executions (including the existence of secret codes for the torture and elimination of suspects of "terrorism") during the years of the internal armed conflict in Peru. The joint work of legal and medical expertise in the litigation of the case permitted the establishment of the facts and the law, obtaining an award of 740,500 dollars for the victims and a number of measures of reparation including guarantees of non-repetition and satisfaction, such as the naming of a school after the victims. PMID:19920329

  18. Posterior Ankle Impingement in Two Athletic Twin Brothers, Could Genetics Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Bech, Niels H; de Leeuw, Peter A J; Haverkamp, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Pain posteriorly in the ankle can be caused by bony impingement of the posterolateral process of the talus. This process impinges between the tibia and calcaneus during deep forced plantar flexion. If this occurs it is called posterior ankle impingement syndrome. We report the case of 2 athletic monozygotic twin brothers with bony impingement posteriorly in the left ankle. Treatment consisted of ankle arthroscopy in both patients during which the symptomatic process was easily removed. At 3 months after surgery, both patients were completely free of pain, and 1 of the brothers had already returned to sports. The posterior ankle impingement syndrome is not a rare syndrome, but it has not been described in siblings thus far. That these 2 patients are monozygotic twin brothers suggests that genetics could play a role in the development of skeletal deformities that can result in posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

  19. [Hepatic adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in 3 brothers with type I glycogenosis].

    PubMed

    Kharsa, G; Degott, C; Filoche, B; Hedde, J P; Potet, F; Benhamou, J P

    1990-01-01

    We report 2 cases of type I glycogen storage disease (Von Gierke's disease) discovered in 2 brothers at the age of 7 and 5 years, respectively. Both developed hepatic adenoma at the age of 19 and 17. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in the older brother the discovery of adenoma 4 years after. The frequency of these tumors in patients with type I glycogen storage disease raises problems concerning the treatment and modality of regular surveillance of the liver in these patients. The policy for the detection and treatment of these tumors, and particularly the indications for liver transplantation are discussed. PMID:2155841

  20. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. (a) Parent. The claimant's relationship as a parent of the employee is determined...

  1. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. (a) Parent. The claimant's relationship as a parent of the employee is determined...

  2. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. (a) Parent. The claimant's relationship as a parent of the employee is determined...

  3. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. (a) Parent. The claimant's relationship as a parent of the employee is determined...

  4. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister. (a) Parent. The claimant's relationship as a parent of the employee is determined...

  5. Intrafamilial Sexual Abuse: Brother-Sister Incest Does Not Differ from Father-Daughter and Stepfather-Stepdaughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain

    2002-01-01

    A study compared 72 girls (ages 5-16) sexually abused by brothers, fathers, or stepfathers. Results suggested few differences in characteristics of sexual abuse. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest group. More victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically significant distress (90%), than stepfather victims…

  6. "Our Boys": The Christian Brothers and the Formation of Youth in the "New Ireland"1914-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Daire

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the development of the boys' magazine, "Our Boys," and how this became a powerful auxiliary to the Christian Brothers' work in schools. It championed the values that the Christian Brothers had propagated since their foundation in 1802. Often characterised as Celtic and Romantic, it was neither, but aimed at…

  7. Severe complications in wound healing and fracture treatment in two brothers with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Marion; Spiegler, Juliane; Härtel, Christoph; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabrielle; Kaiser, Martin M

    2013-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 (NTRK1) gene, which encodes the receptor for nerve growth factor. We report the clinical and radiological pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of two brothers, aged 5 and 8 years, with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, the older brother having a proven NTRK1 mutation. In the neonatal period, both presented with recurrent episodes of fever of unknown origin, but their clinical problems changed later. In addition to severe mental retardation and self-harming behaviour, the older brother developed recurrent nonbacterial destructive infections of both the calcaneus and later the talus. No immunodeficiency was found. The younger brother had three complex fractures with a long history of healing problems: overwhelming production of callus, osteomyelitis and movement restrictions. He has less mental retardation than his older brother and shows no self-mutilation.

  8. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  9. Sibling Communication in "Star Trek: The Next Generation": Conflicts between Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn

    "Star Trek: The Next Generation" depicts sibling relationships between Data and Lore (android), Worf and Kurn (Klingon) and Jean-Luc and Robert (human) that illustrate conflictual communication and suggest teaching applications. The most disturbing empirical communication research on conflict between brothers reports that male sibling pairs are…

  10. Making a Difference. An Impact Study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Joseph P.; And Others

    This report provides reliable evidence that mentoring programs can positively affect young people. The evidence is derived from research conducted at local affiliates of Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America (BB/BSA), the oldest, best-known, and arguably most sophisticated of the country's mentoring programs. Public/Private Ventures, Inc. conducted…

  11. The Wright Brothers and the Future of Bio-Inspired Flight: 1899 through to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiments that the Wright Brothers conducted prior to their first powered flight in 1903 to developing the first practical aircraft in 1905. Many pictures of the gliders and other devices are used to illustrate the gradual development and experimentation that proceeded the first powered flight.

  12. The Irish Christian Brothers and the National Board of Education: Challenging the Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    For close to 170 years the general consensus from historians has been that Edmund Rice, who founded the Irish Christian Brothers in 1802, was an unenthusiastic applicant to the National Board of Education in Ireland in 1832 and later withdrew his schools because he believed his education was incompatible with the philosophy underpinning the…

  13. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  14. Clinical study and haplotype analysis in two brothers with Partington syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Borghgraef, Martine; Froyen, Guy; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Partington et al. [1988] described a three-generation family (MRXS1, MIM *309510, PRTS) with a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). The clinical features in 10 affected males included mild to moderate MR, dystonic movements of the hands, and dysarthria. After refinement, the PRTS locus was mapped to marker DXS989 (with maximum LOD score of 3.1) with flanking markers DXS365 and DXS28. Since then, no other patients with a similar phenotype have been described. We present a detailed description of the neurological symptoms and the disease history of two brothers with the clinical features of PRTS. Psychomotor development was delayed in both, and neurological features included mild to moderate mental retardation, dysarthria, facial muscle weakness, severe dysdiadochokinesis, slow dystonic movements, and mild spasticity of the hands, without ataxia or spasticity of the legs. The symptoms were nonprogressive and extrapyramidal, and without cerebellar involvement. In general, behavior of the two brothers was friendly and quiet, although the elder brother had periods of depressed mood and outbursts of anger. Karyotypes and subsequent investigation of the subtelomeres as well as DNA analysis of the FMR1 gene, the androgen receptor gene, and the DM locus did not reveal a genetic abnormality. Haplotype analysis showed that the affected brothers share the PRTS region at Xp22.1. Mutation screening of the PDH-E1alpha gene did not reveal a pathogenic mutation.

  15. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  16. When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

  17. 3 CFR 8617 - Proclamation 8617 of December 17, 2010. Wright Brothers Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... December 17, 2010 Proc. 8617 Wright Brothers Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America A... inviting the people of the United States to observe that day with appropriate ceremonies and activities. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do hereby...

  18. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  19. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... death, unless the time is extended for good cause (§ 725.226); (4) In the case of a brother or sister... Act, 42 U.S.C. 423(d), at the time of the miner's death; (5) The deceased miner: (i) Was entitled to... disabled due to pneumoconiosis at the time of death or to have died due to pneumoconiosis. A...

  20. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. 410.215 Section 410.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for...

  1. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...

  2. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...

  3. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...

  4. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...

  5. 20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. 410.214 Section 410.214 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for...

  6. "Brothers and Sisters": A Novel Way to Teach Human Resources Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumpus, Minnette

    2000-01-01

    The novel "Brothers and Sisters" by Bebe Moore Campbell was used in a management course to explore human resource management issues, concepts, and theories. The course included prereading and postreading surveys, lecture, book review, and examination. Most of the students (92%) felt the novel was an appropriate way to meet course objectives. (SK)

  7. My Brother as "Problem": Neoliberal Governmentality and Interventions for Black Young Men and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…

  8. Another Look at Vividness in the Trial of Two Vietnamese Brothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnahan, Mary I.

    A study examined the trial of People v. Tien (two Vietnamese brothers named defendants in an assault case). In order to understand better the relationship between supportive speech acts and credibility, the study examined how the attorney elicited vivid testimony. One of the ways in which an attorney yields control of testimony to a witness is by…

  9. Evidence of environmental suppression of familial resemblance: height among US Civil War brothers.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Rathouz, P J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines, with historical data, whether within family correlations in height varied across environments and whether variability in height was greater in worse environments. To investigate these hypotheses, brothers were identified who were mustered into the Union Army of the US Civil War, using linked records from the 1850 and 1860 censuses and military and medical records. Heights were available for 3898 men aged 18 and older, of whom 595 were further identified as belonging to 288 family sets of two, three or four brothers. Generalized estimating equations were used to concurrently model the mean height, the variance and the correlation between brothers as a function of county population. Heights decreased as county population size increased (p<0.001). The correlation between brothers' heights decreased significantly (p = 0.032) with increasing county population, and the variance increased (p = 0.026). The correlation ranged approximately from 0.63 in the least populous to 0.24 in the most populous counties. The degree of familial resemblance was lower in environments where mean height was lower, and the variability in height was greater, suggesting that the environmental contribution to the variability in height is of greater relative importance in populations reared, on average, in worse environments. PMID:10541404

  10. Learning English through Social Interaction: The Case of "Big Brother 2006," Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaanta, Leila; Jauni, Heidi; Leppanen, Sirpa; Peuronen, Saija; Paakkinen, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In line with recent Conversation Analytic work on language learning as situated practice, this article investigates how interactants can create language learning opportunities for themselves and others in and through social interaction. The study shows how the participants of "Big Brother Finland," a reality TV show, whose main…

  11. A Thousand Lights [and] A Thousand Lights: Teacher and Parent Guide. Brothers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of two brothers, one of whom has a severe hearing impairment, who climb up Mt. Fuji in Japan. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage the reader to relate more personally and foster a deeper level of acceptance…

  12. Containment of fertilizers and pesticides at retail operations

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1990-06-28

    Environmental protection has become as important to the fertilizer retailer as the products and services he offers. Emphasis on environmental protection at the dealer level is largely in response to state regulations designed to protect groundwater. The national Clean Water Act of 1987 gave states the lead in developing groundwater protection strategies. Several states have adopted new or stronger regulations and others are moving to do so. Fertilizer dealers need to keep up with these regulations and promote groundwater protection. This paper describes several containment systems for fertilizers and pesticides to help dealers decide how to modify their plants to protect groundwater.

  13. Brotherly Advice: Letters from Hugo to Paul Ehrenfest in his Final Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2006-03-01

    At the start of the 1930s, theoretician Paul Ehrenfest spent much of his time traveling through America and Europe while engaged in a steady stream of lectures. This traveling phase coincided with a frantic and intense period of negative self-examination, financial difficulty, and various other personal concerns that would ultimately lead to his 1933 suicide. Throughout these final years, he kept up a steady correspondence with his brother Hugo, a physician based in Saint Louis. Ten years older than Paul, Hugo freely doled out frank psychological advice about subjects ranging from the proper treatment of children to the dangers of self-pity. Through a look at some of the letters exchanged between the two brothers, this talk will examine the role Hugo played during the dark final years of Paul Ehrenfest's life.

  14. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  15. Coexistence of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and vasospastic angina pectoris in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuaki; Seto, Shinji; Koide, Yuji; Sato, Osami; Hirano, Hisataka; Kawano, Hiroaki; Yano, Katsusuke

    2003-09-01

    Two brothers had familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and vasospastic angina pectoris concurrently. Their family history showed that one of their sisters had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and another brother died suddenly at age 52. The clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was confirmed by an echocardiogram and left ventriculography. They had typical chest pain at rest, and a significant vasospasm of coronary arteries with chest pain and obvious ST-T changes in the electrocardiograms was provoked by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine in both patients. The administration of a calcium antagonist and nitrate was effective for ameliorating chest pain with no cardiovascular events during the follow up period of more than 3 years. Although underlying pathophysiologic abnormalities of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and vasospastic angina pectoris are considered to be transmitted genetically, the genetic backgrounds of these cases remain to be clarified.

  16. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  17. Learning to Fly: The Wright Brothers' Adventure. A Guide for Educators and Students with Activities in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R.; Benson, T.; Galica, C.; McCredie, P.

    2003-01-01

    This guide was produced by the NASA Glenn Research Center Office of Educational Programs in Cleveland, OH, and the NASA Aerospace Educational Coordinating Committee. It includes activity modules for students, including the history of the Wright Brothers and their family in Dayton, Ohio and flight experimentation in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Student activities such as building models of the Wright Brothers glider and writing press releases of the initial flight are included.

  18. [Two pairs of brothers with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): case reports].

    PubMed

    Robazzi, Teresa Cristina M V; Rios, Gabriela; Castro, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in two pairs of brothers followed in the department of pediatric rheumatology, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Genetic involvement in JIA pathogenesis is clear and the risk of recurrence among siblings supports this contribution. An important landmark of this discovery involves the acknowledgment of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism contribution to JIA development susceptibility. Despite many advances, the numerous available studies cannot explain several implicit mechanisms in JIA pathogenesis yet.

  19. X-linked mental retardation syndrome: Three brothers with the Brooks-Wisniewski-Brown syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Morava, E.; Storcz, J.; Kosztolanyi, G.

    1996-07-12

    We report on 3 brothers with growth and mental retardation, bifrontal narrowness, short palpebral fissures, deeply set eyes with entropion, wide bulbous nose, small mouth, myopia, and spastic diplegia. The patients were born to normal and non-consanguineous parents. The similarity of our cases with those recently reported by Brooks et al. supports their suggestion that these patients are representative of a distinct entity. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Retinitis pigmentosa, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, and brachydactyly: an affected brother and sister.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, C I; Wynne-Davies, R; Stokoe, N L; Newton, M

    1981-01-01

    A brother and sister, children of normal parents are described. They had retinitis pigmentosa, causing near-blindness as a result of very narrow fields of vision, associated with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and marked shortening of the metacarpals and terminal phalanges. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suggested with a common biochemical cause for all these defects. This apparently new association of retinitis pigmentosa with a systemic bone dysplasia emphasises that this not uncommon clinical diagnosis has a variety of different possible causes. Images PMID:7252997

  1. The "automatic stabilizer" and angle of attack assessor: human factors contributions of the Wright brothers.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1996-06-01

    The Wright brothers followed their invention of the first practical airplane (1903) with a second epochal invention, the angle of attack sensor and aircraft stabilizer (1908). Both inventions were patented and details of each are contained in the respective patents for these two aeronautical advances. This paper emphasizes how the angle of attack sensor actuated an "automatic stabilizer." This approach decreased pilot workload, and variations of the Wright's invention are incorporated today in many types of aircraft. PMID:8827142

  2. [Two pairs of brothers with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): case reports].

    PubMed

    Robazzi, Teresa Cristina M V; Rios, Gabriela; Castro, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in two pairs of brothers followed in the department of pediatric rheumatology, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Genetic involvement in JIA pathogenesis is clear and the risk of recurrence among siblings supports this contribution. An important landmark of this discovery involves the acknowledgment of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism contribution to JIA development susceptibility. Despite many advances, the numerous available studies cannot explain several implicit mechanisms in JIA pathogenesis yet. PMID:25563760

  3. Brother-sister incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-sister incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse).

  4. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  5. Fluid Flow Patterns in a Submarine Volcano: Simulating the Hydrothermal Evolution of Brothers Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, G.; de Ronde, C. E.; Driesner, T.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Brothers volcano is part of the southern Kermadec intra-oceanic arc located northeast of New Zealand, and is one of the world’s best-studied active submarine volcanoes. It provides insight into the complex subseafloor hydrology of a submarine arc volcano with evidence for different stages in its magmatic-hydrothermal evolution [1]. The volcanic edifice comprises an elongated caldera surrounding an asymmetrically centered post-collapse cone. While hydrothermal venting at the NW caldera wall is focused and dates back to at least 1,200 years, hydrothermal discharge at the cone summit is diffuse and considered to be significantly younger. Recent studies of regional seismicity and local harmonic tremor at Brothers volcano imply the existence of a hydrothermal fluid reservoir underneath the area of the present cone [2]. Using a combined finite element - finite volume method, we have computed multi-phase mass and heat transport with a process simulation scheme based on realistic fluid properties. We have used correlations that describe phase stability relations in the binary NaCl-H2O system up to 1000°C [3]. Our earlier results of generic fluid flow simulations showed that water depth and seafloor topography, together with crustal permeability and the relative contributions of seawater and magmatic fluids, are first-order physical parameters controlling the fluid flow patterns and the style of hydrothermal venting. In our more recent simulations, we use available data from Brothers volcano, including detailed bathymetry, physical and chemical measurements from different vent sites and information on the size and location of the subseafloor magma chamber(s). The implementation of two distinct magmatic stages (i.e., pre-cone vs. post-cone) shows that the topography of the volcanic edifice, in combination with the location and size of an underlying magma chamber, play an important role in the style and evolution of the hydrothermal system. [1] de Ronde, C. E. J., et al

  6. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  7. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero.

  8. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  9. [Fertility and youth].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Vasquez, L

    1981-01-01

    This work examines the history and current characteristics of fertility among Cuban women aged 15-24 and speculates on the determinants of fertility patterns among them. Cuban fertility has tended in different periods to peak at an early age, with the modal age of giving birth in the 20-24 group. The level of fertility was high from 1955-59, increasing slightly in the 1st years after the Revolution and beginning to decline again in the mid 1960s. Age specific fertility rates still showed peak fertility at the younger cohorts. Cuba remains unique among low fertility countries in having such a high fertility rate among young women aged 15-19. The fertility of women aged 20-24 began to decline in the late 1960s but that of women 15-20 continued to increase until the early 1970s. Age specific fertility rates for the cohort aged 20-24 declined by 45.5% between 1975-78 while that for women aged 15-19 years declined by 71.1%. The proportion of births to women under 20 has increased due to the fertility decline at older cohorts despite the reduced rate of early fertility. The basic causes of early marriage and elevated fertility among the young have been the greater freedom of youths and the strengthening of matrimony and parental responsibility in conjunction with persistent false moralistic concepts within families and a lack of sex education. PMID:12311914

  10. Commercial Fertilizers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

  11. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  12. A test for evaluating the downscaling ability of one-way nested regional climate models: The Big-Brother Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Bertrand

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the downscaling ability of one-way nesting regional climate models (RCM). To do this, a rigorous and well-defined experiment for assessing the reliability of the one-way nesting approach is developed. This experiment, baptised the Big-Brother Experiment (BBE), is used for addressing some important one-way nesting issues. The first part of this work is dedicated to the development of a scale decomposition tool employed for the BBE. This tool involves a new spectral analysing technique suitable for two-dimensional fields on limited-area domains, and is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT). It is used for degrading the spatial resolution of the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) used to drive the Canadian RCM (CRCM), for extracting mesoscale features from the atmospheric fields, and for regional validation, and producing power spectra. The second part of the thesis describes the BBE framework and its first results. The BBE consists in first establishing a reference virtual-reality climate from an RCM simulation using a large and high-resolution domain. This simulation is called the "Big Brother". This big-brother simulation is then degraded toward the resolution of today's global objective analyses (OA) and/or global climate models (GCM) by removing the short scales. The resulting fields are then used as nesting data to drive an RCM (called the "Little Brother") which is integrated at the same high-resolution as the Big Brother, but over a sub-area of the big-brother domain. The climate statistics of the Little Brother are then compared with those of the big-brother simulation over the little-brother domain. Differences between the two climates can thus be unambiguously attributed to errors associated with the dynamical downscaling technique, and not to model errors nor to observation limitations. The results for a February simulation shows that the Canadian RCM, using a factor of 6 between the model and the LBC spatial

  13. 'The story of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob" or "am I my brother's keeper?".

    PubMed

    Oz, Carla; Zamir, Ashira; Gafny, Ron; Motro, Uzi

    2003-01-01

    Presented is a case report of a violent sexual assault where the DNA profile obtained from an item of evidence was compared to a suspect's profile. The profiles did not match, but the sharing of such a large number of alleles raised the suspicion that perhaps the real perpetrator was a blood relative of the suspect. The investigators requested a sample from the suspect's brother, and a match was defined. In an era of technological breakthroughs in the field of forensic DNA analysis, the importance of the scientist's attention to the evidence presented in each case is stressed.

  14. Hoarding, hermitage, and the law: why we love the collyer brothers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in hoarding behavior has intensified, as it works its way through DSM-V deliberations and treatment models. Meanwhile, both documentarians and fiction writers have embraced accounts of individuals with disposophobia and romanticized versions of the Collyer brothers, the Hermits of Harlem. In this article, I examine the range of media and professional attention given to hoarders and their problems and then focus on a potential role for forensic mental health professionals. The psycholegal problems of hoarders include health and zoning code violations that evolve into criminal charges, civil commitment, questions of animal cruelty, landlord-tenant disputes, divorce and custody evaluations, testamentary capacity, and child-neglect charges.

  15. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  16. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  17. Fertility differentials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogum, G E

    1980-01-01

    A review of the numerous fertility studies carried out in Nigeria during the last 3 decades. Evidence of differences in fertility among subgroups of the population is gleaned from these studies, as very few have addressed this issue specifically. Results still need to be evaluated. The only strong indication of possible geographic fertility differentials remains Van de Walle's analysis of age data from the census of 1952-53. 2 studies among populations of southwestern Nigeria yielded conflicting results with regard to urban-rural differentials, 1 finding lower fertility among urban residents while the other found no differences. Similarly, 2 studies with regard to religious differences yielded somewhat conflicting results, 1 showing Moslems and traditional worshippers having higher fertility than Christians, the other showing Moslems with lower fertility than traditional believers. There is some consensus among researchers that education has some depressing effect on fertility.

  18. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  19. Familial appearance of congenital penile curvature – case history of two brothers

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz; Rębała, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The true prevalence of congenital penile curvature (CPC) is difficult to determine. Some study reports suggests that this problem may occur in as many as 10% of the male population [1]. However, a literature search of the Medline database revealed no reference concerning familial appearance of congenital penile curvature. For that reason we would like to present our case series. Two brothers aged 25 and 26 respectively were admitted to the department of urology due to congenital penile curvature. Each patient was assessed by a history, physical examination, auto-photography of the erect penis, and a thorough sexual history. Concomitant anomalies of penile layers were absent in both cases. The Yachia [2] and Essed-Schroeder [3] corporoplasty technique were applied respectively. In follow-up both brothers reported straight erections. A survey of the fetal penis at different stages of development shows some degree of curvature in a considerable number of embryos [4]. Penile curvature may thus be considered almost physiological in embryos between 35 and 45 mm in length. Thus, it has also been proposed that penile curvature is secondary to an arrest in normal penile development [5]. Therefore, some form of congenital local androgen deficiency may be responsible for inherited penile curvature. PMID:24579033

  20. Sibling relationships of children with autistic, mentally retarded, and nonhandicapped brothers and sisters.

    PubMed

    McHale, S M; Sloan, J; Simeonsson, R J

    1986-12-01

    The subjects were 90 children between 6 and 15 years of age, 30 with autistic, 30 with mentally retarded, and 30 with nonhandicapped brothers or sisters. The children were questioned about their sibling relationships in an open-ended interview, and, in the case of children with handicapped siblings, they also responded to questions about particular problems they faced in regard to their brothers or sisters. In addition, mothers filled out a behavior rating scale in which they described the positive and negative aspects of their children's behavior toward the sibling. In general, children and mothers rated the sibling relationships positively. Group comparisons indicated that children with autistic and mentally retarded siblings did not differ on any self-report measures. Children with nonhandicapped siblings reported that their family relations were slightly more cohesive but otherwise did not differ in terms of their self-reports from children with handicapped siblings. Mothers of nonhandicapped children, however, rated the sibling relationships more negatively than did mothers of handicapped children. Further analyses revealed that status variables (age, gender, family size) were not as highly correlated with the quality of sibling relationships with handicapped children as were specific problem areas (e.g., perceptions of parental favoritism, coping ability, concerns about the handicapped child's future). PMID:3804956

  1. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  2. Special Review of Smart Start Expenditures by Save Our Brothers, Inc. (Pittsboro, North Carolina) and Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ (Moncure, North Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Office of the State Auditor, Raleigh.

    This report of the Office of the State Auditor in North Carolina details audit findings regarding allegations of misuse of Smart Start funds by Save Our Brothers, Inc. and the Liberty Chapel United Church of Christ. Save Our Brothers, Inc., a nonprofit agency, received two contracts totaling $46,327 from the Chatham County Partnership for Children…

  3. Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

    1991-12-31

    The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers` desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

  4. Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers' desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

  5. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  6. [[Fertility in Bangladesh villages

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Igarashi, T; Tsubouchi, Y

    1990-12-01

    The authors analyze the high fertility in two Bangladesh villages based on survey and genealogical data. "Compared with nation-wide data, [the] two villages showed comparatively high fertility. There was a difference in fertility between the two villages, which appeared to result from a difference in mean age at first marriage. No other factors were identified.... As for the government's family planning program, neither village showed much effect." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  7. Attitudes towards fertility control.

    PubMed

    Muthal, S

    1992-03-01

    "The present work aims to determine...the effectiveness of traditional mixed and modern attitudes towards fertility. Here fertility refers to the number of children actually born to a woman. Randomly chosen 400 women belonging to different ethnic strains from Sagar town [India] constitute the data for the present study. The scaling technique is devised to obtain accurate values for fertility noticed among different populations. Thus an attempt has been made to study whether education, income, caste, age and age at marriage have direct association with fertility."

  8. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  9. ATRX mutation in two adult brothers with non-specific moderate intellectual disability identified by exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Moncini, S; Bedeschi, M F; Castronovo, P; Crippa, M; Calvello, M; Garghentino, R R; Scuvera, G; Finelli, P; Venturin, M

    2013-12-01

    In this report, we describe two adult brothers affected by moderate non-specific intellectual disability (ID). They showed minor facial anomalies, not clearly ascribable to any specific syndromic patterns, microcephaly, brachydactyly and broad toes. Both brothers presented seizures. Karyotype, subtelomeric and FMR1 analysis were normal in both cases. We performed array-CGH analysis that revealed no copy-number variations potentially associated with ID. Subsequent exome sequence analysis allowed the identification of the ATRX c.109C>T (p.R37X) mutation in both the affected brothers. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the mutation in the brothers and showed that the mother is a healthy carrier. Mutations in the ATRX gene cause the X-linked alpha thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome (MIM #301040), a severe clinical condition usually associated with profound ID, facial dysmorphism and alpha thalassemia. However, the syndrome is clinically heterogeneous and some mutations, including the c.109C>T, are associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum, with patients displaying a less severe phenotype with only mild-moderate ID. In the case presented here, exome sequencing provided an effective strategy to achieve the molecular diagnosis of ATR-X syndrome, which otherwise would have been difficult to consider due to the mild non-specific phenotype and the absence of a family history with typical severe cases. PMID:25606380

  10. High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Kauh, Tina J.; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; McMaken, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age…

  11. Culture and fertility in the Nepal Himalayas: a test of a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ross, J L

    1984-01-01

    In the Nepal Himalayas the Tibetan sociocultural system of fraternal polyandry (the form of marriage where 1 woman has 2 or more brothers as husbands) reduces aggregate fertility whereas Hindu marriage patterns appear to maximize fertility since there is very early and universally monogamous marriages. Over an 18-month period, reseach in the upper reaches of the Humla Distrist of northwestern Nepal focused upon 2 culturally distinct but geographically contiguous communities. 1 is Nepali speaking and high-caste Hindu; the other, Tibetan speaking and Buddhist. The 2 populations present a relatively unique natural laboratory in which several key factors (geographic, environmental and economic) are controlled. Population dynamics in these 2 communities are principally determined by patterns of fertility and mortality. A summary of a number of characteristics of the population dynamics of these 2 populations (e.g., age at 1st birth, birth interval, crude birth rate, completed fertility rate, general fertility rate, % children surviving), shows that they are more alike than dissimilar. Fertility levels between the Hindu and Tibetan population are virtually the same. While Tibetan fraternal polyandry does reduce aggregate fertility, the hypothesis that the Tibetans would have a substantially lower fertility rate than the Hindus is false, because the effects of fraternal polyandry are roughly balanced by the effects of post-widowhood celibacy among the Hindus. This study points up an important issue often overlooked in demographic analysis. Aggregate statistics such as the completed fertility rate, while important, can be deceptive, since very different factors can produce the same result at any given point in time. Diachronically, however, these underlying facotrs may change very differently. For example, fraternal poyandry is highly susceptiable to change because of the constant reevaluation of the opportunity costs associated with its practice. Anticipating the

  12. Incestuous sisters: mate preference for brothers over unrelated males in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Cornuau, Jérémie H; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent) and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness.

  13. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-002-1551, Salomon Brothers, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fannick, N.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon-monoxide (630080) and carbon-dioxide (124389) concentrations were measured at Salomon Brothers, Incorporated (SIC-6711), New York, New York, in September and October, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the firm's medical department because of complaints of headache and eye, nose, and sinus irritation among employees who worked on the 40th floor, trading center. Ventilation surveys were also performed. After additional ventilation equipment was installed, a second survey found that the outdoor air supplied exceeded the ASHRAE recommendations. Following installation of the supplemental ventilation equipment, the employees complaints abated. The author concludes that in the preliminary survey, a potential health hazard existed due to an inadequate supply of fresh air. Installation of additional ventilation equipment removed the potential hazard.

  14. [The brothers of Jumiege--the peripheral nervous system in early French mythology].

    PubMed

    Brean, Are

    2002-03-20

    This article reviews the process of discovery of the nervous system from Pythagoras (570-500 BC) to Galen (130-201 AD). After Galen, no anatomical studies were performed before the renaissance. According to a legend, probably produced for political reasons, two brothers, sons of the French king Clovis II, revolted against their father and were sentenced to loose their physical powers by having the nerves of their arms and legs cut. They were then set adrift on the river Seine, stranding at the Jumiège monastery. The earliest written version of this legend stems from the fourteenth century; it was probably a part of the local French mythology. This indicates that the existence of the peripheral nervous system, and therefore also in part the knowledge contained in the early anatomical works, quite early may have been more or less known outside academic circles.

  15. Health assessment for Mathis Brothers Landfill, Kensington, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD980838619. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-29

    The Mathis Brothers Landfill (MBL) is on the National Priorities List. MBL is a 20-acre site and is located on the east side of Marble Top Road, one-half mile south of State Highway 136 near Kensington (Walker), Georgia. MBL was licensed by the State to accept nonhazardous waste. The landfill is uncapped and rusted, leaking drums presently exist on-site. No removal operations have occurred. On-site contaminants of concern include lead, various residues from herbicide manufacturing and latex waste from carpet manufacturing. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

  16. Incestuous Sisters: Mate Preference for Brothers over Unrelated Males in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Adeline; Cornuau, Jérémie H.; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Étienne

    2012-01-01

    The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent) and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness. PMID:23251487

  17. Observations of Local Seismicity and Harmonic Tremor Using an Ocean Bottom Hydrophone Array at Brothers Volcano, South Kermadec Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.; Lau, T. K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2005-12-01

    The submarine Brothers volcano is an important link in the volcanic chain of the southern Kermadec Arc system in the Southwest Pacific Ocean north of New Zealand. The 3-3.5 km wide caldera has a center depth of 1850m and steep surrounding walls of 300-450m. Active hydrothermal venting distinguished Brothers as a point of focus for the New Zealand American Submarine Ring of Fire (NZASRoF) expeditions in 2004 and 2005. Due to its remote location, moderate to small magnitude seismicity around the Brothers area is largely unknown. In late September 2004, four ocean bottom hydrophones (OBHs) were deployed on the caldera floor. In April 2005, three of the four instruments were recovered intact. These three OBHs continuously recorded, for seven months, the low frequency (0-110Hz) acoustic field around Brothers volcano, in particular seismic P- and S-waves propagating through the crust and acoustic T-waves in the water column . Preliminary analysis reveals seismicity rates on the order of 106 earthquakes per month. In addition to seismic arrivals, low frequency harmonic tremor is frequently and independently observed on each of the OBH instruments, often occurring subsequent to the larger seismic events. Qualitative comparisons of these signals with tremor observed from the Volcano Islands south of Japan (Dziak and Fox, 2002) show them to be nearly equivalent in frequency structure, suggesting the origin of the tremor observed at Brothers may also be attributed to resonance of a magma-gas mixture in a large chamber or conduit near the water/ seafloor boundary.

  18. [Preservation of fertility in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    de Lambert, Guénolée; Poirot, Catherine; Guérin, Florent; Brugières, Laurence; Martelli, Héléne

    2015-05-01

    Preserving fertility is a requisite for any child undergoing gonadotoxic treatment for cancer. Techniques vary depending on the age, sex of the patient and nature of the treatment. Boys undergoing irradiation have testicular protection or transposition. Post-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy can have semen cryopreservation like adults. However, fertility preservation for pre-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy implies testicular tissue cryopreservation. Research concentrates on germ cell transplantation, autotransplantation of testicular tissue or in vitro spermatogonial maturation in order to later restore spermatogenesis. Ovarian transposition can be undergone in case of brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy in girls and has published success rates of 80%. Ovarian cryopreservation has been developed since 1995 for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal girls undergoing chemotherapy. The ovary is retrieved surgically and ovarian cortical segments are frozen. Thawing and transplantation of gonadal tissue are the next steps to restoring fertility. However, immature oocytes will have to be matured either in vivo or in vitro in order to restore fertility. Fertility preservation must be offered to children with cancer even if maturation of immature germ cells is uncertain for research 20 to 30 years from now will probably enable fertility restoration.

  19. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leijer, Gert JM; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related behavioral disturbances. PMID:22570549

  20. Fertility decline in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kanako; Stupp, Paul; Melian, Mercedes

    2009-09-01

    Recent reproductive health surveys show that the fertility rate in Paraguay decreased precipitously from 4.3 lifetime births per woman in 1995-98 to 2.9 births in 2001-04. In this study, we establish data consistency between the 1998 and 2004 surveys by comparing a series of cohort-specific period rates and use the Bongaarts framework of proximate determinants of fertility to demonstrate that an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) between 1998 and 2004 fully accounts for the fertility decline. Decomposition of rates shows that changes in group-specific CPRs explain a greater proportion of the change in the overall CPR than do changes in population composition by educational attainment, urban residence, region, and language spoken at home. Finally, we show that younger cohorts of women in 2004 reported ideal completed fertility desires of less than 2.9 births, suggesting that the fertility rate is likely to continue to decrease.

  1. Life cycle assessment of fertilizers: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowrońska, Monika; Filipek, Tadeusz

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment has become an increasingly common approach for identifying, quantifying, and evaluating the total potential environmental impact of production processes or products, from the procurement of raw materials (the `cradle'), to production and utilization (the `gates') and their final storage (the `grave'), as well as for determining ways to repair damage to the environment. The paper describes life cycle assessment of mineral fertilizers. On the basis of results provided by life cycle assessment, it can be concluded that an effective strategy for protecting the environment against the harmful effects of fertilizers is to attempt to `seal' the nutrient cycle on a global, regional, and local scale. Pro-environ- mental measures aim on the one hand to reduce resource utilization, and on the other hand to limit losses of nutrients, during both production and use of fertilizers. An undoubted challenge for life cycle assessment when used in agricultural production is the need for relevance at each scale.

  2. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

  3. TCRC Fertility Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... and then use the sperm in conjunction with artificial insemination , IVF or ICSI . Fertility and Chemotherapy: The chemotherapy ... the high probability of an indefinite period of infertility following chemotherapy, we strongly recommend that men facing ...

  4. Weight and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence that obesity lowers the success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Studies have shown lower pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates in obese women. Obese women are at an increased ...

  5. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... endometriosis Have uterine fibroids Have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) Have been treated for cancer Have been treated ... male fertility, NIH study suggests Some women with PCOS may have adrenal disorder, NIH researchers suggest Weight ...

  6. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  7. Increased urinary excretion of analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites and arabinose in two brothers with autistic features.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W; Kassen, E; Chaves, E

    1995-08-01

    A marked increase in analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites was found in the urine of two brothers with autistic features. These metabolites included citramalic, tartaric (3-OH-malic), and 3-oxoglutaric acids and compounds tentatively identified as a citric acid analog and partially identified as a phenylcarboxylic acid by the fragmentation pattern of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of the compounds and mass shifts of the same compounds derivatized with perdeuterated N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The molecular mass of the TMS derivative of the tentatively identified citric acid analog was 596 Da, based on a finding of a significant M - 15 ion at m/z 581. The citric acid analog was excreted in quantities as high as 137 mmol/mol creatinine, based on the response factor of citric acid as a surrogate calibrator. A carbohydrate with a retention time and mass spectrum identical to arabinose was also found in high concentrations in the urine of these brothers.

  8. Public health assessment for Pfohl Brothers Landfill, Cheektowaga, Erie County, New York, Region 2. Cerclis No. NYD980507495

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-02

    The Pfohl Brothers Landfill operated between 1932 and 1971 in Cheektowaga, Erie County, New York about one mile northeast of the Buffalo International Airport. Staff from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) have reviewed the environmental data on the Pfohl Brothers Landfill site, and found that in the past people were likely exposed to contaminants in on-site surface soils and exposed drum wastes and Aero Lake surface waters and sediment. The contaminants evaluated for the public health implication at this site were heavy metals, dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on the data that ATSDR staff reviews, the levels of contaminants in the media, and the probable length of exposure to the contaminants, adverse non-carcinogenic health effects are not expected to occur.

  9. Prediction of bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. PMID:26791329

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Mathis Brothers Landfill (South Marble Top Road), Walker County, GA, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This decision document (Record of Decision) presents the selected remedial action for the Mathis Brothers - South Marble Top Road Landfill site, Walker County, Georgia. At this time the remedial action is proposed as both the first, and the final remedial action for the site. The function of this remedy is to treat contamination and reduce it to health based levels. Source material and contaminated soils are the principal threat at the site.

  11. Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & Sisters.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2014-12-01

    The TV series, Brothers & Sisters, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series. PMID:25456618

  12. Vitamin D intoxication in two brothers: be careful with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Conti, Giovanni; Chirico, Valeria; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Silipigni, Lorena; Fede, Claudia; Vitale, Agata; Fede, Carmelo

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) intoxication, a well-known cause of hypercalcaemia in children, has renal, cardiac and neurological consequences. Iatrogenic or accidental administrations are the most common causes. We present two cases of hypervitaminosis D due to over-the-counter VitD supplement self-medication. A 12-year-old boy was hospitalised for abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Routine biochemistry indicated severe hypercalcaemia and renal failure. Plasma 25-OH VitD level was very high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound showed nephrolithiasis. Hydration, diuretics and prednisone induced a progressive reduction of calcium levels. His brother, who was receiving the same treatment, was hospitalised although asymptomatic. Normal serum calcium and renal function were revealed, while 25-OH VitD was high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound was within the normal range. Examination of the VitD content of the over-the-counter supplement revealed a higher amount than declared. VitD administration implies several risks and must be prescribed only when needed and under strict medical control.

  13. BROTHER OF LUX ARRHYTHMO is a component of the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shunhong; Wei, Xiaoping; Pei, Liping; Thompson, Rebecca L; Liu, Yi; Heard, Jacqueline E; Ruff, Thomas G; Beachy, Roger N

    2011-03-01

    BROTHER OF LUX ARRHYTHMO (BOA) is a GARP family transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana and is regulated by circadian rhythms. Transgenic lines that constitutively overexpress BOA exhibit physiological and developmental changes, including delayed flowering time and increased vegetative growth under standard growing conditions. Arabidopsis circadian clock protein CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) binds to the evening element of the BOA promoter and negatively regulates its expression. Furthermore, the period of BOA rhythm was shortened in cca1-11, lhy-21 (for LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL), and cca1-11 lhy-21 genetic backgrounds. BOA binds to the promoter of CCA1 through newly identified promoter binding sites and activates the transcription of CCA1 in vivo and in vitro. In transgenic Arabidopsis lines that overexpress BOA, the period length of CCA1 rhythm was increased and the amplitude was enhanced. Rhythmic expression of other clock genes, including LHY, GIGANTEA (GI), and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), was altered in transgenic lines that overexpress BOA. Rhythmic expression of BOA was also affected in mutant lines of toc1-1, gi-3, and gi-4. Results from these studies indicate that BOA is a critical component of the regulatory circuit of the circadian clock.

  14. Super Mario brothers and sisters: Associations between coplaying video games and sibling conflict and affection.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Jensen, Alexander C; Smith, Nathan J; Erickson, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Video games can be played in many different contexts. This study examined associations between coplaying video games between siblings and levels of affection and conflict in the relationship. Participants were 508 adolescents (M age = 16.31 years of age, SD = 1.08) who completed questionnaires on video game use and sibling relationships. Participants were recruited from a large Northwestern city and a moderate city in the Mountain West of the United States. Video games played between siblings were coded by an independent sample to assess levels of physical aggression and prosocial behavior in each game. Playing video games with a sibling was associated with higher levels of sibling affection for both boys and girls, but higher levels of conflict for boys only. Playing a violent video game with a brother was associated with lower levels of conflict in the sibling relationship, whereas playing a prosocial video game was not related to any sibling outcome. The value of video games in sibling relationships will be discussed, with a focus on the type of game and the sex of the adolescent. PMID:26748076

  15. Reconstructing the Brothers Grimm: new tales for step-family life.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A C

    1999-01-01

    Step-families are situated within the sociopolitical context of family change and are examined as a prototype of the "post-modern" family. This essay looks at the cultural construction of step-family life and proposes a model for collaboratively reconstructing stories that liberate step-relationships from the legacy of the Brothers Grimm, deconstructing the stories of failure, insufficiency, and neglect. Building on narrative and social constructionist ways of thinking about families, the concept of side-shadowing (a hermeneutic approach from literary/historical criticism) is introduced to elucidate how therapists can help family members discover ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are both more personally satisfying and more congruent with the changed context of family life. Two therapeutic challenges are high-lighted: reconceptualizing what it means to be a step-family and coming to terms with differential attachment in relationships while working with step-families. The essay ends with a fairy tale for the 21st century.

  16. Effects of older brother-younger sister incest: a study of the dynamics of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Laviola, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of older brother-younger sister incest from the perspective of the women who experienced it in childhood or adolescent years. Dynamics in the families-of-origin were also explored, as these related or contributed to the effects from the incest. Seventeen women were interviewed, using an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Four self-report objective instruments were also administered that measure dynamics in the family-of-origin and symptomatology that is often associated with the effects of trauma. Interview and objective data were analyzed by systematically organizing the women's perceptions and conceptualizations into common themes. All of the women's families of origin were described as dysfunctional. Common effects reported included mistrust of men and women, chronic low or negative self-esteem, sexual response difficulties, and intrusive thoughts of the incest. Women regarded individual therapy, talking with supportive family and friends, and validating themselves as victims at the time of the incest as ways in which they have helped themselves to deal with the effects of the incest. These results have important implications for therapy, including serious consideration of the impact and contribution of this kind of incest on reported symptomatology, and on emerging issues and conflicts in the therapeutic process.

  17. Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & Sisters.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2014-12-01

    The TV series, Brothers & Sisters, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series.

  18. Super Mario brothers and sisters: Associations between coplaying video games and sibling conflict and affection.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Jensen, Alexander C; Smith, Nathan J; Erickson, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Video games can be played in many different contexts. This study examined associations between coplaying video games between siblings and levels of affection and conflict in the relationship. Participants were 508 adolescents (M age = 16.31 years of age, SD = 1.08) who completed questionnaires on video game use and sibling relationships. Participants were recruited from a large Northwestern city and a moderate city in the Mountain West of the United States. Video games played between siblings were coded by an independent sample to assess levels of physical aggression and prosocial behavior in each game. Playing video games with a sibling was associated with higher levels of sibling affection for both boys and girls, but higher levels of conflict for boys only. Playing a violent video game with a brother was associated with lower levels of conflict in the sibling relationship, whereas playing a prosocial video game was not related to any sibling outcome. The value of video games in sibling relationships will be discussed, with a focus on the type of game and the sex of the adolescent.

  19. [ENDOMETRIOSIS FERTILITY INDEX].

    PubMed

    Ibrjam, I; Veleva, G; Karagjozova, G; Ivanov, S

    2016-01-01

    In women suffering from endometriosis and infertility, the decision as to when and how to perform surgical excision and/or fertility treatment is mainly based on clinical guidelines and expert opinions. However, so far data from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses to answer the question whether surgical treatment of moderate to severe endometriosis can indeed enhance pregnancy rates compared with expectant management are lacking, as not all studies report fertility outcome or supply sufficiently detailed information. The most frequently used staging system for endometriosis is the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) score (ASRM, 1997). Unfortunately, this classification system has some serious limitations, including not effectively predicting clinical outcomes of treatment, especially pregnancy rates in infertile patients. For this reason, Adamson and Pasta (2010) developed the endometriosis fertility index (EFI). EFI is a scoring system which includes assessment of historical factors at the time of surgery (age, duration of infertility and pregnancy history), of adnexal function at conclusion of surgery (functional score of Fallopian tubes, fimbriae and ovaries bilaterally), and of the extensiveness of endometriosis (rAFS endometriosis lesion score and total rAFS score). The EFI is intended as a clinical tool to counsel patients on the approach towards fertility after surgery. PMID:27509661

  20. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  1. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    PubMed

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  2. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  3. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes. PMID:12266286

  4. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  5. Kisspeptin and fertility.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Saira; Jayasena, Channa N; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2011-02-01

    The kisspeptins are a family of peptide hormones, which in recent years have been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus in turn influencing fertility and reproduction. This review examines the physiological role of kisspeptin and the kisspeptin receptor in the control of gonadotrophin and gonadal steroid hormone secretion and the implications of these findings with respect to fertility. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of kisspeptin in the treatment of reproductive disorders will be examined.

  6. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  7. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms.

  8. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. PMID:24667925

  9. Dynamic resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection determines competitive fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Mehlis, Marion; Rick, Ingolf P; Bakker, Theo C M

    2015-10-22

    In polyandrous mating systems, male reproductive success depends on both mate-acquisition traits (precopulatory) and sperm competitive abilities (postcopulatory). Empirical data on the interaction between these traits are inconsistent; revealing positive, negative or no relationships. It is generally expected that the investment in pre- and postcopulatory traits is mediated by environmental conditions. To test how dietary resource availability affects sexual ornamentation, sperm quality and their interrelationship in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), full-sibling groups were raised under three conditions differing in food quantity and/or quality (i.e. carotenoid content): (i) high-quantity/high-quality, (ii) high-quantity/low-quality or (iii) low-quantity/low-quality. After 1 year of feeding, food-restricted males developed a more intense breeding coloration and faster sperm compared with their well-fed brothers, indicating that they allocated relatively more in pre- and postcopulatory traits. Moreover, they outcompeted their well-fed, carotenoid-supplemented brothers in sperm competition trials with equal numbers of competing sperm, suggesting that food-restricted males maximize their present reproductive success. This may result in reduced future reproductive opportunities as food-restricted males suffered from a higher mortality, had an overall reduced body size, and sperm number available for fertilization. In accordance with theory, a trade-off between the investment in pre- and postcopulatory traits was observed in food-restricted males, whereas well-fed males were able to allocate to both traits resulting in a significantly positive relationship. PMID:26490787

  10. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  11. Genetics, genomics and fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to enhance the sustainability of dairy businesses, new management tools are needed to increase the fertility of dairy cattle. Genomic selection has been successfully used by AI studs to screen potential sires and significantly decrease the generation interval of bulls. Buoyed by the success...

  12. Education and Fertility in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Katherine F.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and interprets data from several studies on education and fertility in Iran, all of which give some indication of an irregular effect of education on fertility and suggest the need for further study of this variable. (Author)

  13. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  14. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  15. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  16. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  17. [Fertility change in Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Guzman, J M; Torrez, H; Schkolnik, S

    1991-08-01

    This work seeks to assess rural-urban and regional fertility trends and differentials in Bolivia since 1965, and to examine the relationship between the level of fertility and the proximate fertility determinants in the different regions using the Bongaarts method. Important social and cultural differences in Bolivia's 3 principal geographic regions are reflected in reproductive patterns. The 2 Andean regions, the Altiplano and the Valles, are inhabited predominantly by Quechua and Aymara speaking indigenous populations, while the Llanos or lowlands are inhabited primarily by persons of Spanish-speaking origin. The 1976 population census, the 1988 National Survey of Population and Housing, and the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey were the basis for fertility estimates for Bolivia during 1965-90. The estimate for 1990 was an extrapolation based on recent trends. The total fertility rates estimated for the country as a whole, the urban population, and the rural population, respectively, have declined from 6.50, 5.50, and 7.00 in 1965 to 6.00, 4.90, and 6.90 in 1980 and 5.20, 4.00, and 6.30 in 1985. Total fertility rates in the Altiplano, Valles, and Llanos, respectively, were 6.00, 6.60, and 7.00 in 1965, 5.80, 6.20, and 6.00 in 1980, and 5.00, 5.40, and 5.10 in 1985. The fertility levels of the 3 geographic regions thus differ less than those of urban and rural zones. The apparent similarity of fertility levels in the 3 ecological zones masks significant differences between the regions in the proximate fertility determinants of nuptiality, contraceptive usage, and lactation. Compensatory mechanisms result in the apparent similarity. The Llanos are characterized by an earlier age at union than the other 2 regions. Almost all women marry or enter a union at some point, and about 1/3 of unions are consensual. Nuptiality patterns are consistent with maximizing the reproductive potential of women and are more similar to those of Central America than those of the rest

  18. Cleft lip and palate, sensorineural deafness, and sacral lipoma in two brothers: a possible example of the disorganisation mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Yong, S L

    1991-01-01

    We report two brothers of Chinese origin who have an apparently unique syndrome of cleft lip/palate, profound sensorineural deafness, and a sacral lipoma. Additional findings which were not common to both were aberrant digital appendages on the heel and thigh of one boy and an anterior sacral meningocele and dislocated hip in the other. Intelligence is normal in both. Both boys suffer from functional constipation but biopsy studies showed no evidence of Hirschsprung's disease. The parents, who are normal, are not related. Inheritance is probably autosomal or X linked recessive. A possible link with the disorganisation mouse mutant is discussed. Images PMID:2002486

  19. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  20. [Stress and fertility].

    PubMed

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  1. [Fertility in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G

    1998-06-01

    Demography, which should be the basis for planning of any program or project, has traditionally been ignored by Colombian governments. No population statistics are available for the pre-Conquest period in Colombia. Statistics during the Colonial era were based on population counts for division of lands, taxation, and similar considerations. The first census was undertaken around 1770. Colombia's most recent census was in 1993, and another is being prepared for 2000. The censuses have been useful for development purposes despite their significant limitations of completeness and accuracy. Colombia's population in 1997 was estimated at 40,300,000, making it the third most populous country of Latin America after Brazil and Mexico. Fertility has declined considerably since 1965. Colombia's crude birth rate is believed to have exceeded 50/1000 in the 18th and 19th centuries and was estimated at 45/1000 by the Latin American Demographic Center for the first half of the 20th century. The crude birth rate was 41.3/1000 in 1968, 33.1/1000 in 1973, 30/1000 in 1980, and around 26/1000 in 1990 and 1995. The total fertility rate was estimated at 7.0 in 1960-65, 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in 1973, 3.2 in 1985, and 2.9 in 1995. Fertility declined most appreciably before 1975, but rates continue to drop in rural as well as urban areas and in all geographic zones. For Colombia as a whole the total fertility rate is 4.8 for women with less than 5 years of schooling and 2.4 for those with 8 or more years. It is 2.7 in urban and 4.4 in rural areas.

  2. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  3. Impaired fertility in African-American women: an investigation of behavioral risks.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2010-12-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by impaired fertility. The literature reflects a number of potential behavioral risks associated with fertility impairment. However, few researchers have investigated these risks in African-American women. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between behavioral factors and impaired fertility in African-American women. A secondary analysis of data was employed from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to develop an explanatory model of impaired fertility in a sample of 364 African-American women of childbearing age. Findings from this current study suggested that factors directly related to impaired fertility included increasing age, current smoking, self-reported health status, and a history of gynecologic problems. Protective effects were associated with previous condom use. Using the knowledge of behavioral threats to fertility, women's health-care providers can screen and assist women in modifying their fertility risks.

  4. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L; Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium-induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all, of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, and rendezvin. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs decreased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, but different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation for cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis, and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species-sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxons in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization.

  5. Toward precision medicine for preserving fertility in cancer patients: existing and emerging fertility preservation options for women

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of young cancer survivors increases, quality of life after cancer treatment is becoming an ever more important consideration. According to a report from the American Cancer Society, approximately 810,170 women were diagnosed with cancer in 2015 in the United States. Among female cancer survivors, 1 in 250 are of reproductive age. Anticancer therapies can result in infertility or sterility and can have long-term negative effects on bone health, cardiovascular health as a result of reproductive endocrine function. Fertility preservation has been identified by many young patients diagnosed with cancer as second only to survival in terms of importance. The development of fertility preservation technologies aims to help patients diagnosed with cancer to preserve or protect their fertility prior to exposure to chemo- or radiation therapy, thus improving their chances of having a family and enhancing their quality of life as a cancer survivor. Currently, sperm, egg, and embryo banking are standard of care for preserving fertility for reproductive-age cancer patients; ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered experimental. Adoption and surrogate may also need to be considered. All patients should receive information about the fertility risks associated with their cancer treatment and the fertility preservation options available in a timely manner, whether or not they decide to ultimately pursue fertility preservation. Because of the ever expanding number of options for treating cancer and preserving fertility, there is now an opportunity to take a precision medicine approach to informing patients about the fertility risks associated with their cancer treatment and the fertility preservation options that are available to them. PMID:26768785

  6. Toward precision medicine for preserving fertility in cancer patients: existing and emerging fertility preservation options for women.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Youn; Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-03-01

    As the number of young cancer survivors increases, quality of life after cancer treatment is becoming an ever more important consideration. According to a report from the American Cancer Society, approximately 810,170 women were diagnosed with cancer in 2015 in the United States. Among female cancer survivors, 1 in 250 are of reproductive age. Anticancer therapies can result in infertility or sterility and can have long-term negative effects on bone health, cardiovascular health as a result of reproductive endocrine function. Fertility preservation has been identified by many young patients diagnosed with cancer as second only to survival in terms of importance. The development of fertility preservation technologies aims to help patients diagnosed with cancer to preserve or protect their fertility prior to exposure to chemo- or radiation therapy, thus improving their chances of having a family and enhancing their quality of life as a cancer survivor. Currently, sperm, egg, and embryo banking are standard of care for preserving fertility for reproductive-age cancer patients; ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered experimental. Adoption and surrogate may also need to be considered. All patients should receive information about the fertility risks associated with their cancer treatment and the fertility preservation options available in a timely manner, whether or not they decide to ultimately pursue fertility preservation. Because of the ever expanding number of options for treating cancer and preserving fertility, there is now an opportunity to take a precision medicine approach to informing patients about the fertility risks associated with their cancer treatment and the fertility preservation options that are available to them.

  7. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care.

  8. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  9. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  10. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:20549448

  11. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Biedka, Marta; Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  12. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  13. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-12-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  14. Commercial fertilizers 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1990-12-01

    US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K{sub 2}O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

  15. Commercial fertilizers 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1990-12-01

    US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P[sub 2]O[sub 5]. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K[sub 2]O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

  16. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  17. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  18. How well are lesbians treated in UK fertility clinics?

    PubMed

    Priddle, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Legislation regulating fertility treatment in the United Kingdom originally discouraged treatment without a father, resulting in many clinics denying access to lesbian couples. Lesbians now enjoy rights to legal union, dual parenthood and protection against discrimination. Consequently, increasing numbers seek fertility treatment. This is a growing stakeholder group, but it is unknown whether UK licensed centres are serving them adequately. Data from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority suggests live birth rates after in vitro fertilisation for lesbians is comparable to estimates for natural attempt at pregnancy for heterosexuals, whereas success rates with donor insemination are lower. Unsurprisingly, live birth rates for lesbians after in vitro fertilisation are higher compared with heterosexual couples (the latter attending with fertility issues). However, outcomes for lesbians after donor insemination are slightly lower, potentially due to increased female age. Rather than adopting a one-heterosexual-size-fits-all approach, lesbian couples may benefit from new treatment pathways. They also have a different experience of fertility treatment, some reporting a wish to be presumed fertile rather than medicalised, and others encountering heterosexism by fertility professionals. Additionally, some lesbians with known fertility issues have needed to resort to legal action to obtain the publicly funded treatment they are entitled to.

  19. Culture-independent characterization of a novel microbial community at a hydrothermal vent at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, M. B.; Saito, J. A.; Crowe, M. A.; Dunfield, P. F.; Hou, S.; Nakasone, E.; Daughney, C. J.; Smirnova, A. V.; Mountain, B. W.; Takai, K.; Alam, M.

    2008-08-01

    The bacterial and archaeal diversity of a hydrothermal vent microbial community at Brothers volcano situated in the Kermadec arc, ˜400 km off the north coast of New Zealand, was examined using culture-independent molecular analysis. An unusual microbial community was detected with only 1% and 40% of the bacterial phylotypes exhibiting >92% small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence similarity with cultivated and noncultivated microbes, respectively. Of the 29 bacterial representative phylotypes, over one third of the SSU rRNA gene sequences retrieved belonged to uncultivated candidate divisions including OP1, OP3, OP5, OP8, OD1, and OP11. All archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Euryarchaeota in the uncultivated groups deep hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotal (DHVE) I and II or to the phylum Korarchaeota. Like the bacterial clone library, only a small proportion of archaeal SSU rRNA gene sequences (˜2% and 20%) displayed >92% sequence identity with any archaeal isolates or noncultivated microbes, respectively. Although the bacterial phylotypes detected were phylogenetically most similar to microbial communities detected in methane, hydrocarbon, and carbon dioxide-based hydrothermal and seep environments, no phylotypes directly associated with anaerobic methane oxidation and mcrA activity could be detected. The geochemical composition of the vent fluids at the Brothers-lower cone sample site is unusual and we suggest that it may play a prominent role in the species selection of this microbial community.

  20. Plant-microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, Anthony O; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2009-11-01

    The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components of such management systems. This review is a critical summary of the efforts in using microbial inoculants, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for increasing the use efficiency of fertilizers. Studies with microbial inoculants and nutrients have demonstrated that some inoculants can improve plant uptake of nutrients and thereby increase the use efficiency of applied chemical fertilizers and manures. These proofs of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:19707753

  1. Plant-microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, Anthony O; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2009-11-01

    The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components of such management systems. This review is a critical summary of the efforts in using microbial inoculants, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for increasing the use efficiency of fertilizers. Studies with microbial inoculants and nutrients have demonstrated that some inoculants can improve plant uptake of nutrients and thereby increase the use efficiency of applied chemical fertilizers and manures. These proofs of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  2. Palmo-Plantar hyperkeratosis, intellectual disability, and spastic paraplegia in two maternal half brothers: further evidence for an X-linked inheritance.

    PubMed

    Isidor, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Tiphaine; Barbarot, Sébastien; Perrier, Julie; Mercier, Sandra; Péréon, Yann; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert

    2013-06-01

    In 1983, Fitzsimmons et al. reported four brothers with an unrecognized disorder characterized by intellectual disability, spastic paraplegia, and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis (OMIM 309500). In this report, we describe a family in which two males, maternal half-brothers, had learning disabilities. Both patients also showed spasticity in the lower limbs and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis. The mother of the affected boys had learning difficulties but did not show any dermatological symptoms. This report confirms that the association of features reported by Fitzsimmons et al. is a distinct entity and further suggests an X-linked mode of inheritance.

  3. Fertility-enhancing hysteroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cela, Vito; Litta, Pietro; Franchini, Mario; Sergiampietri, Claudia; Simi, Giovanna; Freschi, Letizia; Artini, Paolo G; Papini, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Anatomical uterine element and functional components play a fundamental role in the enhancing of fertility are the major actors. Uterine pathologies, including congenital or acquired lesions, have been reported in 21 to 47% of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles. Hysteroscopy is an important procedure in the study of one of the most important element of fertility: the uterus, even if its use in the world of infertility is discussed. There are many studies on safety and feasibility of the procedure and on patient compliance, but there is no consensus on its systemic use. This study, thanks to the wide literature about the use of hysteroscopic surgery to enhance fertility in most of the congenital and acquired problems affecting women in fertility age, allows defining that diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy is a rapid and safety technology to improve fertility. PMID:26928416

  4. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:26490561

  5. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  6. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  7. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  8. Fertilizers mobilization in alluvial aquifer: laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Palpacelli, S.

    2009-02-01

    In alluvial plains, intensive farming with conspicuous use of agrochemicals, can cause land pollution and groundwater contamination. In central Po River plain, paleo-channels are important links between arable lands and the underlaying aquifer, since the latter is often confined by clay sediments that act as a barrier against contaminants migration. Therefore, paleo-channels are recharge zones of particular interest that have to be protected from pollution as they are commonly used for water supply. This paper focuses on fertilizer mobilization next to a sand pit excavated in a paleo-channel near Ferrara (Italy). The problem is approached via batch test leaking and columns elution of alluvial sediments. Results from batch experiments showed fast increase in all major cations and anions, suggesting equilibrium control of dissolution reactions, limited availability of solid phases and geochemical homogeneity of samples. In column experiments, early elution and tailing of all ions breakthrough was recorded due to preferential flow paths. For sediments investigated in this study, dispersion, dilution and chemical reactions can reduce fertilizers at concentration below drinking standards in a reasonable time frame, provided fertilizer loading is halted or, at least, reduced. Thus, the definition of a corridor along paleo-channels is recommended to preserve groundwater quality.

  9. HLA and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.

    1995-11-01

    The recent paper by Jin et al., reporting that class 11 region major histocompatibility complex genes may influence embryonic loss in outbred couples supports previous results of our studies of HLA and fertility in the Hutterites. However, the authors have incorrectly cited our work and have omitted the reference that is most relevant to their results. The paper by Kostyu et al. is incorrectly referred to in the introduction as providing evidence for HLA sharing being associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion. The Kostyu et al. paper does not include any data on fertility or reproduction but reports frequencies of individuals who are homozygous at the HLA-A, -C, -B, -DR, and -DQ loci in the Hutterite population. In fact, recurrent spontaneous abortion has not been observed in any of the couples in our sample of >500 Hutterite couples. References more appropriate to the association between HLA sharing and recurrent miscarriage are those by Komlos et al., Schacter et al., Gerencer and Kastelan, and Beer et al. It might also be worth pointing out that many studies of recurrent miscarriage in outbred couples have not found an association with HLA sharing; examples include the studies of Ergolu et al., Oksenberg et al., and Christiansen et al., among others. 11 refs.

  10. The Five Chinese Brothers: Time to Retire; Exit Goblins and Fairies: Enter a New Children's Theater; What Children are Reading in GDR Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" has three major articles. The first deals with the book titled, "The Five Chinese Brothers". This is one of the most widely circulated children's books in the United States. Although this book has been tauted as being authentically "Chinese", it is being reevaluated in light of current…

  11. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  12. High School Mentors in Brief: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study. P/PV In Brief. Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; Herrera, Carla

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Public/Private Ventures (P/PV) In Brief" is based on "High School Students as Mentors," a report that examined the efficacy of high school mentors using data from P/PV's large-scale random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring programs. The brief presents an overview of the findings, which…

  13. Retrospective Ratings of ADHD Symptoms Made at Young Adulthood by Clinic-Referred Boys with ADHD-Related Problems, Their Brothers without ADHD, and Control Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Jan; Ledolter, Johannes; Kramer, John R.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are required to diagnosis adult ADHD, but the validity of self-rated symptoms across time is questionable. Here, boys with ADHD-related problems, their brothers without ADHD, and former schoolmates rated themselves during young adulthood for ages 9, 14, and 19.…

  14. Family limitation and fertility increase.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, H; Adegbola, O

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used data from a survey of women patients in the maternity ward during 1968-1969 and August 1978 of a hospital in Lagos, Nigeria and from the 1897 and 1926 censuses of 50 rural and urban populations in European russia to demonstrate that modernization factors that reduce mortality also increase fertility under early marital patterns. The researchers learned by examining the Nigerian data that, in a population that has recently experienced an improved standard of living just prior to the demographic transition, natural fertility rises. The pregnancy rate also increases which leads to a greater incidence of pregnancy complications. Hence more infants are born at a low birth weight and consequentially an increase in infant mortality. Yet not all populations witness this pattern. The most important find of the study was that the direction of change in fertility essentially hinges on the marital pattern current before the demographic transition begins. For example, in European Russia, 33% of the eastern provinces' rural population experienced a decline in marriages between 1897-1926 while marital fertility increased. Yet the opposite occurred among the rural marital fertility increased. Yet the opposite occurred among the rural population of the western provinces in the same period: both marital fertility and marriages fell, although the decline was stronger in fertility than in nuptiality. Presently the demographic transition theory excludes nuptiality as 1 of its consequential components. It also assumes interaction only between morality and fertility and that changes in fertility reflect changes in nuptiality. Yet evidence shows that if policy planners would include nuptiality into the theory, they could better predict the timing of sustained fertility decline. Hence population policy should be aimed at marital patterns, since affecting these more directly results in reduced fertility.

  15. Rendezvin: An Essential Gene Encoding Independent, Differentially Secreted Egg Proteins That Organize the Fertilization Envelope Proteome after Self-Association

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Julian L.

    2006-01-01

    Preventing polyspermy during animal fertilization relies on modifications to the egg's extracellular matrix. On fertilization in sea urchins, the contents of cortical granules are secreted and rapidly assemble into the egg's extracellular vitelline layer, forming the fertilization envelope, a proteinaceous structure that protects the zygote from subsequent sperm. Here, we document rendezvin, a gene whose transcript is differentially spliced to yield proteins destined for either cortical granules or the vitelline layer. These distinctly trafficked variants reunite after cortical granule secretion at fertilization. Together, they help coordinate assembly of the functional fertilization envelope, whose proteome is now defined in full. PMID:17005910

  16. Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L.

    1996-01-02

    Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Anophthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome caused by an SOX2 gene deletion in monozygotic twin brothers with markedly discordant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Perez-Cano, Hector J; Aguinaga, Monica

    2006-09-15

    The clinical combination of anophthalmia/microphthalmia and esophageal atresia was first recognized in 1988 as a distinct variable multi-system malformation syndrome and since then at least 17 cases of the disease have been described, all of them sporadic in occurrence. We report a heterozygous SOX2 gene mutation underlying the syndrome of anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia and demonstrate that this entity can be associated to considerable clinical variability as shown by the discordant ocular phenotype observed in monozygotic twin brothers carrying an SOX2 deletion. This is the first report describing a strikingly discordant eye phenotype in monozygotic twins with the condition, with one of our patients being the first reported individual carrying an SOX2 lesion associated with unilateral eye defect. We discuss the probable sources for this remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity of the anophthalmia/microphthalmia syndrome in individuals with an identical genetic constitution.

  18. Xq26.2-q26.3 microduplication in two brothers with intellectual disabilities: clinical and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Irene; Fernández-Burriel, Miguel; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Cabrera, Jose Carlos; Martí, Milagros; Mur, Antonio; Milà, Montserrat

    2010-12-01

    Partial duplications involving the long arm of the X chromosome are associated with mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, hypopituitarism and a wide range of physical findings. We identified an inherited Xq26.2-Xq26.3 duplication in two brothers with severe mental retardation, hypotonia, growth delay, craniofacial disproportion and dental malocclusion. Chromosome analysis was normal and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis detected duplication on Xq26. Further characterization by array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative PCR helped to determine proximal and distal duplication breakpoints giving a size of approximately 2.8 Mb. The duplication encompasses 24 known genes, including the X-linked mental retardation genes ARHGEF6, PHF6, HPRT1 and SLC9A6. Clinical and molecular characterization of Xq duplications will shed more light into the phenotypic implication of functional disomy of X-chromosome genes.

  19. brother of cdo (umleitung) is cell-autonomously required for Hedgehog-mediated ventral CNS patterning in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Sadie A.; Tyurina, Oksana V.; Miller, Emily; Bagas, Andrea; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Brother of Cdo (Boc) has been implicated in Shh-mediated commissural axon guidance, and can both positively and negatively regulate Hedgehog (Hh) target gene transcription, however, little is known about in vivo requirements for Boc during vertebrate embryogenesis. The zebrafish umleitung (umlty54) mutant was identified by defects in retinotectal axon projections. Here, we show that the uml locus encodes Boc and that Boc function is cell-autonomously required for Hh-mediated neural patterning. Our phenotypic analysis suggests that Boc is required as a positive regulator of Hh signaling in the spinal cord, hypothalamus, pituitary, somites and upper jaw, but that Boc might negatively regulate Hh signals in the lower jaw. This study reveals a role for Boc in ventral CNS cells that receive high levels of Hh and uncovers previously unknown roles for Boc in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21115611

  20. Microcephaly, short stature, and developmental delay associated with a chemotactic defect and transient hypogammaglobulinaemia in two brothers.

    PubMed Central

    Say, B; Barber, N; Miller, G C; Grogg, S E

    1986-01-01

    Two brothers presented with unusual facial features, microcephaly, developmental delay, and severe postnatal growth retardation. They both developed eczema in infancy and have had recurrent infections. Additional physical findings in both boys included hypogonadism, flexion contractures, hypoplastic patellae, and scoliosis. Their facial similarity was striking with sloping foreheads, beaked noses, large, protruding ears, and micrognathia. Low levels of serum gammaglobulins and defective chemotaxis were present in both boys in infancy. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was transient and improved, reaching normal levels by 3 1/2 years and 15 months, respectively. Defective chemotaxis and recurrent infections have persisted to the present. Both parents were normal. The mode of inheritance was not clear, as both X linked and autosomal recessive patterns were possible. Although patients with congenital malformations who also had immunodeficiency have previously been reported, immune system abnormalities, especially those of a transient nature, may frequently go unrecognised. Images PMID:3746838

  1. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

    PubMed Central

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as ‘critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model. PMID:23719567

  2. A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061).

    PubMed

    Hall, Grace; Li, Keala; Wilton, Leo; Wheeler, Darrell; Fogel, Jessica; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-12-01

    The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study's findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching African American MSM who may not be accessed by traditional recruitment methods or who are well-integrated in health care systems. PMID:25874753

  3. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-05-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as `critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model.

  4. Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size, although columnar crystals up to 80 μm long have been observed. The tellurides commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. They also are found at the contact between chalcopyrite and pyrite grains. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. One Cu

  5. van den Ende-Gupta syndrome of blepharophimosis, arachnodactyly, and congenital contractures: clinical delineation and recurrence in brothers.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Daniela N; Lachman, Ralph S; Pressman, Barry D; Graham, John M

    2003-04-30

    We describe two Hispanic brothers born to unrelated parents with van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS), a distinctive combination of characteristic dysmorphic features, skeletal abnormalities, and cerebellar hyperplasia. This syndrome was previously delineated by van den Ende et al. [1992: Am J Med Genet 42:467-469] and Gupta et al. [1995: J Med Genet 32:809-812], with additional reports by Phadke et al. [1998: Am J Med Genet 77:16-18] and Bistritzer et al. [1993: Clin Genet 44:15-19]. This is the fifth report of VDEGS, which is characterized by blepharophimosis, narrow nose with hypoplastic alae nasi, hypoplastic maxilla, everted lower lip, slender and elongated hands and feet, arachnodactyly, self-limiting joint contractures, and distinctive skeletal findings. This report of affected siblings, and a previous report of double second cousins born to consanguineous parents [Bistritzer et al. [1993: Clin Genet 44:15-19

  6. Recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, mental retardation and seizures but no hemolysis in two brothers with phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Sandra; Koralkova, Pavla; Aeby, Alec; Mojzikova, Renata; Deconinck, Nicolas; Kadhim, Hazim; van Wijk, Richard

    2016-03-01

    We report two brothers with mild intellectual deficiency, exercise intolerance, rhabdomyolysis, seizures and no hemolysis. Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) activity was strongly decreased in their red blood cells. Subsequent molecular analysis of PGK1 revealed hemizygosity for a novel mutation c.756 + 3A > G, in intron 7. Analysis of the effect of this mutation on pre-mRNA processing demonstrated markedly decreased levels of normal PGK1 mRNA. In addition, the c.756 + 3A > G change resulted in abnormally spliced transcripts. If translated, these transcripts mostly encode for C-terminally truncated proteins. The consequences of the c.756 + 3A > G mutation is discussed, as well as the genotype-to-phenotype correlation with regard to previously described mutations (PGK Fukuroi and PGK Antwerp), which also result in C-terminal truncated proteins. PMID:26883264

  7. [Preservation of fertility in case of sterilizing treatment].

    PubMed

    Bringer-Deutsch, S; Belaisch-Allart, J; Delvigne, A

    2010-12-01

    The different options of fertility preservation must be approached with all patients before initiating any cancer therapy and physicians should refer each patient treated during their reproductive years to specialists in a specialized center that will evaluate the best available alternatives to preserve male and female fertility.The only efficiently proven ways of fertility preservation are sperm cryopreservation for men and embryo cryopreservation to preserve couple fertility. However, the recent progress observed with oocyte cryopreservation (in particular the oocyte vitrification) may change our practices in the future if vitrification is allowed in France. Although the law of Bioethics of 2004 authorizes the ovarian cryopreservation today, its modalities of use stay at present at the stage of the research. But in spite of the low number of published births today in France and in the world, the ovarian tissue cryopreservation is a promising technique. It remains the last possible alternative to protect fertility of prepubertal girls. The sperm cryopreservation must be systematically proposed to all men (even teenagers) undergoing a treatment for cancer potentially harmful for their fertility whatever their sperm quality. The testicular tissue cryopreservation is also a method to be discussed for adults, teenagers in case of failure of sperm banking or for prepubertal boys. PMID:21185487

  8. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  9. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25675618

  10. Reduced Environmental Impact of Fertilizers Using PGPR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of fertilizers is becoming a threat to sustainability in agriculture. Inorganic fertilizer is linked to nitrate contamination of groundwater and phosphorus runoff. Even with organic fertilizers, such as poultry litter, high phosphorus bioavailability, nitrogen accumulation, and leaching may ...

  11. Female fertility, by population censuses.

    PubMed

    Rasevic, M

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the trends in fertility in Serbia and Montenegro in Yugoslavia in decades between 1948 and 1981 by age, marital status, educational attainment, ethnic affiliation, and economic status. People born at the turn of the century, who reported data in 1981, gave birth to an average of 3.6 children. People born 25-30 years later had an average of 2.45 children. In Kosovo and Metohja provinces, fertility of older women was lower than younger women. 1991 Census data is incomplete, but tentative findings indicate that low natality regions continued to show fertility decline. The average number of live born children (LBC) among women older than 50 was smaller in 1991 compared to 1981. Montenegro cumulative fertility (CF) did not decline as fast as in low natality regions of Serbia and was higher than in Serbia and Vojvodina. CF was lowest among unmarried women in Montenegro compared to low natality regions of Serbia, and Kosovo and Metohja. Most women stopped bearing children by the age of 29 in Serbia and Vojvodina and by age 39 in Montenegro. The average number of LBC per women of reproductive age was about 2.3 live births per woman 35-49 years old in 1981, which was smaller than in earlier censuses. In Kosovo and Metohija, the LBC per woman 35-39 years old was 5.11 in 1981, which was larger than in earlier censuses. In 1991, evidence suggests that fertility decline slowed considerably in Serbia proper and Vojvodina at below 2.0. Childlessness and CF among women older than 50 varied by region. Less developed regions and Albanian, Muslim, and gypsy women had the highest fertility. The highest decrease in fertility was among women without any education. The negative relationship between fertility and education was weaker in low fertility regions and stronger in high fertility ones. The highest CF was among agricultural households.

  12. Environmental handbook for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.H.

    1992-08-01

    The owner/operator of the retail fertilizer/agrichemical dealership is responsible for the management of the business. He is responsible for managing, supervising and controlling all aspects of the operation to achieve desired goals. A foundation goal is to provide needed products and helpful services to customers in the service area. An inherent goal, of course, is to make a reasonable profit on the products and services. Still another goal, as will be noted repeatedly in this book, should be to protect and enhance the environment. Information in this book is intended to reinforce dealers in their pursuit of the environmental objective. This involves a lot of things, including: Understanding how air and water can become contaminated; Assessing the vulnerability of the plant site; Implementing containment measures that are fully adequate for both fertilizer and agrichemical products; Knowledge of local, state and federal requirements related to safety and to protection of water and air quality; Development of effective plans for dealing with emergencies and for informing employees and others about the materials handled by the dealership.

  13. Increased male fertility using fertility-related biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Ryu, Do-Yeal; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Conventional semen analyses are used to evaluate male factor fertility/infertility in humans and other animals. However, their clinical value remains controversial. Therefore, new tools that more accurately assess male fertility based on sperm function and fertilization mechanism are of interest worldwide. While protein markers in spermatozoa that might help differentiate fertile and infertile sperm have been identified, studies are in their infancy, and the markers require validation in field trials. In the present study, to discover more sensitive biomarkers in spermatozoa for predicting male fertility, we assessed protein expression in capacitated spermatozoa. The results demonstrated that cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 2 (UQCRC2) was abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). On the other hand, equatorin, beta-tubulin, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1 (UQCRC1), speriolin, Ras-related protein Rab-2A (RAB2A), spermadhesin AQN-3, and seminal plasma sperm motility inhibitor were abundantly expressed in low-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). Moreover, RAB2A and UQCRC1 expression negatively correlated with litter size, while UQCRC2 expression positively correlated with litter size. Finally, the putative biomarkers predicted litter size in field trials. Our study suggests that biomarkers present in spermatozoa after capacitation can help differentiate superior male fertility from below-average fertility with high sensitivity.

  14. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    PubMed

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  15. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  16. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  17. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops. PMID:22901433

  18. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops.

  19. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  20. Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

  1. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  2. Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161569.html Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility Study found too little ... appears to be 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night, said study author Lauren Wise, a ...

  3. Global fertility and population trends.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Crop Fertilization and Soil Fertility in the Loess Plateau in China from the 1970s to the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole.

  7. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the former Baker Brothers, Inc., Site, Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1995-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Baker Brothers, Inc., site in Toledo, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluation indicates that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the former Baker Brothers site did not exceed 710 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 210 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident - municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 500 pCi/g for Scenario C (subsistence farmer - on-site well water, a plausible but unlikely future use).

  8. Etiological aspects of solitary bone cysts: comments regarding the presence of the disease in two brothers. Is the genetic theory sustainable or is it pure coincidence? - Case report.

    PubMed

    Miu, A

    2015-01-01

    Beginning the study of benign tumors of the bone in children and adolescents, a group of diseases that have in common the clinical aspects, evolution, and surgical treatment, genetic theory in the etiology of the solitary bone cyst, can be sustained by some cases of siblings with the same disease. This paper presents the particular case of two brothers, treated in our clinic for the same condition: solitary bone cyst of the proximal humerus. The two brothers were admitted with the same symptoms, the localization was the same. Because of the genetic studies regarding this condition, we think that it is an interesting aspect of this pathology. This study also tried to find the most appropriate approach in the treatment of these tumors. PMID:26664480

  9. Brother Against Brother: The Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Public Programs.

    This publication is intended for teachers bringing a class to visit the National Archives in Washington, D.C., for a workshop on primary documents. The National Archives serves as the repository for all federal records of enduring value. Primary sources are vital teaching tools because they actively engage the student's imagination so that he or…

  10. Improvement of natural pastures using liquid organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Gabedava, Giorgi; Abuladze, Paata

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays natural pastures remains the main source to supply livestock with fresh feed material in Georgia. Due to that common pasturelands are under continues grazing pressure and normally no measures are taken in order to improve pasture productivity and to protect soil from erosion. Unregulated stocking rate leads to overutilization of natural pastures causing reduction in productivity and soil fertility. It is especially evident in arid regions, where bare soil after removal of vegetation dries out and is subject to wind erosion. In many areas even with regulated stocking rate plant available soil nutrient pool is already diminished and vegetation cannot be recovered easily after grazing. Therefore it is essential to improve soil fertility, which provide adequate amount of nutrients to plants to regenerate. Ongoing study aims to compare effect of different types of organic fertilizers on natural pastures in combination with pasture rotation scheme in order to maintain soil fertility and prepare the basis for its gradual improvement. Initial results shows positive impact of liquid organic fertilizers which increased aboveground biomass production by 200-300 kg per hectare.

  11. Reflections on fertility dynamics in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Eugenia Claudia; Minca, Dana Galieta

    2012-01-01

    Aims to highlight the changes occurred in the evolution of the fertility phenomenon in Romania, focusing on developments in the general fertility rate, total fertility rate, number of live births, and on the construction of specific indicators to reveal the source of demographic change. Several theories on the factors that may cause fertility decline it were outlined, underlining the presence of these factors during fertility dynamics in our country. After 1990, population decline may be explained by a close inter-relationship between economic theories (worsening economic conditions lead to decreased fertility) and the second demographic transition (postponement of births, fertility change model).

  12. Wives' motives and fertility.

    PubMed

    Phelps, C D

    1995-06-01

    This analysis assumes that childhood learning has a strong impact on the measured motivations of adults. This study uses responses among 354 White married women in 1976 to the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Wives' responses to four pictures are expected to mirror the following four typologies: affiliation imagery (AFF), power imagery (POW), power and affiliation imagery (POWAF), and without references to affiliation or power (CULT). CULT is presumed to reflect the motivation of the wife in the average family. Expected relationships between these root motives and fertility are identified. Findings show that families with persuasive affiliative wives allocated more time to child care and had lower family incomes than other families. AFF wives worked fewer hours per week than other wives and allocated more time per child than other wives. Husbands helped them with child care sometimes or often. Households sacrificed material possessions for children. Findings did not support the inference that low income was due to husband's low earnings but did support the inference that low income might be due to the wives' short work week. The logistic model that controls for hours worked per week and number of years at the present job shows that wives were happiest in their marriage, if wives had high power motivation. Family income was a significant determinant of achievement satisfaction and not of affiliation satisfaction. Nerlove's hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between wife's level of education and her taste for children was rejected. The wife's motivation toward her husband was an important factor that impacted on her preference for children and for work and her perceived level of utility. Wives who asserted themselves in socially acceptable situations (high in power motivations) were most likely to report having a happier than average marriage. Both affiliative and persuasive affiliative wives took satisfaction in their children's happiness and

  13. [[Trends in marriage and fertility in Japan: major findings from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey

    PubMed

    Atoh, M; Takahashi, S; Nakano, E; Watanabe, Y; Kojima, H; Kaneko, R

    1993-10-01

    The authors review trends in marriage and fertility in Japan, using data from the 1993 Japanese National Fertility Survey. Information is included on age at marriage, arranged and voluntary marriages, length of time from initial meeting to marriage, changes in age at marriage, fertility, socioeconomic differentials in fertility, and fertility preferences. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Non-marfan idiopathic medionecrosis (cystic medial necrosis) presenting with multiple visceral artery aneurysms and diffuse connective tissue fragility: Two brothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Jun; Tsunemura, Mami; Amano, Shigeko; Tokizawa, Shigemi; Oowada, Susumu; Shinkai, Hiroko; Maehara, Yasunobu; Endo, Keigo

    1997-05-15

    Two brothers with multiple visceral artery aneurysms or dilatations and diffuse connective tissue fragility who did not have clinical features of Marfan syndrome are reported. One presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage during angiography, and idiopathic medionecrosis was proved by resection of the aneurysms. These cases belong to the heterogeneous group of Marfan syndrome. The angiographical features (multiple dilation of visceral arteries) suggests fragility of connective tissue and is predictive of hazards during and after a catheterization and operation.

  15. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Pinborg, Anja; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing create a need for pro-fertility initiatives. Three years ago we established a new separate unit: The Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic. The FAC clinic offers free individual counselling based on a clinical assessment including measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone and ovarian and pelvic sonography in women, sperm analysis in men, and a review of reproductive risk factors in both sexes. The FAC clinic includes a research programme with the goal to improve prediction and protection of fertility. Our first proposition is that clinics for individual assessment and counselling need to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose that fertility assessment and counselling should be developed by specialists in reproductive medicine. There are two main areas of concern: As our current knowledge on reproductive risk factors is primarily based on data from infertile patients, the first concern is how precisely we are able to forecast future reproductive problems. Predictive parameters from infertile couples, such as duration of infertility, are not applicable, diagnostic factors like tubal patency are unavailable and other parameters may be unsuitable when applied to the general population. Therefore, strict validation of reproductive forecasting in women and men from the general population is crucial. The second main concern is that we may turn clients into patients. Screening including reproductive forecasting

  16. 76 FR 48875 - Receipt of Petition To Reconcile Inconsistent Customs and Border Protection Decisions Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ..., as ``Mineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenous: Double salts and mixtures of calcium nitrate and... protection agents. It is a supplier of mineral fertilizers. As an importer of these products, Yara has... is primarily used as a fertilizer but is also used for waste water treatment. Yara entered...

  17. Interstitial deletion 1p36.32 in two brothers with a distinct phenotype--overgrowth, macrocephaly and nearly normal intellectual function.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, N; Klink, B; Hahn, G; Schrock, E; Hackmann, K

    2014-09-01

    We report on two adult patients, who both presented with overgrowth and one of them additionally with macrocephaly while carrying an 1p36 microdeletion of about 2.1 Mb. They are full brothers born to unaffected parents. Although both brothers attended special schools, they lived independently without a legal guardian and were able to succeed in regular jobs. One of the brothers received a professional education. Genetic analysis of the parents revealed neither the microdeletion nor a cryptical translocation or inversion. We suggest that the recurrent deletion is a result of germline mosaicism, a phenomenon reported only once in the context of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome. Our report confirms the recurrence of the apparently de novo 1p36 microdeletion due to a likely germline mosaicism of one of the parents. Furthermore, it illustrates the possibility of the distinct phenotype with a nearly normal intellectual outcome of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome that might be due to the region involved in our patients.

  18. Economic models of fertility dynamics: a study of Swedish fertility.

    PubMed

    Heckman, J J; Walker, J R

    1991-01-01

    "This paper estimates semiparametric reduced-form neoclassical models of life-cycle fertility in Sweden. Rising female wages delay times to all conceptions and reduce total conceptions. These results are robust across a variety of empirical specifications. We find a particular neoclassical model that predicts fertility attained at different ages as well as the aggregate time series of birth rates. A model that excludes wages and incomes predicts fertility attained at different ages but fails to predict the aggregate time series, and is dominated by the neoclassical model in terms of non-nested test criteria. Cohort drift found in estimated parameters is consistent with the expansion of pronatal social programs. The estimated neoclassical model produces strong short-run responses of birth rates to wages and incomes of the sort that have been found in the time series literature on fertility while generating the relatively weak long-run responses to economic variables found in the cross-sectional literature on completed fertility." PMID:12317032

  19. Are youth mentoring programs good value-for-money? An evaluation of the Big Brothers Big Sisters Melbourne Program

    PubMed Central

    Moodie, Marjory L; Fisher, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background The Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) program matches vulnerable young people with a trained, supervised adult volunteer as mentor. The young people are typically seriously disadvantaged, with multiple psychosocial problems. Methods Threshold analysis was undertaken to determine whether investment in the program was a worthwhile use of limited public funds. The potential cost savings were based on US estimates of life-time costs associated with high-risk youth who drop out-of-school and become adult criminals. The intervention was modelled for children aged 10–14 years residing in Melbourne in 2004. Results If the program serviced 2,208 of the most vulnerable young people, it would cost AUD 39.5 M. Assuming 50% were high-risk, the associated costs of their adult criminality would be AUD 3.3 billion. To break even, the program would need to avert high-risk behaviours in only 1.3% (14/1,104) of participants. Conclusion This indicative evaluation suggests that the BBBS program represents excellent 'value for money'. PMID:19178749

  20. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  1. A dictionary without definitions: romanticist science in the production and presentation of the Grimm brothers' German dictionary, 1838-1863.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Between 1838 and 1863 the Grimm brothers led a collaborative research project to create a new kind of dictionary documenting the history of the German language. They imagined the work would present a scientific account of linguistic cohesiveness and strengthen German unity. However, their dictionary volumes (most of which were arranged and written by Jacob Grimm) would be variously criticized for their idiosyncratic character and ultimately seen as a poor, and even prejudicial, piece of scholarship. This paper argues that such criticisms may reflect a misunderstanding of the dictionary. I claim it can be best understood as an artifact of romanticist science and its epistemological privileging of subjective perception coupled with a deeply-held faith in inter-subjective congruence. Thus situated, it is a rare and detailed case of Romantic ideas and ideals applied to the scientific study of social artifacts. Moreover, the dictionary's organization, reception, and legacy provide insights into the changing landscape of scientific practice in Germany, showcasing the difficulties of implementing a romanticist vision of science amidst widening gaps between the public and professionals, generalists and specialists.

  2. Deception and the death of Ilyusha: truth and the best interest of a dying child in The Brothers Karamazov.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clancy

    2014-10-01

    For centuries, many physicians and parents assumed that it was ethically justifiable to lie to a dying child. The reasoning was clear. Because the lie would likely eliminate or prevent a concrete harm (the child's fear), and the lie is about a harm that is unavoidable anyway, a lie appeared to be the morally desirable thing to do. Today, the ethical consensus has shifted. Many doctors and other health professionals now argue that we have an obligation to tell children the cold, hard truth. In this article, I argue that "the cold, hard truth" (assuming we can know it with certainty) might not always be in the best interest of the patient. To illustrate the point, I analyze an episode in Dostoevsky's novel, The Brothers Karamazov, in which a child is dying, his father lies to him about it, and 2 doctors take very different approaches to the truth. Each of these individuals has a particular interest when it comes to the question of "the truth" about the death of Ilyusha. I use this story to ask whether it is ethically permissible to lie to a dying child and, if so, who has the moral authority to tell that lie.

  3. The economics of fertility.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  4. Primogeniture and fertility: fertility models with unequal bequest.

    PubMed

    Parsons, D O

    1984-01-01

    Models of the family which incorporate bequest inequality into the fertility decision were developed. Following a discussion on this topic by H.J. Habakkuk, discussion focuses on preindustrial and early industrial England and Western Europe. An attempt was made to develop fertility models which do not assume that all children are treated equally but instead recognize the special role that the eldest child often plays in the family. The fertility consequences of primogeniture are explored in 2 different fertility models. In the initial behavioral model due to Habakkuk, fertility is a function of marriage age and marriage age is a function of time required for one's capital to reach some social minimum required for household formation. In such a model it is possible to show that an increasingly unequal bequest between children will reduce aggregate fertility in the following generation. The introduction of explicit fertility choice considerably complicates the model. The effect of greater relative bequests to the eldest child, if motivated by parental preference, depends on the role children other than the eldest play in the family. If parents would normally choose to have more children the larger the total bequest they intend to bestow on all their children, the effect of primogeniture will be to reduce fertility. The wealth parents allocate to the eldest with primogeniture has an impact on the other children equivalent to a general decline in family bequests. Similar conclusions hold if the shift of wealth to the eldest is the result of a legal constraint that a specified share of the estate be allocated to the eldest. Yet, if the constraint is posed as a required proportionality between the wealth of the eldest and the average wealth of other children, the effect of primogeniture laws (or conversely equality laws) is ambiguous. The same negative wealth effect exists for the younger children as wealth is diverted to the eldest. A positive fertility effect also

  5. Socioeconomic status and fertility in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, K; Becker, S

    1985-01-01

    Using a unique set of birth registration data from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, for the period 1974-77, and socioeconomic information collected in the 1974 census, fertility was studied in relation to occupation, size of dwelling, number of cows and number of boats owned. The total fertility rate was found to vary between 6 and 6.5 except in the famine year of 1975. There was no consistent relationship between fertility and education of women. The age-specific fertility rates by religion show that Muslims had higher fertility at all ages in 1974 and 1977 and at older ages in 1975 and 1976. Overall, however, fertility of Hindus is consistently lower than that of Muslims, but the relative differences are under 10%. Fertility differentials by occupation showed that the household heads who were farm laborers had relatively lower fertility compared to other occupational groups, except for the year 1977 where the families of service holders were found to have relatively lower fertility. Women in households whose heads were businessmen or farmers (owning their land) had above average fertility. In 1974, households in the business occupational groups had, on average, 1 birth more than other households. Women in households with fishermen as heads had below average fertility in 1974 and 1975, but very high fertility in 1976 and 1977. Fertility levels differed according to the type of household in which the family resided. Nuclear families had below average fertility up to the age of 35 and above average fertility at the end of the reproductive age. In the 15-19 age group, augmented families had higher fertility each year examined. The association between dwelling place and fertility is positive each year, the relative differences in fertility between the groups being largest in 1974. Positive relations were found between economic status and fertility. PMID:3972858

  6. [Nuptiality and fertility in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Charbit, Y; Ndiaye, K; Ndiaye, S; Sadio, A; Sarr, I

    1989-12-01

    Data from Senegal's 1978 World Fertility Survey were used to demonstrate the decisive role of intermediate variables in the determination of general and marital fertility rates. Senegal's total fertility rate of 7.2 in 1974-78 indicates a high level of fertility which, moreover, appears to have changed little over time. Marital fertility is slightly higher than general fertility: married women had an average of 4.03 live births, vs. 3.53 for all women. A seemingly significant fertility differential by maternal educational status amounting to 1.34 child disappears when age and age at marriage are controlled. Age at marriage is a significant influence on fertility in the 1st 5 years of marriage, with fertility lower among women aged 15 or under at marriage. Abortion is a marginal practice in Senegal, and contraception is not widespread. 10% of ever married women reported having ever used a traditional method, and 1% a modern method. At the time of the survey only .5% used a modern method. Few significant differentials were noted in abortion or contraception by rural or urban residence. A slightly longer period of breastfeeding in rural areas (19.1 months vs. 17.6 months in urban areas) probably accounts for more of the slight rural-urban fertility differential than does abortion or contraception. Nuptiality in Senegal is early and intense, but is less stable than in most other African countries. The average age at 1st marriage of women aged 20-29 years was 16.4 for urban women, 15.6 for rural women, 17.0 for literate women, 15.7 for illiterate women, 16.0 for Wolofs, 15.1 for Poulars, 15.5 for Mandingos, 16.5 for Serers, 17.0 for Diolas, and 15.8 for the entire sample. Differences in age at marriage by rural or urban residence and women's educational level were more marked in younger cohorts. 95.6% of women aged 25-29 and 99.8% of those aged 30-34 at the time of the survey were already married. Age at marriage influences the propensity to divorce. 23.6% of marriages

  7. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  8. Fertilization and early seed formation.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Christian; Rogowsky, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The double fertilization of flowering plants is a complex process, encompassing multiple steps. From its discovery more than a century ago, many useful descriptive approaches have been employed to better unveil specific steps/mechanisms. More recently, the development of an in vitro assay developed in our laboratory, has allowed a better understanding of this phenomenon. However, in vitro methods may show some limitations. The search for complementary strategies, especially with the search of mutants affected in the fertilization step allowed one to elucidate this critical and unique phenomenon in living organisms. Genes involved in pollen tube guidance or pollen discharge in synergids have been identified, as well as genes exhibiting differential expression in sperm, egg and central cells before and after fertilization. A calcium wave proved to correspond to the first cellular event seen after cytoplasmic fusion in the fertilized egg cell or zygote, which develops into a multi-cellular organism with an elaborate body plan. The development of the fertilized central cell into a nourishing tissue (endosperm) starts with the formation of the coenocyte, a multinuclear single cell unique in the plant kingdom, cellularization occurring later on. The balance of the paternal and maternal genomes, which is under the control of the FIS polycomb group complex, was found to be of the utmost importance for the successful development of the seed.

  9. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  10. Women's status and fertility in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saghayroun, A A

    1985-06-01

    This paper summarizes the history of women's education in Sudan; data on the relationship between their educational levels and fertility; and data on the relationship between fertility and women's employment. In general, the data point to an inverse relationship between the education of women and fertility. This relationship exists when considering the education of husbands. In terms of employment, women who report no work experience have the highest fertility, those who are self-employed or are family workers have an intermediate level of fertility, while those women who work for others have the lowest level of fertility. Education appears to be more closely associated with fertility than employment. The author concludes that as the status of women shifts to perceptions based on education and gainful employment, fertility will decline. However, in the Sudan, strong traditional values, based on women's roles related to childbearing and childrearing, will continue to sustain a relatively high fertility rate. (author's)

  11. Policies for fertility reduction: focus on Asia.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1989-06-01

    Fertility can be affected by many factors. Over the long run, socioeconomic development has a decisive effect on reducing fertility. But in the short run, its effects are mixed. Providing greater educational opportunities, particularly for women, typically leads to lower fertility. Urban fertility tends to be much lower than rural fertility since urban residents have better access to information and health care. To the degree that governments are able to extend the reach of the modern sector to rural areas, they may be able to reduce fertility without encouraging urban growth. The effects of income on fertility are mixed: given sufficient time, higher incomes lead to lower fertility; but rising incomes in developing countries can, in the short run, increase fertility. Socioeconomic development factors, however, have less effect on fertility than do fertility dynamics at the individual level. Age at marriage, duration of breastfeeding, and use of contraceptives have important implications for fertility reduction policies. The contribution of of these factors to fertility control have been analyzed for a number of Asian and Pacific countries. Breastfeeding plays a key role in controlling fertility in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. Later marriages compensate for lower breastfeeding levels in controlling fertility in other Asian and Pacific countries. The contribution of contraception to fertility control varies from 2% in Nepal to as much as 28% in Thailand. A low total fertility rate is almost always the result of relatively widespread use of contraceptives. Fertility rate reduction in India, Thailand, Indonesia, and Korea in he 1970s can largely be explained by increases in contraceptive usage.

  12. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  13. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA`s fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  14. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  15. New developments in fertilizer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Objective of TVA's fertilizer technology demonstrations is to make results from research, development, and demonstration programs available to industry to facilitate their adoption. In our research and development work, we are continuing to emphasize projects that involve improving efficiency of nitrogen utilization, efficiently using US minerals and raw materials, avoiding environmental damage in fertilizer production and use, conserving energy, and using lower-cost and/or by-product raw materials and intermediates. Our program is balanced between work on dry or granular products and liquids.

  16. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  17. Protection of ovarian function during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tianmin, X; Weiqin, C; Shuying, W; Yang, L; Manhua, C

    2014-01-01

    The protection of ovarian function during chemotherapy is an urgent issue to be resolved after the fertility preserving surgery on patients with ovarian cancer. The paper summarizes and analyzes the research progress on the protective measures in the aspects of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa), cell protecting agents, and traditional Chinese medical science and drugs.

  18. Determinants of fertility in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Indongo, Nelago; Pazvakawambwa, Lillian

    2012-12-01

    In-depth studies on fertility in Namibia have been lacking so far. This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades and examines fertility differentials across the various sub-groups of Namibia population, and factors affecting such differentials using NDHS data. Estimates of the amount of variance in the total number of children ever born that could be explained by each of the independent variables were made using multiple regression analysis for the three data sources. Overall, results from descriptive analysis show that fertility levels in Namibia have been decreasing over the past two decades. The decrease could be associated with an increased trend in the prevalence of use of modern contraceptives which doubled since 1992. Age at first birth has remained constant but age at first marriage continues to increase. As a result, postponement of marriage increases the probability that women remain childless or that they have fewer children than desired. Replacement level is projected to be attained much faster than expected and the study recommend for further research that focuses on policy implications of family planning programmes once replacement level has been achieved to maintain it.

  19. The marginal valuation of fertility

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrates that fertility entails economic, physiological, and demographic trade-offs. The existence of trade-offs suggests that fitness should be maximized by an intermediate level of fertility, but this hypothesis has not had much support in the human life-history literature. We suggest that the difficulty of finding intermediate optima may be a function of the way fitness is calculated. Evolutionary analyses of human behavior typically use lifetime reproductive success as their fitness criterion. This fitness measure implicitly assumes that women are indifferent to the timing of reproduction and that they are risk-neutral in their reproductive decision-making. In this paper, we offer an alternative, easily-calculated fitness measure that accounts for differences in reproductive timing and yields clear preferences in the face of risky reproductive decision-making. Using historical demographic data from a genealogically-detailed dataset from 19th century Utah, we show that this measure is highly concave with respect to reproductive effort. This result has three major implications: (1) if births are properly timed, a lower-fertility reproductive strategy can have the same fitness as a high-fertility strategy, (2) intermediate optima are far more likely using fitness measures that are strongly concave with respect to effort, (3) we expect mothers to have strong investment preferences with respect to the risk inherent in reproduction. PMID:24778546

  20. Fertility level changes in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, B N

    1989-12-01

    Survey data from India consistently show that female education above the primary school-level is the most powerful determinant of lowered fertility. The Government of India's strategies of increasing accessibility to family planning methods and improving the population's quality of life have been impeded by low levels of female education. The finding that rural women experience 0.8 more live births than their urban counterparts is a reflection of the higher education of the latter group. Within Calcutta, females in slum areas had an average of 5.6 live births compared to 3.5 births among those from nonslum parts of the city, again reflecting the influence of education on fertility. In the high-fertility states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Madhyapradesh, Haryana, and Jammu and Kashmir, the percentage of females with an education above the primary level is under 5%. The intermediate variable of education beyond primary school seems to exert its effect on fertility by both raising the age at marriage and promoting use of modern contraceptive methods. Women with 1-4 years of education comprise the majority of sterilization acceptors; however, this minimal amount of education is not sufficient to motivate women to delay marriage and to use family planning methods to space births. Given the critical importance of female education, authorities in India should design extension programs and door-to-door campaigns to motivate parents to send their daughters to school and keep them enrolled. PMID:12316273

  1. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  2. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744

  3. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Neri, Queenie V; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described.

  4. Side Effects of Injectable Fertility Drugs (Gonadotropins)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually are used during fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Injections of gonadotropins ... Gestation. When using injectable gonadotropins alone or with IUI, up to 30% of pregnancies are associated with ...

  5. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... decide whether a couple should use in vitro fertilization (IVF) to attempt a pregnancy. It is best ... genetic material. Once the sperm enters the egg, fertilization has a good chance of taking place. However, ...

  6. Fertility awareness-based mobile application for contraception

    PubMed Central

    Berglund Scherwitzl, Elina; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Scherwitzl, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a fertility awareness-based method supported by a mobile-based application to prevent unwanted pregnancies as a method of natural birth control. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, the application’s efficiency as a contraceptive method was examined on data from 4054 women who used the application as contraception for a total of 2085 woman-years. Results: The number of identified unplanned pregnancies was 143 during 2053 woman-years, giving a Pearl Index of 7.0 for typical use. Ten of the pregnancies were due to the application falsely attributing a safe day within the fertile window, producing a perfect-use Pearl Index of 0.5. Calculating the cumulative pregnancy probability by life-table analysis resulted in a pregnancy rate of 7.5% per year (95% confidence interval 5.9%, 9.1% per year). Conclusions: The application appears to improve the effectiveness of fertility awareness-based methods and can be used to prevent pregnancies if couples consistently protect themselves on fertile days. PMID:27003381

  7. Artificial fertilization for amphibian conservation: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Kouba, A J; Vance, C K; Willis, E L

    2009-01-01

    Amphibian populations in the wild are experiencing massive die-offs that have led to the extinction of an estimated 168 species in the last several decades. To address these declines, zoological institutions are playing an important role in establishing captive assurance colonies to protect species in imminent danger of extinction. Many of the threatened species recently placed into captivity are failing to reproduce before they expire, and maintaining founder populations is becoming a formidable challenge. Assisted reproductive technologies, such as hormone synchronization, gamete storage and artificial fertilization, are valuable tools for addressing reproductive failure of amphibians in captive facilities. Artificial fertilization has been commonly employed for over 60 years in several keystone laboratory species for basic studies in developmental biology and embryology. However, there are few instances of applied studies for the conservation of threatened or endangered amphibian species. In this review, we summarize valuable technological achievements in amphibian artificial fertilization, identify specific processes that need to be considered when developing artificial fertilization techniques for species conservation, and address future concerns that should be priorities for the next decade.

  8. Determinants of Fertility Differential in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Eui Hang; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the causal relationships of the fertility differentials of 2200 married women in a small Korean town. Notes the effect on fertility of socioeconomic status, age at first marriage, family background, and various family planning strategies (contraception, abortion). Discusses a process model on fertility. (Author/SB)

  9. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  10. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  11. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  12. North American fertilizer capacity data. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.15. EPA provides recovered materials content recommendations for fertilizers... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fertilizers. 2902.22 Section 2902.22 Agriculture... Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for plant growth...

  14. An incest case with three biological brothers as alleged fathers: Even 22 autosomal STR loci analysis would not suffice without the mother.

    PubMed

    Canturk, Kemal Murat; Emre, Ramazan; Gurkan, Cemal; Komur, Ilhami; Muslumanoglu, Omer; Dogan, Muhammed

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report an incest paternity case involving three biological brothers as alleged fathers (AFs), their biological sister and her child that was investigated using the Investigator ESSplex Plus, AmpFLSTR Identifiler Plus/Investigator IDplex Plus and PowerPlex 16 kits. Initial duo paternity investigations using 15-loci autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analyses failed to exclude any of the AFs. Despite the fact that one of the brothers, AF1, had a mismatch with the child at a single locus (D2S1338), the possibility of a single-step mutation could not be ruled out. When the number of autosomal STR loci analysed was increased to 22 without the inclusion of the mother, AF2 and AF3 still could not be excluded, since both of them again had no mismatches with the child. A breakthrough was possible only upon inclusion of the mother so that trio paternity investigations were carried out. This time AF1 and AF2 could be excluded at two loci (D2S1338 and D1S1656) and six loci (vWa, D1S1656, D12S391, FGA, PENTA E and PENTA D), respectively, and AF3 was then the only brother who could not be excluded from paternity. Subsequent statistical analyses suggested that AF3 could be the biological father of the child with a combined paternity index >100 billion and a probability of paternity >99.99999999%. These findings consolidate the fact that complex paternity cases such as those involving incest could benefit more from the inclusion of the mother than simply increasing the number of STR loci analysed.

  15. Fertility behaviour under income uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, P

    1999-03-01

    A two-period stochastic model of fertility behavior was developed in order to provide an explanation for the staggering decrease in birth rates in former Soviet Republics and Eastern European countries. A link between income uncertainty and fertility behavior was proposed. The increase in uncertainty about future income could lead people to postpone their childbearing decision. This is attributable to the irreversibility of the childbearing decision and the ease with which it may be postponed. A threshold effect is the result, so that individuals above the threshold level of income tend to have a stronger desire to have a child immediately, and those below the threshold tend to wait until the income uncertainty is past. This behavioral pattern could account for the recent decline in birth rates that has accompanied a decreasing per capita income level in most of the former Soviet Republics and the East European countries.

  16. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  17. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  18. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Cassidy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  19. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  20. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  1. The fertility revolution in China.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, C; Shah, I

    1990-10-01

    As a result of a concerted government effort, China has undergone one of the most rapid fertility transitions in history. At present, the 1- child family is the norm in urban areas such as Beijing and Shanghai, while there are an average of 2 children per family in rural areas. There is now concern that this urban-rural discrepancy will lead to serious labor shortages and inadequate family resources to care for the elderly in Chinese cities. Stricter enforcement of the 1-child policy is rural areas, combined with relaxation of fertility disincentives in the cities, may be required. Another concern is the failure of modernization and intensive education to reduce the traditional preference for male children. Over 50% of respondents in fertility surveys express a desire for their first child to be a boy; only 5% prefer a girl. On the other hand, impressive progress has been made in introducing family planning programs in ways that do not assault traditional values. Although the average age at marriage in China--well over 20 years--is similar to that in developed countries, traditional marriage customs, such as co-residence with parents after marriage, remain intact. Similarly, while young people now have greater freedom of choice in the selection of a marriage partner and arranged marriages are now illegal, parents remain an important part of family decision making. Finally, China has not followed the pattern observed in other countries where declining fertility and increased women's status have reduced the extent and duration of breastfeeding. Rather, it appears that the 1 child norm has actually increased the duration of breastfeeding since the last child tends to be nursed for longer periods.

  2. Ethnic fertility differentials in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A

    1996-01-01

    This study examined differences in residence, marriage age, and education among 6 language groups (Balochi-Brohi, Urdu, Siraiki, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Pushto) in Pakistan. Ethnic differences were reported for fertility preferences and family planning attitudes, knowledge, and practices. Data were obtained from the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey among 6582 eligible ever-married women aged 15-30 and 31-49 years. 95% of Urdu and 50% of Balochi-Brohi speakers lived in urban areas. 73.4% of Siraiki speakers lived in rural areas. Urdu speakers were the best educated, with 31% having a secondary or higher education. Lack of formal education was 46.5% among Urdu, 68.4% among Punjabi, and 88% among Pushto women. Sindhi speakers had the lowest marriage age; the median age at first marriage was 15 years. Marriages at ages younger than 17 years were common among Balochi-Brohi-, Pushto-, and Siraiki-speaking women. Later age of marriage was more common among Urdu and Punjabi women. Fertility was highest among younger women speaking Balochi-Brohi, followed by those speaking Urdu. Fertility was lowest among younger Siraiki-speaking women. Among older women, fertility was highest among Siraiki speakers, followed by Balochi-Brohi and Pushto speakers. It was lowest among older Urdu-speaking women. 80% of Balochi-Brohi- and 76% of Siraiki-speaking women had no ideal family size. Over 25% of Urdu and Punjabi speakers desired 4 children. "Up to God" responses were strongest among Balochi-Brohi speakers, followed by Siraiki and Sindhi speakers. Current modern method use was 22.1 among Urdu speakers, 12.7% among those speaking a language other than the 6 groups studied, 11.7% among Punjabi speakers, 8.3% among Pushto speakers, 4.9% among Siraiki speakers, 3.4% among Sindhi speakers, and 3.3% among Balochi-Brohi speakers. PMID:12294612

  3. Home tests to monitor fertility.

    PubMed

    May, K

    1991-12-01

    Industry has been intimately involved in the development of products used in the monitoring of fertility at home. The perspective of industry and the development of such tests including their rationale are presented. The methods taken by industry to utilize current technology in the development of reliable, rapid, one-step tests for urinary human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone and the subsequent expansion into other areas are covered.

  4. Polygamy and fertility in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N E; Elmi, A M

    1989-04-01

    The 1983 Somali Family Health Survey showed that polygamy and monogamy selected women with different social characteristics. Wives in polygamous unions were prone to be younger at first martial cohabitation and to have previous marital disruptions. Since a young age at first cohabitation and number of previous marriages have opposite effects on the cumulative fertility rate of women, the difference in this rate between wives in polygamous and monogamous unions vanished when both factors were controlled in a multivariate analysis.

  5. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  6. Solar evaporation of fertilizers/ag-chemical aqueous mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, D.H.; Salladay, D.G.; Norwood, V.M. ); Guinn, G.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Even when best management practices are employed, dealers can have 2000 to 7000 gallons of fertilizer/pesticide rinsewaters each year that cannot be used on nonlabel crops or indiscriminately applied or disposed of without violating Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pesticide label application regulations. A novel, easily implemented solution for reduction of these rinsewaters has been developed at the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) working with researchers from the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Researchers have developed a passive flat-plate solar evaporator. It is a stainless steel/glass unit approximately 8inches [times] 7inches [times] 5inches, and can be produced on an assembly line basis for less than $4000 each. NFERC technologists will use these units for environmental research and demonstration projects at other universities and dealers this year. Each unit can evaporate 900--1200 gallons of water per year.

  7. Solar evaporation of fertilizers/ag-chemical aqueous mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, D.H.; Salladay, D.G.; Norwood, V.M.; Guinn, G.R.

    1991-12-31

    Even when best management practices are employed, dealers can have 2000 to 7000 gallons of fertilizer/pesticide rinsewaters each year that cannot be used on nonlabel crops or indiscriminately applied or disposed of without violating Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pesticide label application regulations. A novel, easily implemented solution for reduction of these rinsewaters has been developed at the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) working with researchers from the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Researchers have developed a passive flat-plate solar evaporator. It is a stainless steel/glass unit approximately 8inches {times} 7inches {times} 5inches, and can be produced on an assembly line basis for less than $4000 each. NFERC technologists will use these units for environmental research and demonstration projects at other universities and dealers this year. Each unit can evaporate 900--1200 gallons of water per year.

  8. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  9. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  10. Patient attitudes toward fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R

    2009-08-01

    The increased survival rates for pediatric cancer patients and for some malignancies that are common in young adults, such as testicular cancer and Hodgkin disease have led to an increased focus on preserving fertility. Research on the psychosocial aspects of cancer-related infertility is a recent development, but we know that both young men and women value parenthood after cancer. At least 75% of survivors who were childless at diagnosis would like future offspring. For those who do not become parents, long-term distress is common. Younger teens may have difficulty assessing whether parenthood will be important to them in the future, and informed consent protocols need to respect their desires rather than deferring too much to parents. We do not know whether parenting a non-biological child (adopted, conceived through third-party reproduction, or a stepchild) reduces distress as much as being able to have one's own genetic offspring. Survivors often have exaggerated concerns about their children's health risks, but still prefer to have biological children if possible. More research is needed on whether participating in fertility preservation reduces long-term distress about cancer-related fertility. Better evidence-based programs to educate families and reduce decisional conflict are needed.

  11. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  12. Gianco, my Brother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, Ester Gasperoni

    As a child, Gianco (the nickname by which he was known to family and friends) wanted to be a cook. Since cooking has never been my "cup of tea" I gladly allowed him to experiment on a stove that had been given to me for Christmas, a little electric marvel equipped with a real oven. He concocted sauces, baked cookies and cakes, which were eminently edible. Perhaps thanks to his childhood practice, Gianco's cooking was always far better than mine.

  13. Big Brother Not Needed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Cites the recent United States State Department's labeling of recent Canadian films--one on nuclear war and two on acid rain--as political propaganda as a sign of the need to review the nature of propaganda. Suggests that teaching students to intelligently evaluate propaganda is preferable to submitting to government dictum. (MM)

  14. Nitrogen fertilization, soil nitrate accumulation, and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaotang; Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Fusuo; Roelcke, Marco

    2004-08-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization and decreasing N recovery rates by crops have caused dramatic increases in non-point source pollution from agriculture in China. The rate of N fertilization across the country varies widely among regions and crops, depending on the stage of economic development. For example, N application rates in the eastern regions and on cash crops are far higher than in western regions of the country and on cereal crops. Moreover, N application rates in wealthier regions are higher than recommended by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. To successfully achieve environmental protection as well as high crop yields, China must formulate relevant agricultural policies to encourage farmers in economically developed areas to reduce their N fertilization rate while also issuing conventional fertilization recommendations for small-scale farming systems and the expanding cultivation of cash crops. PMID:15387063

  15. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees. PMID:27764099

  16. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

  17. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Walczak–Jedrzejowska, Renata; Wolski, Jan Karol

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress results from the imbalance between production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the protective effect of the antioxidant system responsible for their neutralization and removal. An excess of ROS causes a pathological reaction resulting in damage to cells and tissues. Spermatozoa are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of ROS. Oxidative stress affects their activity, damages DNA structure, and accelerates apoptosis, all of which consequently decrease their numbers, hinders motility and development of normal morphology, and impairs function. This leads to disturbances in fertility or embryo development disorder. The main cellular source of ROS in the semen are immature sperm cells and white blood cells. The increase in the number of leukocytes may be due to infection and inflammation, but can also be secondary to harmful environmental factors, long sexual abstinence, or varicocele. The protective antioxidant system in the semen is composed of enzymes, as well as nonenzymatic substances, which closely interact with each other to ensure optimal protection against ROS. Non–enzymatic antioxidants include vitamins A, E, C, and B complex, glutathione, pantothenic acid, coenzyme Q10 and carnitine, and micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, and copper. It seems that a deficiency of any of them can cause a decrease in total antioxidant status. In vitro and in vivo that studies demonstrate many antioxidants possess a beneficial effect on fertility and, therefore, their use is recommended as supportive therapy for the treatment of infertility in men. PMID:24578993

  18. Fertility Potential in Adult Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher Singh; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract characterized by abnormal location of the external urethral meatus over ventral aspect of penis. The ideal time to correct primary hypospadias is when aged 6-12 months. However, in some developing countries, such as ours, this anomaly may be left untreated until adulthood. There are multiple risk factors responsible for development of this anomaly, out of which paternal sub fertility is one of them. As the child grows into adulthood, fertility status becomes an important issue, frequently raised by patients. Aim To evaluate the fertility potential of adult hypospadiac patients and to rule out the effect of age of surgical correction over fertility potential. Materials and Methods Seventy three adult patients of hypospadias were prospectively evaluated, out of which 43 were operated during adulthood. All patients underwent measurement of penile length and circumference in both flaccid and erect positions along with testicular volume, serum LH, FSH and testosterone and semen analysis. A set of questionnaire was given to all the patients which included assessment of erectile function (IIEF-5), ejaculatory function, strength of libido and level of satisfaction after sexual intercourse. Results were compared with an age matched control group of 70 healthy person. Results Out of 73 patients with a mean age of 23.73 years, 14(19.17%) had proximal and rest 59(80.82%) had distal type of hypospadias. Mean penile length in both type of hypospadiac patients under both flaccid and erect conditions (7.92±1.33 and 9.62±1.31cm) were significantly shorter than those of control (10.78±0.94 and 13.15±1.15 cm) (p<0.001). In spite of short penile length, the level of satisfaction of all patients and their partner after penetrating intercourse were comparable to control (p>0.05). The strength of libido (p>0.05) was comparable with control in both type of hypospadiac patients; however IIEF-5 scores was poor in

  19. Fertility assurance through extrapair fertilization, and male parental effort.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi

    2002-07-01

    Extrapair paternity (EPP) has been observed in many formally monogamous species. Male pursuit of extrapair fertilizations (EPF) is explained by the advantages of having offspring that receive essential paternal care from other males. Because females are capable of exercising a degree of control over the post-copulatory sperm competition, EPP's persistence indicates that females benefit from EPF. Thus, EPP involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek EPF for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. Our results indicate that in these circumstances pursuit of EPF is the only evolutionary stable female strategy. Males, on the other hand, have two, mutually exclusive, evolutionary stable strategies: males that restrict parental care regardless of their mate's fidelity, and males that never restrict parental care. That is, when females seek EPF for reasons of fertility assurance and/or genetic diversity, the conditional male strategy--therein the male's parental efforts are based on his certainty of paternity--loses in competition with the unconditional strategies.

  20. Artificial insemination in pigs: predicting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Efficient artificial insemination (AI) is essential for future challenges in the pig industry. Knowledge on the exact relation between semen quality characteristics and fertility can have a major impact on both the genetic merit of future animals and the efficiency of AI. Variation in fertility is caused not only by farm- or sow-related parameters but also by boar- and semen-related parameters. In pig AI there is no gold standard concerning semen quality assessment. Assessing semen quality characteristics objectively and relating them to large field fertility datasets leads to an efficient production of insemination doses, which results in an efficient dissemination/descent of the breeding program required genes. Overall, this contributes to the development of semen quality assessments, which improves the prediction of porcine male fertility. Knowing which semen characteristics, and to what extent, contribute to male fertility and makes the field fertility more predictable. PMID:23092203

  1. [Impact of radiotherapy on female fertility].

    PubMed

    Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Cao, Kim; Mbagui, Rodrigue; Slocker-Escarpa, Andrea; Chargari, Cyrus; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Radiation therapy may have deleterious effects on female fertility. It can cause ovarian dysfunction, uterine damages or disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. These effects occur at varying dose levels usually relatively low compared to the prescribed doses. Other co-factors influence the effects of radiation therapy on fertility, such as age or therapy with alkylating agents. This review aims to make an update on the current state of knowledge about the impact of radiotherapy on female fertility.

  2. The decline of fertility in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Fernandez, D

    1980-01-01

    A detailed analysis of fertility trends in Peninsular Malaysia from 1947 through 1974, based on annual period rates from vital statistics data and cumulative fertility measures from the 1947, 1957, and 1970 censuses, is presented. Fertility levels from 1947 to 1957 were quite high and possibly increasing, with a crude birth rate in the middle 40s. A rapid decline among all major ethnic groups brought the crude birth rate from 46 in 1956 to 31 in 1974, while over the same period the general fertility rate dropped from 210 to 130 births per 1000 women of reproductive age. Decomposition of changes in the crude birth rate from 1958 to 1970 indicates that most of the decline in the crude birth rate was due to rising average age at marriage, and the rest to small declines in marital fertility. The fall in total fertility rates ranged from 1.2 births per woman among Malays to 3.2 births per woman among Indians between 1958 and 1974. Signs of declining marital fertility among Malay and Indian women in their late 20s and 30s appeared in the late 1960s, but the principal element in their fertility decline was delayed marriage. In 1957 over half of Malay and Indian women aged 15-19 were married, while in 1970 only 1 in 5 were. Changes in age structure reinforced the decline of the Malay crude birth rate but offset part of the reduction of age-specific fertility among Chinese and Indians. Substantial reductions in proportions currently married were important for all ethnic groups. Future fertility declines will depend primarily on changes in marital fertility rates because the age structure will be favorable to higher fertility and marriage postponement is already advanced.

  3. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization.

    PubMed

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-08-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm-egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes.

  4. Unraveling the intricacies of mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Satish K

    2014-01-01

    It is imperative to understand the molecular basis of various steps involved during fertilization. In the manuscript by Bianchi et al. a novel protein, Juno on egg membrane (oolemma) has been characterized that binds to sperm specific protein, Izumo-1. Monoclonal antibodies against Juno inhibited in vitro fertilization. Juno knock-out female mice failed to deliver litters on mating. It is rapidly shed from oolemma after fertilization, suggesting its role in preventing polyspermy. Taken together these studies will help in our understanding of sperm-egg recognition mechanisms and also facilitate development of new fertility treatment regimens and novel contraceptives.

  5. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm–egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes. PMID:26246493

  6. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  7. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  8. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  9. Process improvement for regulatory analyses of custom-blend fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical testing of custom-blend fertilizers is essential to ensure that the products meet the formulation requirements. For purposes of proper crop nutrition and consumer protection, regulatory oversight promotes compliance and particular attention to blending and formulation specifications. Analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products must be performed and reported within a very narrow window in order to be effective. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Biochemistry Laboratory is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and conducts analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products primarily during the spring planting season. Using the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process, the Biochemistry Laboratory has reduced turnaround times from as much as 45 days to as little as 3 days. The LSS methodology focuses on waste reduction through identifying: non-value-added steps, unneeded process reviews, optimization of screening and confirmatory analyses, equipment utilization, nonessential reporting requirements, and inefficient personnel deployment. Eliminating these non-value-added activities helped the laboratory significantly shorten turnaround time and reduce costs. Key improvement elements discovered during the LSS process included: focused sample tracking, equipment redundancy, strategic supply stocking, batch size optimization, critical sample paths, elimination of nonessential QC reviews, and more efficient personnel deployment.

  10. Process improvement for regulatory analyses of custom-blend fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical testing of custom-blend fertilizers is essential to ensure that the products meet the formulation requirements. For purposes of proper crop nutrition and consumer protection, regulatory oversight promotes compliance and particular attention to blending and formulation specifications. Analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products must be performed and reported within a very narrow window in order to be effective. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Biochemistry Laboratory is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and conducts analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products primarily during the spring planting season. Using the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process, the Biochemistry Laboratory has reduced turnaround times from as much as 45 days to as little as 3 days. The LSS methodology focuses on waste reduction through identifying: non-value-added steps, unneeded process reviews, optimization of screening and confirmatory analyses, equipment utilization, nonessential reporting requirements, and inefficient personnel deployment. Eliminating these non-value-added activities helped the laboratory significantly shorten turnaround time and reduce costs. Key improvement elements discovered during the LSS process included: focused sample tracking, equipment redundancy, strategic supply stocking, batch size optimization, critical sample paths, elimination of nonessential QC reviews, and more efficient personnel deployment. PMID:25051621

  11. [Strategic factors in fertility decline].

    PubMed

    Genne, M

    1984-01-01

    This study examines income as an important but not exclusive determinant of demographic evolution, using the theoretical model of the demographic transition. Researches at the Population Center at Princeton and the authors of the Bachue dimulation models among others believe that acceleration of fertility decline can be achieved by a more equitable distribution of income, goods, and knowledge. Among the works of this school of thought, the studies of r. Repetto which give quantitative expression to the correlation are particularly interesting when they are placed in the framework of the demographic transition. Even if the significance of all factors involved in the fertility decline has not been specified, income distribution plays a certain role regardless of the definition given to transition: the classic model, the revised definition of the Princeton group, or the equitable development model. A study of the Hungarian case between 1870-1910 bears out the relationship. It is equally interesting to note that developing countries currently have a demographic configuration similar to that of European countries in general, and of Hungary in particular, as of the beginning of the last century, and that a more equalitarian distribution of land or of income could bring about the same effects over time.

  12. The TP53 fertility network

    PubMed Central

    Paskulin, Diego d’Avila; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Hainaut, Pierre; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The TP53 gene, first described in 1979, was identified as a tumor suppressor gene in 1989, when it became clear that its product, the p53 nuclear phosphoprotein, was frequently inactivated in many different forms of cancers. Nicknamed “guardian of the genome”, TP53 occupies a central node in stress response networks. The p53 protein has a key role as transcription factor in limiting oncogenesis through several growth suppressive functions, such as initiating apoptosis, senescence, or cell cycle arrest. The p53 protein is directly inactivated in about 50% of all tumors as a result of somatic gene mutations or deletions, and over 80% of tumors demonstrate dysfunctional p53 signaling. Beyond the undeniable importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor, an increasing number of new functions for p53 have been reported, including its ability to regulate energy metabolism, to control autophagy, and to participate in various aspects of differentiation and development. Recently, studies on genetic variations in TP53 among different populations have led to the notion that the p53 protein might play an important role in regulating fertility. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic functions of different genes of the TP53 family and TP53 pathway with respect to fertility. We also provide original analyses based on genomic and genotype databases, providing further insights into the possible roles of the TP53 pathway in human reproduction. PMID:23412905

  13. A lunar effect on fertility.

    PubMed

    Criss, T B; Marcum, J P

    1981-01-01

    Data from individual birth records for 140,000 live births occurring in New York City in 1968 provide evidence that the folkloric beliefs in the moon's influence on human reproduction found in many societies may have a factual basis. Records were arranged sequentially by day of occurrence and time series were constructed for total births and for 5 categories of spontaneous births: total, female, male, black, and white. A Fourier spectrum was calculated for each time series. Cross amplitude spectra were computed for 2 pairs of independent time series, male and female and black and white births, to minimize the effects of weekly variation, and cross correlations were calculated between a time series generated for the study a sine wave at exactly the frequency of the lunar cycle with its maximum value assigned to the 3rd quarter) and each of the other 6 series. A small but systematic variation of births over a period of 29.53 days, the length of the lunar cycle, with peak fertility at 3rd quarter, was found in the 4 independent time series and remained after weekly variation was removed. The finding itself provides little guidance as to the timing or nature of the moon's influence, but recent research suggests a connection between menstrual regularity and light. The timing of the fertility peak at 3rd quarter suggests that the period of decreasing illumination immediately after full moon may precipitate ovulation.

  14. The TP53 fertility network.

    PubMed

    Paskulin, Diego d'Avila; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Hainaut, Pierre; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    The TP53 gene, first described in 1979, was identified as a tumor suppressor gene in 1989, when it became clear that its product, the p53 nuclear phosphoprotein, was frequently inactivated in many different forms of cancers. Nicknamed "guardian of the genome", TP53 occupies a central node in stress response networks. The p53 protein has a key role as transcription factor in limiting oncogenesis through several growth suppressive functions, such as initiating apoptosis, senescence, or cell cycle arrest. The p53 protein is directly inactivated in about 50% of all tumors as a result of somatic gene mutations or deletions, and over 80% of tumors demonstrate dysfunctional p53 signaling. Beyond the undeniable importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor, an increasing number of new functions for p53 have been reported, including its ability to regulate energy metabolism, to control autophagy, and to participate in various aspects of differentiation and development. Recently, studies on genetic variations in TP53 among different populations have led to the notion that the p53 protein might play an important role in regulating fertility. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic functions of different genes of the TP53 family and TP53 pathway with respect to fertility. We also provide original analyses based on genomic and genotype databases, providing further insights into the possible roles of the TP53 pathway in human reproduction. PMID:23412905

  15. Mexican plants and human fertility.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, P

    1979-07-01

    Synthetic steroids are obtainable cheaply and in abundance from sapogenins, substances originating from plants of the Discorea family. Some 40 years ago, Russell Marker, an American chemist, discovered this source, which grows abundantly in Mexican jungles and is now exploited and cultivated commercially. Today synthetic steroids prepared from extracts from a wide range of vegetable sources are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, inflammatory diseases, sterility, and various heart conditions, and form the basis of modern oral contraceptives. Nevertheless, oral contraceptives in current use are still fairly costly, and women have to be educated in their use. What is needed urgently is a cheaper contraceptive pill with a long-term effect, and research is continuing. For example, scientists from the People's Republic of China have reported significant anti-fertility effects associated with 2 substances, anordin and dinordin, prepared with steroids derived from the sisal plants Agave sisilana and Agave americana. These agents, whose anti-fertility properties have been confirmed by scientists in Sweden and the United States, constitute a new family of contraceptives with the great advantage of having to be taken only once or twice instead of 20 times per month necessary with the ordinary pill. Also from China, scientists have reported the effectiveness of gossypol as an orally administered male contraceptive, although gossypol is not a steroid. It may become, however, a leading candidate for a male contraceptive.

  16. High-Resolution Distribution of Temperature, Particle and Oxidation/Reduction Potential Anomalies From a Submarine Hydrothermal System: Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.; de Ronde, C. E.; Yoerger, D.; Embley, R. W.; Davy, B.; Merle, S. G.; Resing, J. A.; Nakamura, K.

    2008-12-01

    The complex relationships between geological setting and hydrothermal venting have, to date, largely been explored with ship-based surveys that effectively examine regional relationships, or with remotely operated vehicles (ROV) and manned submersibles which allow close examination of individual vent fields. Higher- resolution surveys than are possible with ship-based techniques and broader surveys than are practical with ROVs and manned submersibles are necessary for more thoroughly understanding hydrothermal systems and their impact on ocean ecosystems. Autonomous vehicles (AUVs), such as the WHOI Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) can be programmed to conduct high-resolution surveys that systematically cover a broad area of seafloor. Brothers volcano, a hydrothermally active submarine caldera volcano located on the Kermadec arc northwest of New Zealand, was surveyed in July-August 2007 using ABE. Brothers caldera is ~3 km in diameter with a floor depth of 1850 m and walls that rise 290-530 m above the caldera floor. A dacite cone with a summit depth of ~1200 m sits within the caldera, partially merging with the southern caldera wall. Prior to the survey, active hydrothermal vents were known to be perched along the NW caldera wall and located at three sites on the cone. The enclosed caldera, presence of known vent fields with differing geochemical characteristics, and existence of at least one currently inactive site made Brothers volcano an ideal site for a high-resolution survey to explore in greater detail the mass, thermal and geochemical exchanges of hydrothermal systems. During our expedition, the caldera walls and dacite cone (~7 km2) were completely surveyed by ABE with 50-60 m trackline spacing at an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal plumes were mapped with ABE's integrated CTD (conductivity- temperature-depth) and sensors measuring optical backscatter (particle concentrations) and oxidation- reduction potential (ORP; indicating the

  17. [The recent evolution of fertility in Italy. An analysis of parity-specific fertility tables].

    PubMed

    De Simoni, A

    1990-01-01

    Using age- and parity-specific fertility tables, the author analyzes the evolution of fertility change in Italy. "The application of this 'multidimensional' (age and parity) approach shows how profound the fertility decline has been, the intensity of the decline being in some way 'hidden' by the impact of past evolution when traditional measures are used." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  18. Religiosity and Fertility in the United States: The Role of Fertility Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Morgan, S. Philip

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, we show that women who report that religion is "very important" in their everyday life have both higher fertility and higher intended fertility than those saying religion is "somewhat important" or "not important." Factors such as unwanted fertility, age at childbearing or degree of…

  19. Dynamics of maize carbon contribution to soil organic carbon in association with soil type and fertility level.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jiubo; Li, Hui; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Farmer, John; Fu, Shifeng; Wang, Jingkuan

    2015-01-01

    Soil type and fertility level influence straw carbon dynamics in the agroecosystems. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamic processes of straw-derived and soil-derived carbon and the influence of the addition of straw carbon on soil-derived organic carbon in different soils associated with different fertility levels. In this study, we applied the in-situ carborundum tube method and 13C-labeled maize straw (with and without maize straw) at two cropland (Phaeozem and Luvisol soils) experimental sites in northeast China to quantify the dynamics of maize-derived and soil-derived carbon in soils associated with high and low fertility, and to examine how the addition of maize carbon influences soil-derived organic carbon and the interactions of soil type and fertility level with maize-derived and soil-derived carbon. We found that, on average, the contributions of maize-derived carbon to total organic carbon in maize-soil systems during the experimental period were differentiated among low fertility Luvisol (from 62.82% to 42.90), high fertility Luvisol (from 53.15% to 30.00%), low fertility Phaeozem (from 58.69% to 36.29%) and high fertility Phaeozem (from 41.06% to 16.60%). Furthermore, the addition of maize carbon significantly decreased the remaining soil-derived organic carbon in low and high fertility Luvisols and low fertility Phaeozem before two months. However, the increasing differences in soil-derived organic carbon between both soils with and without maize straw after two months suggested that maize-derived carbon was incorporated into soil-derived organic carbon, thereby potentially offsetting the loss of soil-derived organic carbon. These results suggested that Phaeozem and high fertility level soils would fix more maize carbon over time and thus were more beneficial for protecting soil-derived organic carbon from maize carbon decomposition.

  20. Dynamics of Maize Carbon Contribution to Soil Organic Carbon in Association with Soil Type and Fertility Level

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jiubo; Li, Hui; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Farmer, John; Fu, Shifeng; Wang, Jingkuan

    2015-01-01

    Soil type and fertility level influence straw carbon dynamics in the agroecosystems. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamic processes of straw-derived and soil-derived carbon and the influence of the addition of straw carbon on soil-derived organic carbon in different soils associated with different fertility levels. In this study, we applied the in-situ carborundum tube method and 13C-labeled maize straw (with and without maize straw) at two cropland (Phaeozem and Luvisol soils) experimental sites in northeast China to quantify the dynamics of maize-derived and soil-derived carbon in soils associated with high and low fertility, and to examine how the addition of maize carbon influences soil-derived organic carbon and the interactions of soil type and fertility level with maize-derived and soil-derived carbon. We found that, on average, the contributions of maize-derived carbon to total organic carbon in maize-soil systems during the experimental period were differentiated among low fertility Luvisol (from 62.82% to 42.90), high fertility Luvisol (from 53.15% to 30.00%), low fertility Phaeozem (from 58.69% to 36.29%) and high fertility Phaeozem (from 41.06% to 16.60%). Furthermore, the addition of maize carbon significantly decreased the remaining soil-derived organic carbon in low and high fertility Luvisols and low fertility Phaeozem before two months. However, the increasing differences in soil-derived organic carbon between both soils with and without maize straw after two months suggested that maize-derived carbon was incorporated into soil-derived organic carbon, thereby potentially offsetting the loss of soil-derived organic carbon. These results suggested that Phaeozem and high fertility level soils would fix more maize carbon over time and thus were more beneficial for protecting soil-derived organic carbon from maize carbon decomposition. PMID:25774529

  1. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shu-Cai; Chen, Bei-Guang; Jiang, Cheng-Ai; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China was causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications were of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increased the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which were increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  2. [Evaluation of nitrogen loss way in summer maize system under different fertilizer N managements].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Hu, Ke-Lin; Li, Guang-De; Wang, Huan-Yuan

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems under different fertilizer N managements, and to provide some suggestions on optimizing fertilizer management practices. The experiment was carried in high yield production area of Huantai county in Shandong province in 2009. Four kinds of fertilizer N application practices were designed, including CK, farmer practice (FP), optimizing fertilizer application (OPT) and controlled release fertilizer (CRT) for studying the fate of N during the maize growth season in 2009. The water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was used to simulate the dynamics of soil water and N fate. The results indicated that the ratio of nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization accounting of fertilizer N ranged from 6% to 18% and 5% to 34%, and their means were 12.7% and 20.7%, respectively. The amount of N leaching under OPT was 14.5 kg x hm(-2), was the lowest in all treatments. The amount of NH3 volatilization under CRT was 7.6 kg x hm(-2), respectively, was the lowest in all treatments. The order of total N loss under four treatments followed as: FP > OPT > CRF approximately CK. Both OPT and CRT treatments are the best management practices considering their high grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and environmental protection. PMID:22165230

  3. [Evaluation of nitrogen loss way in summer maize system under different fertilizer N managements].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Hu, Ke-Lin; Li, Guang-De; Wang, Huan-Yuan

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems under different fertilizer N managements, and to provide some suggestions on optimizing fertilizer management practices. The experiment was carried in high yield production area of Huantai county in Shandong province in 2009. Four kinds of fertilizer N application practices were designed, including CK, farmer practice (FP), optimizing fertilizer application (OPT) and controlled release fertilizer (CRT) for studying the fate of N during the maize growth season in 2009. The water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was used to simulate the dynamics of soil water and N fate. The results indicated that the ratio of nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization accounting of fertilizer N ranged from 6% to 18% and 5% to 34%, and their means were 12.7% and 20.7%, respectively. The amount of N leaching under OPT was 14.5 kg x hm(-2), was the lowest in all treatments. The amount of NH3 volatilization under CRT was 7.6 kg x hm(-2), respectively, was the lowest in all treatments. The order of total N loss under four treatments followed as: FP > OPT > CRF approximately CK. Both OPT and CRT treatments are the best management practices considering their high grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and environmental protection.

  4. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  5. Religion and fertility in the Outer Hebrides.

    PubMed

    Clegg, E J; Cross, J F

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of fertility in Protestant Barra and Catholic Harris, islands in the Outer Hebrides, over the period 1856-1985, show that in both islands fertility declined, although marital fertility was generally greater than in Scotland as a whole, and illegitimate fertility was less. However, in Barra during 1966-75 there were pronounced rises in all the indices; illegitimate fertility showed the smallest rise. The publication of the papal encyclical Humanae Vitae may have played a part in this change in fertility, although other, probably local, factors must have been acting, as the first rise in numbers of births occurred before the publication of the encyclical. Other than this transient rise, the religious difference between Harris and Barra had little effect on changes in fertility over the whole period. Indices of proportions married showed declines until after World War 2, followed by steep increases. The marked decline in fertility in both islands may be due in part to this low nuptiality. In addition, a trend of occupation away from traditional crofting and fishing towards more skilled mercantile and professional employment may have played a role.

  6. Alexithymia and fertility-related stress.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Faie; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the relationship between alexithymia, the inability to identify and describe feelings and the absence of fantasies, and fertility-related distress is a relatively neglected area of research. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the prevalence of alexithymia in a sample of infertile women, and (2) the association between alexithymia, coping strategies, and fertility-related stress. This study included 160 infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization in a public fertility clinic from September of 2013 to December of 2013. Self-report instruments were used to measure alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), coping (COPE), and fertility-related stress (Fertility Problem Inventory). Bivariate and multiple linear regression were used. A high alexithymia score was positively associated with age, infertility duration, and low educational and economic level. Multivariate analyses showed that, controlling for demographic factors, high avoidance coping, low problem-appraisal coping, and high alexithymia were positively associated with fertility-related stress (β = 0.309, p < .001, β = -0.203, p = .006, β = 0.151, p = .050, respectively). Results of this study indicated that alexithymia during fertility treatment was associated with maladaptive coping strategies and psychological stress. In addition, the association between alexithymia and duration of infertility may be interpreted as secondary alexithymia acts as a coping strategy in infertile women. PMID:26361792

  7. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  8. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for plant growth and/or beneficial bacteria to convert nutrients into plant usable forms. Biobased fertilizers, which are likely to... constituents they contain, as required under 40 CFR 266.20(d). (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  9. The Post-Communist Fertility Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Sunnee

    2010-04-01

    Fertility has unanimously declined across the entire post-communist region. This study explores the variation in fertility trends over time among these countries and assesses to what degree three explanations are applicable: second demographic transition (SDT), postponement transition (PPT) or reaction to the economic crisis. Moreover, on the basis of SDT and PPT theoretical tenets, as well as descriptive evidence, the economic context is hypothesized to be linked to two processes of fertility decline conversely. The results show that no one theoretical explanation is sufficient to explain the complex fertility declines across the entire post-communist region from 1990 to 2003. In some countries, a great part of the decline in fertility occurred before significant postponement of childbearing began, which indicates that the dramatic decline was due to stopping behavior or postponement of higher order births. Postponement of first births, either through PPT or SDT processes, greatly contributed to fertility decline in a small number of countries. Pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of age-specific birthrates confirm that these two distinct processes are present and show that the economic crisis explanation has explanatory power for declining birth rates. In contrast, logistic regressions show that the likelihood of postponing childbirth increases with improved economic conditions. These results confirm the importance of taking the economic context into account when discussing explanations for fertility decline. More specifically, the results indicate that the severity and duration of economic crisis, or absence thereof, influenced the extent and manner in which fertility declined.

  10. The World Fertility Survey: Charting Global Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbourne, Robert, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported in this bulletin are major results from an ongoing study conducted by the World Fertility Survey (WFS) to examine fertility levels and trends and contraceptive use in developing and developed countries. Major results were available by early 1982 from 29 developing countries and 16 developed countries. These results indicated that while…

  11. Religiosity and Fertility: The Case of Chicanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabagh, Georges; Lopez, David

    1980-01-01

    Data from 1129 Mexican American women interviewed in Los Angeles in 1973 were used to analyze the effects of religious norms on fertility. Findings indicate that adherence to Roman Catholic norms has a net impact on the fertility of Chicanas reared in the United States, but not those reared in Mexico. (Author/GC)

  12. Carbon Cost of Applying Nitrogen Fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Mcgill, William B.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    2000-05-05

    When the addition of nitrogen (N) fertilizer leads to increased crop biomass, it also augments carbon (C)inputs to the soil and, hence often increases soil organic matter. Consequently, the efficient use of fertilizer N to increase crop production has also been found valuable for sequestering atmospheric carbon in soil.

  13. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  14. Fear of Death and Fertility Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlaw, Bonnie J. R.; Dixon, Richard D.

    1980-01-01

    Fear of death was found to be positively and significantly correlated with fertility experiences, desires, and intentions, but only among respondents whose formal education did not exceed the completion of high school. Males demonstrated megadeath fear with respect to desired and intended fertility. (Author)

  15. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  16. Agriculture causes nitrate fertilization of remote alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Hundey, E J; Russell, S D; Longstaffe, F J; Moser, K A

    2016-01-01

    Humans have altered Earth's nitrogen cycle so dramatically that reactive nitrogen (Nr) has doubled. This has increased Nr in aquatic ecosystems, which can lead to reduced water quality and ecosystem health. Apportioning sources of Nr to specific ecosystems, however, continues to be challenging, despite this knowledge being critical for mitigation and protection of water resources. Here we use Δ(17)O, δ(18)O and δ(15)N from Uinta Mountain (Utah, USA) snow, inflow and lake nitrate in combination with a Bayesian-based stable isotope mixing model, to show that at least 70% of nitrates in aquatic systems are anthropogenic and arrive via the atmosphere. Moreover, agricultural activities, specifically nitrate- and ammonium-based fertilizer use, are contributing most (∼60%) Nr, and data from other North American alpine lakes suggest this is a widespread phenomenon. Our findings offer a pathway towards more effective mitigation, but point to challenges in balancing food production with protection of important water resources. PMID:26853267

  17. Agriculture causes nitrate fertilization of remote alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundey, E. J.; Russell, S. D.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Moser, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    Humans have altered Earth's nitrogen cycle so dramatically that reactive nitrogen (Nr) has doubled. This has increased Nr in aquatic ecosystems, which can lead to reduced water quality and ecosystem health. Apportioning sources of Nr to specific ecosystems, however, continues to be challenging, despite this knowledge being critical for mitigation and protection of water resources. Here we use Δ17O, δ18O and δ15N from Uinta Mountain (Utah, USA) snow, inflow and lake nitrate in combination with a Bayesian-based stable isotope mixing model, to show that at least 70% of nitrates in aquatic systems are anthropogenic and arrive via the atmosphere. Moreover, agricultural activities, specifically nitrate- and ammonium-based fertilizer use, are contributing most (~60%) Nr, and data from other North American alpine lakes suggest this is a widespread phenomenon. Our findings offer a pathway towards more effective mitigation, but point to challenges in balancing food production with protection of important water resources.

  18. Agriculture causes nitrate fertilization of remote alpine lakes

    PubMed Central

    Hundey, E. J.; Russell, S. D.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Moser, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have altered Earth's nitrogen cycle so dramatically that reactive nitrogen (Nr) has doubled. This has increased Nr in aquatic ecosystems, which can lead to reduced water quality and ecosystem health. Apportioning sources of Nr to specific ecosystems, however, continues to be challenging, despite this knowledge being critical for mitigation and protection of water resources. Here we use Δ17O, δ18O and δ15N from Uinta Mountain (Utah, USA) snow, inflow and lake nitrate in combination with a Bayesian-based stable isotope mixing model, to show that at least 70% of nitrates in aquatic systems are anthropogenic and arrive via the atmosphere. Moreover, agricultural activities, specifically nitrate- and ammonium-based fertilizer use, are contributing most (∼60%) Nr, and data from other North American alpine lakes suggest this is a widespread phenomenon. Our findings offer a pathway towards more effective mitigation, but point to challenges in balancing food production with protection of important water resources. PMID:26853267

  19. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

  20. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  1. Attitudes about Children and Fertility Limitation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between attitudes and individual behavior is at the core of virtually all demographic theories of fertility. This paper extends our understanding of fertility behavior by exploring how psychic costs of childbearing and contraceptive use, conceptualized as attitudes about children and contraception, are related to the transition from high fertility and little contraceptive use to lower fertility and wide spread contraceptive use. Using data from rural Nepal I examine models of the relationship between multiple, setting-specific attitudes about children and contraception and the hazard of contraceptive use to limit childbearing. Specific attitude measures attempt to capture the relative value of children versus consumer goods, the religiously based value of children, and the acceptability of contraceptive use. Findings demonstrate that multiple measures of women’s attitudes about children and contraception were all independently related to their fertility limitation behavior. PMID:23745013

  2. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    PubMed

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year.

  3. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs to remove the cancer. continue Sperm and Egg Preservation Options If your child's treatment carries a ... vitro fertilization (sperm are used to fertilize an egg outside of the uterus, then the fertilized embryo ...

  4. Fewer Birth Defects for Older Moms Who Have Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Older Moms Who Have Fertility Treatments In vitro fertilization cut the rate in half for women over ... 000 naturally conceived births, 2,200 in vitro fertilization (IVF) births and nearly 1,400 births from ...

  5. Fertilizer Nutrient Leaching and Nutrient Mobility: A Simple Laboratory Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, D. S.; Johnson, G. V.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an exercise developed to demonstrate the degree to which nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers move through different soils. The results support the common practices of broadcasting nitrogen fertilizer and banding phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. (DDR)

  6. Fertility Drugs and the Risk of Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... intercourse to eliminate your risk of multiple births. In vitro fertilization (IVF) means that your egg and your partner’s sperm are joined (fertilized) in the laboratory and the doctor places the fertilized ...

  7. Investigations of motility and fertilization potential in thawed cryopreserved mouse sperm from cold-stored epididymides.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toru; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Yoshimoto, Hidetaka; Shimizu, Norihiko; Li, Ming-Wen; Kinchen, Kristy; Vallelunga, Jadine; Lloyd, K C Kent; Nakagata, Naomi

    2014-02-01

    Cold transport of epididymides from genetically modified mice is an efficient alternative to the shipment of live animals between research facilities. Mouse sperm from epididymides cold-stored for short periods can maintain viability. We previously reported that cold storage of mouse epididymides in Lifor® perfusion medium prolonged sperm motility and fertilization potential and that the sperm efficiently fertilized oocytes when reduced glutathione was added to the fertilization medium. Cryopreservation usually results in decreased sperm viability; an optimized protocol for cold storage of epididymides plus sperm cryopreservation has yet to be established. Here, we examined the motility and fertilization potential of cryopreserved, thawed (frozen-thawed) sperm from previously cold-stored mouse epididymides. We also examined the protective effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on sperm viability when S1P was added to the preservation medium during cold storage. We assessed viability of frozen-thawed sperm from mouse epididymides that had been cold-transported domestically or internationally and investigated whether embryos fertilized in vitro with these sperm developed normally when implanted in pseudo-pregnant mice. Our results indicate that frozen-thawed sperm from epididymides cold-stored for up to 48 h maintained high fertilization potential. Fertilization potential was reduced after cold storage for 72 h, but not if S1P was included in the cold storage medium. Live pups were born normally to recipients after in vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed sperm from cold-transported epididymides. In summary, we demonstrate an improved protocol for cold-storage of epididymides that can facilitate transport of genetically engineered-mice and preserve sperm viability after cryopreservation.

  8. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    PubMed

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  9. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  10. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  11. The continuing fertility decline in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Fernando, D F

    1980-01-01

    The continued decline in fertility in Sri Lanka which began in 1960 is analyzed and documented. Data from recent consuses, the 1st report of the World Fertility Survey, and from vital statistics registration are used. The data are tabulated along with similar data from Taiwan to provide a basis of comparison. The birth rate in Sri Lanka has declined steadily since 1960, reaching an almost static level in 1974-76. During the 1970's there was a dramatic upward move in the age at marriage for women in both Sri Lanka and Taiwan. This factor, combined with a changing female age structure, had been responsible for fertility decline during the 1953-63 period. During 1963-68, female marriage postponement continued to influence fertility decline while the change in the female age structure retarded it. Declines in marital fertility began to have an effect by 1963 in the over 25 age groups. The Sri Lankan Family Planning Program began in 1965. The year 1972 is considered a turning point for the program with increasing use of modern contraceptive methods, especially the IUD and female sterilization. Even male sterilization began to increase substantially in 1974. All the fertility figures are higher for Sri Lanka than for Taiwan, but Sri Lanka is making extremely good progress. The decline in marital fertility is concentrated in the over-30 group, and attributed to increased practice of contraception.

  12. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

  13. Below replacement fertility preferences in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Merli, M Giovanna; Morgan, S Philip

    2011-01-01

    China has joined the group of low-fertility countries; it has a TFR somewhere in the range of 1.4 to 1.6. Much speculation about China's future fertility depends on whether individual's fertility intentions and preferences are much higher than the state's fertility goals. If so, then a relaxation of family planning restrictions could lead to a substantial fertility increase. We directly ask a probability sample of Shanghai registered residents and migrants whether a policy relaxation would lead them to have additional children. Our results show that small families (one or two children) are intended in this urban setting. If family planning policy were relaxed, a relatively small fraction (fewer than 14%) reports that they would revise their intentions upward. Even this modest increase (as much as 10%) is suspect because factors that can deflate fertility relative to intentions are likely more powerful than the inflationary ones (in Shanghai). These empirical findings help ground speculations on the future of fertility in the hypothetical absence of policy constraints. PMID:24039621

  14. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  15. Understanding Subgroup Fertility Differentials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Reed, Holly E.

    2015-01-01

    As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working age population, it is critical to understand why fertility remains so high there. Nigeria’s current total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 (0.2 fewer children per woman than the TFR of 5.7 reported in both the 2003 and 2008 NDHS surveys) is projected to continue to decline, but questions remain about whether this decline is inevitable and whether it will continue apace. Regardless, Nigeria’s population growth will continue through at least 2050 due to simple population momentum. Other challenges are the persistent and vast fertility differentials; many groups remain above replacement fertility across various social and geographical sub-units of the country. Using data primarily from the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), as well as from 2003 and 2008 surveys, we document that many population subgroups and zones of the country are finally beginning to show signs of fertility convergence and decline. Nevertheless, some population subgroups still have higher fertility, especially: Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri women, women who live in the North West geopolitical zone, Muslim and traditionalist women, women who live in poor households, women who have lower levels of education, women who are opposed to family planning, women who marry early, and women who give birth early. In order for the projected decline in the TFR to continue, these subgroups must be highlighted, understood, and targeted with fertility- and poverty-reducing interventions. PMID:25684828

  16. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues which arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population patient. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: 1) pre-existing psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, 2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, 3) decision making regarding use of third party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), 4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, 5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and 6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  17. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

  18. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Jordan O.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Barnes, Anne; Collins, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There are various fertility control methods (modalities) currently available that aim to reduce the abundance of problematic free-ranging mammalian wildlife. Here, we propose that dissimilarities in the mechanism of action indicate these methods produce great variation in animal welfare outcomes. We present a framework to assist managers in minimising animal welfare risks. Abstract Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities), each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression”) for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control. PMID:26506395

  19. Religiosity, nationalism and fertility in Israel.

    PubMed

    Anson, J; Meir, A

    1996-03-01

    It is suggested that Israel's high fertility can be explained by a collective national conscience rather than the traditional interpretation of Jewish religiosity. It is suggested that religiosity is a proxy for a national consciousness and daily living standards. It is argued that normative orientations or cultural explanations of the value of children are intervening variables according to the framework established by Davis and Blake. The collective conscience reflects Israel's special position in the Middle East and within the world economy. The nationalist feelings reflect a range in political views. The author disputes the ethnic and religious explanations for high fertility. Fertility increased since the 1960s even among low fertility European-American born women. During the early 1980s fertility was 2.75, which was high compared to European levels at the same standard of living. Reference is made to the literature on the association between high fertility and survival strategies in insecure or discriminatory settings. This study's analysis is based on a macro- rather than individual-level approach to understanding behavior. The theoretical framework is based on the theories of Durkheim and Gane. The analysis uses data from the 1983 census on Jewish fertility in urban statistical areas and Jewish voting patterns in national elections in 1984. Correspondence analysis is used to identify voting patterns by area. The four political postures are identified as religious and conciliatory (71 areas), religious and nationalist (142 areas), nonreligious and nationalist, and nonreligious and conciliatory. Women in nationalist areas had 35% more children than women in conciliatory areas. Although both religiosity and nationalism were positively correlated with high fertility, nationalist commitment was a better predictor. The model including religiosity, nationalism, and income showed no independent effect of religiosity on fertility.

  20. Fertilizer use by class: Bag, bulk, fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; McKinney, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    US fertilizer consumption (excluding natural organic, secondary, and micronutrient materials) increased slightly from 42.7 million tons in 1987--1988 to 42.8 million tons in 1988--1989-a gain of less than one percent. In 1988--1989, dry bulk materials represented 52.1 percent of total consumption, fluid fertilizers accounted for 38.9 percent, and bagged materials the remaining 9.0 percent. Both dry and fluid fertilizers increased in tonnage over last year but market shares of each remained essentially the same. Bagged fertilizer continued to drop in tonnage as well as in market share. Fluid fertilizer use (including anhydrous ammonia) exceeded 16.6 million tons. Solid materials accounted for 26.2 million tons. TVA estimates that total dry bulk fertilizer distribution was 22.3 million tons, representing 85 percent of all solid materials. Estimated fertilizer sales of bagged products was 3.9 million tons compared to 4.1 million tons in 1987--1988. Multiple-nutrient fertilizer consumption was 17.5 million tons in 1988--1989. Class distribution of these materials was 60.1 percent dry bulk form, 22.4 percent fluid, and 17.5 percent bagged. Fluid multiple-nutrient materials consumption remained about the same as for 1987--1988 but increased in total market share from 9.1 percent to 9.2 percent. This report is compiled annually from individual State fertilizer tonnage reports. Forty States provided complete breakdown by class in 1988-1989. Only numerical data is included.

  1. Fertility after contraception or abortion.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Cullins, V E

    1990-10-01

    There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher

  2. Why Fertility Education is needed in schools

    PubMed Central

    Nargund, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fertility education needs to be at the top of the agenda if we want to make a major impact in preventing infertility. We have been successful in reducing teenage pregnancies through Sex and Relationship education (SRE) and education on contraception. Sex and relationship education is for now and fertility education is for the future. Conception and contraception are two sides of the same coin. We need to empower our young people with education on fertility so that they can stand a better chance of falling pregnant when they choose to. Education empowers. PMID:26977269

  3. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women.

  4. Oncofertility and the Rights to Future Fertility.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Ehren M

    2016-02-01

    The field of oncofertility, or fertility preservation for patients facing a cancer diagnosis, has seen significant scientific breakthroughs that allow adults and children undergoing fertility-threatening cancer treatment to preserve their fertility for a life after cancer. These breakthroughs also raise complex legal issues for patients and clinicians. While the current scholarship tangentially discusses the disposition of genetic material in regards to pediatric patients, this Special Communication examines the current legal framework as applied to disputes regarding the disposition of genetic material between the oncofertility patient and donor, and provides a potential new solution for courts to use in determining the rights of parties in disputes involving donated genetic material.

  5. Development, "welfare," and fertility: a simple macroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Raymont, A

    1989-01-01

    Accepting the theoretical position that desired family size is likely to diminish as economic modernization occurs, the author analyzes the association between fertility and development using recent national data from less developed countries. Measures of income and equality are combined to provide an index of population "welfare." Multiple and cross-lagged correlations are used to demonstrate the magnitude and nature of the relationship between welfare and fertility rates. Despite inadequacies of the data, high negative correlations are obtained, and evidence is advanced to show that the direction of causation is from welfare to fertility.

  6. [Cohort fertility and the Cigno model].

    PubMed

    Otani, K

    1993-01-01

    The author examines determinants of completed fertility, intended fertility, and child-accumulation tempo in Japan by applying the Cigno model. Independent variables such as wife's family size are used to investigate the validity of the inclusive fitness hypothesis and the only-child reaction hypothesis concerning the relation between fertility and family size. Consideration is given to the impact of parental educational status, wives' employment, coresidence with the couple's parents, and desired family size. Data concern the 1960s. An English abstract is available from the author on request.

  7. Why Fertility Education is needed in schools.

    PubMed

    Nargund, G

    2015-01-01

    Fertility education needs to be at the top of the agenda if we want to make a major impact in preventing infertility. We have been successful in reducing teenage pregnancies through Sex and Relationship education (SRE) and education on contraception. Sex and relationship education is for now and fertility education is for the future. Conception and contraception are two sides of the same coin. We need to empower our young people with education on fertility so that they can stand a better chance of falling pregnant when they choose to. Education empowers.

  8. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women. PMID:26612064

  9. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estes, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Fertility preservation is the process by which either oocytes (eggs) or sperm undergo an intervention to preserve their use for future attempts at conception. Consideration of fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent population is important, as future childbearing is usually a central life goal. For postpubertal girls, both oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are standard of care and for postpubertal boys, sperm cryopreservation continues to be recommended. Although all the risks are unknown, it appears that fertility preservation in most cases does not worsen prognosis, allows for the birth of healthy children, and does not increase the chance of recurrence.

  10. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Xu, Dongdong; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-08-01

    Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization in echinoderms was tested both functionally in sea stars, and computationally throughout the echinoderm phylum. We find that the inhibitor of serine protease (soybean trypsin inhibitor) effectively blocks proper transition of the sea star fertilization envelope into a protective sperm repellent, whereas inhibitors of the other main types of proteases had no effect. Scanning the transcriptomes of 15 different echinoderm ovaries revealed sequences of high conservation to the originally identified sea urchin cortical serine protease, CGSP1. These conserved sequences contained the catalytic triad necessary for enzymatic activity, and the tandemly repeated LDLr-like repeats. We conclude that the protease involved in the slow block to polyspermy is an essential and conserved element of fertilization in echinoderms, and may provide an important reagent for identification and testing of the cell surface proteins in eggs necessary for sperm binding.

  11. On the horizon for fertility preservation in domestic and wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Wildt, D E

    2012-12-01

    Innovations are emerging from the growing field of fertility preservation for humans and laboratory animals that are relevant to protecting and propagating valuable domestic and wild carnivores. These extend beyond the 'classical' approaches associated with sperm, oocyte and embryo freezing to include gonadal tissue preservation combined with in vitro culture or xenografting, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused and wasted germplasm. Here, we review approaches under development and predicted to have applied value within the next decade, including the following: (i) direct use of early-stage gametes for in vitro fertilization; (ii) generation of more mature gametes from gonadal tissue or stem cells; (iii) simplification, enhanced safety and efficacy of cryopreservation methods; and (iv) biostabilization of living cells and tissues at ambient temperatures. We believe that all of these fertility preservation strategies will offer knowledge and tools to better manage carnivores that serve as human companions, valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment. PMID:23279514

  12. On the horizon for fertility preservation in domestic and wild carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Comizzoli, P; Wildt, DE

    2012-01-01

    Innovations are emerging from the growing field of fertility preservation for humans and laboratory animals that are relevant to protecting and propagating valuable domestic and wild carnivores. These extend beyond the `classical' approaches associated with sperm, oocyte and embryo freezing to include gonadal tissue preservation combined with in vitro culture or xenografting, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused and wasted germplasm. Here, we review approaches under development and predicted to have applied value within the next decade, including the: 1) direct use of early stage gametes for in vitro fertilization; 2) generation of more mature gametes from gonadal tissue or stem cells; 3) simplification, enhanced safety and efficacy of cryopreservation methods; and 4) biostabilization of living cells and tissues at ambient temperatures. We believe that all of these fertility preservation strategies will offer knowledge and tools to better manage carnivores that serve as human companions, valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment. PMID:23279514

  13. On the horizon for fertility preservation in domestic and wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Wildt, D E

    2012-12-01

    Innovations are emerging from the growing field of fertility preservation for humans and laboratory animals that are relevant to protecting and propagating valuable domestic and wild carnivores. These extend beyond the 'classical' approaches associated with sperm, oocyte and embryo freezing to include gonadal tissue preservation combined with in vitro culture or xenografting, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused and wasted germplasm. Here, we review approaches under development and predicted to have applied value within the next decade, including the following: (i) direct use of early-stage gametes for in vitro fertilization; (ii) generation of more mature gametes from gonadal tissue or stem cells; (iii) simplification, enhanced safety and efficacy of cryopreservation methods; and (iv) biostabilization of living cells and tissues at ambient temperatures. We believe that all of these fertility preservation strategies will offer knowledge and tools to better manage carnivores that serve as human companions, valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  14. Chimera and other fertilization errors.

    PubMed

    Malan, V; Vekemans, M; Turleau, C

    2006-11-01

    The finding of a mixture of 46,XX and 46,XY cells in an individual has been rarely reported in literature. It usually results in individuals with ambiguous genitalia. Approximately 10% of true human hermaphrodites show this type of karyotype. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. It may be the result of mosaicism or chimerism. By definition, a chimera is produced by the fusion of two different zygotes in a single embryo, while a mosaic contains genetically different cells issued from a single zygote. Several mechanisms are involved in the production of chimera. Stricto sensu, chimerism occurs from the post-zygotic fusion of two distinct embryos leading to a tetragametic chimera. In addition, there are other entities, which are also referred to as chimera: parthenogenetic chimera and chimera resulting from fertilization of the second polar body. Furthermore, a particular type of chimera called 'androgenetic chimera' recently described in fetuses with placental mesenchymal dysplasia and in rare patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is discussed. Strategies to study mechanisms leading to the production of chimera and mosaics are also proposed.

  15. [Genetic aspects of fertility disorders].

    PubMed

    Wieacker, P

    2013-12-01

    Genetic disorders of fertility can occur at the level of gonadal differentiation or function, germ cell production or function, and the genital ducts. In gonadal dysgenesis, the differentiation of testes or ovaries is impaired. Gonadal dysgenesis can be caused by chromosome aberrations or monogenetic defects in XY or XX gonadal dysgenesis. For the biosynthesis of sexual hormones, a normal development of the gonads and an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is necessary. Disorders of steroid hormone synthesis are associated with an increased or diminished production of sexual hormones. Clinical and genetic aspects of adrenogenital syndrome are discussed here. Mutations of the androgen receptor cause a spectrum of androgen insensitivity ranging from women with female external genitalia through patients with genital ambiguity to men with infertility. Disturbed spermatogenesis is heterogeneous and can be the result of chromosome aberrations such as Klinefelter syndrome or structural aberrations as translocations and microdeletions of the Y chromosome. Premature ovarian failure is characterized by amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before 40 years of age. Beside nongenetic factors, premature ovarian failure can be caused by chromosome aberrations or monogenetic defects. Disorders of the genital ducts such as anomalies of the müllerian ducts in females and of the wolffian ducts in males can be associated with sterility or infertility.

  16. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.

  17. Religiosity and Fertility in the United States: The Role of Fertility Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Morgan, S. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we show that women who report that religion is “very important” in their everyday life have both higher fertility and higher intended fertility than those saying religion is “somewhat important” or “not important.” Factors such as unwanted fertility, age at childbearing, or degree of fertility postponement seem not to contribute to religiosity differentials in fertility. This answer prompts more fundamental questions: what is the nature of this greater “religiosity”? And why do the more religious want more children? We show that those saying religion is more important have more traditional gender and family attitudes and that these attitudinal differences account for a substantial part of the fertility differential. We speculate regarding other contributing causes. PMID:19672317

  18. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values. PMID:23512871

  19. The molecular basis of fertilization (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Georgadaki, Katerina; Khoury, Nikolas; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Zoumpourlis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization is the fusion of the male and female gamete. The process involves the fusion of an oocyte with a sperm, creating a single diploid cell, the zygote, from which a new individual organism will develop. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization has fascinated researchers for many years. In this review, we focus on this intriguing process at the molecular level. Several molecules have been identified to play a key role in each step of this intriguing process (the sperm attraction from the oocyte, the sperm maturation, the sperm and oocyte fusion and the two gamete pronuclei fusion leading to the zygote). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the cell-cell interactions will provide a better understanding of the causes of fertility issues due to fertilization defects. PMID:27599669

  20. Fertility and family size in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Prioux, F

    1990-01-01

    "It is known that the fertility decline in Western Europe started almost everywhere in the mid-1960s, that the national trends have run in parallel, and that the reason was essentially the decrease in the numbers of large families, or even their complete disappearance. However, for want of comparable data, international comparisons are often limited to annual fertility indices, and do not distinguish changes due to reduced family size from those which are the result of changes in fertility timing....[The author presents,] for a broad range of countries, an analysis by cohort and birth order. This makes it possible to measure the fertility decline in more detail, to compare its amplitude in the various parts of Europe, and to study its mechanisms."

  1. Family context and adolescents' fertility expectations.

    PubMed

    Trent, K

    1994-09-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth are used to examine and contrast the effects of family context and individual characteristics on adolescents' expectations about adolescent fertility, nonmarital childbearing, family size, and childlessness. The findings indicate that family structure has modest but specific effects on adolescents' fertility expectations. Living with mothers only increases expectations for nonmarital childbearing, and living with fathers (without biological mother) lowers the total number of children expected. Larger subsize raises expectations for nonmarital childbearing and family size. Poverty raises expectations for adolescent childbearing but does not affect other fertility expectations. Adolescent women are less likely than men to expect nonmarital childbearing, and overall, expect fewer children. Blacks are more likely than Whites to expect adolescent and nonmarital fertility and Hispanics are significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to expect childlessness.

  2. The molecular basis of fertilization (Review).

    PubMed

    Georgadaki, Katerina; Khoury, Nikolas; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Zoumpourlis, Vasilis

    2016-10-01

    Fertilization is the fusion of the male and female gamete. The process involves the fusion of an oocyte with a sperm, creating a single diploid cell, the zygote, from which a new individual organism will develop. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization has fascinated researchers for many years. In this review, we focus on this intriguing process at the molecular level. Several molecules have been identified to play a key role in each step of this intriguing process (the sperm attraction from the oocyte, the sperm maturation, the sperm and oocyte fusion and the two gamete pronuclei fusion leading to the zygote). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the cell‑cell interactions will provide a better understanding of the causes of fertility issues due to fertilization defects. PMID:27599669

  3. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... use advanced therapies and the choices of timing, technologies and other key issues should be discussed by ... used advanced fertility treatments are ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) and COH (Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation). ART is defined ...

  4. Coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Devassine, M; Henry, F; Guerin, P; Briand, X

    2002-08-21

    The conventional agriculture leads to some important pollution of ground water (particularly, by nitrates). The solution is the coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. In this work, we have studied the water vapour and liquid diffusion through polymer films detached from their support. Therefore, we may classify polymers as a function of their properties like water vapour and liquid barrier. We may choose the best polymer(s) for coating.coated fertilizers by chosen polymer(s) with mechanical techniques such as fluidised bed and pan coating. Moreover, the electron microscopy used to see the quality of the wall has showed the presence of pores due to the rapid evaporation of solvent. A drying in air current and an annealing could be done to avoid this problem.followed the ions release of fertilizers immersed in distilled water by conductimetry. The more interesting result was obtained with fertilizers coated by polylactic acid. In effect, the total release reached three weeks.

  5. Can Stress Lower a Woman's Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161057.html Can Stress Lower a Woman's Fertility? Greatest impact is around ... HealthDay News) -- New research seems to confirm that stress lowers a woman's chances of becoming pregnant, particularly ...

  6. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure biochars, along with other manure biochars, contain sufficient concentrations of plant available nutrients, particularly phosphorous. For greenhouse studies using ryegrass, cotton, and soybean, manure biochars performed similar to commercial phosphorous fertilizers when applied at appro...

  7. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure Diabetes Thyroid disease Infection in the uterus PCOS Antiphospholipid syndrome, an autoimmune disorder caused when immune ... male fertility, NIH study suggests Some women with PCOS may have adrenal disorder, NIH researchers suggest Weight ...

  8. Understanding Fertility in Young Female Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Waimey, Kate E.; Smith, Brigid M.; Confino, Rafael; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Young women diagnosed with cancer today have a greater chance of long-term survival than ever before. Successful survivorship for this group of patients includes maintaining a high quality of life after a cancer diagnosis and treatment; however, lifesaving treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery can impact survivors by impairing reproductive and endocrine health. Studies demonstrate that future fertility is a concern for many women diagnosed with cancer, but physician knowledge and attitudinal barriers can still prevent females from receiving care. Today, fertility preservation is an option for girls and women facing a cancer diagnosis, and emerging research is providing clinicians with an increasing number of reproductive and hormonal management tools. Physicians can play an important role in fertility by working closely with oncologists, providing patients with information about fertility preservation options prior to the start of cancer treatment, monitoring reproductive capacity after treatment, and working with cancer survivors to explore potential avenues to parenthood. PMID:26075731

  9. Trace element distribution, with a focus on gold, in copper-rich and zinc-rich sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size and they commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. The occurrence of specular hematite and Bi- or Au-tellurides associated with chalcopyrite are consistent with magmatic contributions to the NW Caldera vent site

  10. Effects of fertilizer and pesticides on concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Harner, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Concrete is the most common material of construction for secondary containment of fertilizers and pesticides because of its relative low cost and structural properties. Concrete, however, is porous to some products it is designed to contain and is subject to corrosion. In this paper, concrete deterioration mechanisms and corrosion resistant concrete formulation are discussed, as well as exposure tests of various concrete mixes to some common liquid fertilizers and herbicides.

  11. Cross- and self-fertilization of plants.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2010-02-01

    This essay considers Charles Darwin's late work, "Cross- and Self-Fertilization of Plants," locating it in the overall context of Darwin's thought and ideas. It is shown how it is part of a long-term interest in the purpose of sexuality, and how it complements Darwin's earlier book on the fertilization of orchids. It is concluded, however, that Darwin had no full solution to his problem.

  12. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates. PMID:26628018

  13. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates.

  14. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  15. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  16. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions. PMID:12307194

  17. [Can specialized sperm analysis predict fertilization ability?].

    PubMed

    Hakima, N; Sermondade, N; Sifer, C

    2012-09-01

    Conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF) is an assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedure, which requires both a sufficient number of motile sperm to be inseminated around the oocyte but also an optimal fertilizing ability of the inseminated sperm. Thus, the frequency of the risk that this method leads to a failure of fertilization varies depending on the cIVF indication and is enhanced if no factor of infertility was found in the first-line examination, suggesting a "qualitative" incapacity of the sperm to fertilize. Thus, many secondary sperm tests have been studied to know whether they could predict such fertilization failure The aim of this review is then to analyze the literature interested on these secondary specialized explorations sperm and their ability to predict the fertilization rate following cIVF, especially when an idiopathic (normal conventional sperm examination, including normal pelvic laparoscopy) or a pseudo-idiopathic infertility (normal conventional sperm examination, but non-done pelvic laparoscopy) are suspected.

  18. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options.

  19. Simulating Ocean Fertilization: Effectiveness and Unintended Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K

    2002-11-03

    The primary objectives of this project are to assess, and improve our understanding of: (1) The effectiveness of various proposals to intentionally store carbon in the ocean through fertilization of the surface ocean with iron and/or macronutrients; and (2) Biologically relevant consequences of long-term and extensive ocean fertilization. The PISCES ocean biogeochemistry model, developed at the MPI in Hamburg, Germany, and IPSL in Saclay, France will be used in this study. This model considers Fe, N, P, O{sub 2}, Si, alkalinity, and carbon, in organic and inorganic, dissolved and particulate forms. The model represents diatoms, coccolithophorids, nitrogen fixers, and two classes of zooplankton. This model will be incorporated into the LLNL ocean GCM, which is already being applied to other problems in ocean carbon sequestration. After coupling the ocean biogeochemistry and circulation models, the reliability of this model will be evaluated by comparison to observations. These include observations of natural ecological and biogeochemical variation and observations of small-scale iron fertilization experiments (e.g. SOFeX, IRONEx). This strategy will produce a tested model with predictive capability that we will use to address the following important questions: What is the long-term effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration via different ocean fertilization strategies? What are the long-term environmental consequences of prolonged or widespread ocean fertilization? What processes need to be included in the models, to better reproduce effects observed in iron fertilization experiments? What should the next experiment measure to better aid the models?

  20. Sulfated glycans in sea urchin fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-02-01

    Fertilization is a controlled cell-cell interaction event that ultimately leads to the union of the gametes involved in reproduction. Fertilization is characterized by three major steps: (i) sperm binding to the extracellular matrix that coats the egg, inducing thereby the acrosome reaction; (ii) penetration of the acrosome-reacted sperm through the egg coat until its contact with the egg plasma membrane; and (iii) adhesion and fusion of the cell membranes of both gametes and the interchange of genetic materials. The acrosome reaction in the first step is important because it ensures that fertilization occurs only between gametes of homologous species. This specificity is primarily driven by the structure of egg jelly coat glycans recognized by a lectin-like binding protein (receptor) in the sperm membrane. Sea urchin fertilization is the best model utilized for understanding carbohydrate-mediated acrosome reactions. This report aims at describing the biochemical basis of regulatory mechanisms exerted by sea urchin sulfated fucans and galactans of well-defined chemical structures on the egg-sperm recognition process during fertilization of this invertebrate. Flagellasialin, a sulfated polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein found in sea urchin sperm flagella, is another sulfated glycan example also involved in fertilization of the echinoderm.

  1. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  2. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  3. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  4. Sun protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin from the sun. This includes using sunscreen and other protective measures. Avoid sun exposure, particularly ... the sun. This is in addition to applying sunscreen. Suggestions for clothing include: Long-sleeve shirts and ...

  5. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  6. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  7. Two novel mutations on exon 8 and intron 65 of COL7A1 gene in two Chinese brothers result in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Chen, Xue-Jun; Liu, Wei; Gong, Bo; Xie, Jun; Xiong, Jun-Hao; Cheng, Jing; Duan, Xi-Ling; Lin, Zhao-Chun; Huang, Lu-Lin; Wan, Hui-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Qi; Song, Lin-Hong; Yang, Zheng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an inherited bullous dermatosis caused by the COL7A1 gene mutation in autosomal dominant or recessive mode. COL7A1 gene encodes type VII collagen - the main component of the anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction. Besides the 730 mutations reported, we identified two novel COL7A1 gene mutations in a Chinese family, which caused recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). The diagnosis was established histopathologically and ultrastructurally. After genomic DNA extraction from the peripheral blood sample of all subjects (5 pedigree members and 136 unrelated control individuals), COL7A1 gene screening was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct DNA sequencing of the whole coding exons and flanking intronic regions. Genetic analysis of the COL7A1 gene in affected individuals revealed compound heterozygotes with identical novel mutations. The maternal mutation is a 2-bp deletion at exon 8 (c.1006_1007delCA), leading to a subsequent reading frame-shift and producing a premature termination codon located 48 amino acids downstream in exon 9 (p.Q336EfsX48), consequently resulting in the truncation of 2561 amino acids downstream. This was only present in two affected brothers, but not in the other unaffected family members. The paternal mutation is a 1-bp deletion occurring at the first base of intron 65 (c.IVS5568+1delG) that deductively changes the strongly conserved GT dinucleotide at the 5' donor splice site, results in subsequent reading-through into intron 65, and creates a stop codon immediately following the amino acids encoded by exon 65 (GTAA→TAA). This is predicted to produce a truncated protein lacking of 1089 C-terminal amino acids downstream. The latter mutation was found in all family members except one of the two unaffected sisters. Both mutations were observed concurrently only in the two affected brothers. Neither mutation was discovered in 136 unrelated Chinese control

  8. Preliminary Results of a Near-Bottom Integrated Seafloor and Water Column survey of Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, Using the Autonomous Vehicle ABE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; de Ronde, C.; Davy, B.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Yoerger, D. R.; Merle, S. G.; Walker, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Brothers volcano, located about 310 km NE of New Zealand along the magmatic front of the Kermadec arc, is one of the best studied intraoceanic arc submarine volcanoes. Its 3.0 x 3.5 km caldera is slightly elliptical, with the long axis oriented about N320°E and has more than 300 m relief from a rim at ~1500 m to a maximum depth of 1880 m in its NW corner. Two major hydrothermal systems were discovered on it in the late 1990s, a high temperature field (up to 302°C) on the NW wall and a lower temperature gas-rich system on the summits of a pair of dacitic cones that occupy the SE half of the caldera. Although the caldera and cones were partly explored by submersibles in 2004 and 2005, the base map, made with a surface ship multibeam, was not detailed enough to understand the context of the seafloor observations. We used the autonomous vehicle ABE launched and recovered from the R/V SONNE in July-August 2007 to conduct high resolution near-bottom surveys of the caldera and its hydrothermal systems using a multibeam sonar, magnetometer, and CTD. The caldera wall, the dacite cones and part of the flat caldera rim were mapped in 96 hours of survey time over 8 dives. In addition, very detailed water column surveys at lower altitude and closer line spacing were conducted over the two most intense hydrothermal sites (i.e., the NW caldera wall and the smaller dacite cone). Although the results are preliminary, there are obvious correlations between hydrothermal activity, wall geomorphology, structural lineations, and the magnetic signature. New hydrothermal sites were discovered on the uppermost NW rim of the caldera and on the SW wall. This new map, along with the previously collected suites of fluid, mineral and seafloor observations, provides a baseline for future monitoring of Brothers' hydrothermal and volcanic activity. It will also provide a better understanding of how the long-term interplay of hydrothermal and volcanic activity affects the geomorphic evolution of

  9. [Nuptiality and fertility among foreigners].

    PubMed

    Desplanques, G

    1985-01-01

    Data from the 1982 census and other sources are used to compare marriage patterns and fertility of the foreign population resident in France with those of the French population. The 3,680,000 foreigners resident in France in 1982 comprised 7% of the population and represented diverse national origins resulting from successive waves of migration. Women represented less than 40% of the foreign population aged 30-50 years in 1982, with sex ratios particularly disturbed among Africans and even more among Europeans. Algerians, Moroccans, and Tunisians comprise almost 40% of foreigners aged 20-30 years. Despite the disturbed sex ratios at younger ages, only about 3-4% of foreigners remain single at 40 years except among Spaniards, whose proportion ever married never exceeds 90%. Among foreign women born between 1917-46 who lived in France in 1982 and had married before age 35, the average age at 1st marriage was about the same as for French women, around 22.5 years, but the Portuguese and Spanish women had later marriage ages while among women from the Maghreb, over 1/2 were married by age 20. In the 1970s the marriage age of Spanish and Portuguese women declined while that of Algerians, Moroccans, and Tunisians increased to 22.6 on average between 1975-79 compared to 22.1 years for French women. Among foreigners in France in 1975-82, 47% of those marrying returned to their country of origin for the ceremony. French women born between 1917-36 had an average completed family size of 2.65 children compared to 3.60 for foreign women in the same cohorts. Algerian and other Maghreb women had nearly 6 children each, Portuguese women averaged 3.6 children, and Italians and Spanish had about 3 each. Couples in which both partners were foreign had larger families than couples in which 1 partner was French. In 1960, births to foreign mothers represented less than 5% of births in France, while in 1982, 86,600 of the 800,000 children born in France, or 11% were born to foreign

  10. Fertilization stimulates 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine repair and antioxidant activity to prevent mutagenesis in the embryo.

    PubMed

    Lord, Tessa; Aitken, R John

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative DNA damage harbored by both spermatozoa and oocytes at the time of fertilization must be repaired prior to S-phase of the first mitotic division to reduce the risk of transversion mutations occurring in the zygote and subverting the normal patterns of cell differentiation and development. Of the characterised oxidative DNA lesions, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is particularly mutagenic. The current study reveals for the first time a marked acceleration of 8OHdG repair in the mouse oocyte/zygote by the base excision repair (BER) pathway following fertilization. Specifically, fertilization initiates post-translational modification to BER enzymes such as OGG1 and XRCC1, causing nuclear localisation and accelerated 8OHdG excision. Additionally, both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes appear to benefit from increased protection against further 8OHdG formation by a fertilization-associated increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. The major limitation of the characterised 8OHdG repair system is the relatively low level of OGG1 expression in the oocyte, in contrast to the male germ line where it is the only constituent of the BER pathway. The male and female germ lines therefore collaborate in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, and oocytes are vulnerable to high levels of 8OHdG being carried into the zygote by the fertilizing spermatozoon. PMID:26234752

  11. Selected demonstration and educational products/activities. [National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.; Mann, H.C.

    1992-07-01

    The information in this paper was assembled for several informal presentations to a variety of visitor groups during the summer of 1992. A number of staff members at TVA's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) found it useful as a quick overview for their use and for their sharing with external colleagues and customers. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive list or explanation of all products and services available from NFERC. However, the authors believe it will give a flavor and tenor of some of the ongoing activities of the Center, especially those activities relating to the retail fertilizer dealer. Programs over the years have focused on key aspects of nutrient efficiency and management. TVA is uniquely positioned to assist the fertilizer industry and US agriculture in protecting the environment from potential adverse environmental impacts of agriculture, especially for fertilizer and the attendant agrichemicals. TVA has the technical base and an ongoing working relationship with the fertilizer industry in technology development and introduction. Dealer education is very important in TVA programs in two aspects: (1) education for the dealer in meeting new environmental stewardship challenges from an operational perspective; and (2) education for the dealer in meeting the site-specific information needs of the farmer.

  12. Demand impact and policy implications from taxing nitrogen fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    Recent concern has focused on nitrogen fertilizer as a potential contaminant of groundwater. A demand function for fertilizer was developed using the quantity of fertilizer purchased, corn yield, real price of nitrogen fertilizer, lagged fertilizer purchases, a land value variable and the real price of corn as explanatory variables. Short and long-run price elasticities of demand were estimated to be inelastic. Support was found for the hypothesis that demand for nitrogen fertilizer has become more price inelastic over time. From a policy standpoint, a tax on nitrogen fertilizer may not be the most effective method to reduce consumption.

  13. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers. PMID:16124498

  14. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  15. Effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2015-04-30

    Vitamin E is found in high quantities in vegetable oils. Although vitamin E has multiple functions in humans and animals, its key function is protecting cells from oxidative damage. Since its discovery, several studies have demonstrated that vitamin E deficiency causes impaired fertility in humans and lab animals. However, the effects of vitamin E deficiency or of its supplementation on the fertility of farm animals, particularly on poultry, are less well studied. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the effects of dietary vitamin E on the fertility of poultry species is needed in order to understand the beneficial role of vitamin E in the maintenance of sperm and egg qualities. Based on the observations reviewed here, we found that a moderate amount of vitamin E in poultry diet significantly protects semen/sperm qualities in male birds and egg qualities in female birds via decreasing the lipid peroxidation in semen/sperms and eggs. This review provides an overall understanding of the effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species.

  16. Effects of Dietary Vitamin E on Fertility Functions in Poultry Species

    PubMed Central

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E is found in high quantities in vegetable oils. Although vitamin E has multiple functions in humans and animals, its key function is protecting cells from oxidative damage. Since its discovery, several studies have demonstrated that vitamin E deficiency causes impaired fertility in humans and lab animals. However, the effects of vitamin E deficiency or of its supplementation on the fertility of farm animals, particularly on poultry, are less well studied. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the effects of dietary vitamin E on the fertility of poultry species is needed in order to understand the beneficial role of vitamin E in the maintenance of sperm and egg qualities. Based on the observations reviewed here, we found that a moderate amount of vitamin E in poultry diet significantly protects semen/sperm qualities in male birds and egg qualities in female birds via decreasing the lipid peroxidation in semen/sperms and eggs. This review provides an overall understanding of the effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species. PMID:25941932

  17. Soil with a short history of poultry litter fertilization remains superior to normally fertilized soil for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton and other row crops. The productivity of soil that had received poultry litter as a fertilizer is not known after cessation of litter application and returning to conventional fertilization with inorganic fertilizers. This study ...

  18. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  19. Function of sperm chromatin structural elements in fertilization and development

    PubMed Central

    Ward, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how DNA is packaged in the mammalian sperm cell has important implications for human infertility as well as for the cell biology. Recent advances in the study of mammalian sperm chromatin structure and function have altered our perception of this highly condensed, inert chromatin. Sperm DNA is packaged very tightly to protect the DNA during the transit that occurs before fertilization. However, this condensation cannot sacrifice chromosomal elements that are essential for the embryo to access the correct sequences of the paternal genome for proper initiation of the embryonic developmental program. The primary levels of the sperm chromatin structure can be divided into three main categories: the large majority of DNA is packaged by protamines, a smaller amount (2–15%) retains histone-bound chromatin and the DNA is attached to the nuclear matrix at roughly 50 kb intervals. Current data suggest that the latter two structural elements are transferred to the paternal pronucleus after fertilization where they have important functional roles. The nuclear matrix organization is essential for DNA replication, and the histone-bound chromatin identifies genes that are important for embryonic development. These data support the emerging view of the sperm genome as providing, in addition to the paternal DNA sequence, a structural framework that includes molecular regulatory factors that are required for proper embryonic development. PMID:19748904

  20. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  1. Declining world fertility: trends, causes, implications.

    PubMed

    Tsui, A O; Bogue, D J

    1978-10-01

    This Bulletin examines the evidence that the world's fertility has declined in recent years, the factors that appear to have accounted for the decline, and the implications for fertility and population growth rates to the end of the century. On the basis of a compilation of estimates available for all nations of the world, the authors derive estimates which indicate that the world's total fertility rate dropped from 4.6 to 4.1 births per woman between 1968 and 1975, thanks largely to an earlier and more rapid and universal decline in the fertility of less developed countries (LDCs) than had been anticipated. Statistical analysis of available data suggests that the socioeconomic progress made by LDCs in this period was not great enough to account for more than a proportion of the fertility decline and that organized family planning programs were a major contributing factor. The authors' projections, which are compared to similar projections from the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, indicate that, by the year 2000, less than 1/5 of the world's population will be in the "red danger" circle of explosive population growth (2.1% or more annually); most LDCs will be in a phase of fertility decline; and many of them -- along with most now developed countries -- will be at or near replacement level of fertility. The authors warn that "our optimistic prediction is premised upon a big IF -- if (organized) family planning (in LDCs) continues. It remains imperative that all of the developed nations of the world continue their contribution to this program undiminished."

  2. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  3. Considerations on domain location according to the jump of resolution between the driving data and the nested regional climate model within the Big-Brother experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; Lucas-Picher, P.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of choosing the domain size adequately for dynamical downscaling with nested regional climate models. It is well known that domain should not be too large to avoid large departure from the driving data, and not be too small to provide sufficient distance from the lateral inflow to allow a full development of the small-scale features resolved by the increase resolution. Although practitioners of dynamical downscaling are well aware that the jump of resolution between the driving data and the nested regional climate model impacts the simulated climate, the issue has never been properly study. Larger is the jump of resolution, larger is the distance from the lateral inflow to fully develop the small-scale features permitted by the increase resolution. Our investigation compares direct nesting to achieve a grid mesh of 0.15o from driving data at 3.6°, 1.8o, 0.45° and 0.15° using the perfect-prognostic approach of the Big-Brother protocol. The results show that the small-scale transient-eddy component struggles to be fully developed with reduced resolution of the driving data. Overall, this study suggests that domain location (i.e. domain of interest or subsequent nested domains) must be chosen carefully according to the jump of resolution to allow the optimal development of small-scale features allowed by the increase resolution of the nested model.

  4. Survey report: control technology for autobody repair and painting shops at Church Brother's Collision Repair, Greenwood, Indiana, October 10-11, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Heitbrink, W.A.; Cooper, T.C.; Edmonds, M.A.

    1992-03-01

    A study was made to evaluate and document the effectiveness of a metal inert gas (MIG) welder with built in ventilation to control potentially hazardous conditions at Church Brother's Collision Repair (SIC-7531), Greenwood, Indiana. Air contaminant exposures were measured during a 1 hour repair job while using a ventilated MIG welder and while using a conventional MIG welder. The ventilation system of the MIG did reduce worker exposure to welding fumes. However, the sampling was done on a single repair job, thus limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the study. Some welding fumes were not captured by the ventilated welder, suggesting that the MIG with ventilation provided incomplete control of the generated fumes. In some cases the metal on the other side of the welding area became sufficiently hot to generate its own fumes. The car body itself appears to block the capture of these fumes by the ventilated MIG welder. When welding inside the car without the ventilated welder, the fumes generated were more concentrated than those generated by welding outside of the car under similar conditions. There is a decreased dilution of the fumes inside the car due to a lack of air movement. The authors conclude that while the control technique appeared to lessen exposure to welding fumes, additional investigation is needed to verify the data.

  5. Premature termination codons on both alleles of the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) in three brothers with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed Central

    Christiano, A M; Suga, Y; Greenspan, D S; Ogawa, H; Uitto, J

    1995-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable mechano-bullous skin diseases classified into three major categories on the basis of the level of tissue separation within the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. In the most severe, dystrophic (scarring) forms of EB, blisters form below the cutaneous basement membrane at the level of the anchoring fibrils, which are composed of type VII collagen. Ultrastructural observations of altered anchoring fibrils and genetic linkage to the type VII collagen locus (COL7A1) have implicated COL7A1 as the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of EB. We have recently cloned the entire cDNA and the gene for human COL7A1. In this study, we describe distinct mutations in both COL7A1 alleles in three brothers with severe, mutilating recessive dystrophic EB (the Hallopeau-Siemens type, HS-RDEB). The patients are compound heterozygotes for two different mutations, both of which result in a premature termination codon in COL7A1, and the parents were shown to be clinically heterozygous carries of the respective mutations. Premature termination codons in both alleles of COL7A1 appear to be the underlying cause of severe, recessive dystrophic EB in this family. Images PMID:7883979

  6. [Age and fertility (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Jouannet, P

    1983-01-01

    Increased life expectancy among human populations has been accompanied by little change in the reproductive age span, and the age groups of highest fertility are actually contracting. According to Leridon, in 18th century France 30% of births were to women 35 and over, compared to 18.5% in the early 20th century, 14% in 1964, and 8% in 1975. Among evidence of declining fecundity with age, the waiting time to conception after stopping contraception is 12.6 +or- 21 months after 35, while it is only 3.6 +or- 4.8 months for those aged 20-24. Risks of stillbirth and perinatal mortality are elevated in the years preceding menopause, and the proportion of children with chromosomal anomalies is higher particularly after 40. Study of the true influence of age on fecundity requires a population not using contraception and attempting to conceive as frequently as possible, such as the North American Hutterites, among whom a slow and progressive fecundity decline is apparent beginning at 20-25 years and becoming more rapid after age 40. 1/3 of women aged 39 and 1/10 of those aged 46 give birth each year. A demographic study of the early 20th century Irish population indicated that male fecundity does not begin to decline until 40 or 45 years, after which the decline is gradual. An 11-center study of results of artificial insemination in France indicates that conceptions decline markedly after 35. It is probable that the decline in female fecundity is due less to an alteration in the quality of the ova than to modifications in the uterine environment, perhaps as a result of an inadequate nutritional or hormonal environment. In 1 study of men aged 60 or over, 61% were found to produce sperm, and in another study 48% of subjects continued to produce sperm in their 8th decade. The decline in male fecundity appears to be associated with a diminution in the proportion of motile and normal sperm, perhaps explained by modifications at the level of the seminiferal epithelium. Vascular

  7. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-11-19

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

  8. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  9. Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF): a green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-yun; Sun, Ke-jun; Wang, De-han; Liao, Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas (N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs, the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture. PMID:16295884

  10. Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF): a green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-yun; Sun, Ke-jun; Wang, De-han; Liao, Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas (N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs, the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  11. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  12. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    which are used for suspension fertilizers manufacturing meet these requirements as well. In the presented studies lignite coal was applied as a component of mineral-organic preparations. The advantages of lignite coal are positive influence on the soil heat balance and reduction of the temperature fluctuations influence as well as humic acids contents that are extracted during its decomposition improving the soil structure and enrichment with humus substances. The lignite coal used in examinations contained 50 - 60 wt. % of Corg, about 45 cmol/kg Ca, 18.5 cmol/kg Mg and P, K, N in the ppm amount. Unfortunately the fertilizer components included in the lignite coal are rather unavailable for plants. It seems, that progress of lignite coal mineralization and humification can be expressed in the increasing content of humus substances. Humus acids are of great importance for plants on account of their solubility. During examination on the selection of fertilizer components a Corg content was analyzed as a parameter determining the quality of mineral-organic preparations. As the analytical technique for Corg determination particularly a Tiurin method was applied. Apart from lignite coal and peat as the source of organic substance the poultry droppings and compost on their basis were analyzed. Poultry droppings depending on bird species as well as feeding and breeding method are characterized by variable composition. A high pH values and a large content of nitrogen are their distinctive features, sometimes too high on account of plant nutritional requirements, and toxic as well as limiting cropping. Taking environmental protection requirements into consideration as well as on account of proper plants nutrition an appropriate preparation of mineral-organic fertilizer is recommended what can be obtained by applying lignite coal and poultry droppings as components of fertilizer using appropriate proportion. Adapting composted poultry droppings is more beneficial, but requires

  13. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  14. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Küpker, W; Demirel, C; Schöpper, B; Blasig, C; Sturm, R; Felberbaum, R; Bauer, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    1999-09-01

    One of the best discriminators for the fertilization potential of human spermatozoa is sperm morphology. The problem in the assessment of the sperm morphological characteristics is their pleiomorphism. Examination of spermatozoa with the light microscope can provide only limited information on their internal structure. More detailed examination of sperm structure using electron microscopy can reveal major, often unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities. Results and cut-off values for sperm analysis depend on the criteria for normal morphology. World Health Organization recommendations provide a classification suitable for clinical practice. Clinically reliable cut-off limits for normal sperm morphology according to strict Tygerberg criteria were suggested to be 4% in in-vitro fertilization procedures. Patients with severe sperm head abnormalities have a lower chance of establishing successful pregnancies, even though fertilization may be achieved. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the standard semen parameters or to sperm morphology. Sperm decondensation defects and DNA anomalies may be underlying factors for the unrecognized derangements of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, regardless of sperm morphology. Centrosome dysfunction may also represent a class of sperm defects that cannot be overcome simply by the insertion of a spermatozoon into the ooplasm. In this article an overview on the composition and ultrastructure of spermatozoa is presented, while emphasizing sperm ultrastructural and sperm DNA anomalies and their effects on fertilization.

  15. Possible biogeochemical consequences of ocean fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, J.A. ); Capone, D.G. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors consider biogeochemical secondary effects that could arise from an increase in ocean productivity, such as may occur via fertilization with Fe. These processes and feedback loops are infrequently discussed in this context, yet are likely to be highly relevant to the understanding of global change in general. In particular, the authors suggest that increased productivity may increase the production and efflux of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) and that shifts in phytoplankton species and productivity may cause changes in another climate-related gas, dimethylsulfide (DMS). N{sub 2}O is also implicated in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Factors contributing to amplified release include both increased nutrient cycling in general and possible development of low oxygen conditions from fertilization. It is also remotely possible that reduced oxygen from an initial fertilization could mobilize existing Fe pools, inducing uncontrolled self-fertilization. Although lack of relevant physiological and ecological data makes it difficult to provide quantitative limits on the extent of the undesired effects, rough calculations suggest that the enhanced release of N{sub 2}O alone could totally negate any potential benefit from fertilization and likely worsen global warming and ozone depletion.

  16. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  17. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  18. AB008. Management of fertility post cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James

    2016-01-01

    The successful treatment of males with cancer has led to increasing numbers of men and boys interested in life after cancer. One of the top priorities for many of these males is the opportunity to have a family. Most cancer treatments used for common malignancies in men and boys are associated with impaired fertility; for patients receiving alkylating agents or total body irradiation, severe fertility impairment occurs in most patients. While sperm banking for males, even those as young as 12, facing sterilizing cancer treatment can be effective, this approach requires subsequent use of reproductive procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination to achieve a pregnancy. Most males would prefer to restore their natural ability to father children and avoid these expensive and invasive approaches. No proven method for human male fertility restoration has yet been demonstrated; however, work in many mammalian species and recently in primates has demonstrated that autologous testicular cell transplant (TCT) can restore spermatogenesis after cancer treatment. Promising work in non-primate species has demonstrated the feasibility of in vitro development of mature sperm from neonatal testicular tissue. The safety and efficacy of either approach has not been established in humans. The objective of this lecture is to explore current and future fertility preservation and restoration techniques for males at risk of sterility from medical and surgical treatment.

  19. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  20. [Inheritance rights fo the child born from post-mortem fertilization].

    PubMed

    Iniesta Delgado, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Law allows in the possibility of post mortem fertilization, recognizing the paternity of the deceased male. The most prominent legal effects of this fact have to do with the succession of his father. The way of fixing the child's portion in the forced succession and its protection, the question of determining his share in the inheritance and the necessity of defending his rights until the verification of the birth are some of the issues that are discussed in this article.

  1. [Inheritance rights fo the child born from post-mortem fertilization].

    PubMed

    Iniesta Delgado, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Law allows in the possibility of post mortem fertilization, recognizing the paternity of the deceased male. The most prominent legal effects of this fact have to do with the succession of his father. The way of fixing the child's portion in the forced succession and its protection, the question of determining his share in the inheritance and the necessity of defending his rights until the verification of the birth are some of the issues that are discussed in this article. PMID:19334404

  2. Recommendations for development of an emergency plan for in vitro fertilization programs: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    All in vitro fertilization programs and clinics should have a plan to protect fresh and cryopreserved human tissue (embryos, oocytes, sperm) and to provide for continuation of patient care in the event of an emergency or natural disaster. This document was reviewed and affirmed by the Practice Committee in 2015.

  3. [Pre-transitional fertility in Latin America: a forgotten subject].

    PubMed

    Guzman, J M; Rodriguez, J

    1993-06-01

    Although Latin American fertility over the past three decades has been fairly well documented, less is known of pretransition fertility, operationally defined as occurring before 1960. Data shortcomings have limited fertility estimates for these years, especially for population subgroups. This document attempts to reconstruct levels and trends in the total fertility rate for the pretransitional period using census retroprojection. The study was done in rural and urban zones to evaluate the existence of heterogeneity in each country, and in accordance with the availability of census data. Four countries were selected to represent the diversity of observed fertility in the region. Honduras's transition was late, slow, and initiated at a high level of fertility. Even in 1990 the total fertility rate exceeded 5. Costa Rica and Colombia had intense transitions and 1992 total fertility rates of around 3. Colombia had a rapid transition and total fertility rates averaging under 3 in 1990. The general hypothesis of this work is that pretransition fertility varied between and within countries. It was not precisely "natural" fertility inasmuch as the elites practiced some fertility control. Fertility change began when groups practicing fertility control became a majority, starting with the development of the middle class. The estimates indicate that pretransitional fertility in the 4 countries was not higher than the level at the moment when the transition began. Pretransitional fertility was relatively stable through about 1950, with variations in the total fertility rate not exceeding 1 child per woman. The total fertility rates of the 4 countries already differed before the 1950s, calling into question the view of the population of Latin America as uniform and homogeneous during the period. Heterogeneity was not limited to the lower fertility of Argentina and Uruguay on the one hand contrasting with high rates elsewhere in Latin America. Substantial differentials were

  4. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  5. Antisperm antibodies and in vitro fertilization failure.

    PubMed

    Pexieder, T; Boillat, E; Janecek, P

    1985-12-01

    A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based test (Zer, Jerusalem) has allowed us to show the presence of antisperm antibodies (1:32 to 1:64) in the blood of 14 (33%) of 32 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) under gonadotropin stimulation. Observation of the morphology of fertilization in eight patients with and seven patients without antisperm antibodies has shown a significant association (P less than or equal to 0.025, Fisher exact probability test) among the cumulus/corona coagulation, the absence of fertilization, and the presence of these antibodies. Cumulus/oocyte complex washing and/or enzymatic cumulus removal are considered as elective interventions in the case of antisperm immunity. Each patient entering an IVF-ET program should have the antisperm antibody assay performed as a preliminary screening.

  6. Fertility preservation in women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghoon; Song, Jae Yun; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation (FP) is an effort to retain the fertility of cancer patients, and as an emerging discipline, it plays a central role in cancer care. Because of improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, an increasingly large number of patients are surviving with cancer. FP specialists should make an effort to spread the significance of FP among reproductive women with cancer and provide appropriate education both for associated physicians and for cancer patients who wish to preserve their fertility. Physicians who take part in the initial diagnosis and management of cancer should consider the importance of early referral of young cancer patients to FP specialists and take care of those patients by providing timely information and appropriate counseling. Individualized treatment strategies should be delivered depending on the patient's situation with appropriate team approach. PMID:22816069

  7. The Impact of Adenomyosis on Women's Fertility.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tasuku; Khine, Yin Mon; Kaponis, Apostolos; Nikellis, Theocharis; Decavalas, George; Taniguchi, Fuminori

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, adenomyosis has been associated with multiparity, not impaired fertility. Currently, adenomyosis is diagnosed with increasing frequency in infertile patients since women delay their first pregnancy until their late 30s or early 40s. Although an association between adenomyosis and infertility has not been fully established, based on the available information, recent studies suggested that adenomyosis has a negative impact on female fertility. Several uncontrolled studies with limited data also suggested that treatment of adenomyosis may improve fertility. This article discusses (i) the hypothesis and epidemiology of adenomyosis, (ii) diagnostic techniques, (iii) clinical evidence of correlation between adenomyosis and infertility, (iv) proposed mechanism of infertility in women with adenomyosis, (v) different treatment strategies and reproductive outcomes, and (vi) assisted reproductive technology outcome in women with adenomyosis. PMID:27640610

  8. Predictive intervals for age-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Keilman, N; Pham, D Q

    2000-03-01

    A multivariate ARIMA model is combined with a Gamma curve to predict confidence intervals for age-specific birth rates by 1-year age groups. The method is applied to observed age-specific births in Norway between 1900 and 1995, and predictive intervals are computed for each year up to 2050. The predicted two-thirds confidence intervals for Total Fertility (TF) around 2010 agree well with TF errors in old population forecasts made by Statistics Norway. The method gives useful predictions for age-specific fertility up to the years 2020-30. For later years, the intervals become too wide. Methods that do not take into account estimation errors in the ARIMA model coefficients underestimate the uncertainty for future TF values. The findings suggest that the margin between high and low fertility variants in official population forecasts for many Western countries are too narrow. PMID:12158991

  9. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam.

  10. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

  11. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  12. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  13. Fertility counseling of young breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Anserini, Paola; Levaggi, Alessia; Poggio, Francesca; Del Mastro, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 6% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40. Young age is an independent predictor of adverse outcome and most young breast cancer patients receive systemic treatment with chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or both. The loss or impairment of fertility is a potential side effect of antineoplastic treatments. Due to the rising trend to delaying pregnancy in life, an increasing proportion of young cancer patients who are yet to have a pregnancy will face the problem of iatrogenic menopause in the future. The incidence of anticancer-treatment-related ovarian failure depends on the type of chemotherapy regimen administered, the use of tamoxifen and the age of patients. It rises with increasing age, in the range of 22-61% and 61-97% in women aged <40 years and >40 years respectively. Although there is a clear trend to increasing incidence of ovarian failure with the rise in aging, there may be a small proportion of patients who became amenorrhoeic despite the very young age, thus indicating that also individual factors still unknown may affect the probability of treatment-related ovarian failure. A prompt referral of patients to reproductive counseling and a multidisciplinary team including Oncology and Reproductive Units are essential to face the management of fertility issues in cancer patients. Fertility counseling should include a detailed description of all the available techniques to preserve fertility. The main available fertility preservation techniques, standard and experimental, for young breast cancer patients include: temporary ovarian suppression during chemotherapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, embryo cryopreservation, cryopreservation of oocytes and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Research efforts are still necessary to improve the efficacy and safety of the available fertility preservation strategies as well as an efficient collaboration between oncologists and gynecologists is necessary to improve

  14. Fertility and physique in a malnourished population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H

    1979-05-01

    Theoretically, 3 types of selection may act on continuous variation in natural populations: 1) directional - 1 of the extremes is favored; 2) stabilizing - the average phenotype is favored over the extremes; and 3) disruptive - both extremes have a higher fitness than intermediates. In an effort to obtain some information on the relation of fertility (the number of surviving offspring) and body size in populations living under depressed environmental conditions, this relationship was examined in a South American community in which chronic malnutrition has been documented by its marked influence on the growth and development of children in this population. The sample consisted of 338 male and 366 female adult residents of a subsistence farming community in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. The data represent 403 families, about 30% of all households of the community. Body measurements were obtained on both parents in 318 families and on 1 parent in the remaining families. 13 body measurements were taken. 2 kinds of trends of body measurements were evident in this population. 1st, there is a positive association of fertility with soft tissue. Paralleling the positive association of fat and fertility in this malnourished population is a tendency for: 1) the wealthier to have larger families; 2) the wealthier to have heavier body builds; and 3) the fat-fertility association to diminish when both spouses' fat components are taken together. The above trend appears to be a result of socioeconomic factors. 2nd, there is a curvilinear relationship between fertility and bone measurements; the very small and the very large boned have reduced fertility.

  15. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:2298755

  16. Cohort fertility in Western Europe: comparing fertility trends in recent birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hopflinger, F

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of fertility levels among cohorts of women born in 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955, and 1960 in 16 European countries was undertaken using vital statistics data. The average number of live birth/woman for each of the 5 cohorts by age 20, 25, 30, and 35 was computed by cumulating age-specific fertility rates of women born in specific years. Median age at childbirth and completed fertility were estimated for the 3 oldest cohorts (1940, 1945, and 1950). 2 estimations of completed fertility were made. 1 was based on the assumption of a constant age-specific fertility rate, and the other was based on a relational Gompertz model. Where possible cohort fertility was disaggregated by birth order. Since the data for the countries was not fully comparable, it was not possible to use sophisticated analytical techniques. Other limits of the study were that fertility, especially for the more recent cohorts was incomplete, parity specific data was not available for all the countries, and open cohorts rather than closed cohorts were used. The analysis indicated that completed cohort fertility was lower for the 1950 cohort than for the 1940 cohort in all 16 countries. For the 1940 cohort, only Germany's estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00. For the other 15 countries, estimated completed fertility ranged from 2.04 (Finland) to 3.36 (Ireland). For the 1950 cohort, estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00 in 8 of the countries. Estimated completed fertility was lowest in Finland and Switzerland (1.82) and highest in Ireland (3.33). No marked increase in childlessness was observed, and for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts, childlessness did not exceed 20% in any of the countries and was considerably less than 20% in most of the countries. There was a trend toward delayed childbearing in most of the countries. An examination of available parity data for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts lead to the conclusion that the major factor contributing toward the decline in

  17. The effect of aging on fertility.

    PubMed

    Speroff, L

    1994-04-01

    In the developed world, deferment of marriage and postponement of child-bearing in marriage are resulting in unprecedented numbers of couples who desire pregnancy relatively late in life. These factors combine with a decline in fertility and an increase in pregnancy wastage with advancing age to present new challenges for the clinician treating infertility. Experience with young oocytes donated to older women indicates that the major responsibility for the decline in fertility with age can be attributed to aging oocytes. Oocyte donation offers new hope for infertile older woman, but important moral and social questions remain unanswered.

  18. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  19. Fertility Issues in Disorders of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Guercio, Gabriela; Costanzo, Mariana; Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2015-12-01

    Fertility potential should be considered by the multidisciplinary team when addressing gender assignment, surgical management, and patient and family counselling of individuals with disorders of sex development. In 46,XY individuals, defects of gonadal differentiation or androgen or anti-Müllerian hormone synthesis or action result in incomplete or absent masculinization. In severe forms, raised as females, motherhood is possible with oocyte donation if Müllerian ducts have developed. In milder forms, raised as males, azoospermia or oligospermia are frequently found, however paternity has been reported. Most 46,XX patients with normal ovarian organogenesis are raised as females, and fertility might be possible after treatment.

  20. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues.